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3)

I Geometric definition of dot product.

I Orthogonal vectors.

I Dot product and orthogonal projections.

I Properties of the dot product.

I Dot product in vector components.

I Scalar and vector projection formulas.

Geometrical Expression in

Properties

definition components.

Geometrical Definition in

Properties

expression components.

We choose the first way, the textbook chooses the second way.

Dot product and vector projections (Sect. 12.3)

I Geometric definition of dot product.

I Orthogonal vectors.

I Dot product and orthogonal projections.

I Properties of the dot product.

I Dot product in vector components.

I Scalar and vector projection formulas.

Definition

Let v , w be vectors in Rn , with n = 2, 3, having length |v | and |w|

with angle in between , where 0 . The dot product of v

and w, denoted by v w, is given by

v w = |v | |w| cos().

O W

The dot product of two vectors is a scalar

Example

Compute v w knowing that v, w R3 , with |v| = 2, w = h1, 2, 3i

and the angle in between is = /4.

Solution: We first compute |w|, that is,

|w|2 = 12 + 22 + 32 = 14 |w| = 14.

2

v w = |v| |w| cos() = (2) 14 v w = 2 7.

2

C

applications.

I It will be convenient to obtain a formula for the dot product

involving the vector components.

I Geometric definition of dot product.

I Orthogonal vectors.

I Dot product and orthogonal projections.

I Properties of the dot product.

I Dot product in vector components.

I Scalar and vector projection formulas.

Perpendicular vectors have zero dot product.

Definition

Two vectors are perpendicular, also called orthogonal, iff the angle

in between is = /2.

V W

0= / 2

Theorem

The non-zero vectors v and w are perpendicular iff v w = 0.

Proof.

) (

0 = v w = |v| |w| cos() cos() = 0

= .

|v| =

6 0, |w| =

6 0 066 2

Example

Compute all dot products involving the vectors i, j , and k.

Solution: Recall: i = h1, 0, 0i, j = h0, 1, 0i, k = h0, 0, 1i.

z

i j y

i i = 1, j j = 1, k k = 1,

i j = 0, j i = 0, k i = 0,

i k = 0, j k = 0, k j = 0.

C

Dot product and vector projections (Sect. 12.3)

I Geometric definition of dot product.

I Orthogonal vectors.

I Dot product and orthogonal projections.

I Properties of the dot product.

I Dot product in vector components.

I Scalar and vector projection formulas.

vector onto the other. Recall: v w = |v| |w| cos().

1

0

V0

1W = |W| cos(O)

|V|

O W

V

O W

11

00

V0

1W = |V| cos(O)

|W|

Dot product and vector projections (Sect. 12.3)

I Geometric definition of dot product.

I Orthogonal vectors.

I Dot product and orthogonal projections.

I Properties of the dot product.

I Dot product in vector components.

I Scalar and vector projection formulas.

Theorem

(a) v w = w v , (symmetric);

(b) v (aw) = a (v w), (linear);

(c) u (v + w) = u v + u w, (linear);

(d) v v = |v |2 > 0, and v v = 0 v = 0, (positive);

(e) 0 v = 0.

Proof.

Properties (a), (b), (d), (e) are simple to obtain from the

definition of dot product v w = |v| |w| cos().

For example, the proof of (b) for a > 0:

Properties of the dot product.

(c), u (v + w) = u v + u w, is non-trivial. The proof is:

V+W

V

0V W

0

0W

U w

|V+W| cos(0)

|W| cos(0W)

|V| cos(0V)

u (v + w)

|v + w| cos() = ,

|u|

uw

|w| cos(w ) = , u (v + w) = u v + u w

|u|

uv

|v| cos(v ) = ,

|u|

I Geometric definition of dot product.

I Orthogonal vectors.

I Dot product and orthogonal projections.

I Properties of the dot product.

I Dot product in vector components.

I Scalar and vector projection formulas.

The dot product in vector components (Case R2 )

Theorem

If v = hvx , vy i and w = hwx , wy i, then v w is given by

v w = vx w x + vy w y .

Proof.

Recall: v = vx i + vy j and w = wx i + wy j . The linear property of

the dot product implies

v w = (vx i + vy j ) (wx i + wy j )

= vx w x i i + vx w y i j + vy w x j i + vy w y j j .

v w = vx w x + vy w y .

Theorem

If v = hvx , vy , vz i and w = hwx , wy , wz i, then v w is given by

v w = vx w x + vy w y + vz w z .

I The dot product is simple to compute from the vector

component formula v w = vx wx + vy wy + vz wz .

I The geometrical meaning of the dot product is simple to see

from the formula v w = |v| |w| cos().

Example

Find the cosine of the angle between v = h1, 2i and w = h2, 1i

Solution:

vw

v w = |v| |w| cos() cos() = .

|v| |w|

Furthermore,

v w = (1)(2) + (2)(1)

p 4

|v| = 12 + 22 = 5, cos() = .

p 5

2 2

|w| = 2 + 1 = 5,

I Geometric definition of dot product.

I Orthogonal vectors.

I Dot product and orthogonal projections.

I Properties of the dot product.

I Dot product in vector components.

I Scalar and vector projection formulas.

Scalar and vector projection formulas.

Theorem

The scalar projection of vector v along the vector w is the number

pw (v ) given by

v w

pw (v ) = .

|w|

The vector projection of vector v along the vector w is the vector

pw (v ) given by v w w

pw (v ) = .

|w| |w|

V V

O W O W

PW (V) = V0 11

00

W = |V| cos(O)

1 P (V) = V0

1W W

W

|W| |W| |W|

Example

Find the scalar projection of b = h4, 1i onto a = h1, 2i.

Solution: The scalar projection of b onto a is the number

ba (4)(1) + (1)(2)

pa (b) = |b| cos() = = .

|a| 12 + 22

2

We therefore obtain pa (b) = .

5

b

a

p (b)

a

Example

Find the vector projection of b = h4, 1i onto a = h1, 2i.

Solution: The vector projection of b onto a is the vector

ba a 2 1

pa (b) = = h1, 2i,

|a| |a| 5 5

2 4

we therefore obtain pa (b) = , .

5 5

b

a

p (b)

a

Example

Find the vector projection of a = h1, 2i onto b = h4, 1i.

Solution: The vector projection of a onto b is the vector

ab b 2 1

pb (a) = = h4, 1i,

|b| |b| 17 17

8 2

we therefore obtain pa (b) = , .

17 17

b a

p (a)

b

Cross product and determinants (Sect. 12.4)

I Geometric definition of cross product.

I Parallel vectors.

I Properties of the cross product.

I Cross product in vector components.

I Determinants to compute cross products.

I Triple product and volumes.

Geometrical Expression in

Properties

definition components.

Geometrical Definition in

Properties

expression components.

Cross product and determinants (Sect. 12.4)

I Geometric definition of cross product.

I Parallel vectors.

I Properties of the cross product.

I Cross product in vector components.

I Determinants to compute cross products.

I Triple product and volumes.

Definition

Let v , w be vectors in R3 having length |v | and |w| with angle in

between , where 0 . The cross product of v and w,

denoted as v w, is a vector perpendicular to both v and w,

pointing in the direction given by the right hand rule, with norm

|v w| = |v | |w| sin().

WxV

0000000

1111111

1111111

0000000

0000000

1111111

V

0000000

1111111

0000000

1111111

0000000

1111111

0000000

1111111

0000000

1111111

0000000

1111111

0000000

1111111

0000000

1111111 O

0000000

1111111

0000000

1111111

0000000

1111111

0000000

1111111

0000000

1111111

0000000

1111111

VxW

|v w| is the area of a parallelogram

Theorem

|v w| is the area of the parallelogram formed by vectors v and w.

Proof.

|V| sin(O)

A = |w| |v| sin() = |v w|.

I Geometric definition of cross product.

I Parallel vectors.

I Properties of the cross product.

I Cross product in vector components.

I Determinants to compute cross products.

I Triple product and volumes.

Parallel vectors have zero cross product.

Definition

Two vectors are parallel iff the angle in between them is = 0.

w

Theorem

The non-zero vectors v and w are parallel iff v w = 0.

Proof.

Recall: Vector v w = 0 iff its length |v w| = 0, then

= 0,

) (

|v| |w| sin() = 0

sin() = 0

or

|v| =6 0, |w| = 6 0 066

= .

Example

The closer the vectors v, w are to be parallel, the smaller is the

area of the parallelogram they form, hence the shorter is their cross

product vector v w.

VxW

1111111

00000001111111111111111111

0000000000000000000

00000000

11111111 VxW

W

0000000

1111111

0000000

1111111 00000000

11111111

00000000

11111111

0000000

1111111

0000000 00000000

11111111

1111111

0000000

1111111 00000000

11111111

0000000

1111111 00000000

11111111

00000000

11111111

0000000

1111111

0000000

1111111 00000000

11111111

00000000

11111111

W

0000000

1111111

0000000

1111111 00000000

11111111

O

0000000 1

1111111 00000000

11111111 000000000000

111111111111 000000000000

111111111111

1111111111111111111

0000000000000000000

0000000

1111111 00000000

11111111

00000000

11111111 111111111111

000000000000 000000000000

111111111111

0000000

1111111 000000000000

111111111111 000000000000

111111111111

0000000

1111111

0000000

1111111

00000000

11111111

00000000

11111111

00000000

11111111

000000000000

111111111111 O

000000000000 2

111111111111

000000000000

111111111111

000000000000

111111111111

000000000000

111111111111

000000000000

111111111111

0000000

1111111 00000000

11111111 000000000000

111111111111 000000000000

111111111111

V V

C

Example

Compute all cross products involving the vectors i, j , and k.

Solution: Recall: i = h1, 0, 0i, j = h0, 1, 0i, k = h0, 0, 1i.

z

i j y

i j = k, j k = i, ki = j,

i i = 0, j j = 0, k k = 0,

i k = j , j i = k, k j = i.

I Geometric definition of cross product.

I Parallel vectors.

I Properties of the cross product.

I Cross product in vector components.

I Determinants to compute cross products.

I Triple product and volumes.

Main properties of the cross product

Theorem

(a) v w = (w v ), (Skew-symmetric);

(b) v v = 0;

(c) (a v ) w = v (a w) = a (v w), (linear);

(d) u (v + w) = u v + u w, (linear);

(e) u (v w) 6= (u v ) w, (not associative).

Proof.

Part (a) results from the right hand rule. Part (b) comes from part

(a). Parts (b) and (c) are proven in a similar ways as the linear

property of the dot product. Part (d) is proven by giving an

example.

u (v w) 6= (u v) w.

Example

Show that i (i k) = k and (i i) k = 0.

Solution:

i (i k) = i (j ) = (i j ) = k i (i k) = k,

(i i) k = 0 j = 0 (i i) k = 0.

C

Recall: The cross product of two vectors vanishes when the

vectors are parallel

Cross product and determinants (Sect. 12.4)

I Geometric definition of cross product.

I Parallel vectors.

I Properties of the cross product.

I Cross product in vector components.

I Determinants to compute cross products.

I Triple product and volumes.

Theorem

If the vector components of v and w in a Cartesian coordinate

system are v = hv1 , v2 , v3 i and w = hw1 , w2 , w3 i, then holds

i j = k, j k = i, ki = j,

products vanish, and then use the properties of the cross product.

Cross product in vector components.

Proof.

Recall:

v = v1 i + v2 j + v3 k, w = w1 i + w2 j + w3 k.

Then, it holds

Use the linearity property. The only non-zero terms are those with

products i j = k and j k = i and k i = j . The result is

Example

Find v w for v = h1, 2, 0i and w = h3, 2, 1i,

= h[(2)(1) (0)(2)], [(0)(3) (1)(1)], [(1)(2) (2)(3)]i

= h(2 0), (1), (2 6)i v w = h2, 1, 4i.

C

Exercise: Find the angle between v and w above, and then check

that this angle is correct using the dot product of these vectors.

Cross product and determinants (Sect. 12.4)

I Geometric definition of cross product.

I Parallel vectors.

I Properties of the cross product.

I Cross product in vector components.

I Determinants to compute cross products.

I Triple product and volumes.

of v w. Let us recall here the definition of determinant of a 2 2

matrix:

a b

c d = ad bc.

2 2 determinants:

a1 a2 a3

b2 b3 b1 b3 b1 b2

c2 c3 a2 c1 c3 + a3 c1 c2 .

b1 b2 b3 = a1

c1 c2 c3

Determinants help to compute cross products.

Claim

If the vector components of v and w in a Cartesian coordinate

system are v = hv1 , v2 , v3 i and w = hw1 , w2 , w3 i, then holds

i j k

v w = v1 v2 v3

w1 w2 w3

i j k

v1 v2 v3 = (v2 w3 v3 w2 ) i(v1 w3 v3 w1 ) j +(v1 w2 v2 w1 ) k.

w1 w2 w3

Example

Given the vectors v = h1, 2, 3i and w = h2, 3, 1i, compute both

w v and v w.

i j k i j k

w v = w1 w2 w3 = 2 3 1

v1 v2 v3 1 2 3

The result is

v w = w v, therefore v w = h7, 7, 7i. C

Cross product and determinants (Sect. 12.4)

I Geometric definition of cross product.

I Parallel vectors.

I Properties of the cross product.

I Cross product in vector components.

I Determinants to compute cross products.

I Triple product and volumes.

Definition

Given vectors u, v , w, the triple product is the number given by

u (v w).

and only then dot the resulting vector with the first vector.

Theorem

The triple product of vectors u, v , w satisfies

u (v w) = w (u v ) = v (w u).

The triple product is related to the volume of the

parallelepiped formed by the three vectors

Theorem

If u, v , w are vectors in R3 , then |u (v w)| is the volume of the

parallelepiped determined by the vectors u, v , w.

WxV

WxV

U

0

h

V

A

W

Proof.

Recall the definition of a dot product: x y = |x| |y| cos(). So,

|u (v w)| = h A,

The triple product and volumes

Example

Compute the volume of the parallelepiped formed by the vectors

u = h1, 2, 3i, v = h3, 2, 1i, w = h1, 2, 1i.

Solution: We use the formula V = |u (v w)|. We must compute

the cross product first:

i j k

vw= 3 2 1 = (2 + 2) i (3 1) j + (6 2) k,

1 2 1

Theorem

The triple product of vectors u = hu1 , u2 , u3 i, v = hv1 , v2 , v3 i, and

w = hw1 , w2 , w3 i is given by

u1 u2 u3

u (v w) = v1 v2 v3 .

w1 w2 w3

Example

Compute the volume of the parallelepiped formed by the vectors

u = h1, 2, 3i, v = h3, 2, 1i, w = h1, 2, 1i.

Solution:

1 2 3

u (v w) = 3 2 1 .

1 2 1

The triple product is computed with a determinant

Example

Compute the volume of the parallelepiped formed by the vectors

u = h1, 2, 3i, v = h3, 2, 1i, w = h1, 2, 1i.

Solution:

1 2 3

u (v w) = 3 2 1 .

1 2 1

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