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Numerical Calculation of

Rafael
Pressure Fluctuations in the
Ballesteros-Tajadura
e-mail: rballest@uniovi.es Volute of a Centrifugal Fan
Sandra Velarde-Surez In this work, a numerical model has been applied in order to obtain the wall pressure
fluctuations at the volute of an industrial centrifugal fan. The numerical results have been
Juan Pablo Hurtado-Cruz compared to experimental results obtained in the same machine. A three-dimensional
numerical simulation of the complete unsteady flow on the whole impeller-volute con-
Carlos Santolaria-Morros figuration has been carried out using the computational fluid dynamics code FLUENT.
This code has been employed to calculate the time-dependent pressure both in the impel-
Universidad de Oviedo, ler and in the volute. In this way, the pressure fluctuations in some locations over the
rea de Mecnica de Fluidos, volute wall have been obtained. The power spectra of these fluctuations have been ob-
Campus de Gijn, tained, showing an important peak at the blade passing frequency. The amplitude of this
33271 Gijn. Asturias, Spain peak presents the highest values near the volute tongue, but the spatial pattern over the
volute extension is different depending on the operating conditions. A good agreement
has been found between the numerical and the experimental results.
DOI: 10.1115/1.2170121

Introduction noise generation mechanisms are explained, and the zone of ef-
fective acoustic radiation has been qualitatively identified.
Many authors have worked in the measurement of pressure In a further phase of this research, this methodology of flow
fluctuations in fans as a way to identify sources of aerodynamic description will be used for the prediction of the radiated sound,
noise. A survey of the literature shows examples where surface based on the acoustic analogy Lighthill 6. This theory consid-
pressure measurements have been applied successfully in both ers the flow field as a superposition of a small amplitude fluctu-
centrifugal and axial fan noise investigations. In particular, Caro- ating sound field and a nonperturbed aerodynamic field that gen-
lus and Stremel 1 have exposed some of these examples and erates the fluctuating field. Thus, it is possible to obtain the noise
their own application to a low-pressure axial fan, analyzing the generation based upon the unsteady incompressible description of
contribution of the inlet turbulence to the generation of noise. the flow acting as a source term of the acoustic pressure field. In
Fehse and Neise 2 have investigated the generation of low- this way, the unsteady flow numerical results obtained and pre-
frequency noise in centrifugal fans. They found that the broad- sented in this work constitute the basis for a second step in which
band components at low frequencies are generated by classical the sound field will be computed by a numerical solution of an
flow separation regions located on the impeller shroud and the appropriate system of acoustic equations. A similar approach has
blades suction sides. Ohta et al. 3,4 have investigated the tonal been presented by Cho and Moon 7 for cross-flow fans.
noise generation in a low specific speed centrifugal fan. They have
shown that the most effective noise source is located closed to the
volute tongue, and the extension of the effective source region Description of the Fan and Experimental Procedures
could be determined by a correlation analysis between the acous-
The tested machine is a simple aspirating centrifugal fan driven
tic pressure radiated by the fan and the pressure fluctuation on the
by an ac 9.2 kW motor rotating at 1500 rpm, with a fluctuation
volute surface.
level lower than 0.5% for the whole range of the analyzed flow
In this work, a numerical code has been applied in order to rates. The shrouded impeller tested has ten backward-curved
obtain the wall pressure fluctuations at the volute of an industrial blades with an outlet diameter of 400 mm. The blades are made of
centrifugal fan. The study is focused on the fundamental blade flat sheet metal. The minimum distance between the impeller and
passing frequency, analyzing the influence of the flow rate. The the volute tongue is 12.5% of the outlet impeller diameter. The
numerical results have been compared to experimental results ob- widths of the impeller and volute are, respectively, 130 mm and
tained in the same machine Velarde-Surez et al. 5. Those 248 mm. Figure 1 shows two pictures of the tested fan and Table
investigations involved acoustic pressure measurements at the fan 1 summarizes the main dimensions of its impeller.
exit duct and pressure fluctuation measurements on the volute The tests for the aerodynamic and acoustic characterization of
surface specially in the vicinity of the volute tongue. the fan have been made in a normalized ducted installation type
The aim of the method described in this paper is to provide a B according to ISO 5136 8. Figure 2 shows a drawing of this
complete description of the flow field within the fan and to evalu- test installation. More details about the installation and measure-
ate the capabilities of the numerical model to describe the un- ment procedures have been reported in previous works Velarde-
steady flow features inside the described fan, which are respon- Surez et al. 9,10. After leaving the fan, air flows through a
sible of the noise generation. Based on the detailed analysis of the straightener in order to remove the swirl generated by the fan. The
pressure fluctuations over the volute wall some features of the fan measurement instruments were placed at sections A static pres-
sure and B flow rate and sound pressure level. At the end of the
facility, an anechoic termination removes undesired noise reflec-
Contributed by the Fluids Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the tions and the regulation cone permits to modify the fan operating
JOURNAL OF FLUIDS ENGINEERING. Manuscript received February 23, 2005; final manu- point. The following maximum uncertainties were obtained for the
script received September 6, 2005. Assoc. Editor: Akira Goto. Paper presented at the
2004 ASME Heat Transfer/Fluids Engineering Summer Conference HT-FED2004, different magnitudes: total pressure: 1.4% 8 Pa, flow rate:
July 1115, 2004, Charlotte, North Carolina, USA. 2 % 0.03 m3 / s, shaft power: 2 % 40 W.

Journal of Fluids Engineering Copyright 2006 by ASME MARCH 2006, Vol. 128 / 359
Table 2 Angular coordinates of the measurement points over
the volute

Fig. 1 Tested fan with the location of some measurement


points
placed at the impeller hub and z / B = 0.54 corresponds to the im-
peller shroud. Figure 3 shows two sketches of the fan with the
Acoustic pressure measurements at the fan exit duct have been location of the measurement points.
made using a B&K 4189 1 / 2 in. microphone protected with a
nose cone. Additionally, B&K 4138 1 / 8 in. microphones were
flush-mounted on the volute surface, specially in the vicinity of Description of the Numerical Simulation Procedure
the volute tongue, in order to measure the surface pressure fluc- In parallel with the measurements, numerical simulations of the
tuations. The uncertainty of these two types of microphones has unsteady flow in the centrifugal fan described above were carried
been established by the manufacturer in 0.2 dB, with a confi- out. In order to verify the capabilities of the numerical model to
dence level of 95%. The signals from the microphones were in- describe the flow features inside the fan, a two-dimensional nu-
troduced into a personal computer using an analog-to-digital card. merical simulation of the unsteady flow has been first carried out.
The data acquisition frequency was chosen equal to 10 kHz per A better definition of the flow features was obtained with a com-
channel in order to obtain a good resolution. Then, a fast Fourier plete three-dimensional simulation. All the calculations have been
transform FFT algorithm has been used to get the power spectra performed with a commercial software package FLUENT. This
of the pressure signals obtained both at the fan exit duct and at the code uses the finite volume method and the Navier-Stokes equa-
volute surface. tions are solved on an unstructured grid. The unsteady flow is
The surface pressure fluctuation measurements have been made solved using a sliding mesh technique, which has been success-
at five locations P01 to P05 very close to the volute tongue and fully applied to turbomachinery flows Gonzlez et al. 11.
at another nine locations P06 to P14, evenly distributed around The errors in the solution related to the mesh must disappear for
the volute. Table 2 summarizes the angular coordinates of the an increasingly finer mesh. The total pressure coefficient at the
measurement positions over the volute surface. Some of these flow rate where the fan exhibits its best efficiency point was used
measurement positions have been marked in Fig. 1. The origin of to determine the influence of the mesh size on the solution. The
the angles is placed at the volute tongue. In each angular position, convergence criterion was a maximum residual of 106. Figure 4
four measurements have been made at the following z / B coordi- shows the evolution of the fan total pressure coefficient with the
nates: 0.15, 0.30, 0.40, and 0.75. The origin of z coordinates is mesh cells in the two-dimensional and in the three-dimensional
calculations. According to this figure, the grids with the highest
number of mesh cells were considered to be sufficiently reliable to
Table 1 Impeller dimensions assure mesh independence.
The two-dimensional domain, shown in Fig. 5, is a plane per-
pendicular to the axis of rotation, and it is supposed to represent
the fan in a midblade width plane. Unstructured triangular cells
are used to define the open inlet zone, the impeller and the volute
with a total of 160,894 cells, and a refined boundary layer mesh
made of trapezoidal cells was used around the blades and on the
volute wall. Figure 5 shows the unstructured mesh and Fig. 6
shows some details of the refined mesh around the blades and in
the volute wall. The minimum cell area is 1.26 1010 m2 and the
maximum cell area is 6.79 104 m2.

Fig. 2 Sketch of the test installation Fig. 3 Sketches of the fan with the measurement points

360 / Vol. 128, MARCH 2006 Transactions of the ASME


Fig. 4 Influence of mesh size on the fan total pressure coefficient. a Two-dimensional mesh,
b three-dimensional mesh.

For the three-dimensional calculations, unstructured tetrahedral and the rotational speed imposed = 157 rad/ s, so a complete
cells are used to define the open inlet zone, the impeller and the revolution is performed each 300 steps i.e., one blade passage
volute with a total of 733,400 cells. The mesh is refined near the each 30 time steps.
tongue and specially in the impeller domain, although for capacity The number of iterations has been adjusted to reduce the re-
reasons in the three-dimensional simulation the mesh is coarser sidual below an acceptable value in each time step. In particular,
than in the two-dimensional simulation. Figure 7 shows a general the ratio between the sum of the residuals and the sum of the
view of the unstructured mesh and Fig. 8 shows some details of fluxes for a given variable in all the cells is reduced to the value of
the refined mesh in a plane perpendicular to the axis of rotation. 10-5 five orders of magnitude. Initializing the unsteady calcula-
The minimum cell volume is 2.21 1011 m3 and the maximum tion with the steady solution, over 17 impeller revolutions ap-
cell volume is 6.47 105 m3. proximately 5000 time steps are necessary to achieve the conver-
Turbulence is simulated with the standard k- model, while the gence of the periodic unsteady solution.
time-dependent term scheme is second order, implicit. The
pressure-velocity coupling is performed through the SIMPLEC al-
gorithm. Second order, upwind discretization have been used for
convection terms and central difference schemes for diffusion
terms.
The modeled boundary conditions are those considered with
more physical meaning for turbomachinery flow simulations, that
is, total pressure at the domain inlet and a pressure drop propor-
tional to the kinetic energy at the domain outlet. The flow rate is
changed by modifying the constant for that pressure drop at the
outlet condition, which simulates the closure of a valve.
The walls of the model are stationary with respect to their re-
spective frame of reference, and the nonslip condition is applied.
Also, wall functions, based on the logarithmic law Launder and
Spalding 12, were applied.
The small axial gap 9 mm between the impeller and the vo-
lute rear casing was not modeled. However, the radial gap be-
tween the impeller front shroud 5 mm and the casing was taken
into account in the model. Some details of the geometric features
of the model are shown in Fig. 9 and the mesh used in the mod-
eled gap is shown in Fig. 10.
The code was run in a cluster of 8 Pentium 4 2.4 GHz nodes.
The time step used in the unsteady calculation has been set to
1.34 104 s in order to get enough time resolution for the dynamic
analysis. The impeller grid movement is related with this time step

Fig. 6 Details of the mesh used in the two-dimensional calcu-


lations. a Mesh near the volute tongue, b mesh near the
Fig. 5 Mesh used in the two-dimensional calculations blades leading edge.

Journal of Fluids Engineering MARCH 2006, Vol. 128 / 361


Fig. 10 Mesh details around the radial gap between the impel-
ler front shroud and the casing

The experimental and 3D-numerical simulated curves agree for


Fig. 7 Sketch of the fan unstructured mesh
flow rates equal and higher than the BEP. At partial load, the
matching between 3D-numerical and experimental results is not
so high, probably due to the presence of flow separation in the
Results and Discussion
blade channels, which has not been correctly captured by the nu-
The method described above has been employed to make a merical procedure. The 2D-numerical curve is close to the experi-
comparison for both the numerical and experimental performance mental one only at very high flow rates. As the flow rate is re-
curves for the tested fan. The numerical data are obtained after duced, the difference between this curve and the experimental
averaging the values of the unsteady calculation. In Fig. 11, the values is gradually increased, showing the great importance of the
numerical and experimental performance curves for the tested fan three-dimensional effects on the flow and performance.
are compared. The best efficiency point BEP corresponds to a
flow rate Q = 0.92 m3 / s = 0.093, with a total pressure rise PT
= 500 Pa = 0.105. The results obtained in the 2D simulation
have been also represented in this figure, in order to illustrate the
importance of the 3D effects.

Fig. 11 Comparison between numerical and experimental per-


formance curves

Fig. 8 Details of the mesh used in the three-dimensional cal-


culations in a plane perpendicular to the axis of rotation

Fig. 12 Contours of relative tangential component of velocity


Fig. 9 General view of the geometry of the fan at the impeller outlet negative values are clockwise

362 / Vol. 128, MARCH 2006 Transactions of the ASME


absolute values correspond to zones into the blades channels lo-
cated near the impeller shroud whereas the minimum ones appear
in the blades wakes and close to the back impeller plate. The case
of the radial component is different: zones with very low values
even negatives, with a recirculation pattern are present near the
impeller shroud, whereas the maximum values are concentrated
near the hub. This feature indicates that the main fraction of the
flow rate passes through the rear middle part of the impeller.
The three-dimensional effects described above cannot be simu-
lated by a 2D-numerical model, and this is the explanation for the
deviation found in Fig. 11 between the experimental and 2D re-
sults. Furthermore, these three-dimensional effects particularly
the recirculation become more important when the fan is operat-
ing at partial load and hence the difference between the experi-
mental and 2D results increases when the flow rate decreases.
The numerical model described above has been employed to
calculate the time-dependent pressure both in the impeller and in
the volute. In this way, the pressure fluctuations in some locations
Fig. 13 Contours of radial component of velocity at the impel- over the volute wall have been obtained. The measurement posi-
ler outlet tions detailed in Table 2 have been selected in order to make
comparisons between the numerical and experimental results. Fig-
ures 14 and 15 show the evolution of pressure fluctuations with
time obtained both by 3D-numerical model and experimentally,
The three-dimensional effects of the flow are illustrated in Figs. for two different flow rates: the BEP and 1.35 BEP. The experi-
12 and 13. These figures show the 3D-numerical results of the mental signals have been phase averaged over one impeller revo-
relative tangential component and of the radial component of ve- lution in order to filter the random fluctuations. In these figures,
locity over a cylindrical surface around the impeller outlet, with the mean values have omitted and only the fluctuating signal is
the fan operating at the BEP. Both components of velocity exhibit represented.
important gradients in the axial direction. In the tangential com- In Fig. 14, the results obtained at the position P02 angular
ponent, where the negative values are clockwise, the maximum position at 2 deg from the tongue, z / B = 0.30 have been repre-

Fig. 14 Evolution of volute pressure fluctuations with time at Fig. 15 Evolution of volute pressure fluctuations with time at
point P02 at the tongue, z / B = 0.30 point P10 180 deg from the tongue, z / B = 0.30

Journal of Fluids Engineering MARCH 2006, Vol. 128 / 363


Fig. 16 Power spectra of volute pressure fluctuations in Pa experimental, upper side;
3D-numerical simulation, bottom side at the measurement point P02 at 2 deg from the
tongue, z / B = 0.15 and z / B = 0.40, with the fan operating at the best efficiency point BEP

Fig. 17 Power spectra of volute pressure fluctuations in Pa experimental, upper side; 3D-
numerical simulation, bottom side at the measurement point P06 at 60 deg from the tongue,
z / B = 0.15 and z / B = 0.40, with the fan operating at the best efficiency point BEP

sented. The passing of the ten blades in front of the selected po- In Figs. 1618, the power spectra of pressure fluctuations at
sition is clearly observed. The amplitude of the pressure fluctua- points P02 2 deg from the tongue, P06 60 deg from the tongue
tion increases with the flow rate in this case. The numerical code and P10 180 deg from the tongue, have been represented.
has reproduced in a reasonable way both the order of magnitude The peak corresponding to the blade passing frequency exhibits
and the temporal pattern of the pressure fluctuations found experi- high amplitude in the position P02 near the volute tongue, both in
mentally. the numerical and the experimental signals Fig. 16 basically due
In Fig. 15, the results obtained at the position P10 180 deg to the interaction between the flow leaving the impeller and the
from the tongue, z / B = 0.30 have been represented. The amplitude
tongue. The numerical and experimental amplitudes coincide in
of the pressure fluctuation at this point diminishes strongly with
respect to the precedent case, shown in Fig. 14. The passing of the the axial position z / B = 0.40, while in the position z / B = 0.15 they
blades is still clearly observed in the numerical results and the are slightly different. This disagreement was expected because the
amplitude of the pressure fluctuations is similar to the experimen- position z / B = 0.15 is very close to the impeller hub and it is not
tal ones. However, the experimental signals show other sources of easy to simulate precisely the small axial gap between the impel-
pressure fluctuation besides the blades passage, which distorts the ler and the volute rear casing.
clear sinusoidal pattern shown at the tongue. The origin of these In the position P06 60 deg from the tongue, the situation is
distortions will be discussed latter on. quite different Fig. 17. First of all, the amplitudes corresponding

364 / Vol. 128, MARCH 2006 Transactions of the ASME


Fig. 18 Power spectra of volute pressure fluctuations in Pa experimental, upper side; 3D-
numerical simulation, bottom side at the measurement point P10 at 180 deg from the tongue,
z / B = 0.15 and z / B = 0.40, with the fan operating at the best efficiency point BEP

to the blade passing frequency have strongly diminished with re- between 120 deg and 240 deg with respect to the volute tongue.
spect to the previous case Fig. 16, although they contribute These values do not vary with the flow rate, thus indicating its
largely in the spectra, both numerically and experimentally. In this mechanical origin. Moreover, an impact test demonstrated that the
position, the interaction between the impeller and the volute vibration signal at 300 Hz is due to a casing resonance caused by
tongue does not appear, besides the radial distance from the im- the excitation of a natural frequency.
peller to the volute is greater that in the previous case. These two These results show that components of the signals measured by
reasons explain the great reduction of the amplitude of the pres- the microphones at 275 Hz, 300 Hz, and 325 Hz correspond to
sure fluctuations with respect to the previous case. Also, the ex- mechanical vibrations measured by the accelerometers at the fan
perimental and numerical amplitudes at the blade passing fre- casing; at these frequencies, the microphones have measured
quency in z / B = 0.40 are similar, and slightly different in z / B noise due to structural vibrations and not pressure fluctuations
= 0.15. Second, great peak and broadband amplitudes at low fre- generated by the impeller flow. Only the last ones can be correctly
quencies appear in the experimental spectra. A peak at 25 Hz simulated by the numerical model and this is the explanation for
stands out, corresponding to the impeller rotational frequency. the differences found in Figs. 17 and 18 between the numerical
Also, some peaks at 275 Hz, 300 Hz, and 325 Hz appear besides and experimental results.
the blade passing frequency at 250 Hz with comparable ampli- In Figs. 2023, the amplitudes of volute pressure fluctuations at
tudes, suggesting the existence of mechanical sources of noise. the blade passing frequency have been represented, both 3D nu-
In the position P10 180 deg from the tongue, the amplitude of merical and experimental, for four different flow rates: the BEP
the pressure fluctuations is lower than in the previous positions = 0.093, 0.75 BEP = 0.070, 1.35 BEP = 0.126, and
mentioned Fig. 18, as a result of the increase of the radial dis- 1.70 BEP = 0.158. The z coordinate has been divided by the
tance between the impeller and the volute wall. The amplitudes at
the blade passing frequency are quite similar in the experimental volute width B 248 mm. The impeller shroud corresponds to
and the numerical spectra. On the other hand, in the experimental z / B = 0.54, while z / B = 0 is the volute rear casing and z / B = 1 is
spectra important broadband levels at low frequencies appear, spe- the volute front casing. On the graph corresponding to z / B
cially in the axial position z / B = 0.15. = 0.30, the 2D-numerical pressure fluctuations have been included.
In order to clarify the origin of the peaks observed at 275 Hz, This axial position corresponds to the mid-blade width plane.
300 Hz, and 325 Hz in the experimental spectra, some vibration In all the cases, the maximum values appear concentrated in a
signals at the volute front casing were obtained with a 4384 B&K small zone very close to the volute tongue, as it was expected.
piezoelectric accelerometer, connected to a 2635 B&K amplifier. These pressure fluctuations are generated by the interaction be-
These signals were then transmitted to a 2133 B&K two-channel tween the unsteady flow leaving the impeller and the fixed volute
narrow-band frequency analyzer. Figure 19 shows the spectra of tongue. In the rest of the volute, noticeable amplitudes are also
these vibration signals at six angular positions on the front casing: present, due to the jet-wake pattern associated to the continuous
at 0 deg, 60 deg, 120 deg, 180 deg, 240 deg, and 300 deg from blade rotation around the volute. In all the analyzed flow rates,
the tongue, i.e., the same angular positions as measurement points this spatial distribution along the volute is observed, although the
P01, P06, P08, P10, P12, and P14. These tests have been carried values of the amplitudes increase with the flow rate.
out in the following operating conditions: with zero flow rate and The 2D-numerical model reproduces the trend and the order of
with 1.70 BEP, the maximum flow rate analyzed in this study. magnitude of the pressure fluctuations obtained experimentally
In these spectra, a noticeable peak at the blade passing fre- except in the volute region near the tongue, where there is a great
quency is shown, which increases with the flow rate. Therefore, it difference between them; this difference increases when the flow
is shown that the pressure fluctuations generated by the impeller rate is above the BEP. As was stated before, this fan exhibits
flow generate some casing vibration. Also, important peaks at strong three-dimensional effects described above which cannot be
275 Hz, 300 Hz, and 325 Hz appear in some cases. In particular, simulated by a 2D-numerical model.
high vibration values at these frequencies have been measured The 3D-numerical model can reproduce in a reasonable way the
placing the accelerometer in a zone of the front casing located trend and the order of magnitude of the pressure fluctuations ob-

Journal of Fluids Engineering MARCH 2006, Vol. 128 / 365


Fig. 19 Power spectra of vibration signals at the volute front casing

Fig. 20 Amplitude Pa of volute pressure fluctuation at the blade passing frequency, 2D nu-
merical, 3D numerical and experimental, with the fan operating at 75% of the best efficiency
point 0.75 BEP

366 / Vol. 128, MARCH 2006 Transactions of the ASME


Fig. 21 Amplitude Pa of volute pressure fluctuation at the blade passing frequency, 2D nu-
merical, 3D numerical and experimental, with the fan operating at the best efficiency point
BEP

Fig. 22 Amplitude Pa of volute pressure fluctuation at the blade passing frequency, 2D nu-
merical, 3D numerical and experimental, with the fan operating at 135% of the best efficiency
point 1.35 BEP

tained experimentally. The agreement between experimental and values of z / B are slightly different, specially near the volute
numerical results is especially good in the axial position z / B tongue. It can also be observed that the agreement between ex-
= 0.40, in all the analyzed flow rates. As the small axial gap be- perimental and numerical results improves for flow rates higher
tween the impeller and the volute rear casing was not modeled, than the best efficiency point. This same effect was observed in
the 3D-numerical and experimental results corresponding to low the comparison of the performance curves shown in Fig. 11. As in

Journal of Fluids Engineering MARCH 2006, Vol. 128 / 367


Fig. 23 Amplitude Pa of volute pressure fluctuation at the blade passing frequency, 2D nu-
merical, 3D numerical and experimental, with the fan operating at 170% of the best efficiency
point 1.70 BEP

that case, these differences are probably due to the presence of lated the volute pressure fluctuations due to the aerodynamic field,
flow separation in the blade channels at partial load, which has not capturing the main flow phenomena such us the jet-wake effects
been correctly captured by the numerical procedure. and the impeller-tongue interaction.
Another source of discrepancies between the 3D-numerical and The results obtained in the unsteady flow numerical simulation
the experimental pressure fluctuations can be taken into account: are encouraging and they constitute the basis for a second step in
The feasibility that the microphones placed on the volute wall which the sound field will be computed by a numerical solution of
measure noise from distant zones of the flow, i.e., pressure fluc- an appropriate system of acoustic equations, based on the acoustic
tuations of the acoustic type which can not be calculated in the analogy of Lighthill.
three-dimensional simulation. The computation of pressure fluc-
tuations of the acoustic type by computational fluid dynamics Acknowledgment
CFD codes which solve the unsteady compressible Navier- This work was supported by the Research Project Nos.
Stokes equations exceeds by far the current computational capa- DPI2001-2598 and TRA2004-04269 Ministry of Education and
bilities. Science, Spain.
Regardless of the exposed constraints, which would be possibly
overcome with a greater computational capability, the presented
results permit to conclude that the 3D-numerical methodology de- Nomenclature
veloped is a useful tool for the unsteady simulation of the three- B volute width
dimensional flow in a centrifugal fan. The application of this BEP best efficiency point
method to other alternative geometries would permit to establish D diameter
design criteria for the improvement of the aerodynamic perfor- PT total pressure rise
mance of these machines. Q flow rate
On the other hand, the results obtained in the unsteady flow total pressure coefficient, = PT / 2D2
numerical simulation constitute the basis for a second step in flow coefficient, = Q / D3
which the sound field will be computed by a numerical solution of density
an appropriate system of acoustic equations, based on the acoustic angular velocity
analogy of Lighthill 6.
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368 / Vol. 128, MARCH 2006 Transactions of the ASME


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