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Qn 1) Summary of 5 IEEE Papers

To begin with, asset management in the power systems industry is the blanket topic for the rest
that are being discussed in this report as it deals with economics and efficiency of processes.
Paper [1] touches on the life cycle management of power system components. It explores the
way that security and economics of modern power systems could be enhanced to ensure higher
profitability of the assets, and also to extend their service life. It disputes that there are a few
drawbacks i.e. the lack of clear data regarding power system asset economics, the difficulty in
accessing the way that external factors impact the power system assets, and the insufficient
study on life cycle management of power system assets. It conclude that to solve and improve
on the above problems, life cycle management could be implemented in power systems asset
management. Finally, they also suggest that Information Technology could be used in this area
to obtain more accurate data, thus ensuring better life cycle management of the power
systems.
Paper [2] discusses and formulates a new form of metrics which are being used for gauging the
reliability of microgrids in a distribution system. The paper discusses a method to gauge the
effects of distribution system failure and the randomized input from renewable energy
resources on the reliable performance of the microgrids using the said metrics. A 2-step Monte-
Carlo simulation method is used to see the effect of component failures in a distribution system
where there is no microgrid. Considering wind power as the source of renewable energy in this
study, it has been found that a higher wind power penetration leads to a drop in system
reliability. The paper concluded that the reliability of the distribution system would be
considerably greater for a larger microgrids, and where microgrid clusters are present.
Paper [3] talks about how a distribution automation system is set up. The paper says that, to
implement this system, there first has to be an existing feeder automation system, followed by
the establishment of a communication channel and finally, the expansion of these systems. It
states that the main goals of this distribution automation system are to monitor, control,
protect and manage the power grid to ensure more efficient and effective usage of the
resources. SCADA systems acquire the power system readings from the grid and monitor them.
Geographic Information Systems help to identify the exact location of the cause of interruption
of smooth flow of power, like faults. Remote Automatic Meter Reading technology uses the
control center to acquire meter readings using a cost effective method of using the local
telephone network system. The biggest challenge faced is the large scale of the distribution
automation system, which leads to setting up more complicated communication systems,
which consequently makes it harder to identify fault locations and apply corrective actions to
stabilize the system. To solve this problem, advanced software needs to be used, an upgrade is
to be made to the current power grid to make it smarter with the use of more interactive
technology, and microgrids could be used at the consumers end, where these microgrids are
connected to the distribution grid through the point of common coupling.
To shed greater light on this distribution automation system, paper [4] discusses the effects of
disconnection and reconnection of photovoltaics when there is a fault in the power system, and
also when the fault is being troubleshot. It also discusses how various solar
radiation/penetration levels could affect the voltage deviation in the system by using numerical
simulation methods. The paper compares the outcome of these methods using the current
distribution automation system and weighs the accuracy of the numerical method with the
real-world performance of this system. It then proposes an advanced distribution automation
system for enhancing service restoration in the power grid in case of system faults. The new
system also considers the time at which the fault occurs. This new system has been proposed to
better cater to the presence of photovoltaic systems in the grid. In the calculations, the paper
considers a delta-connected 3-phase 3 line distribution systems and formulates numerical
equations for the said method. A prototype distribution automation system has been devised,
where the on-load tap changer and/or the switch voltage regulator changes setting to maintain
the required voltage level in the distribution lines.
In paper [5], we finally see a case study of the topics discussed so far, where the distribution
automation system in Italy is discussed. It talks about how supply reliability and voltage quality
would affect the medium voltage distribution systems, where feeder automation and
reconfiguration occurs in the event of faults. It takes into consideration permanent and
temporary faults which occur at varying points along the distribution system, and relates them
to the variations in supply voltage. Numerical analysis is performed to obtain the interruption
indices and voltage dip indices when different feeder automation techniques are used. The
paper uses a model which takes into consideration the probability that different types of faults
could be present at different locations on the distribution system during various feeder
automation methods. The faults are segregated into 3 types- long interruption faults, short
interruption faults and permanent faults. The paper concludes that the use of feeder
automation sees a decrease in a half of the large interruptions, that short interruptions are
reduced with a changing the way that the fault selection circuit breakers are automated, and
that permanent faults are reduced by manually changing the circuit breakers. Moreover, the
number of voltage dips are found to increase as more automations are performed.
References
1) Chang Liu, Guori Huang, Kan Zhang, Fushuan Wen, M. A. Salam and S. P. Ang, "Asset
management in power systems," 10th International Conference on Advances in Power
System Control, Operation & Management (APSCOM 2015), Hong Kong, 2015, pp. 1-5.
2) S. Wang, Z. Li, L. Wu, M. Shahidehpour and Z. Li, "New Metrics for Assessing the
Reliability and Economics of Microgrids in Distribution System," in IEEE Transactions on
Power Systems, vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 2852-2861, Aug. 2013.
3) X. Zhou et al., "An overview on distribution automation system," 2016 Chinese Control
and Decision Conference (CCDC), Yinchuan, 2016, pp. 3667-3671.
4) S. Kawano et al., "Distribution automation system for service restoration involving
simultaneous disconnection and reconnection of distributed generators," 2015 IEEE
Eindhoven PowerTech, Eindhoven, 2015, pp. 1-6.
5) M. Chiumarulo, S. Z. Djokic, R. Langella, A. Testa and A. Turco, "Supply interruptions and
voltage dips in smart distribution systems with feeder automation and
reconfiguration," 2016 International Conference on Probabilistic Methods Applied to
Power Systems (PMAPS), Beijing, 2016, pp. 1-8.
Qn 2) Fault Analysis
We shall view the sequence of power restoration in steps. Considering that we use
IntelliTeam SG Automatic Restoration technology from S&C Electric Company:
Step 1) Suppose a fault occurs between Automatic Line Reconfiguration Sectionalizer (ALRS)
No. 6824 and the transformer DCW054.
Step 2) The fault current causes the switch at the feeder station TSS120 to trip. That means,
ALRS 6823 opens.
Step 3) The station TSS120 performs three Pulseclosing operations using the switch ALRS
6823 and locks out. Pulseclosing is a technology which allows for the power restoration
system to identify the location of the faults. This technology applies less than 5% of the
energy imposed by reclosers to test for faults. Switch ALRS 6824 is open.
Step 4) The power restoration system now opens switch ALRS 6824. Power flow to the
consumers i.e. Macys, Sears etc. is stopped.
Step 5) The power restoration system closes switch ALRS 4420. This ensures that power
from the feeder station TSS103 flows to the affected consumers.
Step 6) When the fault is identified and rectified, the switch ALRS 6823 is closed.
Step 7) The switch ALRS6824 closes, allowing power from feeder TSS120 to reach the
affected consumers. The consumers are already getting power from TSS103 owing to the
occurred fault. The power restoration system prevents over-voltage when this occurs by
momentarily lowering the power at TSS120.
Step 8) The switch ALRS4420 opens, thus disconnecting the power flow from TSS103 to the
previously affected consumers. Power at TSS120 is restored to pre-fault levels.