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Volume 25 No.

7 July 2016
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Class 11


Examiners Mind
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You Ask, We Answer 84
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Maximize your chance of success, and high rank in NEET, JEE (Main and Advanced) by reading this column.
This specially designed column is updated year after year by a panel of highly qualied teaching experts well-tuned
to the requirements of these EntranceTests.

Law of Conservation of Mass (Lavoisier)
Matter can neither be created nor destroyed.
MATTER Law of Constant Composition or Definite
Matter is anything that occupies space and has Proportions (Proust)
mass. A given compound always contains exactly the
same proportion of elements by weight.
Law of Multiple Proportions (Dalton)
Matter classification Solids Liquids Gases
If two elements can combine to form more than
one compound, the masses of one element that
Mixtures Pure substances combine with a fixed mass of the other element,
are in the ratio of small whole numbers.
Homogeneous Compounds Elements Law of Reciprocal Proportions (Richter)
Inorganic Atoms The ratio of the masses of two elements A and B
which combine separately with a fixed mass of the
Heterogeneous Organic Molecules third element C is either the same or some simple
multiple of the ratio of the masses in which A and
Homoatomic (O2, Cl2) Heteroatomic (CO, H2O) B combine directly with each other.
Avogadros Law Gay Lussacs Law of Gaseous Volumes
Equal volumes of gases at When gases combine or are produced in a chemical
the same temperature and reaction they do so in a simple ratio by volume
pressure should contain equal provided all gases are at same temperature and
number of molecules. pressure.


Nothing is completely pure !
For a scientist, a pure substance contains only one element or compound.
There should be no other particles in it. It is difficult to get completely pure
substances. Even mineral water is not pure, it contains essential minerals
and ions. Also, distilled water contains dissolved gases from the air.


Postulates of Daltons
Atomic Theory

Matter All the atoms of a given Compounds are formed Chemical reactions
consists of element have identical when atoms of different involve reorganisation of
indivisible properties including identical elements combine in a atoms. These are neither
atoms. mass. Atoms of different fixed ratio. created nor destroyed in
elements differ in mass. a chemical reaction.


Atomic mass is defined as the average relative mass No. of particles 6.023 1023
of the atoms of the element as compared to the mass Mass in g Atomic mass / Mol. mass
of C-12 isotope taken as 12 u. Volume in mL or L 22,400 mL
According to Dulong and Petits method, or 22.4 L
6. 4
Approx. atomic mass =
Molecular mass is defined as the average relative FORMULAE
mass of the molecules of a substance as compared   
to the mass of C-12 isotope taken as 12 u.     
From vapour density method,
Molecular mass = 2 Vapour density







Atom is not the smallest indivisible particle but have a complex structure of its own.
Electron Proton Neutron
Discoverer J.J. Thomson (1897) E. Goldstein (1911) James Chadwick (1932)
Position Moves around the nucleus Constituent of nucleus Constituent of nucleus

Symbol e or e p n
Approximate relative mass 1/1836 1 1
Approximate relative charge 1 +1 No charge
31 27
Mass in kg 9.109 10 1.673 10 1.675 1027
Mass in amu 5.485 104 1.007 1.008
19 19
Actual charge 1.602 10 1.602 10 0

THOMSON MODEL OF ATOM numbers. e.g., 11H, 12H, 13H; 17

35 37
Cl, 17 Cl
Isobars are atoms of different elements having same
J.J. Thomson proposed that, positive charge is
mass number but different atomic numbers. e.g.,
spread over a sphere of radius 108 cm and 40 40 40
18 Ar, 19 K, 20 Ca
electrons are embedded in it. This model explains
the electrical neutrality of atom but not the Isotones are atoms of different elements containing
other observations like spectra and -scattering same number of neutrons. e.g.,146 C, 157 N, 168 O
experiment. Isodiaphers are atoms having same isotopic number
(i.e., no. of neutrons no. of protons = same) e.g.,
92U, 90Th
Rutherford proposed that, the nucleus of atom Isosters are molecules having same number of atoms
is hard dense core and consists of protons while and electrons. e.g., CO2, N2O
electrons revolve around the nucleus. It could not
explain the line spectra of elements. ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATIONS
ISOTOPES, ISOBARS, ISOTONES, ISODIAPHERS, These radiations consist of electric and magnetic
fields that oscillate in directions perpendicular to
each other and to the direction in which the wave
Isotopes are different atoms of same element is travelling. These radiations do not require any
having same atomic number but different mass medium for transmission.

Why cellular phones cant be used in aeroplanes?

Cellular phones emit relatively strong radiowaves in order to reach cell
towers and connect with other phones. Avionics, the electronic systems
used for navigation and communication on modern airplanes rely
heavily on radiowaves, similar to those emitted from cellular phones, to
connect to GPS satellites and to communicate with people on the ground.
Thus, emitted radiowaves from cellular phones may interfere with those
associated with the aeroplanes avionics.


ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM The number of spectral lines possible for hydrogen
or hydrogen like species when the electrons from
It is the arrangement of various types of electro- nth energy level return to ground state in different
magnetic radiations in the order of their increasing 1
(or decreasing) wavelength (or frequencies). atoms = n(n 1)
Cosmic - X- UV Visible IR Micro- Radio-
rays rays rays waves waves
n = 5; O-shell
Increasing wavelength or decreasing frequency n = 4; N-shell
n = 3; M-shell
In discharge tube experiments, light spectrum n = 2; L-shell

emitted by hydrogen consists of a large number of (Visible)
lines of different wavelengths.
1 1 1 2
Rydberg formula : v = = RH Z
2 2
n1 n2 Lyman
n = 1; K-shell
where, n2 > n1; RH is Rydberg constant and has a (Ultraviolet)
value equal to 109,677 cm1.


Atom consists of a small, heavy Energy of an electron in the orbit does

and positively charged nucleus not change with time.
in centre, and electrons revolve
around the nucleus in fixed paths
called orbits. Postulates
of Bohrs When electron jumps from one level
Atomic Model to another, energy is either emitted or
The electron can revolve The energy difference between two
only in those orbits whose states is given by E = E2 E1
angular momentum is an As the distance of the orbits increases
integral multiple of h/2 i.e., from the nucleus, the energy gap goes
nh on decreasing, i.e.,
mvr = , n = 1, 2, 3, ....
2 E2 E1 > E3 E2 > E4 E3 > ......

Derivations from Bohrs Theory

For Hydrogen Energy (En) Radius (rn) Speed (vn)

1312 Z 2 0.529 n2 2.18 108
Hydrogen like kJ/mol Z
Particles n2 Z n
cm sec1


Limitations of Bohrs Model

Fails to explain Does not support to the Does not explain

electronic repulsions in nh Stark effect and
assumption, mvr = .
multielectronic atoms. 2 Zeeman effect.
of Bohrs
Theory Does not explain Against de-Broglie
the distribution of and Heisenbergs
electrons in orbits. uncertainty principles.


A body can emit or absorb energy not continuously but discontinuously in the form of small packets
of energy called quanta. A quantum of light is called a photon. It explains photoelectric effect and black
body radiations.

1 1 No. of electrons ejected

K.E. = h(v v0) = hc
0 Intensity of incident radiations
Effect Each photon having energy equal
K.E. of electrons Frequency to or greater than threshold energy
of incident radiations can eject only one electron.

Application of photoelectric effect!

Photovoltaic cells which are made of semiconducting material when
exposed to sunlight, produce electricity. The basic principle is when light
strikes the cathode it causes the emission of electrons, which in turn
produces a current.


Every material particle in motion has dual Schrodinger wave equation, based on the wave
nature i.e., particle nature and wave nature and motion associated with the particles is
the relation between them is called de Broglie
2 2 2 8 2 m
relation. + + + (E V ) = 0
x 2 y 2 z 2 h2
Wavelength of wave () =
mv has no physical significance but 2 gives the
According to Heisenbergs uncertainty principle, intensity of the electron wave at that point.
the product of uncertainty in the position (x) and An atomic orbital may be defined as three
uncertainty in the momentum (p) is always constant. dimensional space around the nucleus where the
h probability of finding an electron is maximum
x p (upto 90-95%).


Quantum Numbers

Principal quantum Azimuthal quantum Magnetic quantum Spin quantum number

number (n) can have number (l) can have number (ml) can (ms) can have values of
integer values. It represents values from 0 to have values from l 1 1
+ and which
main shell of the electron n 1. It represents to +l including zero. 2 2
and the maximum no. of no. of subshells in the It represents no. of represents clockwise and
electrons present in the main shell. orbitals present in anti-clockwise direction
shell is 2n2. any subshell. of electron spin.


Aufbau Pauli Exclusion Hunds Rule of
Principle Principle Maximum Multiplicity
Orbitals are filled in the order of An orbital can Pairing of electrons does
increasing energy. accommodate maximum not occur in orbitals of
Lower (n + l) value, lower is the of two electrons and the same energy until
energy. For same (n + l) value, the electrons must have each of them is singly
Rules lower n value has lower energy. opposite spins. filled.

1. Uncertainty in position of an electron (a) v2 v1 (b) 2v1 v2

(mass = 9.1 1028 g) moving with a velocity of v2 v1
3 104 cm/s accurate up to 0.001% will be (c) 2v2 v1 (d)
(a) 1.93 cm (b) 3.84 cm
5. What is the mass of the precipitate formed when
(c) 5.76 cm (d) 7.68 cm
50 mL of 16.9% solution of AgNO3 is mixed with
2. One isotope of a non-metallic element (X) has mass 50 mL of 5.8% NaCl solution?
number 127 and 74 neutrons in the nucleus. The (Ag = 108, N = 14, O = 16, Na = 23, Cl = 35.5)
anion derived from the isotope has 54 electrons. (a) 3.5 g (b) 7 g
Hence, symbol for the anion is (c) 14 g (d) 28 g (AIPMT 2015)
(a) 127
54X (b) 53X (c) 74
53X (d) 74
6. The amount of energy required to remove the
3. The number of water molecules is maximum in electron from a Li2+ ion in its ground state is how
(a) 1.8 gram of water (b) 18 gram of water many times greater than the amount of energy
(c) 18 moles of water (d) 18 molecules of water. needed to remove the electron from an H atom in
4. Photoelectric emission is observed from a surface its ground state?
for frequencies v1 and v2 of incident radiations (a) 2 (b) 9 (c) 4 (d) 6
(v1 > v2). If the maximum kinetic energy of 7. 3 g of activated charcoal was added to 50 mL of
photoelectrons in the two cases are in the ratio of acetic acid solution (0.06 N) in a flask. After an
1 : 2, then threshold frequency v0 is given by hour it was filtered and the strength of the filtrate


was found to be 0.042 N. The amount of acetic acid 13. Which of the following is the energy of a possible
adsorbed (per gram of charcoal) is excited state of hydrogen?
(a) 42 mg (b) 54 mg (a) 3.4 eV (b) +6.8 eV
(c) 18 mg (d) 36 mg (c) +13.6 eV (d) 6.8 eV
(JEE Main 2015) (JEE Main 2015)
8. The energy of an electron moving in nth Bohrs orbit 14. Two electrons occupying the same orbital are
13.6 2 distinguished by
of an element is given by En = Z eV/atom. (a) azimuthal quantum number
The graph of E vs Z (keeping n constant) will be (b) spin quantum number

(c) principal quantum number
(d) magnetic quantum number. (NEET 2016)

(a) (b)  15. Analysis of chlorophyll shows that it contains
2.68 percent magnesium. How many atoms of
 magnesium does 100 g of chlorophyll contain?
(a) 6.72 1022 atoms (b) 7.61 1022 atoms
(c) 6.72 1023 atoms (d) 6.022 1022 atoms
(c)  (d)  16. Energy required to stop the ejection of electrons
from Cu plate is 0.24 eV. Calculate the work function
  when radiations of = 253.7 nm strikes the plate.
9. If the fertilizers listed below are priced according (a) 4.65 eV (b) 2.42 eV
to their nitrogen content, which will be the least (c) 4.89 eV (d) 7.82 eV
expensive per 50 kg bag? 17. One mole of P4 molecules contains
(a) Urea, (NH2)2CO (b) Ammonia, NH3 (a) 1 molecule
(c) Ammonium nitrate, NH4NO3 (b) 4 molecules
(d) Guanidine, HNC(NH2)2 1
(c) 6.022 1023 atoms
10. A sample of a hydrate of barium chloride weighing 4
(d) 24.092 1023 atoms.
61 g was heated until all the water of hydration
is removed. The dried sample weighed 52 g. 18. Find the quantum no. n corresponding to the
The formula of the hydrated salt is excited state of He+ ion if on transition to the ground
(atomic mass : Ba = 137 amu, Cl = 35.5 amu) state that ion emits two photons in succession with
(a) BaCl2H2O (b) BaCl22H2O wavelengths 108.5 nm and 30.4 nm.
(c) BaCl23H2O (d) BaCl24H2O (a) 5 (b) 7 (c) 2 (d) 4
(JEE Main 2015 Online) 19. If Avogadro number NA, is changed from
11. If the radius of 2 Bohr orbit of hydrogen atom is r2. 6.022 1023 mol1 to 6.022 1020 mol1, this would
The radius of 3rd Bohr orbit will be change
4 9 (a) the mass of one mole of carbon
(a) r2 (b) 4r2 (c) r2 (d) 9r2 (b) the ratio of chemical species to each other in a
9 4
12. If n and l are the principal and azimuthal quantum balanced equation
numbers, then the expression for calculating (c) the ratio of elements to each other in a compound
the total number of electrons an energy level can (d) the definition of mass in units of grams.
accommodate is (AIPMT 2015)
l =n l =n1 20. A + 2B + 3C AB2C3
(a) 2(2l + 1) (b) 2(2l + 1) Reaction of 6.0 g of A, 6.0 1023 atoms of B, and
l =1 l =1 0.036 mol of C yields 4.8 g of compound AB2C3.
l =n+1 l =n1 If the atomic mass of A and C are 60 and 80 amu,
(c) 2(2l + 1) (d) 2(2l + 1) respectively, the atomic mass of B is
l =0 l =0 (Avogadro no. = 6 1023)


(a) 70 amu (b) 60 amu percentage of carbon in cortisone is 69.98%. Its
(c) 50 amu (d) 40 amu molar mass is
(JEE Main 2015 Online) (a) 176.5 (b) 252.2 (c) 287.6 (d) 360.1
21. Energy for 7.25 1015 photons of 5.37 1014 s1 29. The two electrons X and Y have following sets of
frequency in Einstein unit is quantum numbers :
(a) 1.20 108 (b) 2.58 103 n l ml ms
(c) 3.56 10 (d) 8.33 102 X = 3, 2, 2, +
22. Which is the correct order of increasing energy of 2
the listed orbitals in the atom of titanium? Y = 3, 0, 0, +
(At. no. Z = 22)
(a) 4s 3s 3p 3d (b) 3s 3p 3d 4s Which of the following is the correct statement ?
(c) 3s 3p 4s 3d (d) 3s 4s 3p 3d (a) X and Y have same energy.
(AIPMT 2015) (b) X has greater energy than Y.
(c) X has less energy than Y.
23. Number of waves made by a Bohr electron in one (d) X and Y represent same electron.
complete revolution in 3rd orbit is
(a) 2 (b) 3 (c) 4 (d) 1 30. Two particles A and B are in motion. If the
wavelength associated with the particle A is
24. If the principal quantum number n = 6, the correct 5 108 m, calculate the wavelength of particle B if
sequence of filling of electrons will be its momentum is half of A.
(a) ns np (n 1)d (n 2)f (a) 108 m (b) 106 m
(b) ns (n 2)f (n 1)d np 5
(c) 10 m (d) 107 m
(c) ns (n 1)d (n 2)f np
(d) ns (n 2)f np (n 1)d SOLUTIONS
(JEE Main 2015 Online) h
1. (a) : xv =
25. What is the ratio of the masses of oxygen that are 4m
combined with 1.08 g of nitrogen in the compounds x =
N2O3 and NO? 4mv
(a) 2 : 3 (b) 1 : 3 6.626 1027
= = 1.93 cm
(c) 3 : 2 (d) 1 : 2 4 9.1 1028 3 104
26. A particular electromagnetic radiation with 100
2. (b)
wavelength 200 nm
(a) has a higher frequency than radiation with 6.023 1023
3. (c) : 1.8 gram of water = 1.8
wavelength 400 nm 18
(b) is in the visible region of the electromagnetic = 6.023 1022 molecules
spectrum 18 gram of water = 6.023 1023 molecules
(c) has a greater speed in vacuum than does 18 moles of water = 18 6.023 1023 molecules
radiation of wavelength 400 nm 4. (b) : hv1 = hv0 + (K.E.)1
(d) has a greater energy content per photon than hv2 = hv0 + (K.E.)2
does radiation with wavelength 100 nm. h(v1 v0 ) (K .E.)1 1
= =
27. Which are in the ascending order of wavelength? h(v2 v0 ) (K .E.)2 2
(a) H(3 2) , H(4 2) , H(5 2) ......... lines in Balmer 2(v1 v0) = v2 v0 v0 = 2v1 v2
series of hydrogen atom 5. (b) : 16.9% solution of AgNO3 means 16.9 g of
(b) Lyman limit, Balmer limit, Paschen limit in the AgNO3 in 100 mL solution.
hydrogen spectrum 16.9 g of AgNO3 in 100 mL solution 8.45 g of
(c) Blue, violet, yellow, red colours in solar spectrum AgNO3 in 50 mL solution.
(d) X-rays, Cosmic rays, -rays Similarly, 5.8% solution of NaCl means 5.8 g of
28. Cortisone is a molecular substance containing NaCl in 100 mL solution.
21 atoms of carbon per molecule. The mass 2.9 g of NaCl in 50 mL solution.


The reaction can be represented as : 9
AgNO3 + NaCl AgCl + NaNO3 % of H2O in the hydrated BaCl2 = 100 = 14.75%
Initially 8.45/170 2.9/58.5 0 0 18 x 61
= 0.049 mol = 0.049 mol 14.75 = 100
208 + 18 x
Finally 0 0 0.049 mol 0.049 mol
Mass of AgCl precipitated = 0.049 143.5 On solving we get, x = 2
= 7.03 7 g The formula of the hydrated salt is
2+ BaCl22H2O.
6. (b) : For Li ion and H atom in their ground state
n = 1. n 2 h2 r 22 9
1312 (3)2 11. (c) : rn = 2= r3 = r2
2 2 2
kJ/mol 4 kmZe r3 3 4
(E1 )Li2+ (1)2
= =9 12. (d) 13. (a) 14. (b)
(E1 )H 1312 (1)2
kJ/mol 15. (a) : % of Mg in chlorophyll is 2.68%.
(1)2 2.68
In 100 g of chlorophyll = 100 g of Mg
7. (c) : No. of milliequivalents of acetic acid initially 100
taken = (0.06 N) (50 mL) = 3 meq 2.68
No. of milliequivalents of acetic acid left in the filtrate = mol of Mg
= (0.042 N) (50 mL) = 2.1 meq 2.68 NA 2.68 6.022 1023
No. of milliequivalents of acetic acid adsorbed by = atoms of Mg =
24 24
3 g of activated charcoal = (3 2.1) = 0.9 meq
= 6.72 1022 atoms of Mg
Amount of acetic acid adsorbed by 3 g of activated
charcoal = 0.9 60 = 54 mg 1 2
16. (a) : Energy of photon = Work function + mv
Amount of acetic acid adsorbed by 1 g of activated 2
54 Energy of photon = Work function + eV0 ...(i)
charcoal = = 18 mg where, e is electronic charge and V0 is stopping
potential and eV0 is equal to energy required to stop
8. (b) : En En Z2 the ejection of electron.
n hc
Thus, the graph of E vs Z2 is straight line with Energy of photon =

negative slope.
6.626 1034 3.0 108 = 7.835 1019 J
28 =
9. (c) : % of N in (NH2)2CO = 100 = 46.7% 253.7 109
7.835 1019
14 = eV = 4.89 eV
% of N in NH3 =
100 = 82.3% 1.602 1019
From equation (i), 4.89 = Work function + 0.24
% of N in NH4NO3 = 100 = 35% Work function = 4.65 eV
17. (d) : 1 mole of P4 = NA molecules of P4
% of N in HNC(NH2)2 = 100 = 71.1% = 4 NA atoms of P4 = 24.092 1023 atoms of P4.
18. (a) : Given, 1 = 108.5 107 cm; 2 = 30.4 107 cm
Lower the percentage of N in the fertilizer, lower
Let excited state of He+ be n2. It comes from n2 to n1
is its price hence, 50 kg bag of NH4NO3 is least
and then n1 to 1 to emit two successive photons.
1 1 1
10. (b) : Weight of hydrated BaCl2 = 61 g = RH Z 2
2 2
1 n1
Weight of anhydrous BaCl2 = 52 g
1 1 1
Loss in mass = 61 52 = 9 g = 109678 4
7 2 2
Assuming BaCl2xH2O as hydrate, 30.4 10 1 n1
Mass of H2O removed = 9 g n1 = 2
9 For 1 ; n1 = 2 and n2 = ?
Moles of H2O removed = = 0. 5
18 1 1 1
= RH Z 2
Molecular mass of BaCl2 = 208 1 2 2
2 n2


1 1 1 23. (b) : Circumference of 3rd orbit = 2r3
= 109678 4 According to Bohr, angular momentum of electron
7 2 2
108.5 10 2 n2 in 3rd orbit is
n2 = 5
h h 2 r3
Thus, excited state for He+ is 5th orbit. mvr3 = 3 or =
2 mv 3
19. (a) : Mass of 1 mol (6.022 1023 atoms) of carbon By de Broglie equation,
= 12 g h 2 r3
If Avogadro number is changed to 6.022 1020 atoms = = 2r3 = 3
mv 3
then mass of 1 mol of carbon
i.e., circumference of 3rd orbit is three times the
12 6.022 1020
= = 12 103 g wavelength of electron or number of waves made
6.022 10 23 by Bohr electron in one complete revolution in 3rd
20. (c) : A + 2B + 3C AB2C3 orbit is three.
6.0 g of A, 6.0 1023 atoms of B and 0.036 mol of C 24. (b)
yields 4.8 g of compound AB2C3. 25. (c) : In N2O3, ratio of mass of O by mass of N
Atomic mass of A = 60 amu 48.0 g
Atomic mass of C = 80 amu = = 1.71
28.0 g
6 1 In NO, ratio of mass of O by mass of N
No. of moles of A = = = 0.1 mol
60 10 16.0 g
= = 1.14
6.0 1023 14.0 g
No. of moles of B = = 1 mol
6 1023 Ratio of masses of oxygen that are combined with
No. of moles of C = 0.036 mol 1.71 / 1.08 3
1.08 g of nitrogen in N2O3 and NO = =
Hence, C is the limiting reagent which is consumed 1.14 / 1.08 2
completely. 26. (a) : Frequency is inversely proportional to the
wavelength of radiation.
So, according to reaction, A + 2B + 3C AB2C3
0.036 27. (b) : (a) In Balmer series,
0.036 mol of C will form = 0.012 mol of H(3 2) > H(4 2) > H(5 2)
3 AB2C3 = 656.3 nm 486.1 nm 434.1 nm
Weight (b) In ascending order of wavelength :
No. of moles of AB2C3 =
Molecular weight Lyman series in UV region < Balmer series in
4. 8 visible region < Paschen series in IR region
0.012 =
Molecular weight of AB2C3 (c) Red > Yellow > Blue > Violet
So, molecular wt. of AB2C3 = 400 (d) Their wavelengths increase in the order:
Atomic mass of A + 2 Atomic mass of B + Cosmic rays < -rays < X-rays.
3 Atomic mass of C = 400 28. (d) : Let molar mass be M.
60 + 2B + 3 80 = 400 Mass of 21 carbon atoms = 252
Atomic mass of B = 50 amu 252 100
% of carbon = = 69.98
21. (a) : Energy of 7.25 1015 photons with frequency M
5.37 1014 s1 is M = 360.1
E = Nh = 7.25 1015 h 5.37 1014 29. (b)
Energy of N0 photons with same frequency h h
E = N0h = 6.02 1023 h 5.37 1014 30. (d) : A = and B =
pA pB
E 7.25 1015 A pB 1 1
Number of Einstein = = or = = pB = pA
E 6.02 1023 B pA 2 2
= 1.20 108 Einstein Given : A = 5 10 m 8

22. (c) : Ti(22) : 1s22s22p63s23p63d24s2 5 108 1

= B = 107 m
Order of increasing energy is 3s, 3p, 4s, 3d. B 2


The questions given in this column have been prepared strictly on the basis of NCERT Chemistry for Class XI.
This year JEE (Main & Advanced)/NEET/AIIMS have drawn their papers heavily from NCERT books.

Section - I Q. 1 to 10 Only One Option Correct Type MCQs.

Section - II Q. 11 to 13 More than One Options Correct Type MCQs.
Section - III Q. 14 to 17 Paragraph Type MCQs having Only One Option Correct.
Section - IV Q. 18 & 19 Matching List Type MCQs having Only One Option Correct.
Section - V Q. 20 to 22 Assertion Reason Type MCQs having Only One Option Correct. Mark the correct choice as :
(a) If both assertion and reason are true and reason is the correct explanation of assertion.
(b) If both assertion and reason are true but reason is not the correct explanation of assertion.
(c) If assertion is true but reason is false.
(d) If both assertion and reason are false.
Section - VI Q. 23 to 25 Integer Value Correct Type Questions having Single Digit Integer Answer, ranging from
0 to 9 (both inclusive).


SECTION - I 4. Which of the following is not a mixture?
Only One Option Correct Type (a) Gasoline (b) Distilled alcohol
(c) LPG (d) Iodized table salt
1. To account for nitrogens atomic weight of 14.0067,
what must be the ratio of 15N to 14N atoms in natural 5. Ethanol-water mixture has 46 g ethanol in 100 g
mixture. By a suitable technique volatile component
nitrogen? (14N = 14.00307, 15N = 15.0001)
goes off. Thus,
(a) 0.0040 (b) 0.0052
(a) 3 moles of non-volatile component are left
(c) 0.0036 (d) 0.10
(b) 9 NA atoms of non-volatile component are left
2. Carbon dioxide contains 27.27% of carbon, carbon (c) 9 NA atoms of volatile component are separated
disulphide contains 15.79% of carbon and sulphur (d) all of these.
dioxide contains 50% of sulphur. This data is an 6. Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) contains 40.92% C, 4.58% H
agreement with and 54.50% of O by mass. If molecular weight of
(a) law of conservation ascorbic acid is 176 g mol1, what is the molecular
(b) law of definite proportions formula?
(c) law of multiple proportions (a) C3H2O3 (b) C4H3O
(d) law of reciprocal proportions. (c) C6H8O6 (d) C3H4O3
3. A sample of CaCO3 and MgCO3 weighed 2.21 g is 7. An alloy has Fe, Co and Mo equal to 71%, 12%
ignited to constant weight of 1.152 g. What is the and 17% respectively. How many cobalt atoms are
composition of the mixture? there in a cylinder of radius 2.50 cm and a length of
(a) 1.19 g CaCO3, 1.02 g MgCO3 10.0 cm? The density of alloy is 8.20 g/mL. Atomic
(b) 1.02 g CaCO3, 1.19 g MgCO3 weight of cobalt is 58.9.
(c) 1.20 g CaCO3, 1.01 g MgCO3 (a) 2 1023 (b) 19.8 1022
(d) 1.01 g CaCO3, 1.20 g MgCO3 (c) 19.8 10 (d) 5.1 1023


8. The hydrated salt Na2CO3xH2O undergoes 63% after the reaction the gaseous mixture present in the
loss in mass on heating and becomes anhydrous. vessel will consist of
The value of x is (a) CO2 and H2O
(a) 3 (b) 5 (c) 7 (d) 10 (b) CO2, H2O and O2
9. The correctly reported answer of addition of (c) CO2, H2O and hydrocarbon
29.4406, 3.2 and 2.25 will have significant figures (d) CO2, H2O, hydrocarbon and O2.
(a) 3 (b) 4 (c) 2 (d) 5 Paragraph for Questions 16 and 17
10. The mass of nitrogen per gram hydrogen in the The atomic mass of an atom (element) is not its actual
compound hydrazine is exactly one and half times mass. It is relative mass as compared with an atom
the mass of nitrogen in the compound ammonia. of carbon taken as 12. It is expressed in amu (u). The
The fact illustrates the actual mass of an atom means its mass in grams which
(a) law of the conservation of mass is obtained by dividing the atomic mass of the element
(b) multiple valency of nitrogen by Avogadros number (6.022 1023) because one gram
(c) law of multiple proportions atom contains Avogadros number of atoms.
(d) law of definite proportions.
16. Which of the following has maximum mass?
SECTION - II (a) 0.1 moles of ammonia
More than One Options Correct Type (b) 1120 cc of carbon dioxide
(c) 0.1 g atom of carbon
11. A certain oxide of iodine has been found to contain (d) 6.022 1022 molecules of H2 gas
iodine and oxygen. The ratio iodine : oxygen is
254 : 112. On being dissolved in water this oxide 17. 5.6 L of a gas at NTP are found to have a mass of
can produce 11 g. The molecular mass of the gas is
(a) HIO2 (b) HIO3 (c) HIO4 (d) H5IO6 (a) 36 (b) 48 (c) 40 (d) 44
12. 16 g of oxygen has same number of molecules as in SECTION - IV
(a) 16 g of CO (b) 28 g of N2 Matching List Type
(c) 14 g of N2 (d) 1.0 g of H2
18. Match the List I with List II and select the correct
13. Given below are few statements. Mark the statements answer using the code given below the lists :
which are correct.
List I List II
(a) Gram atomic mass of an element may be defined
as the mass of Avogadros number of atoms. P. Isotopic masses of two 1. The mixture
(b) The molecular mass of a diatomic elementary isotopes present in mixture contains 25%
gas is twice its atomic mass. are (Z 1) and (Z + 3) by moles of the
(c) Gay Lussacs law of chemical combination is respectively. The average heavier isotope.
valid for all substances. atomic mass is Z.
(d) A pure compound has always a fixed proportion Q. Isotopic masses of two 2. The mixture
of masses of its constituents. isotopes present in mixture contains 50%
SECTION - III are (Z + 1) and (Z + 3) by moles of the
Paragraph Type respectively. The average heavier isotope.
atomic mass is (Z + 2).
Paragraph for Questions 14 and 15
R. Isotopic masses of two 3. Mass percentage
From a mixture which makes up crude oil, a particular
isotopes present in the of heavier isotope
hydrocarbon ingredient (that is one containing hydrogen
mixture are Z and 3Z depends on Z.
and carbon atoms only) has been isolated. 10 g of this
respectively. The average
liquid are burned in excess of oxygen and the products
atomic mass is 2Z.
are 31.4 g of carbon dioxide and 12.9 g of water.
S. Isotopic masses of two 4. The mixture
14. The molar ratio of carbon dioxide and water present is isotopes present in the contains 75%
(a) 1 : 2 (b) 1 : 1 (c) 2 : 1 (d) 1 : 4 mixture are (Z 1) and by mass of the
15. If we burn an equimolar mixture of the above (Z + 1) respectively. The heavier isotope.
hydrocarbon and oxygen in a closed vessel, then average atomic mass is Z.


P Q R S 1
(a) (1, 2) (3, 4) (4, 3) (2, 3) Reason : 1.66 1024 g equals to
th mass of C12 atom.
(b) (3, 1) (4, 1) (2, 3) (1, 2)
21. Assertion : The empirical mass of ethene is half of
(c) (1, 3) (2, 3) (2, 4) (2, 3)
its molecular mass.
(d) (4, 2) (3, 4) (1, 2) (3, 2)
Reason : The empirical formula represents the
19. Match the amounts given in List I with their no. of simplest whole number ratio of various atoms
moles given in List II and select the correct answer present in a compound.
using the code given below the lists :
22. Assertion : Atomicity of oxygen is 2.
List I List II Reason : 1 mole of an element contains 6.023 1023
(Amount) (No. of moles) atoms.
P. 4480 mL of CO2 at STP 1. 0.1 mole
Q. 0.1 g-atom of iron 2. 0.2 mole SECTION - VI
R. 1.5 1023 molecules of 3. 0.25 mole Integer Value Correct Type
oxygen gas
23. A gas is found to have the formula (CO)x. Its vapour
S. 9 mL of water 4. 0.5 mole
density is 70. The value of x must be
(a) 1 2 3 4 24. A mixture of HCOOH and H2C2O4 is heated with
(b) 4 2 1 3 concentrated H2SO4. The gas produced is collected
(c) 2 1 3 4 and on treating with KOH solution, the volume
(d) 4 3 1 2 of gas decreases by one-sixth. The molar ratio of
the two acids (HCOOH : H2C2O4) in the original
SECTION - V mixture is
Assertion Reason Type
25. The volume of 1.5 M HCl, which reacts with 2.4 g Mg
20. Assertion : 1 amu equals to 1.66 1024 g. completely is 66.66 x mL. The value of x is


SECTION - I (a) Electronegativity
Only One Option Correct Type (b) Electron affinity
(c) Ionisation potential
1. M3+ has electronic configuration as [Ar]3d104s2, (d) Size of the atom
hence the element M lies in
(a) s-block (b) p-block 5. Which of the following sets of elements is arranged
(c) d-block (d) f-block. in order of increasing electronegativity based on
Paulings scale?
2. The properties of the elements are periodic (a) S < Si < P (b) Si < P < S
functions of their atomic numbers. The statement (c) S < P < Si (d) P < Si < S
was given by
(a) N. Bohr (b) J.W. Dobereiner 6. The amount of energy released when 106 atoms of
(c) D.I. Mendeleev (d) H.G.J. Moseley. iodine in vapour state are converted to I ions is
4.9 1013 J. What will be the electron affinity of
3. Element with atomic number 115 has configuration
iodine in eV per atom?
as ..... and with most stable cation as .......
(a) [Rn]5f 146d107s27p3 ; M3+ (a) 2.0 (b) 2.5 (c) 2.75 (d) 3.06
(b) [Rn]7s25d104f 147p3 ; M5+ 7.
atoms of X(g) are converted into X+(g) by energy
(c) [Rn] 7s25d104f 147p3 ; M+ 2
(d) [Rn] 5d104f 147p5 ; M5+ N
E1. A atoms of X(g) are converted into X(g) by
4. Which of the following properties displays
energy E2. Hence, ionisation potential and electron
progressive increase down the group in the Bohrs
periodic table? affinity of X(g) are respectively


2 E1 2(E1 E2 ) 2 E1 2 E2 (c) All atoms with an even atomic number may be
(a) , (b) , diamagnetic or paramagnetic.
(d) Atoms with an odd atomic number may be
(E1 E2 ) 2 E2 paramagnetic and in some cases diamagnetic.
(c) , (d) none is correct.
8. An element of atomic weight 40 has 2, 8, 8, 2 as Paragraph Type
the electronic configuration. Which one of the Paragraph for Questions 14 and 15
following statements regarding this element is not
The energy required to pull the most loosely bound
electron from an atom is known as ionization potential.
(a) It belongs to II group of the periodic table.
It is expressed in electron volts. The value of ionization
(b) It has 20 neutrons.
potential depends on three factors : (i) the charge on
(c) The formula of its oxide is MO2.
the nucleus (ii) the atomic radius and (iii) the screening
(d) It belongs to 4th period of the periodic table.
effect of inner electron shells. The ionization energies,
9. Extent of hydration of Na+, Mg2+, Al3+ is in order electron affinities, electronegativities, atomic and ionic
(a) Na+ < Al3+ < Mg2+ radii and other physical properties usually shown a
(b) Na+ < Mg2+ < Al3+ regular pattern of change within a group or along a
period with some irregularities.
(c) Al3+ < Mg2+ < Na+
Ionization energies of five elements in kcal/mol are
(d) Mg2+ < Na+ < Al3+ given below :
10. The first four ionisation energy values of an element
are 191, 578, 872 and 5962 kcal. The number of
valence electrons in the element is P 300 549 920
(a) 1 (b) 2 (c) 3 (d) 4 Q 99 734 1100
SECTION - II R 118 1091 1652
More than One Options Correct Type S 176 347 1848
11. Select equations having endothermic step. T 497 947 1500
(a) S(g) S2(g) 14. The element having most stable oxidation state +2 is
(b) Na+(g) + Cl(g) NaCl(s) (a) Q (b) R (c) S (d) T
15. If Q reacts with fluorine and oxygen, the molecular
(c) N(g) N(g)
(d) Al2+(g) Al3+ formulae of fluoride and oxide will be respectively
(a) QF3, Q2O3 (b) QF, Q2O
12. Which of the following statements are true? (c) QF2, QO (d) none of these.
(a) Metallic and covalent radii of potassium are Paragraph for Questions 16 and 17
2.3 and 2.03 respectively.
(b) Atomic and ionic radii of niobium and tantalum Consider the following table comparing ionic radius :
are almost same. Ion N3 O2 F Na+ Mg2+
(c) Ionisation energy is inversely proportional to
Number of 10 10 10 10 10
the screening effect. electrons
(d) The first ionisation energies of Be and Mg
are more than ionisation energies of B and Al Number of 7 8 9 11 12
nuclear protons
Ionic radius 146 140 133 98 79
13. Pick out the correct statements from the following.
(a) All atoms with an odd atomic number are
necessarily paramagnetic. 16. Select the correct option in terms of size.
(b) All atoms with an even atomic number are (a) Na > Na+ (b) Mg > Mg+ > Mg2+

necessarily diamagnetic. (c) F > F (d) All of these


17. All the species given in table are isoelectronic but P Q R S
they differ in size. It is due to (a) 3 4 2 1
(a) increase in number of protons (b) 3 1 4 2
(b) removal of valence force (c) 1 2 3 4
(c) decrease in repulsive force (d) 4 3 2 1
(d) addition of additional shell. SECTION - V
SECTION - IV Assertion Reason Type
Matching List Type
20. Assertion : Shielding effect increases as we go down
18. Match the atomic number given in List I with its the group.
symbol given in List II. Reason : More is the electrons in the penultimate
List I List II shell, more is the shielding.
P. 105 1. Uun 21. Assertion : Noble gases have maximum electron
Q. 107 2. Uns affinity.
R. 109 3. Unp Reason : High electron affinity shows that the
electron is loosely bonded to the atom.
S. 110 4. Une
P Q R S 22. Assertion : Sulphate is estimated as BaSO4 and not
(a) 3 2 4 1 as MgSO4.
Reason : Ionic radius of Mg2+ is smaller than that
(b) 1 2 3 4
of Ba2+.
(c) 4 3 2 1
(d) 2 3 4 1 SECTION - VI
Integer Value Correct Type
19. The values of IE1 and IE2 (kJ mol1) of few elements
are given in List I. Match their characteristics given 23. Catenation is maximum for the element with atomic
in List II. number
List I List II
24. The period number of the inert gas atom in which
P. IE1 2372, IE2 5251 1. A reactive metal the total number of d-electrons is equal to the
Q. IE1 520, IE2 7300 2. A reactive non-metal difference in the number of total p-and s-electrons is
R. IE1 900, IE2 1760 3. A noble gas 25. An ionic compound is formed of the type XY from
S. IE1 1680, IE2 3380 4. A metal that forms an X with electronic configuration ns1 and Y with
halide of formula AX2 valence shell electrons
SOME BASIC CONCEPTS OF CHEMISTRY Hence, ratio of S : O is 145.434 : 72.73 i.e., 2 : 1
14 In SO2, the ratio of S : O is 1 : 1
1. (c) : Let x = fraction of N;
then 1.000 x = fraction of 15N Since, the ratio of S : O is a simple whole number
x(14.00307) + (1.000 x) (15.0001) = 14.0067 ratio, therefore law of reciprocal proportions is
x = 0.9964 ; 1 x = 0.0036 proved.
0.0036 3. (a) : CaCO3 CaO + CO2
Ratio = = 0.0036
0.9964 xg
2. (d) : In CS2 MgCO3 MgO + CO2
C : S mass ratio is 15.79 : 84.21 yg
15.79 parts of carbon combine (x + y) = 2.21 g ...(i)
with sulphur = 84.21 100 g of CaCO3 gives 56 g of CaO
27.27 parts of carbon will 56 (x )
combine with sulphur x g of CaCO3 g of CaO
= 27.27 = 145.434 Similarly, 84 g of MgCO3 gives 40 g of MgO


40 ( y ) 58.9 g cobalt has atoms = 6.023 1023
y g of MgCO3 = g of MgO
84 6.023 1023 193.3
193.3 g cobalt has atoms =
56 x 40 y 58.9
Weight of residue = + = 1.152 ...(ii)
100 84 = 19.8 1023
Solving equations (i) and (ii) 8. (d) : The loss in mass is due to elimination of water
x = 1.19 g, y = 1.02 g of crystallisation of Na2CO3xH2O.
18 x 100
4. (b) : Distilled alcohol is a pure compound. Hence, = 63 x = 10
106 + 18 x
5. (d) : Volatile component of CH3CH2OH = 46 g 9. (a) : Sum of the figures 29.4406, 3.2 and 2.25 is
= 1 mol 34.8906. The sum should be reported to the first
46 place of decimal as 3.2 has only one decimal place.
1 mole = NA molecules = 9NA atoms After rounding off the sum is 34.9. Hence, number
Thus, (c) is correct. of significant figures is three.
Non-volatile component is H2O = 54 g 10. (c) : As ratio of masses of nitrogen per gram of
54 1 3
= = 3 moles hydrogen in hydrazine and NH3 = 1 : 1 = : 1
18 2 2
Thus, (a) is correct.
Non-volatile component of H2O = 3NA molecule =3:2
= 3 3NA atoms This illustrates the law of multiple proportions.
= 9NA atoms 11. (c, d) : Mole ratio of iodine : oxygen
Thus, (b) is correct 254 112
6. (c) : = : =2:7
127 16
The oxide is I2O7.
Element % Atomic Relative Simplest
When dissolved in water it can produce HIO4 or
mass number of ratio
I2O7 + H2O 2HIO4
C 40.92 12 40.92 3.41 I2O7 + 5H2O 2H5IO6
= 3.41 =13
12 3.41 Mass
=3 12. (c, d) : Number of molecules = NA
Molar mass
H 4.58 1 4.58 4.58
= 4.58 = 1.34 3 Number of molecules, in 16 g oxygen
1 3.41 16 N
=4 = NA = A
32 2
O 54.50 16 3.41 16 NA
= 3.41 3.41 = 1 3 In 16 g of CO = NA =
16 28 1.75
=3 28
In 28 g of N2 = NA = NA
Hence, empirical formula is C3H4O3 28
Empirical formula weight = 36 + 4 + 48 = 88 14 N
Molecular weight In 14 g of N2 = NA = A
176 28 2
n= = =2
Empirical formula weight 88 1 NA
In 1 g of H2 = NA =
Thus, molecular formula = (Empirical formula) n 2 2
= (C3H4O3) 2 = C6H8O6 13. (a, b, d) : Gay Lussacs law is true only for gaseous
7. (c) : Weight of alloy cylinder = Volume Density substances.
= r2h d 31.4
14. (b) : Mole of CO2 = = 0.71
22 44
= (2.50)2 10 8.20 = 1610.7 g 12.9
7 Mole of H2O = = 0.71
1610.7 12 18
Weight of cobalt in alloy = = 193.3 g
100 Ratio = 0.71 : 0.71 = 1 : 1


15. (c) : It will consist of CO2, H2O and hydrocarbon. 25. (2) :
Since the hydrocarbon is C2H4 (the atomic ratio
C : H is 1 : 2 and so the hydrocarbon is C2H4.)
HCl required for 2.4 g Mg = 2.4 = 7.3 g
Since the mole of O2 required is three times the = = 0.2 mol
mole of hydrocarbon so in a mixture containing But M VmL = millimoles
equal number of moles of hydrocarbon and 1.5 VmL = 0.2 1000
oxygen, hydrocarbon will be in excess and some VmL = 133.3 mL = 66.66 2 mL
of it will remain unreacted while whole of O2 will
be consumed. Thus, the mixture in vessel after the CLASSIFICATION OF ELEMENTS AND PERIODICITY IN
completion of reaction will consist of products PROPERTIES
(i.e., CO2 and H2O) and excess of hydrocarbon that 1. (b) : M3+ : [Ar]3d104s2
has remained unreacted. M : [Ar]3d104s24p3
16. (b) : 0.1 g-atom of C = 1.2 g Three electrons have been removed from
0.1 mol of NH3 = 1.7 g 4p-sub-shell. Thus, M is a p-block element.
6.022 1023 molecules of H2 = 2 g 2. (d)
2 6.022 1022
6.022 1022 molecules of H2 = = 0.2 g 3. (a) : Element with atomic number 115 has electronic
6.022 1023 configuration [Rn]5f 146d107s 27p3
1120 cc of CO2 = 1120 = 2.2 g Probable oxidation states are +3, +5.
22400 But due to inert pair effect. M3+ is the most stable
17. (d) : 5.6 L of a gas at NTP have mass = 11 g cation.
22.4 L of gas at NTP have mass
11 4. (d) : In completely filled shell, interatomic repulsion
= 22.4 = 44 g is more so have greater size.
18. (c) 19. (c) 5. (b) : In a period from left to right, the value of
20. (a) : 12 g of C-12 contains 6.023 1023 atoms electronegative increases. i.e.,
1 12 Si < P < S
1 amu = = 1.66 1024 g 1.8 2.1 2.5 (EN value of Paulings scale)
12 6.023 1023
21. (a) : The molecular formula of ethene is C2H4 and 6. (d) : Energy released for 106 atoms = 4.9 1013 J
its empirical formula is CH2. 4.9 1013
Energy released for 1 atom = J
Thus, empirical formula 2 = molecular formula 106
22. (b) : Number of atoms present in a molecule of a
4.9 1013 106
gaseous element is called atomicity. = = 3.06 eV
For example, O2 has two atoms and hence its 1.6 1019
atomicity is 2. N
7. (b) : X(g) X+(g) + e ; E1 for A atoms
23. (5) : Mol. mass = 70 2 = 140 2
(CO)x, i.e., (12 + 16) x = 140 x = 5 NA
atoms of X(g) have been ionised, by energy, E1.
24. (4) : 2
Thus, ionisation energy X( g ) is 1 per atom.
X(g) + e
X (g) ; E2 for atoms
Total number of moles of gases formed = a + 2b 2
Moles of gas (CO2) absorbed by KOH = b 2 E2
1 Thus, electron affinity of X(g) is per atom.
Hence, b = (a + 2b) (... Volume moles) NA
a 6 8. (c) : Its valency is 2. So it will form MO type
=4 compound.


9. (b) : Since the radii of Na+, Mg2+ and Al3+ ion 16. (d) 17. (a)
(period 3) decrease as Na+ > Mg2+ > Al3+, the 18. (a) 19. (b)
hydration energy of these ions is in the increasing
20. (a) : The phenomenon in which the penultimate
order i.e., Na+ < Mg2+ < Al3+.
shell, i.e., (n 1) electrons act as shield in between
10. (c) : Since there is a large jump in the third and
nucleus and valence shell electrons thereby reducing
fourth ionisation energies, therefore after removal
the effective nuclear charge is known as shielding
of the third electron, the cation has the inert gas
configuration. Therefore, the valency of the element
is 3. 21. (d) : All noble gases have stable configuration.
11. (a, c, d) : (a) S(g) S2(g) ; Heg. = (+)ve Therefore, they cannot take any electron means that
they have no affinity for electrons. High electron
(b) Na (g) + Cl (g) Na+Cl(s) ; HL.E. = ()ve
affinity shows that electron is strongly bonded to
(c) N(g) N(g) ; Heg. = (+)ve the atom. Therefore, both assertion and reason are
(d) Al2+(g) Al3+(g) ; HI.E. = (+)ve false.
12. (a, b, c, d) : 22. (b) : The correct explanation is BaSO4 is insoluble
(a) rmetallic > rcovalent because covalent bond but MgSO4 is soluble.
formation involves the overlapping of orbitals.
23. (6) : Carbon has the maximum tendency to show
(b) Due to lanthanide contraction.
(c) If screening effect increases, the valence shell catenation.
electron get loosely bound. Hence, ionisation 24. (4) : First inert gas which contains d-electrons is Kr.
energy decreases. 1s22s22p63s23p63d104s24p6
(d) Be and Mg have ns2 configuration, i.e., stable Total number of d-electrons = 10
configuration, thus have higher IE. Total number of p-electrons = 6 + 6 + 6 = 18
13. (a, c) : There is no way to create all pairs with Total number of s-electrons = 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 = 8
odd number of electrons. Many atoms with even Difference in total number of p-and s-electrons
number of electrons can have one or more unpaired = 18 8 = 10
electrons. So inert gas is 36Kr.
14. (c) : I.E.3 of S is abnormally higher. Since at. no. is 36 so, period no. is 4.
15. (b) : Q is an alkali metal as it shows increase in I.E.2 25. (7)



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CLASS XI Series 1

Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry Time Allowed : 3 hours
Structure of Atom Maximum Marks : 70

(i) All questions are compulsory.
(ii) Q. no. 1 to 5 are very short answer questions and carry 1 mark each.
(iii) Q. no. 6 to 10 are short answer questions and carry 2 marks each.
(iv) Q. no. 11 to 22 are also short answer questions and carry 3 marks each.
(v) Q. no. 23 is a value based question and carries 4 marks.
(vi) Q. no. 24 to 26 are long answer questions and carry 5 marks each.
(vii) Use log tables if necessary, use of calculators is not allowed.

1. Suppose a length had been reported to be 31.24 cm. 8. Explain the meaning of and 2.
What is the minimum uncertainty in this 9. The ejection of the photoelectron from the silver
measurement? metal in the photoelectric effect experiment can be
2. What do you understand by percentage composition stopped by applying the voltage of 0.35 V when the
by mass? radiation of 256.7 nm is used. Calculate the work
3. What is the difference between 0.006 g and function for silver metal.
6.00 103 g? OR
4. How are dxy and dx2y2 orbitals related? Why does the charge to mass ratio of positive rays
5. What extraordinary assumption was made by depend on the residual gas in the discharge tube?
Einstein while explaining the photoelectric effect? Why is the charge to mass ratio of all cathode rays
the same?
6. A certain metal was irradiated with light of frequency
3.2 1016 sec1. The photoelectrons emitted have 10. The reactant which is entirely consumed in reaction
twice the kinetic energy as photoelectrons emitted is known as limiting reagent. In the reaction
when the same metal is irradiated with a light of 2A + 4B 3C + 4D, when 5 moles of A react with
frequency 2 1016 sec1. Calculate the threshold 6 moles of B, then
frequency of the metal. (i) which is the limiting reagent?
(ii) calculate the amount of C formed.
7. Calculate the molarity of a solution of ethanol
in water in which the mole fraction of ethanol is 11. An aqueous solution of sodium chloride is marked
0.040. 10% (w/W) on the bottle. The density of the solution


is 1.071 g/mL. What are its molality and molarity? 18. Give a brief wave description of light along with
Also, what is the mole fraction of each component two characteristics of light wave.
in the solution? 19. (i) The average molar mass of a mixture of methane
12. Calculate the frequency, energy and wavelength of (CH4) and ethane (C2H4) present in the ratio of
the radiation corresponding to the spectral line of a : b is found to be 20.0 g mol1. If the ratio
lowest frequency in Lyman series in the spectrum were reversed, what would be the molar mass
of hydrogen atom. of the mixture?
13. (i) The radius of first Bohr orbit of hydrogen atom (ii) A black dot used as a full stop at end of a
is 0.529 . Calculate the radii of sentence has a mass of about one attogram.
(a) the third orbit of He+ ion and Assuming that the dot is made up of carbon,
(b) the second orbit of Li2+ ion. calculate the approximate number of carbon
(ii) What is the difference between a quantum and atoms present in the dot.
a photon? 20. An ion with mass number 56 contains 3 units of
14. (i) 2.0 g of a metal burnt in oxygen gave 3.2 g of its positive charge and 30.4% more neutrons than
oxide, 1.42 g of the same metal heated in steam electrons. Assign the symbol of this ion.
gave 2.27 g of its oxide. Which law is shown by 21. (i) The angular momentum of an electron
this data? in a Bohrs orbit of hydrogen atom is
(ii) Is the law of constant composition true for all 4.218 1034 kg m2 s1. Calculate the wavelength
types of compounds? Explain why or why not. of the spectral line emitted when electron falls
15. (i) The following are representative wavelengths from this level to next lower level.
in the infra-red, ultraviolet and X-ray regions (ii) Why are Bohrs orbits called stationary states?
of the electromagnetic spectrum, respectively : 22. A mixture of sodium iodide and sodium chloride
1.0 106 m, 1.0 108 m and 1.0 1010 m. when treated with sulphuric acid gave sodium
(a) What is the energy of a photon of each sulphate equal to the weight of the original mixture.
radiation? Find the percentage composition of the mixture.
(b) Which has the greater amount of energy 23. Bhavya watched a bike racing tournament on T.V.
per photon and which has the least? and surprised to see the statistics in which the
(ii) What do you understand by black-body and
position and velocity of the bike were accurately
black-body radiations? calculated simultaneously at an instant. But he
OR thought that this task is impossible according to
Why was a change in the Bohrs model of an atom Heisenberg uncertainty principle. Next day, he
required? Due to which important development(s), talked to his chemistry teacher about this and she
concept of movement of an electron in an orbit was cleared his doubt.
replaced by the concept of probability of finding the (i) How is his chemistry teacher explained this
electron in an orbital? What is the name given to situation to Bhavya?
the changed model of an atom? (ii) What are the values shown by Bhavya?
(iii) If uncertainties in the measurement of position
16. (i) The mass of precious stones is expressed in and momentum of an electron are found to be
terms of carat. Given that 1 carat = 3.168 equal in magnitude, what is the uncertainty in
grain and 1 g = 15.4 grain, calculate the total the measurement of velocity of the electron?
mass of a ring in gram and kilogram which (iv) Comment on the result obtained from (iii).
contains 0.500 carat diamond and 7.00 g gold.
(ii) Calculate the percentage of N in NH3 molecule. 24. (i) Which of the following orbital diagrams or
electron configurations are possible and which
17. A welding fuel gas contains carbon and hydrogen are impossible, according to the Pauli exclusion
only. Burning a small sample of it in oxygen gives principle? Explain.
3.38 g of carbon dioxide, 0.690 g of water and no 
other products. A volume of 10.0 L (measured at
S.T.P.) of this welding gas is found to weigh 11.6 g.
Calculate (i) empirical formula (ii) molar mass of
the gas, and (iii) molecular formula. (b)


(i) Calculate the wavelength for the emission
3 1
(d) 1s 2s transition if it starts from the orbit having
(e) 1s2 2s1 2p7 radius 1.3225 nm and ends at 211.6 pm. Name
(f) 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d8 4s2 the series to which this transition belongs and
(ii) What do you understand by ground state the region of the spectrum.
and excited state of an electron? Explain with (ii) What is the experimental evidence in support
examples. of the idea that electronic energies in an atom
OR are quantized?
(i) The longest wavelength doublet absorption (iii) What is the difference between the terms orbit
transition is observed at 589 and 589.6 nm. and orbital?
Calculate the frequency of each transition and SOLUTIONS
energy difference between two excited states. 1. The minimum uncertainty in this measurement is
(ii) Emission transitions in the Paschen series end
0.01 cm.
at orbit n = 3 and start from orbit n and can be
2. Percentage composition is the percentage of a
1 1
represented as = 3.29 1015 (Hz) formula mass represented by each element. It
32 n2 compares mass of one part of a substance to the
Calculate the value of n if the transition is
mass of the whole.
observed at 1285 nm. Find the region of the
spectrum. 3. 0.006 g contains one significant digit while
6.00 103 g contains 3 significant digits.
25. (i) Butyric acid contains only C, H and O. A 4.24 mg
sample of butyric acid is completely burnt. It 4. The dxy orbital is exactly like dx2y2 orbital except
gives 8.45 mg of carbon dioxide and 3.46 mg that its lobes are at an angle of 45 to the lobes of
of water. What is the mass percentage of each dx2y2 orbital.
element in butyric acid? 5. He suggested that light consists of streams of
(ii) The molecular mass of butyric acid was particles called photons which move with the speed
determined by experiment to be 88 u. What is of light. Einstein deduced that each photon must
the molecular formula? possess energy E, given by E = hv, where v is the
OR frequency of light.
(i) 10 mL of H2 combines with 5 mL of O2 to form 6. Kinetic energy of emitted photoelectron is
water. When 200 mL of H2 at STP is passed K.E. = h h0 = h( 0)
over heated CuO, the CuO loses 0.144 g of its For the light of frequency 3.2 1016 sec1
weight. Does the above data correspond to the K.E.1 = h(3.2 1016 0)
law of constant composition? For the light of frequency 2 1016 sec1
(ii) Which one of the following will have the largest K.E.2 = h(2.0 1016 0)
number of atoms? It is given that K.E.1 = 2K.E.2
(a) 1 g Au(s) (b) 1 g Na(s) h(3.2 1016 0) = 2h(2.0 1016 0)
(c) 1 g Li(s) (d) 1 g of Cl2(g) 3.2 1016 0 = 2(2.0 1016 0)
26. (i) Prove that if the uncertainty in position of 3.2 1016 0 = 4.0 1016 20
a moving electron is equal to its de-Broglie 0 + 20 = (4.0 3.2) 1016
wavelength then its velocity is completely or 0 = 0.8 1016 = 8.0 1015 sec1
uncertain. n C H OH
(ii) How does Paulis exclusion principle limit the 7. xC H OH = 2 5
= 0.040 (Given)
2 5 n C H OH + n H O
possible electronic configuration of an atom? 2 5 2 .... (i)


As the solution is dilute, 11. 10%(w/W) solution means 100 g of solution
Number of moles of water in 1 L of water contains 10 g NaCl
1000 g wNaCl = 10 g and wH2O = 90 g
= = 55.55 moles
18 g mol 1 nNaCl =
10 90
= 0.17 and nH2O = = 5
58.5 18
Substituting nH2O = 55.55 in eqn (i), we get
n 0.17
n C H OH Molality = B 1000 = 1000 =1.89 molal
2 5
= 0.040 wA 90
n C H OH + 55.55
100 g
2 5
or, 0.96 nC2H5OH = 55.55 0.040 Volume of solution = = mL
or, nC2H5OH = 2.31 mol 1.071 g/mL 1.071
Hence, molarity of the solution = 2.31 M 1
= L
8. is a wave function which represents the amplitude nB 0.17 10.71
Molarity = =
of the electron wave. is obtained as a solution V 1
to the Schrdinger wave equation. However, the 10.71
square of the wave function, 2 at any point gives M = 0.17 10.71
the probability of finding the electron at that point. M = 1.82 M
hc Mole fraction of NaCl = xNaCl
9. Energy of incident radiation (E) = nNaCl
6.626 1034 3 108 nNaCl + nH O
= = 7.74 1019 J
256.7 109 =
= 0.033
0.17 + 5.0
= 4.83 eV [ 1.602 1019 J = 1 eV] Therefore, the mole fraction of H2O = xH O
The potential applied gives the kinetic energy to the 2

electron. = 1 0.033 = 0.967

Hence, K.E. of electron = 0.35 eV 12. The intensity of the lines decreases as the wavelength
Work function = (4.83 0.35) eV = 4.48 eV decreases or the frequency increases. The line with
OR lowest frequency corresponds to transition nH = 2
to nL = 1.
In case of positive rays, the ions remaining after the 1 1 1
loss of electrons might have the same magnitude of v = = R
charge, but different masses. Hence, they will have L H
different charge to mass ratio. Charge to mass ratio 1 1 1
depends on the nature of gas taken. Cathode rays = v = 1.097 107 m 1 = 8.23 106 m1
12 22
are made up of electrons and all electrons have 1
same charge to mass ratio. That is why charge to = m = 1.215 107 m
8.23 106
mass ratio of all cathode rays is same. 1
c 3.00 10 m s
10. In the reaction, 2A + 4B 3C + 4D v= = = 2.469 1015 s1
(i) Limiting reagent 1.215 107 m
2 moles of A react with 4 moles of B Energy, E = hv
4 = 6.63 1034 J s 2.469 1015 s1
5 moles of A will react with = 5 ~ 1.64 1018 J
= 10 moles of B
Since in the reaction only 6 moles of B are n2h2
13. (i) Radius of nth Bohr orbit, rn =
there, hence B is the limiting reagent. 42mkZe 2
(ii) Amount of C formed For hydrogen atom Z = 1, first orbit n = 1
4 moles of B give 3 moles of C
6 moles of B will give = 6 = 4.5 moles of C r1 = = 0.529
4 4 2me 2 k


(a) For He+ion, Z = 2, third orbit, n = 3.
c 6.63 1034 J s 3.00 108 m s 1
2 2
3 h EUV = h =
r3 (He + ) = 1.0 108 m
4 m k 2 e2
2 17
= 1.99 10 J
9 h2 9 c 6.63 1034 J s 3.00 108 m s 1
= = 0.529 EX-ray = h =
2 4 2mke 2 2 1.0 1010 m
= 2.380 = 1.99 10 J
(b) For Li2+ ion, Z = 3, second orbit, n = 2 (b) X-rays has the greatest amount of energy
per photon and infra-red has the lowest
22 h2 4 h2
r2 (Li2+ ) = =
amount of energy.
4 2m k 3 e 2 3 4 2mke 2 (ii) The ideal body which emits and absorbs
all frequencies, is called a black-body and
= 0.529 = 0.7053 the radiation emitted by this body is called
3 black- body radiation.
(ii) The smallest packet of energy of any radiation
is called a quantum whereas that of light is
called photon. Limitations of Bohrs model :
(i) It failed to account for the spectrum of atoms
14. (i) In the first compound, other than hydrogen.
3.2 g of metal oxide contains 2.0 g of metal. (ii) It could not explain spli ing of spectral lines
100 g of metal oxide will contain in presence of magnetic field (Zeeman eect)
and an electric field (Stark eect).
2. 0
= 100 = 62.5 g In view of shortcoming of Bohrs model, changes
3. 2 were required. The concept of orbit was replaced
% of metal in first compound = 62.5% by concept of probability and orbital due to the
In the second compound, development of following concepts :
2.27 g of metal oxide contains 1.42 g of metal. (i) Dual nature of ma er
100 g of metal oxide will contain (ii) Heisenbergs uncertainty principle
1.42 A new model known as quantum mechanical model
= 100 = 62.55 g of metal
2.27 was developed on the basis of quantum mechanics
% of metal in second compound = 62.55% and Schrodinger equation.
Thus, the percentage of metal in metal oxide 16. (i) Mass of diamond in ring,
obtained from two experiments is nearly same. m1 = 0.500 carat
Hence, the above data illustrate the law of Mass of diamond in gram will be
constant composition. 3.168 grains 1g
(ii) Law of constant composition is not true for = 0.500 carat
1 carat 15.4 grains
all types of compounds. It is true only for
0.500 3.168
the compounds obtained from one isotope. = = 0.10 g
For example, carbon exists in two common 15.4
isotopes, 12C and 14C. When CO2 is formed Mass of gold in ring, m2 = 7.00 g
The total mass of the ring = m1 + m2
from 12C, the ratio of masses is 12 : 32 or 3 : 8,
= 0.10 g + 7.00 g = 7.10 g
but when it is formed from 14C, the ratio will
1 kg
be 14 : 32 or 7 : 16, which is not same as in first = 7.10 g
case. 1000 g
= 0.0071 kg
c (ii) Molar mass of NH3 = 14 + 1 3 = 17 g mol1
15. (i) (a) EIR = h
Mass of N in NH3
6.63 1034 J s 3.00 108 m s 1 Percentage of N = 100
= Molar mass of NH3
1.0 106 m 14
= 100 = 82.35%
= 1.99 10 J 17


17. CO2 C 19. (i) Molar mass of CH4 = 16 g mol1
44 g 12 g Molar mass of C2H4 = 28 g mol1
12 When they are present in the ratio a : b, the
Mass of carbon = 3.38 = 0.922 g
H2O H2 44 average molar mass
18 g 2g a 16 + b 28
= = 20 g mol 1 (Given)
Mass of hydrogen =
0.690 = 0.077 g a +b
18 i.e., 16a + 28b = 20(a + b)
Percentage of C = 100 = 92.3% or 4a + 7b = 5(a + b)
(0.922 + 0.077) a 2
0.077 or a = 2b or = = 2 : 1
Percentage of H = 100 = 7.7% b 1
(0.922 + 0.077) If the ratio is reversed, now the ratio
(i) Calculation of empirical formula a:b=1:2
Element Percentage Atomic Moles Mole 1 16 + 2 28
of element mass of atoms ratio Average molar mass =
1+ 2
92.3 7. 7 = 24 g mol1
C 92.3 12 = 7.7 =1
12 7. 7 (ii) Mass of carbon in the dot = 1 attogram = 1018 g
7. 7 7. 7 Gram atomic mass of carbon = 12 g
H 7.7 1 = 7. 7 =1
1 7. 7 12 g of carbon contains 6.022 1023 atoms of
Empirical formula = CH carbon.
(ii) Calculation of molar mass 1018 g of carbon will contain
10.0 L of gas at S.T.P. weigh = 11.6 g 6.022 1023
11.6 = 1018 carbon atoms
22.4 L of gas at S.T.P. weigh = 22.4 12
10.0 = 5.02 104 carbon atoms
= 26 g mol1
(ii) Calculation of molecular formula 20. Let the number of protons(p) be x
Empirical formula mass = 12 + 1 = 13 Number of electrons (e) = x 3
Molecular mass = 26 ( ion carries 3 units of positive charge, it will
Molecular mass 26 have 3 electrons less than the number of protons.)
n= = =2 Number of neutrons(n)
Empirical formula mass 13
(x 3) 30.4 100 (x 3) + (x 3) 30.4
Molecular formula = 2(CH) = C2H2 = (x 3) + =
100 100
18. A wave is an oscillation accompanied by the
transfer of energy that travels through space. Light 100 x 300 + 30.4 x 91.2 130.4 x 391.2
n= =
is also a wave. It consists of oscillations in electric 100 100
and magnetic fields that can travel through space. We know that A = p + n
Visible light, as well as X-rays and radiowaves, are 130.4 x 391.2
forms of electromagnetic radiation. 56 = x +
(i) The wavelength of a wave is defined as the
distance between any two consecutive crests or 100 x + 130.4 x 391.2
or 56 =
troughs. It is denoted by (lambda). 100
(ii) The frequency of a wave is the number of or 5600 = 230.4x 391.2 or 5600 + 391.2 = 230.4x
waves passing through a point in one second. or 5991.2 = 230.4x
The unit of frequency () is s1 or /s, also called 5991.2
hertz (Hz). The wavelength and frequency are x= = 26
related to each other by the equation :
Thus, number of protons (p) = 26, number of
c = .
electrons (e) = 26 3 = 23
c is the speed of light and is equal to 3.00 108 m/s
in vacuum. Therefore, symbol of the ion = 56
26 Fe


21. (i) Angular momentum of an electron in a Bohrs 23. (i) Heisenberg uncertainty principle says that
orbit of H-atom is it is impossible to determine simultaneously
nh the exact position and velocity of a moving
mvr = microscopic object, but a bike is a macroscopic
34 object on which this principle has no
34 2 1 n 6.626 10 kg m2s 1
4.218 10 kg m s = significance.
2 (ii) Curiosity to learn new things and application
4.218 1034 2 22 of concepts he studied are the values shown by
or n = =4 Bhavya.
6.626 1034 7 h
1 1 1 1 (iii) x p = ( x = p)
Now = = 109678 cm 4
2 2
n n h h
1 2 (p)2 = or p =
The wavelength of the spectral line when electron 4 4
falls from 4th level to 3rd level i.e., n2 = 4, n1 = 3 is h 1 h
or m v = or v =
1 1 1
= 109678 cm 1 4 m 4
32 42 1 6.626 1034
1 16 9 1 9.11 1031 4 3.14
= 109678
9 16
0.726 1017
1 7 = = 7.97 1012 m s 1
= 109678 cm 1 9.11 10 31
9 16
9 16 (iv) Uncertainty in velocity is greater than the
= = 1.876 104 cm velocity of light which is impossible. Thus,
109678 7
the two uncertainties cannot be equal in
(ii) Stationary orbits means that the energies of the magnitude.
orbits in which the electrons revolve are fixed.
24 . (i) (a) Possible orbital diagram
22. 2NaI + H2SO4 Na2SO4 + 2HI
2(23 + 127) 46 + 32 + 64
(b) Impossible orbital diagram; there are three
= 300 = 142 electrons in the 2s-orbital but s-orbital can
2NaCl + H2SO4 Na2SO4 + 2HCl have maximum of two electrons.
2(23 + 35.5) 46 + 32 + 64 (c) Impossible orbital diagram; there are two
= 117 =142 electrons in a 2p-orbital with the same spin.
Let the wt. of original mixture be 1 g (d) Impossible electronic configuration; there
Wt. of NaI in the mixture = x g are three electrons in the 1s-subshell
Wt. of NaCl in the mixture = (1 x) g (which can hold only two electrons).
Now, 300 g of NaI gives = 142 g Na2SO4
(e) Impossible electron configurations; there
x g of NaI will give = x g Na2SO4 are seven electrons in the 2p-subshell
Similarly, 300 (which can hold only six electrons).
117 g of NaCl gives = 142 g Na2SO4 (f) Possible; the 3d-subshell can hold as many
142 as ten electrons.
(1 x) g of NaCl will give = (1 x ) g Na2SO4
117 (ii) The configuration associated with the
Weight of Na2SO4 formed = Wt. of original mixture lowest energy level of the atom corresponds
142 142 to a quantum-mechanical state called the
x+ (1 x ) = 1 ground state. Other electronic configurations
300 117
Solving for x, we get, x = 0.2886 g correspond to excited states, associated
Wt. of NaI = 0.2886 with energy levels other than the lowest. For
% composition of NaI in the mixture example, the ground state of the sodium atoms
0.2886 is known to have the electronic configuration
= 100 = 28.86% 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s1. The electronic configuration
% composition of NaCl in the mixture = 100 28.86 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s0 3p1 represents an excited state of
= 71.14% the sodium atom.


OR Percentage of hydrogen can be calculated as :
(i) Step I : Wavelength () = 589 nm H2O 2H
18 mg 2 mg
= 589 109 m 18 mg of H2O contains = 2 mg H
c 3 108 2
Frequency () = = 3.46 mg of H2O will contain = 3.46 mg H
589 109 Percentage of H 18
= 5.093 1014 cycles per sec Weight of hydrogen
= 100
Step II : Wavelength () = 589.6 nm Weight of compound
= 589.6 109 m 2 3.46
c 3 10 8 = 100 = 9.0%
18 4.24
= =
589.6 109 The sum of the percentage of C and H
= 5.088 1014 cycles per sec = 54.3 + 9.0 = 63.3%
Energy difference between two excited states, Percentage of O = 100 63.3 = 36.7%
(ii) Calculation of molecular formula :
E = 6.626 1034 (5.093 5.088)1014
= 6.626 1034 5 103 1014 Element % Atomic Moles of Mole ratio Simplest
mass atoms or atomic whole
= 3.31 1022 J ratio no.
(ii) = 1285 nm = 1285 109 m ratio
[ 1 nm = 109 m]
8 54.3 4.52
c 3 10 C 54.3 12.0 = 4.52 = 1.97 2
= = = 2.33 1014 sec1 12.0 2.29
1285 109 9. 0 8.93
H 9.0 1.008 = 8.93 = 3.90
1 1 1.008 2.29 4
Now, = 3.29 10
32 n2 36.7 2.29
1 1 O 36.7 16.0 = 2.29 = 1.00 1
9 2
16.0 2.29
2.33 10 = 3.29 10 15
n The simple whole number ratio of atom is :
2.33 10 1 1 1 1 C : H: O : = 2 : 4 : 1
= or 0.0708 = The empirical formula is C2H4O
15 2
3.29 10 9 n 9 n2
Empirical formula mass = 2 12 + 4 1 + 16
1 1 1 1 0.64
or = 0.0708 or 2 = = 44 a.m.u.
2 9 9
n n Molecular mass = 88 a.m.u.
1 0.36 Molecular mass 88
or = n= n= =2
n2 9 Empirical formula mass 44
2 9 900
n = = = 25 n = 25 = 5 Molecular formula of butyric acid 2(C2H4O)
0.36 36 = C4H8O2
= 1.285 106 m which lies in the infra-red OR
(i) In the second experiment, 0.144 g weight is
25. (i) Calculation of mass percentage of different
elements : lost from CuO. This is due to the reduction of
Percentage of carbon can be calculated as : CuO into Cu. In other words, 0.144 g oxygen
CO2 C combined with 200 mL of H2.
44 mg 12 mg 32 g oxygen occupies 22400 mL volume at STP.
44 mg of CO2 contains = 12 mg C 0.144
8.45 mg of CO2 will contain 0.144 g oxygen will occupy = 22400
12 = 100.8 mL
= 8.45 mg C
44 It means the ratio of H2 and O2 in water is 200
Weight of carbon : 100.8 = 2 : 1. The same ratio is in first case
Percentage of C = 100
Weight of compound (10 : 5 or 2 : 1).
12 8.45 Thus, the data corresponds to the law of
= 100 = 54.3% constant composition.
44 4.24


1 orbital their spins must be paired. Each subshell
(ii) (c) (a) 1 g Au = mole atoms of Au holds a maximum of twice as, many electrons
1 as the number of orbitals in the subshells.
= 6.022 1023 atoms of Au
197 Subshell Number Maximum number
1 of orbitals of electrons
(b) 1 g Na = mole atoms of Na
23 s(l = 0) 1 2
= 6.022 1023 atoms of Na p(l = 1) 3 6
d(l = 2) 5 10
(c) 1 g Li = mole atoms of Li f(l = 3) 7 14
1 OR
= 6.022 1023 atoms of Li th
7 (i) Radius of n orbit of H-like particles
1 0.529 n2 52.9 n2
(d) 1 g Cl2 = mole molecules of Cl2 = = pm
71 Z Z
1 Radius (r1) = 1.3225 nm = 1322.5 pm
= 6.022 1023 molecules of Cl2
71 52.9 n12
2 =
= 6.022 1023 atoms of Cl Z
71 52.9 n22
26. (i) Let the uncertainty in position be x. Radius (r2) = 211.6 pm =
x = (de-Broglie wavelength) 2
r1 1322.5 n1
Using de-Broglie relationship, = h/mv. = =
Putting = x, we get r2 211.6 n22
h h n2 n
x = = 6.25 = 1 1 = 6.25
mv p 2
n2 n2
According to Heisenbergs uncertainty principle,
h n1
x p = 6.25 = 2.5
4 n2
p 1 n2 = 2, n1 = 5 thus, the transition is from
h h
p or p 4 ( x = h/p) 5th orbit to 2nd orbit. It belongs to Balmer series.
p 4
1 1
Now, p = m v v = 1.097 107
and p = m v, so 2 2
v 1 v 1 1 21
= v = = 1.097 107 = 1.097 107
v 4 4 4 25 100
Thus, uncertainty in velocity is so large that its 1 100
= = m = 4.34 107 m
velocity is uncertain. v 1.097 21 107
(ii) The Paulis exclusion principle states that no = 434 109 m
two electrons in an atom can have the same set = 434 nm
of four quantum numbers. If one electron in Thus, it lies in the visible region.
atom has the quantum numbers n = 1, l = 0, (ii) Emission and absorption spectra of an atom
1 are evidences in support of the quantized
m = 0 and ms = + , no other electron can
2 electronic energy levels.
have the same four quantum numbers. In other (iii) Orbit is a well defined and circular or elliptical
words, we cannot place two electrons with the path in which an electron revolves around
same value of ms in the 1s-orbital. nucleus. An orbital is defined as the three
Because there are only two possible values dimensional space around the nucleus within
of ms , an orbital cannot hold more than two which the probability of finding an electron of
electrons, and when two electrons occupy one given energy is maximum.


 Class XI

T his specially designed column enables students to self analyse their

extent of understanding of specied chapters. Give yourself four
marks for correct answer and deduct one mark for wrong answer.
Self check table given at the end will help you to check your

Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry

Total Marks : 120 Time Taken : 60 Min.

NEET / AIIMS carbon atoms present in his tea?

Only One Option Correct Type (a) 3.6 1022 (b) 7.2 1021
1. 10 mL of gaseous hydrocarbon on combustion (c) 0.05 10 (d) 6.6 1022
gives 40 mL of CO2(g) and 50 mL of H2O(g). The 6. A drop of water is about 0.05 mL with density
hydrocarbon is 1.0 g mL1. Number of water molecules present in
(a) C4H5 (b) C8H10 (c) C4H8 (d) C4H10 1 drop of water is
(a) 1.67 1021 (b) 6.02 1023
2. 81.4 g sample of ethyl alcohol contains 0.002 g 22
(b) 3.01 10 (d) 0.05 1023
of water. The amount of pure ethyl alcohol to the
proper number of significant figures is 7. What volume of oxygen gas at NTP is necessary
(a) 81.4 g (b) 71.40 g (c) 91.4 g (d) 81 g for complete combustion of 20 litre of propane
measured at 0C and 760 mm pressure?
3. The amount of wet NaOH containing 20% water (a) 50 L (b) 100 L (c) 20 L (d) 25 L
required to neutralise 6 litre of 0.5 M H2SO4
8. Two binary solutions have the same molarity.
solution is
Which of the following statements is true?
(a) 3 kg (b) 1.5 kg (c) 0.3 kg (d) 0.15 kg
(a) Equal volumes of the two solutions contain
4. Which one of the following represents Avogadros equal number of solute molecules.
hypothesis? (b) Equal weights of the two solutions contain
(a) Equal volumes of all gases under same equal number of solute molecules.
conditions of temperature and pressure contain (c) The two solutions must have the same molarity.
equal number of atoms. (d) The two solutions must have the same mole
(b) Equal volumes of all gases under same fraction.
conditions of temperature and pressure contain 9. 5 mole of SO2 and 5 moles of O2 are allowed to react
equal number of molecules. to form SO3 in closed vessel. At the equilibrium
(c) Gases react together in volumes which bear a stage 60% of SO2 is used up. The total number of
simple ratio to one another. moles of SO2, O2 and SO3 in the vessel now is
(d) The rates of diffusion of gases are inversely (a) 10.5 (b) 3.9 (c) 10.0 (d) 8.5
proportional to the square root of their
10. The simplest formula of the compound containing
50% of X (atomic mass 10 u) and 50% of Y (atomic
5. Rakesh needs 1.71 g of sugar (C12H22O11) to mass 20 u) is
sweeten his tea. What would be the number of (a) XY2 (b) X2Y (c) X5Y3 (d) X1Y3


11. 1.84 g of a dibromide of metal M on reaction 18. 1 g dry green algae absorbs 4.7 103 mole of CO2
with excess of AgNO3 gave 3.76 g of yellow per hour by photosynthesis. If the fixed carbon atoms
precipitate. Thus, molar mass of metal dibromide is were all stored after the photosynthesis as starch
(Br = 80, Ag = 108) (C6H10O5)n, how long would it take for the algae
(a) 24.0 g mol1 (b) 184 g mol1 to double its own weight assuming photosynthesis
(c) 188 g mol (d) 75.2 g mol1 taking place at a constant rate?
(a) 2.63 hr (b) 8.93 hr (c) 6.19 hr (d) 7.88 hr
12. A solution required [OH] = 2 M. If degree of
dissociation of Mg(OH)2 is , what analytical 19. 0.802 g of mixture containing lithium chloride
molarity solution of Mg(OH)2 needed is equal to and sodium hydroxide was dissolved in water, the
1 1 solution was made upto 250 mL. 25 mL of this
(a) (b) 2 (c) (b) solution required 20 mL of HCl which was then
standardised by titrating 20 mL of this solution
Assertion & Reason Type with 18 mL of decinormal solution of KOH. Find
Directions : In the following questions, a statement of the mass of lithium chloride in the mixture.
assertion is followed by a statement of reason. Mark the (a) 0.53 g (b) 0.72 g (c) 0.82 g (d) 0.63 g
correct choice as : More than One Options Correct Type
(a) If both assertion and reason are true and reason is the 20. The atomic weights of two elements A and B are
correct explanation of assertion. 20 and 40 respectively. Which of the following
(b) If both assertion and reason are true but reason is not statement(s) is/are correct for these two elements?
the correct explanation of assertion. (a) x g of A contains y atoms which is equal to
(c) If assertion is true but reason is false. atoms present in x g of B.
(d) If both assertion and reason are false. (b) x g of A contains y atoms which is equal to
13. Assertion : The sum of mole fractions of all the atoms present in 2x g of B.
components of a solution is unity. (c) At STP, x L of monoatomic gas A is equal to x L
Reason : Mole fraction is temperature dependent of monoatomic gas B.
mode of concentration. (d) At STP, x L of monoatomic gas A weighs y g and
y g monoatomic gas B is measured x L.
14. Assertion : One mole of SO2 contains double the
number of molecules present in one mole of O2. 21. A sample of H2O2 solution labelled as 28 volume
Reason : Molecular weight of SO2 is three times to has density of 26.5 g/L. Mark the correct option(s)
that of O2. representing concentration of same solution in
other units.
15. Assertion : If 100 mL of 0.2 N HCl is mixed with (a) MH2O2 = 2.5
100 mL of 0.3 N HCl, the normality of final solution w
will be 0.25 N. (b) % = 17
Reason : If two solutions of the same solute are
(c) Mole fraction of H2O2 = 0.2
mixed, the normalities can be added.
(d) mH2O2 = 13.88
22. 2 g of oleum is diluted with water. The solution was
Only One Option Correct Type then neutralised by 432.5 mL of 0.1 N NaOH. Select
16. A density of a solution containing 13% by mass of the correct statements.
sulphuric acid is 1.09 g/mL. The molarity of the (a) % of oleum is 108.11.
solution is (b) % of free SO3 is 26.5 in oleum.
(a) 1.213 (b) 2.562 (c) 2.672 (d) 1.445 (c) Equivalents of H2SO4 are 0.03.
(d) Equivalents of SO3 = 6.625 103
17. 10 dm3 of N2 gas and 10 dm3 of gas X at the same
temperature contain the same number of molecules. 23. On being heated in oxygen, 3.120 g of a metal
The gas X is M converts to 4.560 g of oxide (atomic weight of
(a) CO (b) CO2 (c) H2 (d) NO M = 52.0). Mark the correct statement(s).


(a) Equivalent wt. of metal M = 17.33. 28. An element M combines with oxygen, hydrogen,
(b) Number of equivalents of oxygen reacted with chlorine and fluorine to form respective compounds
metal = 0.09. containing 56.36, 91.17, 22.54 and 35.22 percent
(c) Metal M forms halide MCl2. of M , respectively. The vapour densities of these
(d) The simplest formula of the metal oxide which compounds are 110, 17, 68,75 and 44 respectively.
it forms is M2O3. Atomic weight of the element M is
(a) 39 (b) 31 (c) 92 (d) 23
Integer Answer Type
Matrix Match Type
24. A plant virus is found to consist of uniform
cylindrical particles of 150 in diameter and 29. 1 mole each of CuSO4, K2CrO7, H2O2, O3 and
5000 long. The specific volume of the virus of HNO2 are allowed to react with KI in acidic medium.
0.475 cm2/g. If the virus is considered to be a single Match these compounds in Column I with number
particle. Its molar mass is 7.09 10x. The value of x is of moles of I2 formed from them in Column II.
Column I Column II
25. When burnt in air, 14.0 g mixture of carbon and
(A) CuSO4 (P) 0.5
sulphur gives a mixture of CO2 and SO2 in the
(B) K2CrO7 (Q) 1.0
volume ratio of 2 : 1. Volumes being measured at
(C) H2O2 (R) 1.5
the same conditions of temperature and pressure.
(D) O3 (S) 2.0
Weight of carbon in the mixture in the grams is
(E) HNO2 (T) 3.0
26. Two oxides of a metal contain 27.6% and 30% of A B C D E
oxygen respectively. If the formula of the first oxide (a) P Q S R Q
is M3O4, the number of metal atoms in the second (b) P T S R T
oxide is (c) P T Q T P
Comprehension Type (d) T P S R Q
Numerous efforts have been done to determine the 30. 1 mole of the compounds given in Column I is to be
atomic weight from the very beginning. Cannizzaros oxidised to the compound as indicated. Compare
method is one such prime prevailing method. According the reactions in Column I with the mass of O2
to this method, it is assumed that the smallest weight or required in Column II and select the answer from
the highest common factor of the weight of an element the codes given.
present in the molecular weight of a large number of Column I Column II
its compounds may be its atomic weight and that the (A) CO CO2 (P) 0.5 mol
other weights of the element in the molecular weights (B) N2 N2O4 (Q) 1.5 mol
of such compounds may be simple multiples of that (C) P4 P2O5 (R) 2.0 mol
weight found. (D) Cl2 Cl2O3 (S) 5.0 mol
27. Vapour densities of three substances referred to A B C D
hydrogen as unity were 45, 70 and 25, respectively (a) S Q P R
and percent by weight of a metal M contained in (b) Q S R P
each were 22.22, 42.86 and 40, respectively. The (c) P R S Q
probable value of the atomic weight of the metal M is (d) P Q S R
(a) 20 (b) 35 (c) 58.8 (d) 60
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CLASS XII Series 2

Electrochemistry | Chemical Kinetics Time Allowed : 3 hours
Surface Chemistry Maximum Marks : 70

GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS Previous Years Analysis

(i) All questions are compulsory. 2016 2015 2014
(ii) Q. no. 1 to 5 are very short answer questions and carry 1 mark each. Delhi AI Delhi AI Delhi AI
(iii) Q. no. 6 to 10 are short answer questions and carry 2 marks each. VSA 1 1 1 2 1 1
(iv) Q. no. 11 to 22 are also short answer questions and carry 3 marks
SA-I 2 1 1 1 1 2
SA-II 3 2 2 2 2 2
(v) Q. no. 23 is a value based question and carries 4 marks.
VBQ _ _ _ _ _ _
(vi) Q. no. 24 to 26 are long answer questions and carry 5 marks each.
LA _ 1 1 1 1 _
(vii) Use log tables if necessary, use of calculators is not allowed.

1. Why in general a reaction does not proceed with a 7. The thermal decomposition of HCOOH is a first
uniform rate throughout or why instantaneous rate order reaction with a rate constant of 2.4 103 s1
is preferred over average rate? at a certain temperature. Calculate how long will it
2. What do you mean by degree of dissociation of an take for three fourth of initial quantity of HCOOH
electrolyte? to decompose. (log 4 = 0.6021)
3. For a reaction the half-life (t1/2) is directly 8. What is demulsification? Name two techniques for
proportional to the initial concentration of reactant. demulsification.
What is the order of the reaction? OR
Explain shape-selective catalysis with a suitable
4. How is adsorption of a gas related to its critical example.
9. Resistance of a conductivity cell filled with
5. What is the relation between Ecell of hydrogen 0.1 mol L1 KCl solution is 100 . If the resistance
electrode and pH of the solution, when this half of the same cell when filled with 0.02 mol L1 KCl
cell is connected with normal hydrogen electrode solution is 520 . Calculate the conductivity and
(NHE)? molar conductivity of 0.02 mol L1 KCl solution.
6. Physical and chemical The conductivity of 0.1 mol L1 KCl solution is
adsorption respond 1.29 S/m.
differently with a rise 10. Calculate the emf of the cell in which the following
in temperature. What is reaction takes place :
this difference and why Ni(s) + 2Ag+(0.002 M) Ni2+(0.160 M) + 2Ag(s)
is it so? Given that Ecell = 1.05 V


11. (i) Why do colloidal solutions exhibit Tyndall

(ii) Why does sky look blue?
12. The reaction SO2Cl2 SO2 + Cl2 is a first order
reaction with k = 2.2 105 s1 at 320C. Calculate  

the percentage of SO2Cl2 that is decomposed on  
heating for 30 minutes.
(a) What is the charge on colloidal particles in two
13. Depict the electrochemical cell and calculate the E
test tubes (A) and (B).
for each cell.
(b) Give reasons for the origin of charge.
(i) 2Ag+ + Cd Ag + Cd2+
(ii) What is occlusion?
(ii) Cl2(g) + 2I 2Cl + I2(s)
Given EAg+/Ag = 0.80 V, ECd2+/Cd = 0.40 V 20. Explain the terms with suitable examples.
(i) Alcosol (ii) Aerosol
ECl2/Cl = 1.36 V, EI2/I = 0.54 V
(iii) Hydrosol
14. (i) What is Helmholtz electrical double layer?
21. (i) What is the significance of writing negative
(ii) How is dialysis carried out? Mention its one
and positive sign before rate of reaction?
(ii) What is the usefulness of initial rate method?
15. Three electrolytic cells A, B, C containing solutions
22 (i) The conductivity of a 0.20 M solution of KCl
of ZnSO4, AgNO3 and CuSO4, respectively are
at 298 K is 0.0248 S cm1. Calculate its molar
connected in series. A steady current of 1.5 amperes
was passed through them until 1.45 g of silver
(ii) If a current of 8A was passed for two hours
deposited at the cathode of cell B. How long did the
through a solution of copper sulphate when 3.2 g of
current flow? What mass of copper and zinc were
copper was deposited. Find the current efficiency.
(At. wt. of Ag = 108, Cu = 63.5, Zn = 65.3) 23. Suresh, a chemistry student of class XII is suffering
from fever. His mother consulted the doctor and
took a medicine from store as prescribed by doctor.
The electrical resistance of column of 0.05 M NaOH She added boiled water and cold water to the
solution of diameter 1 cm and length 50 cm is medicine and shook the content properly as per
5.55 103 ohm. Calculate its resistivity, conductivity the instructions given on the bottle of medicine.
and molar conductivity. His mother said that why they do not prepare
16. (i) The rate constants of a reaction at 500 K and this medicine so that it can be consumed as such.
700 K are 0.02 s1 and 0.07 s1 respectively. Calculate Suresh then explained to his mother why this
the values of Ea and A. medicine is available in this form.
(ii) What is meant by an elementary reaction? (i) Why the medicine is available in this form?
17. All energetically effective collisions do not result (ii) Why it is instructed to shake the content well
in a chemical change. Explain with the help of an after addition of water in medicine?
example. (iii) What are the values shown by Suresh?
(iv) What is the name of process done by his
18. (i) When a bright silver object is placed in the mother to prepare medicine?
solution of gold chloride, it acquires a golden tinge
24. Consider the figure and answer the questions (i) to
but nothing happens when it is placed in a solution
(v) given below.
of copper chloride. State reason for this behaviour
of silver.
(ii) What is the effect of change in concentration   


and temperature on the electrode potential of a

given half cell?   

19. (i) A colloidal solution of ferric oxide is prepared 
by two different methods as shown below.  


(i) Redraw the diagram to show the direction of SOLUTIONS
electron flow. 1. This is because the rate of reaction at any time
(ii) Is silver plate the anode or cathode? depends upon the concentration of the reactants
(iii) What will happen if salt bridge is removed? at that time and concentration keeps on decreasing
(iv) How will concentration of Zn2+ ions and Ag+ with time.
ions be affected when the cell functions?
2. The fraction of total molecules of an electrolyte
(v) How will the concentration of Zn2+ ions and
which dissociate into constituent ions in the solution
Ag+ ions be affected after the cell becomes dead?
is the degree of dissociation of an electrolyte.
3. Zero order, because in zero order reactions, t1/2 a.
An excess of liquid mercury is added to an acidified
4. Higher the critical temperature of gas, greater is
solution of 1.0 103 M Fe3+. It is found that 5%
the ease of liquefaction, i.e., greater are the van der
of Fe3+ remains at equilibrium at 25C. Calculate
Waals forces of attraction and hence greater is the
E(Hg2+/Hg) assuming that the only reaction that
occurs is 2Hg + 2Fe3+ Hg22+ + 2Fe2+.
(Given E(Fe3+/Fe2+) = 0.77 V) 5. pH of the solution in which hydrogen electrode is
25. (i) In a reaction between A and B, the initial
dipped (and which is attached to another NHE) is
rate of reaction was measured for different initial given by the relation, pH =
concentration of A and B as given below : 0.0591
6. Adsorption isobar for physical adsorption shows
A/mol L1 0.20 0.20 0.40 that the extent of adsorption decreases with increase
B/mol L1 0.30 0.10 0.05 in temperature. The adsorption isobar of chemical
1 1
r0/mol L s 5
5.07 10 5.07 10 5
7.16 105 adsorption shows that the extent of adsorption
What is the order of reaction with respect to A and first increases and then decreases with increase in
B? temperature. The initial unexpected increase in the
(ii) A reaction is 50% complete in 2 hours and 75% extent of adsorption with temperature is due to the
complete in 4 hours. What is the order of reaction. fact that the heat supplied acts as activation energy
required for chemical adsorption which is much
more than that of physical adsorption.
(i) During nuclear explosion, one of the products
7. Let initial concentration be [R]0.
is 90Sr with half-life of 28.1 years. If 1 g of 90Sr was
2.303 [R]
absorbed in the bones of a newly born baby instead For a first order reaction, t = log 0
of calcium, how much of it will remain after 10 k [R]
[R]0 3 1
years and 60 years if it is not lost metabolically? At time t, [R] = , k = 2.4 10 s
(ii) The decomposition of a hydrocarbon follows 4
2.303 [R]0
the equation Thus, 2.4 103 = log
k = (4.5 1011s1)e28000K/T. Calculate Ea. t [R]0 /4
2.303 2.303
26. (i) Discuss the activity and selectivity aspects of t= 3
log 4 = 3
0.6021 = 5.77 102 s
2.4 10 2.4 10
solid catalysts.
(ii) Which of the following electrolyte is most 8. Demulsification is the separation of an emulsion
effective for the coagulation of Fe(OH)3 sol and into its constituent liquids. The different techniques
why? applied for demulsification are centrifugation,
Na3PO4, Na2SO4, NaCl freezing, boiling, electrostatic precipitation etc.
(i) What are micelles? Give an example of a micelle The catalytic reaction that depends upon the size of
system. the reactant and product molecules and the shape
(ii) What is the role of adsorption in froth of catalyst (i.e., its porous structure), is known as
floatation process used especially for concentration shape-selective catalysis e.g., ZSM-5, that converts
of sulphide ores? alcohol directly into gasoline by dehydrating them
(iii) Define gold number. to give a mixture of hydrocarbons.


9. Cell constant = conductivity resistance 15. Given : I = 1.5 A, W = 1.45 g Ag, t = ?, E = 108, n = 1
= 1.29 S/m 100 =129 m1 = 1.29 cm1 Using Faradays 1st law of electrolysis, W = ZIt
Conductivity of 0.02 mol L1 KCl solution E 108
or, W = It 1.45 g = 1.5t
129 m nF 1 96500
= cell constant/resistance = = 0.248 S m 1 1.45 96500
520 or, t = = 863.73 seconds
1.5 108
Concentration = 0.02 mol L1 Now, for Cu, W1 = 1.45 g Ag, E1 = 108, W2 = ?,
= 1000 0.02 mol m3 = 20 mol m3 63.5
3 1 E2 = = 31.75
248 10 S m 2
Molar conductivity = m = = From Faradays 2nd law of electrolysis,
c 20 mol m 3
W1 E1
= 124 104 S m2 mol1 Using formula, =
W2 E2
10. Ni(s) + 2Ag+(aq) Ni2+
(aq) + 2Ag(s)
W2 = 0.426 g of Cu
0.0591 2+
[Ni ] W2 31.75
Ecell = E cell log Similarly, for Zn, W1 = 1.45 g Ag, E1 = 108,
2 [Ag + ]2 65.3
W2 = ?, E2 = = 32.65
0.0591 0.16 2
= 1.05 log 1.45 108
2 (0.002)2 = W2 = 0.438 g of Zn
W2 32.65
= 1.05 0.1359 = 0.9141 V OR
11. (i) Being larger in size, sol particles absorb the Diameter of column = 1 cm
light and become self luminous and then scatter Thus, the radius, r = 1/2 cm = 0.5 cm
the light in all possible directions, thus they exhibit Area = r2 = 3.14 (0.5)2 = 0.785 cm2
Tyndall effect. We know that, resistivity, =
(ii) Blue colour of the sky is due to scattering of l
light by colloidal dust particles present in air. As As, l = 50 cm and R = 5.55 103
blue colour of the white sunlight has minimum 5.55 103 0.785
wavelength, it shows in more intense scattering and Thus, = = 87.135 cm
sky looks blue. 1 1
Conductivity, = = = 11.48 103 S cm 1
12. k =
2.2 105 =
a 87.135
t ax 30 60 ax 1000
= antilog 0.01719 = 1.0404 Molar conductivity =
(a x )
x 0.0404 11.48 103 S cm 1 1000
0.0404a = 1.0404x = = 0.0388 = 3.88% = = 229.6 S cm2 mol1
a 1.0404 1
0.05 mol L
13. (i) Cd|Cd2+||Ag+|Ag k2 Ea T2 T1
16. (i) log =
k1 2.303 R T1T2
Ecell = Ecathode Eanode = (0.80) (0.40) = 1.20 V
(ii) Pt, I(aq)|I2(s)|| Cl2(g)|Cl(aq),Pt
Ecell = Ecathode Eanode = (1.36) (0.54) = 0.82 V 0.07 Ea 700 500
log =
14. (i) The combination of the two layers (fixed and 0.02 2.303 8.314 JK mol 700 500
1 1
diffused) of opposite charges around the colloidal Ea = 1.823 104 J
particles is called Helmholtz electrical double layer. Since, k = AeEa/RT
(ii) Dialysis is used for purification of colloidal 4 0.02
0.02 = Ae1.823 10 /8.314 500 A = = 1.66
solutions. It is carried out by putting impure 0.012
colloidal solution in a parchment paper bag and (ii) A reaction that takes place in one step is called
then dipping it in distilled water. After some time an elementary reaction. For example, dissociation
all the crystalloids in solution diffuse through the reaction of HI to form H2 and I2 is an elementary
membrane into the water leaving behind the pure reaction.
colloidal solution. An important application of 17. During a reaction, the reacting molecules collide
dialysis is during the purification of blood in the with each other. But all collisions do not lead to
artificial kidney machine. the formation of products. The collisions in which


molecules collide with sufficient kinetic energy (b) Order with respect to each reactant can be
called threshold energy and proper orientation can calculated.
lead to breaking of bonds of reactants and formation c 1000
of new bonds to form products are called effective 22. (i) Molar conductivity, m =
collisions. The improper orientation makes them 0.0248 1000
simply bounce back without the formation of products = = 124 S cm2 mol1
e.g., formation of methanol from bromomethane.
(ii) For the reaction, Cu2+ +2e Cu
CH3Br + OH CH3OH + Br 63.5 of Cu (1 mole) requires charge
  = 2F = 2 96500 C


3.2 g of Cu will require charge
 2 96500

 = 3.2 C = 9726 C

Amount of electricity passed (q) = It

18. (i) The standard electrode potential, E for silver
= 8 2 60 60 = 57600 C
is 0.80 V and that of gold is 1.5 V, hence silver can
replace gold from its solution. The replaced gold Current efficiency = 100 = 16.89%
is deposited on silver object due to which golden 57600
tinge is obtained. On the other hand E for Cu is 23. (i) The medicine is sold in anhydrous form to
0.34 V which is lower than that of silver, thus silver increase the shelf-life of medicine.
cannot replace copper from its solution. (ii) Shaking the content well will form a sol.
(ii) Consider the following reduction reaction, Adsorption of medicine is easy in the form of
RT colloidal sol formed.
M + + e M ; E = E + ln[M + ] (iii) Scientific knowledge and application of his
It is clear from the above equation that the electrode knowledge in daily life incidents are the values
potential of a given half cell will increase with the shown by Suresh.
increase in concentration of ions and temperature. (iv) The process is peptisation in which freshly
19. (i) (a) Colloidal particles of test tube (A) are prepared precipitate converts into colloidal sol
positively charged whereas colloidal particles of test by shaking it with the dispersion medium in the
tube (B) are negatively charged. presence of a small amount of electrolyte.
(b) In test tube (A), Fe3+ ions are adsorbed on the 24. (i)
ppt. Fe2O3xH2O [or Fe2O3xH2O/Fe3+ is formed].
In test tube (B), OH ions are adsorbed on the ppt.
Fe2O3 xH2O [or Fe2O3xH2O/OHis formed]
(ii) The adsorption of gases on the surface of
metals is called occlusion.
20. (i) Alcosol : The sol in which alcohol is used as
a dispersion medium is called alcosol e.g., sol of (ii) Ag acts as cathode, because at Ag plate
cellulose nitrate in ethyl alcohol. reduction of Ag+ ions takes place as reduction
(ii) Aerosol : The sol in which dispersion medium potential of Ag+ is greater than that of Zn2+ ion.
is gas and dispersed phase is either solid or liquid, (iii) Cell will stop functioning since the movement
the colloidal system is called aerosol e.g., fog, of ions will be stopped.
insecticide sprays, etc. (iv) As the reaction proceeds concentration of Zn2+
(iii) Hydrosol : The sol in which dispersion medium increases and concentration of Ag+ decreases.
is water is called hydrosol e.g., starch sol. (v) The concentration of Zn2+ and Ag+ will not
21. (i) The negative sign in rate of reaction indicates change after the reaction ceases.
that the concentration of the reactant is decreasing OR
with time while the positive sign indicates that the The given reaction is
concentration of the product is increasing with time. 2Hg + 2Fe3+ Hg22+ + 2Fe2+
(ii) (a) This method can be used for those Initial concentration of Fe3+ = 1.0 103 M
reactions which have more than one reactant.


Equilibrium concentration of Fe3+ = 5% of 1.0 103 M 2.303 1
5 or 2.466 102 = log
= 103 = 5 105 M 10 [R]
100 or, log [R] = 0.1071
Equilibrium concentration of Fe2+ or, [R] = Antilog (0.1071) = 0.7814 g
= (1.0 103) (5 105) M = 0.95 103 M To calculate the amount left after 60 years,
Equilibrium concentration of Hg22+ t = 60 years, [R0] = 1 g, [R] = ?
0.95 103 2.303 1
= half of the Fe2+ ion = M or, 2.466 102 = log
2 60 [R]
0.059 [Hg 22+ ][Fe2+ ]2 or, log [R] = 0.6425
We know that, Ecell = Ecell log
n [Fe3+ ]2 or, [R] = Antilog (0.6425) = 0.2278 g
But Ecell = 0 (Because reaction is at equilibrium) (ii) Arrhenius equation, k = AeEa/RT
0.95 103 3 2 Given equation is k = (4.5 1011 s1)e28000K/T
[0.95 10 ] Comparing both the equations, we get
0.059 2
0 = Ecell log E
[5 105 ]2
2 a = Ea = 232.79 kJ mol1
or Ecell = 0.0226 RT T
But Ecell = Ecathode Eanode = EFe3+/Fe2+ EHg2+/Hg 26. (i) Activity : The ability of a catalyst to accelerate
0.0226 = 0.77 EHg2+/Hg a chemical reaction, is known as its activity. High
or EHg2+/Hg = 0.7926 V catalytic activity is shown by a good catalyst. For
25. (i) Let the rate law be r0 = [A]m[B]n example, platinum catalyst accelerate the reaction of
(r0)1 = 5.07 105 = (0.20)m(0.30)n ...(i) hydrogen and oxygen to form water to 1010 times.

(r0)2 = 5.07 105 = (0.20)m(0.10)n ...(ii) 2H2 + O2 2H2O
(r0)3 = 7.16 105 = (0.40)m(0.05)n ...(iii) Selectivity : The ability of a catalyst to catalyse
Dividing equation (i) by equation (ii), a group reaction to yield a specific product is
known as selectivity of catalyst. For example,
(r0 )1 5.07 105 (0.20)m (0.30)n
= = acetylene and hydrogen give ethane with Pt while
(r0 )2 5.07 105 (0.20)m (0.10)n they give ethene with Lindlars catalyst.
1 = 3n or 30 = 3n n = 0 (ii) Fe(OH)3 is positively charged sol, hence
Dividing equation (iii) by equation (ii), the anion having maximum charge will be more
effective. Therefore, Na3PO4 (having PO43 ion) will
(r0 )3 7.16 105 (0.40)m (0.05)n
= = be most effective.
(r0 )2 5.07 105 (0.20)m (0.10)n OR
1 (i) Micelles are substances that behave as normal,
1.412 = 2m or 21/2 = 2m m = or m = 0.5
2 strong electrolytes at low concentration but at
Thus order of reaction w.r.t. A = 0.5, order of high concentrations behave as colloids due to
reaction w.r.t. B = 0 the formation of aggregates. They are also called
(ii) As t75% = 2t50%, this shows that t1/2 is associated colloids, e.g., soaps and detergents.
independent of initial concentration. Hence, it is a They can form ions and may contain 100 or more
first order reaction. molecules to form a micelle.
OR (ii) In froth floatation process, the sulphide ore is
(i) Radioactive disintegration follows first order mixed with pine oil and water. Then air is passed
kinetics. Hence, through it. Pine oil is adsorbed on sulphide ore
0.693 0.693 particles, which forms an emulsion and comes out
Decay constant of 90Sr, () = = in the form of froth while impurities are wetted by
2 1 t1/2 28.1
= 2.466 10 yr water.
To calculate the amount left after 10 years, (iii) The minimum quantity in milligrams, of
Given, [R0] = 1 g, t = 10 years, protective colloid which is just sufficient to prevent
= 2.466 102 yr1, [R] = ? coagulation of 10 mL of standard gold sol when 1
2.303 [R ] mL of 10% solution of NaCl is added to it, is known
Using formula, = log 0 as gold number.
t [R]



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Ionic Constituent particles : Ions of opposite
The solid state represents the physical state of solids charge
matter in which constituents have no translatory Binding forces : Electrostatic forces
motion although vibratory or rotational motions
are possible about their position in solid lattice.
Covalent Constituent particles : Atoms
CLASSIFICATION OF SOLIDS solids Binding forces : Covalent bonds

Crystalline solids Solids Amorphous solids Molecular Constituent particles : Molecules

solids Binding forces : van der Waals forces
Ordered Irregular
arrangement arrangement
of particles of particles Constituent particles : Kernels and
solids Binding forces : Metallic bonds
Long Short
range order range order
When a beam of X-rays of wavelength , strikes a
Anisotropic Isotropic crystal surface, the maximum intensity of reflected
rays occur when
Sharp melting Melt over a range sin = or n = 2d sin (Braggs equation)
point of temperature
It helps in the determination of crystal structure.


On the basis of primitives or axial distances and interfacial angles of a unit cell, there are seven crystal systems
and fourteen Bravais lattices.
Crystal systems Unit cell dimensions Bravais lattices Examples
and angles
Cubic (most a = b = c; = = = 90 Primitive, Body Cu, Zinc blende, KCl, NaCl
symmetrical) centred, Face centred
Orthorhombic a b c; = = = 90 Primitive, Body centred, Rhombic sulphur, KNO3, BaSO4
End centred, Face centred
Tetragonal a = b c; = = = 90 Primitive, Body centred Sn(White tin), SnO2, TiO2, CaSO4
Monoclinic a b c; = = 90 Primitive, End centred Monoclinic sulphur,
PbCrO4, Na2SO4 . 10H2O
Rhombohedral a = b = c; = = 90 Primitive CaCO3 (Calcite), HgS (Cinnabar)
Triclinic (most a b c; 90 Primitive K2Cr2O7, CuSO45H2O, H3BO3
Hexagonal a = b c; = = 90; = 120 Primitive Graphite, ZnO, CdS

t No. of particles (Z) = 2
t Slightly open square close packing in
t No. of particles (Z) = 1
Body centred first layer. In second layer, spheres are
t AAA type arrangement Simple cubic
cubic packing on the top of hollows. Third layer is
t Packing efficiency = 52.4% packing
exactly over the first layer and so on.
t C.No. = 6
t Packing efficiency = 68%
t C.No. = 8

t No. of particles (Z) = 4 t No. of particles (Z) = 6

t ABCABC type arrangement Face centred Hexagonal
t ABAB type arrangement
t Packing efficiency = 74% cubic packing close packing
t Packing efficiency = 74%
t C.No. = 12 t C.No. = 12


If N is the number of close packed spheres, then AND GEOMETRY

number of octahedral voids generated = N

r+/r C. No. Geometry
number of tetrahedral voids generated = 2N
< 0.155 2 Linear
In ccp or fcc, total no. of voids per unit cell = 12
In hcp, total no. of voids per unit cell = 18 0.155 - 0.225 3 Trigonal planar


0.414 - 0.732 6 Octahedral
Density of unit cell () =
N 0 a3 0.732 - 1.000 8 Cubic (body centred)











Conductors Semiconductors
Conductivity range :
Conductivity range : 10 to 104 ohm1 m1
104 to 107 ohm1 m1
Electrical tn-type semiconductors : Group 14 element like
Properties Si or Ge doped with group 15 element like P or As etc., free
Insulators electrons increase conductivity.
Conductivity range : tp-type semiconductors : Group 14 element like Si or Ge doped with
1020 to 1010 ohm1 m1 group 13 element like B, Al or Ga, holes increase conductivity.

Paramagnetic Diamagnetic Ferromagnetic Ferrimagnetic Antiferromagnetic
Magnetic Properties

Contains atleast All electrons are Unpaired electrons Unequal no. of Equal number
one unpaired paired and orbitals in same direction parallel and anti- of domains
electron in the are completely thus, strongly parallel arrangement in opposite
orbital thus, filled thus, weakly attracted by the of magnetic direction thus,
weakly attracted repelled by the magnetic fields and moments thus, have no net magnetic
by the magnetic magnetic field. can be permanently small net magnetic moment.
field e.g., O2, Cu2+. e.g., NaCl, H2O. magnetised. e.g., Ni. moment e.g., Fe3O4. e.g., MnO.


Piezoelectricity : The electricity produced Pyroelectricity : The electricity produced
when mechanical stress is applied on when some polar crystals are heated. e.g.,
polar crystals e.g., PbZrO3, NH4H2PO4 Crystals of tartaric acid.
and quartz.
Ferroelectricity : In some piezoelectric Properties Anti-ferroelectricity : In some
crystals, the dipoles are permanently piezoelectric crystals, the dipoles in
polarized even in the absence of electric alternate polyhedra point up and down
field. However, on applying electric field, so, that the crystal does not possess any
the direction of polarization changes. e.g., net dipole moment. e.g., PbZrO3.
BaTiO3, KH2PO4, Rochelle salt.

Hardest amorphous substance that disappears on reducing pressure!

At high temperature of above 700 K and under extremely high
pressure (105 - 106 atm) CO2 forms a silica like solid named, Carbonia
(Greenhouse glass). Though it is hardest amorphous solid but
interesting thing is that it disappears when pressure is reduced because
CO2 is not stable in solid state, under ordinary pressure.

Factors affecting solubility of a solid in a liquid :

SOLUTIONS Nature of solute and solvent : Polar solutes
dissolve in polar solvents and non-polar solutes
SOLUTION AND ITS TYPES in non-polar solvents. (i.e., like dissolves like).
Effect of temperature :
Solution is a perfectly homogeneous mixture If the dissolution process is endothermic
(having number of phases equal to one) of two or (solH > 0), the solubility increases with rise
more components. in temperature.
Different Types of Binary Solutions If dissolution process is exothermic
S.No. Solute Solvent Example (solH < 0) the solubility decreases with
rise in temperature.
1. Solid Solid Alloy
Effect of pressure : Pressure does not have any
2. Solid Liquid Sugar solution in water significant effect on solubility of solids in liquids
3. Solid Gas Iodine vapours in air as these are highly incompressible.
4. Liquid Solid Hydrated salt Factors affecting solubility of a gas in a liquid :
5. Liquid Liquid Ethanol in water Effect of pressure : Henrys law states that the
partial pressure of the gas in vapour phase (p) is
6. Liquid Gas Water vapours in air proportional to the mole fraction of the gas (x)
7. Gas Solid Dissolved gases in minerals in the solution p = KH x.
Higher the value of KH at a given pressure, the
8. Gas Liquid Aerated drinks
lower is the solubility of the gas in the liquid.
9. Gas Gas Air Effect of temperature : As dissolution is an
Solubility of a substance is its maximum amount that exothermic process, then according to Le
can be dissolved in a specified amount of solvent at Chateliers Principle, the solubility should
a specified temperature. decrease with increase of temperature.



w w2 v V2
Mass percentage, % = 100 Volume percentage, % = 100
W (w1 + w2 ) V (V1 + V2 )

w w2 w2 (in g)
Mass by volume percentage, % = 100 Strength (g L1) = 1000
V Vsolution (in mL) Vsolution (in mL)

w w1 w2 w2
Mass fraction, x1 = or x2 = Parts per million (ppm) = 106
Wtotal w1 + w2 w1 + w2 (w1 + w2 )

w2 1000 w2 1000
Molarity, (M) (mol L1) = Molality, (m) (mol kg1) =
M2 Vsolution (in mL) M2 w1 (in g)

w2 1000 w2 1000
Normality, (N) (g-eq L1) = Demal, (D) = (at 0C)
E2 Vsolution (in mL) M2 Vsolution (in mL)

n1 n2
Mole fraction, (x) x1 = or x2 = , No. of gram formula mass of solute
n1 + n2 n1 + n2 Formality, (F) =
Volume of solution (in L)
and x1 + x2 = 1

Vapour pressure is the pressure exerted by the vapours over the solution when it is in equilibrium state at a given
P vap H 1 1
log 2 = (ClausiusClapeyron equation)
P1 2.303R T1 T2
where P1 and P2 are the vapour pressures at temperatures T1 and T2 respectively.

Higher boiling point, Solution of volatile solute, vapour pressure of solutions

lesser vapour pressure depends on escaping tendency of solute molecules
Factors affecting
Vapour Pressure

Weaker cohesive forces, Solution of non-volatile solute,

higher vapour pressure vapour pressure of solution decreases

Raoults law states that for a solution of volatile liquids, the partial vapour pressure of each component of the
solution is directly proportional to its mole fraction in the solution.
For component 1, p1 = p1 x1
For component 2, p2 = p2 x2
Ptotal = p1 + p2 = x1p1 + x2p2 = p1 + (p2 p1)x2
where p1 and p2 are the vapour pressures of pure components 1 and 2 respectively.


Non-ideal solutions
Ideal solutions
Positive deviation from Raoults law Negative deviation from Raoults law




A B interactions A A and A B interactions << A A and B B A B interactions >> A A and B B
B B interactions interactions interactions
Hmix = 0, Vmix = 0 Hmix > 0, Vmix > 0 Hmix < 0, Vmix < 0
e.g., dilute solution, e.g., acetone + ethanol, e.g., acetone + aniline,
benzene + toluene, acetone + CS2, acetone + chloroform,
n-hexane + n-heptane water + methanol CH3OH + CH3COOH

Azeotropes have the same composition in liquid and vapour phase and boil at a constant temperature. Their
components cannot be separated by fractional distillation. Minimum boiling azeotropes show a large positive
deviation from Raoults law e.g., ethanol-water mixture. Maximum boiling azeotropes show a large negative
deviation from Raoults law e.g., nitric acid-water mixture.

These properties depend only on the number of solute particles and not on its nature.

Relative Lowering of Vapour Pressure Elevation in Boiling Point

p1 p1 n2 n w M1 Tb = Tb Tb ;
= x2 = = 2= 2 w2 1000
p1 n1 + n2 n1 M2 w1 Tb m or Tb = Kb m = K b
M2 w1 (in g)
Colligative Properties

( for dilute solutions, n2 << n1)

Kb is called boiling point elevation constant
Depression in Freezing Point or molal elevation constant or Ebullioscopic
Tf = Tf Tf ; Tf m or Tf = Kf m constant, having unit K kg mol1.
w2 1000 Osmotic Pressure
= Kf
M w (in g)
2 1 n
= CRT = 2 RT ,
Kf is known as freezing point depression V
constant or molal depression constant or w RT w RT
V = 2 or M2 = 2
Cryoscopic constant, having unit K kg mol1. M2 V


VANT HOFF FACTOR dissociation =
i 1
n 1
It is defined as the ratio of the experimental value
1 i
of the colligative property to the calculated value of association =
the colligative property. 1
Observed value of the colligative property
i= For substances undergoing association or
ue of the colligative property
Calculated valu
dissociation in the solution, the various expressions
Calculated molecular mass for the colligative properties are modified as
Observed molecular mass follows :
Total number of moles of particles p1 p1
after association / dissociation = ix2 ; Tb = iKb m
i= p1
Total number of moles of particles
before association / dissociation Tf = iKf m; = iCRT

Forward Osmosis - The future process of desalination!

Reverse osmosis (RO) process is generally employed in our domestic
water purifiers for desalination of water but recently, scientists are
interesting to employ forward osmosis (FO) process for desalination as it
requires low energy and wastage of water is also less.

3. Which method cannot be used to find out the

1. In the ionic compound AB the ratio rA+ : rB
molecular weight of non-volatile solute?
is 0.414. Which of the following statements is
(a) Victor Meyers method
correct ?
(b) Osmotic pressure method
(a) Cations form close packing and anions exactly
(c) Cryoscopic method
fit into the octahedral voids.
(d) Ebullioscopic method
(b) Anions form close packing and cations occupy
precisely half of the tetrahedral voids. 4. A metal crystallizes in body-centred cubic structure.
(c) Anions form close packing and cations occupy The correct statement amongst the following is
precisely all the octahedral voids. (a) each atom touches 4 atoms in its own layer and
(d) Anions form close packing and cations fit into 4 each in the layers immediately above and
the octahedral voids loosely. below it
(b) each atom touches 6 atoms each in the layers
2. Two solutions of KNO3 and CH3COOH are
immediately above and below it and none in its
prepared separately. Molarity of both is 0.1 M and
own layer
osmotic pressures are p1 and p2 respectively. The
(c) each atom touches 4 atoms each in the layers
correct relationship between the osmotic pressures
immediately above and below it and none in its
own layer
(a) p1 = p2 (b) p1 > p2
(d) each atom touches 8 atoms each in the layers
p1 p2
(c) p2 > p1 (d) immediately above and below it and none in its
p1 + p2 p1 + p2 own layer.


5. Which of the following is not a function of an (b) They all have the same osmotic pressure.
impurity present in a crystal? (c) 0.100 M Mg3(PO4)2(aq) has the highest osmotic
(a) Establishing thermal equilibrium pressure.
(b) Having tendency to diffuse (d) 0.125 M Na3PO4(aq) has the highest osmotic
(c) Contribution in scattering pressure. (JEE Main 2014)
(d) Introducing new electronic energy levels. 12. Based upon the technique of reverse osmosis, the
6. A solution at 20C is composed of 1.5 mol of approximate pressure required to desalinate sea
benzene and 3.5 mol of toluene. If the vapour water containing 2.5% (mass/volume) NaCl at 27C
pressure of pure benzene and pure toluene at this will be
temperature are 74.7 torr and 22.3 torr, respectively, (a) 10.5 atm (b) 21 atm
then the total vapour pressure of the solution and (c) 2.1 atm (d) 1.05 atm
the benzene mole fraction in equilibrium with it
13. Sodium metal crystallizes in a body centred cubic
will be, respectively
lattice with a unit cell edge of 4.29 . The radius of
(a) 35.0 torr and 0.480
sodium atom is approximately
(b) 38.0 torr and 0.589
(a) 5.72 (b) 0.93
(c) 30.5 torr and 0.389
(c) 1.86 (d) 3.22
(d) 35.8 torr and 0.280 (JEE Main 2015)
(JEE Main 2015)
7. The vacant space in bcc lattice unit cell is
14. Two moles of a liquid A (pA = 100 torr) and
(a) 48% (b) 23%
3 moles of liquid B (pB = 150 torr) form a solution
(c) 32% (d) 26% (AIPMT 2015)
having vapour pressure of 120 torr. Based upon this
8. At 100C the vapour pressure of a solution of 6.5 g observation which of the following is correct ?
of a solute in 100 g water is 732 mm. If Kb = 0.52, (a) Interactions between like molecules > those
the boiling point of this solution will be between unlike molecules
(a) 102C (b) 103C (b) Interactions between like molecules < those
(c) 101C (d) 100C (NEET 2016) between unlike molecules
9. If the unit cell of a mineral has cubic close packed (c) Interaction between like molecules = those
(ccp) array of oxygen atoms with m fraction of between unlike molecules
octahedral holes occupied by aluminium ions (d) Nothing can be concluded.
and n fraction of tetrahedral holes occupied by 15. Lithium has a bcc structure. Its density is 530 kg m3
magnesium ions, m and n, respectively, are and its atomic mass is 6.94 g mol1. Calculate
1 1 1 the edge length of a unit cell of lithium metal.
(a) , (b) 1,
2 8 4 (NA = 6.02 1023 mol1)
1 1 1 1 (a) 527 pm (b) 264 pm
(c) , (d) ,
2 2 4 8 (c) 154 pm (d) 352 pm (NEET 2016)
(JEE Advanced 2016) 16. An alloy of copper, silver and gold is found to have
10. Calculate the mass of a non-volatile solute (molar cubic lattice in which Cu atoms constitute ccp. If Ag
mass 40 g mol1) which should be dissolved in atoms are located at the edge centres and Au atom
114 g octane to reduce its vapour pressure to 80%. is present at body centre, the alloy will have the
(a) 20 g (b) 10 g formula
(c) 30 g (d) 45 g (a) CuAgAu (b) Cu4Ag4Au
(c) Cu4Ag3Au (d) Cu4Ag6Au
11. Consider separate solutions of 0.500 M C2H5OH(aq),
0.100 M Mg3(PO4)2(aq), 0.250 M KBr(aq) and 17. The vapour pressure of acetone at 20C is 185 torr.
0.125 M Na3PO4(aq) at 25C. Which statement is When 1.2 g of a non-volatile substance was dissolved
true about these solutions, assuming all salts to be in 100 g of acetone at 20C, its vapour pressure was
strong electrolytes? 183 torr. The molar mass (g mol1) of the substance is
(a) 0.500 M C2H5OH(aq) has the highest osmotic (a) 128 (b) 488
pressure. (c) 32 (d) 64 (JEE Main 2015)


18. Ferrous oxide has a cubic structure and each edge
(a) rCs + + rCl = 3a (b) rCs+ + rCl = 3a
of the unit cell is 5.0 . Assuming density of the
oxide as 4.09 g cm3 the number of Fe2+ and O2 3a 3
ions presents in each unit cell will be (c) rCs + + rCl = (d) rCs + + rCl = 2 a
(a) two Fe2+ and four O2 (JEE Main 2014)
(b) three Fe2+ and three O2
(c) four Fe2+ and two O2 25. A mineral MX2 crystallizes in ccp of M2+ ions
(d) four Fe2+ and four O2. whereas X ions occupy the tetrahedral voids.
The number of cations and anions per unit cell,
19. The ionic radii of A+ and B ions are 0.98 1010 m the coordination number of cation and percent of
and 1.81 1010 m. The coordination number of tetrahedral voids occupied are
each ion in AB is (a) 4, 8, 8, 100% (b) 4, 8, 8, 50%
(a) 8 (b) 2 (c) 8, 4, 8, 50% (d) 8, 4, 8, 100%
(c) 6 (d) 4 (NEET 2016)
26. The correct statement regarding defects in crystalline
20. The vapour pressure of a liquid decreases by 10 torr solids is
when a non-volatile solute is dissolved. The mole (a) Frenkel defects decrease the density of
fraction of the solute in solution is 0.1. What would crystalline solids.
be the mole fraction of the liquid if the decrease in (b) Frenkel defect is a dislocation defect.
vapour pressure is 20 torr when the solute being (c) Frenkel defect is found in halides of alkaline
dissolved is same? metals.
(a) 0.2 (b) 0.9 (d) Schottky defects have no effect on the density of
(c) 0.8 (d) 0.6 crystalline solids. (AIPMT 2015)
21. Determination of the molar mass of acetic acid in 27. For the determination of molecular weights, Raoults
benzene using freezing point depression is affected by law is applicable only to
(a) dissociation (b) association (a) dilute solutions of electrolytes
(c) partial ionization (d) complex formation. (b) concentrated solutions of electrolytes
(JEE Main 2015) (c) dilute solutions of non-electrolytes
22. The flame colours of metal ions are due to (d) concentrated solutions of non-electrolytes.
(a) Schottky defect (b) Frenkel defect 28. What is the mole fraction of the solute in a 1.00 m
(c) metal excess defect aqueous solution?
(d) metal deficiency defect. (a) 1.770 (b) 0.0354
(c) 0.0177 (d) 0.177 (AIPMT 2015)
23. Which of the following statements about the
composition of the vapour over an ideal 1 : 1 molar 29. A flask is partially evacuated to 400 torr pressure
mixture of benzene and toluene is correct? Assume of air. A small amount of benzene is introduced
that the temperature is constant at 25C. (Given, into the flask in order that some liquid will remain
vapour pressure data at 25C, benzene = 12.8 kPa, after equilibrium has been established. The vapour
toluene = 3.85 kPa) pressure of benzene at 25C is 220 torr. What is the
(a) The vapour will contain equal amounts of total pressure in the flask at equilibrium at 25C?
benzene and toluene. (a) 120 torr (b) 510 torr
(b) Not enough information is given to make a (c) 620 torr (d) 480 torr.
prediction. 30. A dry air is passed through the solution, containing
(c) The vapour will contain a higher percentage of the 10 g of solute and 90 g of water and then it is
benzene. passed through pure water. There is the depression
(d) The vapour will contain a higher percentage of in weight of solution by 2.5 g and in weight of pure
toluene. (NEET 2016) solvent by 0.05 g. Calculate the molecular weight of
24. CsCl crystallises in body-centred cubic lattice. If solute.
a is its edge length then which of the following (a) 25 (b) 50
expressions is correct? (c) 100 (d) 180


SOLUTIONS nB WB /M B ...(ii)
xB = =
1. (c) : For the octahedral void, rvoid/ranion = 0.414 nB + nA W W
B + A
2. (b) : KNO3 dissociates completely while CH3COOH MB MA
dissociates to a small extent hence, p1 > p2. Given vapour pressure is reduced to 80% when
3. (a) : Victor Meyers method is used for volatile non-volatile solute is dissolved in octane i.e., if
solutes and the rest all other methods are used for pA = 1 atm then ps = 0.8 atm; pA ps = 0.2 atm;
non-volatile solutes. MA(C8H18) = 114 g mol1; WA = 114 g;
4. (c) MB = 40 g mol1; WB = ?
5. (a) : Addition of impurity does not establish From eq. (i) and (ii),
equilibrium. 0. 2 WB /40 W /40 WB
= = B 0. 2 =
6. (b) : Total vapour pressure of solution = pAxA + pB xB 1 W B + 114 W B +1 W B + 40
Total vapour pressure of solution 40 114 40
1. 5 3. 5 0.2WB + 8 = WB WB = 10
= 74.7 + 22.3 torr
5 5 11. (b) : Applying the equation, = iCRT
= (22.41 +15.61) torr = 38.02 torr Solution i C iC
Mole fraction of benzene in vapour form = C2H5OH(aq) 1 0.5 0.5
= 0.589 Mg3(PO4)2(aq) 5 0.1 0.5
7. (c) : Packing efficiency of bcc lattice = 68% KBr(aq) 2 0.25 0.5
Hence, empty space = 32%. Na3PO4(aq) 4 0.125 0.5
8. (c) : Given : WB = 6.5 g, WA = 100 g, ps = 732 mm, The value of i C indicates that all the solutions
Kb = 0.52, Tb = 100C, p = 760 mm have same osmotic pressure.
p ps n2 760 732 n2
= = 12. (b) : 2.5% (mass/volume) NaCl means 2.5 g NaCl in
p n1 760 100 / 18 100 mL of water.
28 100
n2 = = 0.2046 moles 2 2.5 1000 0.082 300
760 18 Thus, = iCRT =
Tb = Kb m 58.5 100
n 1000 = 21.02 atm
Tb Tb = K b 2
WA (g ) 3
13. (c) : For bcc, r = a
0.52 0.2046 1000 4
Tb 100C = = 1.06
100 3
r= 4.29 = 1.86
Tb = 100 + 1.06 = 101.06C 4
9. (a) : For ccp, Z = 4 = no. of O atoms 14. (b) : Total vapour pressure
No. of octahedral voids = 4 2 3
= pAxA + pBxB = 100 + 150 = 130 torr
No. of tetrahedral voids = 2 4 = 8 5 5
No. of Al3+ ions = m 4 The observed vapour pressure is smaller than that
No. of Mg2+ ions = n 8 calculated from Raoults law (negative deviation).
Thus, the formula of the mineral is Al4m Mg8nO4. Hence, interactions A B > A A or B B.
4m (+3) + 8n(+2) + 4(2) = 0 15. (d) : For bcc, Z = 2, = 530 kg m3,
12m + 16n 8 = 0 4(3m + 4n 2) = 0 At. mass of Li = 6.94 g mol1, NA = 6.02 1023 mol1
3m + 4n = 2 530 1000 g
1 1 = 530 kg m3 = = 0.53 g cm3
Possible values of m and n are and respectively. 3 3
2 8 1 (100) cm
10. (b) : According to Raoults law, relative lowering of Z At. mass
vapour pressure, NA a3
pA ps ...(i) Z At. mass 2 6.94
= xB a3 = =
pA NA 6.02 1023 0.53


a3 = 4.35 1023 cm3 = 43.5 1024 cm3 1 1
a = 352 1010 cm = 352 pm pBenzene = pBenzene = 12.8 kPa = 6.4 kPa
2 2
16. (c) : Number of Cu atoms per unit cell 1 1
1 1 pToluene = pToluene = 3.85 kPa = 1.925 kPa
= 8+ 6= 4 2 2
8 2 Thus, the vapour will contain a high percentage of
Number of Ag atoms per unit cell = 12 = 3 benzene as the partial vapour pressure of benzene is
4 higher as compared to that of toluene.
Number of Au atoms per unit cell = 1(at body centre)
24. (d) : In a body-centred cubic (bcc) lattice,
Hence, the formula of alloy is Cu4Ag3Au.
oppositely charged ions touch each other along the
p ps w2 M1
17. (d) : = cross-diagonal of the cube.
p w1M2 In case of CsCl,
Given : p = 185 torr, w1 = 100 g, w2 = 1.2 g, 3
ps = 183 torr 2 rCs + + 2rCl = 3a or, rCs + + rCl = a
M1 = MCH3 COCH3 = 58 g mol1
25. (a) : M2+ ions in ccp arrangement has 4 atoms per
185 183 1.2 58 unit cell. Now, for MX2 type salt, number of X ions
185 100 M2 per unit cell is 8. Also, the number of tetrahedral
1.2 58 185 voids for ccp arrangement is 8 so, X ions occupy
M2 = = 64.38 64 g mol1
100 2 100% of tetrahedral voids. MX2 type salt with
18. (d) : Let the units of ferrous oxide in a unit cell = n. such arrangement is a fluorite type structure in
Molecular weight of ferrous oxide (FeO) which coordination number for cations is 8 and for
= 56 + 16 = 72 g mol1 anions is 4.
72 n 26. (b) 27. (c)
Weight of n units =
6.023 1023 28. (c) : 1 molal aqueous solution means 1 mole of
Wt. of cell solute is present in 1000 g of water.
Density = 1 1
Volume xsolute = = = 0.0177
72 n 1+
1000 56.5
4.09 =
6.023 1023 125 1024 18
29. (c) : The total pressure will be the sum of pressures
Hence , n = 4.27 4 of air and benzene.
r+ 0.98 1010 30. (c) : Lowering in weight of solution solution
19. (c) : Radius ratio, = = 0.541
r 1.81 1010 pressure (ps)
and lowering in weight of solvent p ps
It lies in the range of 0.414 to 0.732 hence,
( p = vapour pressure of pure solvent)
coordination number of each ion will be 6 as the
compound will have NaCl type structure. p ps Lowering in weight of solvent
Thus, =
p1 x1(solute) 20 ps Lowering in weight of solution
20. (c) : = ,x = 0.1 = 0.2; 0.05
p2 x2(solute) 2(solute) 10 =
2. 5
xsolvent = 1 0.2 = 0.8
But according to Raoults law,
21. (b) 22. (c)
p ps W2 M1
23. (c) : pBenzene = xBenzene pBenzene =
ps M2 W1
pToluene = xToluene pToluene
For an ideal 1 : 1 molar mixture of benzene and 0.05 10 18 10 18 2.5
toluene, 2.5 90 M2 M2 = 90 0.05
1 1
xBenzene = and xToluene = = 100 g mol1
2 2


The questions given in this column have been prepared strictly on the basis of NCERT Chemistry for Class XII.
This year JEE (Main & Advanced)/NEET/AIIMS have drawn their papers heavily from NCERT books.

Section - I Q. 1 to 10 Only One Option Correct Type MCQs.

Section - II Q. 11 to 13 More than One Options Correct Type MCQs.
Section - III Q. 14 to 17 Paragraph Type MCQs having Only One Option Correct.
Section - IV Q. 18 & 19 Matching List Type MCQs having Only One Option Correct.
Section - V Q. 20 to 22 Assertion Reason Type MCQs having Only One Option Correct. Mark the correct choice as :
(a) If both assertion and reason are true and reason is the correct explanation of assertion.
(b) If both assertion and reason are true but reason is not the correct explanation of assertion.
(c) If assertion is true but reason is false.
(d) If both assertion and reason are false.
Section - VI Q. 23 to 25 Integer Value Correct Type Questions having Single Digit Integer Answer, ranging from
0 to 9 (both inclusive).


Only One Option Correct Type

1. An ionic solid A+ B crystallizes as a body-centred cubic

structure. The distance between cation and anion in
the lattice is 338 pm. The edge length of the unit cell is
(a) 390.3 pm (b) 881.2 pm  

(c) 440.5 pm (d) 802.21 pm (a) 3 (b) 4 (c) 5 (d) 6

2. The melting point of RbBr is 682C, while that of 5. The density of solid argon is 1.65 g/mL at 233C.
NaF is 988C. The principal reason that melting point If the argon atom is assumed to be sphere of radius
of NaF is much higher than that of RbBr is that 1.54 108 cm, what percentage of solid argon is
(a) the two crystals are not isomorphous apparently empty space? (At. wt. of Ar = 40)
(b) the molar mass of NaF is smaller than that of (a) 54% (b) 82% (c) 62% (d) 48%
(c) the internuclear distance rc + ra is greater for 6. In Fe0.93O, the % of Fe+++ ions is
RbBr than for NaF (a) 15.0% (b) 12.1% (c) 13.5% (d) 14.4%
(d) the bond in RbBr has more covalent character 7. In a face centred cubic lattice, atom A occupies
than the bond in NaF. the corner positions and atom B occupies the face
3. In KBr crystal structure, the second-nearest centre positions. If one atom of B is missing from
neighbour of K+ ions is ....... and its number is ...... one of the face centred points, the formula of the
(a) Br, 6 (b) Br, 12 compound is
(c) K , 6 (d) K+, 12 (a) A2B (b) AB2 (c) A2B2 (d) A2B5
4. For a solid with the following structure, the 8. A metal crystallises into two cubic phases, face
coordination number of the point B is centred cubic (fcc) and body centred cubic (bcc).


Whose unit lengths are 3.5 and 3.0 respectively. close packed (hcp), is constituted of a sphere on a flat
The ratio of densities of fcc and bcc is surface surrounded in the same plane by six identical
(a) 1.259 (b) 2.513 (c) 0.892 (d) 1.862 spheres as closely as possible. Three spheres are then
9. MgO has a structure of NaCl, the coordination placed over the first layer so that they touch each other
and represent the second layer. Each one these three
number of O2 in MgO is
spheres touches three spheres of the bottom layer.
(a) 6 (b) 3 (c) 12 (d) 8
Finally, the second layer is covered with a third layer
10. Fe3O4 contains the magnetic dipoles of cations that is identical to the bottom layer in relative position.
oriented as Assume radius of every sphere to be r.
(a) (b)
14. The volume of this hcp unit cell is
(c) (d) 64
(a) 24 2r 3 (b) 16 2r 3 (c) 12 2r 3 (d) r3
More than One Options Correct Type 15. The empty space in this hcp unit cell is
(a) 74% (b) 47.6% (c) 32% (d) 26%
11. Which of the following statements are true about
Paragraph for Questions 16 and 17
(a) Valence band overlaps with conduction band. In an ideal crystal there must be regular repeating
(b) The gap between valence band and conduction arrangement of the constituting particles and its entropy
band is negligible. must be zero at absolute zero temperature. However, it is
(c) The gap between valence band and conduction impossible to obtain an ideal crystal and it suffers from
band cannot be determined. certain defects called imperfections. In pure crystal,
(d) Valence band may remain partially filled. these defects arise either due to disorder or dislocation
of the constituting particles from their normal positions
12. An excess of potassium ions makes KCl crystals to
or to the movement of the particles even at absolute
appear violet or lilac in colour since
zero temperature. Such defects increase with rise in
(a) some of the anionic sites are occupied by
temperature. In addition to this, certain defects arise due
unpaired electrons
to the presence of some impurities. Such defects not only
(b) some of the cationic sites are occupied by pairs
modify the existing properties of the crystalline solids
of electrons
but also impart certain new characteristics to them.
(c) there are vacancies at some cationic sites
(d) F-centres are created which impact colour to 16. AgCl is crystallized from molten AgCl containing a
the crystals. little CdCl2. The solid obtained will have
(a) cationic vacancies equal to number of Cd2+
13. Select the correct statement(s).
ions incorporated
(a) Schottky defect is shown by CsCl.
(b) cationic vacancies equal to double the number
(b) Frenkel defect is shown by ZnS.
of Cd2+ ions
(c) hcp and ccp structures have the same
coordination number 12. (c) anionic vacancies
(d) On increasing pressure, coordination number (d) neither cationic nor anionic vacancies.
of CsCl decreases to that of NaCl. 17. Lattice defect per 1015 NaCl is 1. What is the number
SECTION - III of lattice defects in a mole of NaCl?
Paragraph Type (a) 6.02 1023 (b) 6.02 108
(c) 10 (d) None of these
Paragraph for Questions 14 and 15
In hexagonal systems of crystals, a frequently encountered Matching List Type
arrangement of atoms is described as a hexagonal prism.
Here, the top and bottom of the cell are regular hexagons 18. Match the coordination numbers given in List I with
and three atoms are sandwiched in between them. A their examples in List II and select the correct answer
space-filling model of this structure, called hexagonal using the code given below the lists :


List I List II Reason : Equal number of cation and anion
Co-ordination number Example vacancies are present.
P. 2 1. Diamond
21. Assertion : Crystalline solids are anisotropic in
Q. 8 2. NaCl
R. 4 3. CsCl
Reason : Crystalline solids are not as closely packed
S. 6 4. BeCl2
as amorphous solids.
(a) 4 1 2 3 22. Assertion : Diamond and graphite do not have the
(b) 3 2 4 1 same crystal structure.
(c) 4 3 1 2 Reason : Diamond is crystalline while graphite is
(d) 4 3 2 1 amorphous.
19. Match electrical properties given in List I with the SECTION - VI
materials given in List II and select the correct Integer Value Correct Type
answer using the code given below the lists :
23. A metal (Atomic mass = 75 g mol1) crystallizes in
List I List II
cubic lattice, the edge length of unit cell being 5.
P. Pure crystal of 1. Semiconductor - holes
If the density of the metal is 2 g cm3and the radius
silicon at 0 K carry current
of metal atom is (x 100 + 17) pm. (NA = 6 1023).
Q. Pure crystal of 2. Semiconductor - electrons
silicon at 400 K carry current The value of x is
R. Silicon crystal 3. Insulator 24. A bcc lattice is made up of hollow spheres of B.
doped with arsenic Spheres of solid A are present in hollow spheres
impurity of B. The radius of A is half of the radius of B. The ratio
S. Silicon crystal 4. Semiconductor equal of total volume of spheres of B unoccupied by A in a
dopped with number of holes and 3
gallium electrons carry current unit cell and volume of unit cell is A . Find the
P Q R S value of A.
(a) 4 1 2 3
25. A binary solid (A+B) has a rock salt type structure.
(b) 3 1 4 2
If the edge length is 400 pm and radius of cation is
(c) 1 4 3 2
75 pm, the radius of anion is 5x 5. The value of
(d) 3 4 2 1
x is
(a) 100 pm
Assertion Reason Type
(b) 125 pm
20. Assertion : In any ionic solid [MX] with Schottky (c) 250 pm
defects, the number of positive and negative ions (d) 325 pm
are same.
SECTION - I (c) Zinc from zinc blende
Only One Option Correct Type (d) Mercury from cinnabar
1. Among the following groups of oxides, the group 3. Which of the following process involves smelting?

containing oxides that cannot be reduced by carbon to (a) Al2O3. 2H2O Al2O3 + 2H2O

give the respective metals is (b) Fe2O3 + 3C 2Fe + 3CO
(a) Cu2O, SnO2 (b) Fe2O3, ZnO
(c) ZnCO3 ZnO + CO2
(c) CaO, K2O (d) PbO, Fe3O4
(d) 2PbS + 3O2 2PbO + 2SO2
2. In which of the following isolations no reducing agent is
4. Which of the following statements regarding the
metallurgy of magnesium using electrolytic method
(a) Iron from haematite
is not correct?
(b) Aluminium from bauxite


(a) Electrolyte is magnesium chloride containing a (b) Mercury is transported in containers made of iron.
little of NaCl and NaF. (c) Calcination is the process of heating the ore
(b) Air tight iron pot acts as a cathode. strongly in the presence of air.
(c) Electrolysis is done in the atmosphere of coal gas. (d) Cassiterite is an ore of iron.
(d) Molten magnesium is heavier than the electrolyte.
13. Which of the following options are correct?
5. Chemical reduction is not suitable for (a) Cast iron is obtained by remelting pig iron with
(a) conversion of bauxite to aluminium scrap iron and coke using hot air blast.
(b) conversion of cuprite into copper (b) In extraction of silver, silver is extracted as
(c) conversion of haematite to iron cationic complex.
(d) conversion of zinc oxide to zinc. (c) Nickel is purified by zone refining.
6. Consider Gf (CuO) = 129.7 kJ mol1, Gf (H2O) (d) Zr and Ti are purified by van Arkel method.
= 237.2 kJ mol1 and Gf (CO) = 137.2 kJ mol1. SECTION - III
The better reducing agent for the reduction of CuO is Paragraph Type
(a) hydrogen (b) carbon
(c) both (a) and (b) (d) none of these. Paragraph for Questions 14 and 15
Electrolysis is an important technique for extraction of
7. When the sample of Cu with Zn impurity is to be
metals and each ion of the solution needs a minimum
purified by electrolysis, the appropriate electrodes are
voltage to get discharged and this value is expressed in
Cathode Anode
terms of discharge potential. For some metal ions the
(a) Pure Zn Pure Cu
discharge potentials follow the order given below :
(b) Impure sample Pure Cu
Li+ > K+ > Ca2+ > Na+ > Mg2+ > Al3+ > Zn2+ >
(c) Impure Zn Impure sample
Fe2+ > Ni2+ > H3O+ > Cu2+ > Hg2+ +
2 > Ag > Au
(d) Pure Cu Impure sample For some anions the discharge potentials are in the order :
8. Which of the following metals, present as impurity SO2
4 > NO 3 > OH > Br > I

passes into solution during electro-refining of copper? 14. When aqueous solution of cuprous bromide is
(a) Zinc (b) Silver electrolysed the product obtained at cathode will be
(c) Gold (d) Platinum (a) Cu (b) H2 (c) Br2 (d) O2
9. When an aqueous solution of sodium chloride 15. The product formed at anode and cathode, when
is electrolysed using platinum electrodes, the ion dilute H2SO4 is electrolysed are
discharged at the electrodes are (a) SO2, H2 (b) SO3, H2
(a) sodium and hydrogen (c) H2S2O8 (d) O2, H2
(b) sodium and chlorine
Paragraph for Questions 16 and 17
(c) hydrogen and chlorine
Metallurgy is the process of extraction of metals from
(d) hydroxyl and chlorine.
the substances in which these are found in nature.
10. Roasted gold ore + CN + H2O [X] + OH It involves a series of processes like ore dressing,
[X]+ Zn [Y] + Au; [X] and [Y] are conversion of concentrated ore to oxide, reduction and
(a) X = [Au (CN)2]; Y = [Zn(CN)4]2 refining of metal.
(b) X = [Au (CN)4]3; Y = [Zn(CN)4]2 In one of the refining processes, the molten impure
(c) X = [Au (CN)2] ; Y = [Zn(CN)6]2 metal is stirred with green logs of wood. These wood
(d) X = [Au (CN)4]3; Y = [Zn(CN)6]4 release some gases by which the impurities are reduced
and thus, removed.
More than One Options Correct Type 16. The metal which is purified by the method discussed
above is
11. Liquation is used to purify (a) sodium (b) copper
(a) Hg (b) Sn (c) iron (d) manganese.
(c) Bi (d) none of these. 17. The gas release during the process to remove the
12. Which of the following is/are false? impurities is
(a) All minerals are ores. (a) CO (b) H2 (c) CH4 (d) CO2


SECTION - IV to form volatile carbonyls which decompose on
Matching List Type heating to give pure metal.
18. Match the List I with List II and select the correct 21. Assertion : Levigation is used for the separation of
answer using the code given below the lists : oxide ores from impurities.
Reason : Ore particles are removed by washing in a
List I List II current of water.
P. Cyanide process 1. Ultrapure Ga
22. Assertion : CuSO4 acts as activator in froth
Q. Zone refining 2. Pine Oil
floatation process.
R. Floatation 3. Extraction of Al
Reason : It activates the floating property of
S. Electrolytic process 4. Extraction of Au sulphide ores.
(a) 4 2 1 3 Integer Value Correct Type
(b) 1 2 3 4
(c) 4 1 2 3 23. Ferrochrome, an iron-chromium alloy used in
(d) 4 3 2 1 making stainless steel, is produced by reducing
19. Match the List I with List II and select the correct chromite (FeCr2O4) with coke:
answer using the code given below the lists : FeCr2O4( s ) + 4 C( s )
List I List II
P. Pendulum 1. ZnCO3 The mass of chromium that can be obtained by the
Q. Malachite 2. Nickel steel reaction of 236 kg of chromite with an excess of
R. Calamine 3. Na3AlF6 coke is (100.57 + x) kg. The value of x is
S. Cryolite 4. CuCO3.Cu(OH)2
24. Ti is purified by following method
(a) 1 2 3 4
(b) 2 4 1 3
(c) 2 3 4 5
(d) 4 5 3 2
SECTION - V The value of x is
Assertion Reason Type
25. When 1.164 g of a certain metal sulphide was roasted
20. Assertion : van Arkel method is used to prepare in air, 0.972 g of the metal oxide was formed. If the
ultra pure samples of some metals. oxidation number of the metal is +2, the molar
Reason : It involves reaction of CO with metals mass of the metal is (12 x 5). The value of x is


1. (a) : For a bcc unit cell, nearest neighbours will be 12 K+ ions at a distance
a a = 2 (r + + r ) a 2
r+ + r = 3 of .
2 3 2
But r+ + r = 338 pm, 4. (d) : It is evident from that B occupies octahedral
2 676 voids and thus, coordination number is six.
a= 338 pm = = 390.3 pm
3 1 .732 4 3
2. (c) : This leads to stronger coulombic forces of 5. (c) : Volume of one atom of Ar = r
attractions in NaF. Also, number of atoms in 1.65 g per mL
3. (d) : The first nearest neighbour of K+ ion will be 1.65
a = 6.023 1023
6 Br ions at a distance of whereas the second 40


Total volume of all the atoms of Ar in solid state in negligible. In these, the valence band may also
4 1.65 remain partially filled.
= r 3 6.023 1023
3 40 12. (a, d): The colour of KCl is violet or lilac because
4 22 1.65 of the presence of unpaired electrons, called the
= (1.54 108 )3 6.023 1023 F-centre, at some of the anionic sites.
3 7 40
= 0.380 cm3 13. (a, b, c)
Volume of solid Ar = 1 cm3 2
14. (a) : Height of unit cell = 4r
1 0.38 3
% empty space = 100 = 62%
1 Volume of unit cell = Height Base area
6. (a) : Iron is 93% and O is 100%. 2 3
Let Fe+++ be x%, then Fe++ = (93 x)% = 4r 6 4r 2 = 24 2r 3
3 4
Balancing positive and negative charges i.e., 15. (d) : Packing fraction
Total charge on Fe++ and Fe+++ ion = Total charge
on O2 ion. Volume of the atoms in one unit cell
2(93 x) + 3x = 2 100 Volume of one unit cell
x = 14 4 3
6 r
% of Fe+++ =
100 = 15.0% =
= = 0.74 = 74%
93 24 2r 3 2
1 Empty space = 26%
7. (d) : Number of atoms of A per unit cell = 8 = 1
8 16. (a) : In the crystallization, some Ag+ ions will get
Number of atoms of B per unit cell = (6 1) =
1 5 replaced by as many as half of Cd2+ ions so as to
2 2 maintain electrical neutrality. Thus, the cation
(one B atom is missing) vacancies will be the same as the number of Cd2+
Thus, formula is A1B5/2 = A2B5. ions incorporated.
Z At. mass 17. (b) : Number of defects per mole of NaCl
8. (b) : Density of fcc = 1 and = 6.02 1023 formula units
N A V1
Z At. mass 1 6.02 1023
Density of bcc = 2 = 15
= 6.02 108
N A V2 10
d fcc Z1 V2 18. (c) 19. (d)
dbcc Z2 V1 20. (a) : In Schottky defect equal number of cations
For fcc, Z1 = 4 ; V1 = a3 = (3.5 108)3 and anions are missing from their lattice sites.
For bcc, Z2 = 2 ; V2 = a3 = (3.0 108)3 Therefore, an ionic solid MX with Schottky defect
will still have the same number of anions and
d fcc 4 (3 108 )3
= = 1.259 cations.
dbcc 2 (3.5 108 )3
21. (c) : Crystalline solids are anisotropic and undergo
9. (a) : Since MgO have NaCl (rock salt) structure, a clean cleavage. The constituent particles are
and in NaCl the coordination number of ions are arranged in a definite and orderly pattern through
6 and 6 respectively. Thus, in MgO, O2 also have the entire three dimensional space.
coordination number 6. 22. (c) : In diamond, C-atoms are sp3 hybridized while
10. (b) : Fe3O4 (magnetite) is a ferrimagnetic substance. in graphite, they are sp2 hybridized.
In this substance the magnetic moments of Fe (II) ZM
23. (2) : Density of the crystal d (g cm3) =
and Fe (III) are alligned in opposite directions and N A a3
the resultant magnetic moment is only from Fe (II) d N A a3 2 6 1023 (5 108 )3
moments. Z= = =2
M 75
11. (a, b, d) : In metals valence band overlaps with the Thus, the unit cell of cubic lattice will be
conduction band, thus the gap between these two body centred. For bcc lattice,


4r(radius of atom) = Diagonal of cube = 3a
Volume of B unoccupied by A in unit cell

3 1.732 5 10 2
Volume of unit cell
r= a 102 = = 216.5 217 pm
4 4 4 7r 3
7 3
= (2 100 + 17) pm = 3 8 =
3 64
x = 2 [1 = 108 cm = 102 pm] 4r

24. (7) : Let radius of hollow sphere B be r 3
Edge length (a) = 4r / 3 3 7 3 A = 7
A =
Volume of unit cell = a3 = ( 4r / 3 )
64 64
Volume of B unoccupied by A (having radius = r/2) 25. (2) : Edge = 2r+ + 2r
400 = 2 75 + 2r
in unit cell = 2 4 r 3 4 r r = 125 pm = 52 5
3 3 2 x=2

1. (c) : CaO and K2O are oxides of Ca and K, which 6. (a) : (I) CuO + C Cu + CO
are stronger reducing agent than carbon. G = G f (CO) G f (CuO)

2. (d) : In case of auto-reduction, no reducing agent is = 137.2 + 129.7
required = 7.5 kJ mol1
(a) Fe2 O3 + 3 CO 2Fe + 3CO2
haematite reducing agent (II) CuO + H2 Cu + H2O
G = Gf (H2O) Gf (CuO)
(b) Al 2O3 + 3C + N2 2AlN+ 3CO
bauxite reducing = 237.2 + 129.7 = 107.5 kJ mol1
More negative value of G for reaction (II)
AlN + 3H2O Al(OH)3 + NH3
indicates that H2 is better reducing agent.
7. (d) : Anode : Cu Cu2+ + 2e
(Impure sample)

(c) 2 ZnS + 3 O2 2ZnO + 2SO2 Cathode : Cu2+ + 2e Cu

zinc blende (Pure Cu)
ZnO + C Zn + CO
8. (a) : Zinc passes into solution.
9. (c) : NaCl(aq) Na+(aq) + Cl(aq)

(d) 2 HgS + 3O2 2HgO + 2SO2 Cathode : H2O(l) + e

1/2H2(g) + OH(aq)

Anode : Cl(aq) 1/2Cl2(g) + e
Net reaction : NaCl(aq) + H2O(l) Na+(aq) + OH(aq)

3. (b) : When concentrated ore is mixed with coke
+ 1/2H2(g) + 1/2Cl2(g)
and flux and heated in the presence of air at high
temperature, impurities get removed. This process
is called smelting. Actually, it is a reduction process, MPP-1 CLASS XI ANSWER KEY
in which oxide is reduced to metal. Therefore,
following process will involve smelting. 1. (d) 2. (a) 3. (c) 4. (b) 5. (a)

Fe2O3 + 3C 2Fe + 3CO 6. (a) 7. (b) 8. (a) 9. (d) 10. (b)
4. (d) : Molten magnesium is lighter than electrolyte. 11. (b) 12. (c) 13. (c) 14. (d) 15. (c)
5. (a) : Bauxite is not chemically reduced to Al, as 16. (d) 17. (a) 18. (d) 19. (b) 20. (b,c)
aluminium is fairly electropositive and reactive 21. (a,c,d) 22. (a,b,c) 23. (a,d) 24. (7) 25. (6)
metal, hence it may react with the reducing agent. 26. (2) 27. (a) 28. (b) 29. (c) 30. (c)


1 16. (b) : The discussion is about copper metal which is
10. (a) : 2Au(s) + 4CN(aq) + H2O(aq) + O refined by poling, i.e., by stirring impure metal with
2 2( g )
green logs of wood.
2[Au(CN)2](aq) + 2OH(aq)
17. (c) : During this process, methane, CH4 gas
2[Au(CN)2](aq) + Zn(s) [Zn(CN)4]2(aq)+ 2Au(s) (hydrocarbon gases) is obtained which reduces
11. (a, b, c) copper oxide to copper.
12. (a, c, d) : Mercury does not form amalgam with iron 18. (c)
and therefore, it is transported in iron containers. 19. (b) : Nickel steel is related with pendulum,
Free state occurrence of metals is called native ore. CuCO3. Cu(OH)2 is malachite, ZnCO3 is calamine
All minerals are not ores. Combined state occurrence and Na3AlF6 is cryolite.
of metals is called mineral. Calcination is done in 20. (c) : van Arkel method involves the use of I2 to form
absence of air. Cassiterite is SnO2. volatile iodide of metals which on decomposition
13. (a, d) : Zr (ziroconium) and Ti (titanium) are gives pure metals.
purified by van Arkel method. 21. (c) 22. (a)
Cast iron is obtained by remelting pig iron with 23. (9) : FeCr2O4(s) + 4C(s) Fe(s) + 2Cr(s) + 4CO(g)
scrap iron and coke using hot air blast. 1 mol 2 mol 4 mol
Nickel is purified by Monds process and silver is 224 g 104 g 112 g
extracted as anionic complex. 224 kg of chromite gives = 104 kg of Cr
14. (a) : Reduction half-reaction for electrolysis of 104 236
Thus, 236 kg of chromite gives = kg of Cr
aqueous cuprous bromide. 224
2H2O(l) + 2e H2(g) + 2OH(aq); Ered = 0.83 V = 109.57 kg Cr = (100.57 + 9) x = 9
Cu2+(aq) + 2e Cu(s); Ered = +0.34 V 24. (4) : van Arkel method
The product obtained at cathode will be copper.
15. (d) : During the electrolysis of sulphuric acid the
following reactions are possible at the anode.
25. (5) : Sulphide is MS (oxidation number of metal
2H2O(l) O2(g) + 4H+ + 4e ; Ecell = + 1.23 V
ion being + 2)
...(i) 3
2SO2 4(aq) S2O2
8(aq) + 2e ; Ecell = 1.96 V ...(ii)
MS + O2 MO + SO2
For dilute sulphuric acid reaction (i) is preferred (M + 32) (M + 16)
but at higher concentrations of H2SO4, equation 1.164 g 0.972 g
(ii) is preferred. OH is discharged in preference of M + 32 M + 16
SO24 due to lesser discharge potential. 1.164 0.972
The reaction at the cathode during electrolysis is M = 65 = (12 5 + 5) x = 5
H+(aq) + e 1/2H2(g)

I was a topper
W ith a score of 96.8%, I stood fourth at the all-India level. It was a celebration for everyone my
teachers, parents and neighbours, and even my autorickshaw drivers.
I received so much attention for the awards and accolades, but it all suddenly changed right after school
when I went to attend the National University of Singapore (NUS). I was in for a rude shock right in my
first year. I had never scored less than 95% and high marks were taken for granted. But, suddenly I was
this biotech major in a coding class surrounded by students who were much better than me. I broke down
when I was given a B grade in the class. I called my mom and said I may not be able to make it through UG
successfully. I was so used to the spotlight and suddenly I felt like I was a nobody.
Looking back, I realise that marks are not the be-all and end-all. I went on to do my PhD in bioengineering
at Caltech University and was honoured with the DARPA (Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency)
Young Investigator Award last year. In the last 10 years, Ive learnt that I became stronger by accepting failure
Anupama Lakshmanan
and challenges. While the quest for perfection is admirable, students shouldnt be obsessed with marks.
CBSE XII topper 2006
Pursuing PhD in bioengineering Centum is the end product of hard work so the focus should be on the process rather than the product.
at Caltech University, California Courtesy : The Times of India


 Class XII

T his specially designed column enables students to self analyse their

extent of understanding of specied chapters. Give yourself four
marks for correct answer and deduct one mark for wrong answer.
Self check table given at the end will help you to check your

The Solid State

Total Marks : 120 Time Taken : 60 Min.

NEET / AIIMS 5. Crystals may be coloured by

Only One Option Correct Type (a) the introduction of chemical impurities
(b) X-ray, -ray and electron bombardment
1. Ice crystallises in a hexagonal lattice having volume
(c) introducing an excess of the metal
of the unit cell as 132 1024 cm3. If density is
(d) all these methods.
0.92 g cm3 at a given temperature, then number of
H2O molecules per unit cell is 6. In a fcc arrangement of P and Q atoms, where P
(a) 1 (b) 2 (c) 3 (d) 4 atoms are at the corners of the unit cell, Q atoms
at the face centres and two atoms are missing from
2. For an ionic crystal of the general formula A+B and two corners in each unit cell, then the formula of
coordination number 6, the radius ratio will be the compound is
(a) greater than 0.73 (b) between 0.73 and 0.41 (a) P2Q3 (b) P4Q (c) P4Q5 (d) PQ4
(c) between 0.41 and 0.22 7. In crystals of which of the following ionic
(d) less than 0.22. compounds would you expect maximum distance
3. In a hexagonal close packed (hcp) structure of between centres of cations and anions?
spheres, the fraction of the volume occupied by the (a) LiF (b) CsF (c) CsI (d) LiI
sphere is A. In a cubic close packed structure, the 8. Potassium fluoride (KF) has NaCl structure. Its
fraction is B. The relation for A and B is density is 2.48 g cm3 and its molar mass is 58 g mol1.
(a) A = B (b) A < B What is the distance between K+ and F ions in KF?
(c) A > B (a) 268.7 pm (b) 249.1 pm
(d) A is equal to the fraction in a simple cubic lattice. (c) 537.5 pm (d) 213.1 pm
4. A sample of electrically neutral NaCl crystal is 9. A substance AxBy crystallises in a face centered cubic
analysed for its density which has some unoccupied (fcc) lattice in which atoms A occupy each corner
of the cube and atoms B occupy the centers of each
sites. Two readings were taken.
face of the cube. Identify the correct composition of
1. Density of NaCl crystal assuming all sites are
the substance AxBy.
occupied = 2.178 103 kg m3
(a) AB3 (b) A4B3
2. Density of NaCl crystal by not considering the (c) A3B
unoccupied sites but only the occupied sites (d) Composition cannot be specified.
= 2.165 103 kg m3
10. The concentration of cation vacancies (per mole) if
The percentage of unoccupied sites in NaCl crystal is
NaCl is doped with 103 mole % of SrCl2 is
(a) 5 102 (b) 5 101
(a) 1.04 1018 (b) 5.20 1018
(c) 5 (d) 5.68 (c) 6.02 1018 (d) 9.2 1020


11. If the three interaxial angles defining the unit cell then what is true about the predicted nature of the
are all equal in magnitude, the crystal cannot belong solid?
to the (a) Solid has fcc structure with coordination
(a) orthorhombic system number = 6.
(b) cubic system (b) Solid has simple cubic structure with
(c) hexagonal system (d) tetragonal system. coordination number = 4.
12. The resistance of mercury becomes almost zero at (c) Solid has fcc structure with coordination
(a) 4 K (b) 10 K (c) 20 K (d) 25 K number =1.
(d) None of these.
Assertion & Reason Type
19. A crystal is made of particles X, Y and Z. X forms
Directions : In the following questions, a statement of assertion fcc packing, Y occupies all octahedral voids of X
is followed by a statement of reason. Mark the correct choice and Z occupies all tetrahedral voids of X, if all the
as : particles along one body diagonal are removed then
(a) If both assertion and reason are true and reason is the the formula of the crystal would be
correct explanation of assertion. (a) XYZ2 (b) X2YZ2
(b) If both assertion and reason are true but reason is not the (c) X8Y4Z5 (d) X5Y4Z8
correct explanation of assertion.
(c) If assertion is true but reason is false. More than One Options Correct Type
(d) If both assertion and reason are false. 20. The correct statement(s) regarding defects solids
13. Assertion : Amorphous silica is a photovoltaic is/ are
substance. (a) Schottky defect is usually favoured by small
Reason : Photovoltaic substance converts sunlight difference in the sizes of cation and anion.
into electricity. (b) Schottky defect lowers the density of solids.
(c) compounds having F-centres are diamagnetic.
14. Assertion : In any ionic solid (MX) with Schottky
(d) Frenkel defect is dislocation defect.
defects, the number of positive and negative ions
are same. 21. Antiferromagnetic substances have zero value of
Reason : Equal number of cation and anion magnetic moment because the domains
vacancies are present. (a) get oriented in the direction of the applied
magnetic field
15. Assertion : Amorphous substances are isotropic. (b) get oriented opposite to the direction of the
Reason : Properties like refractive index, electrical applied magnetic field
conductance have different values in different (c) are oppositely oriented with respect to each
directions for isotropic substances. other without the application of the magnetic
Only One Option Correct Type (d) cancel out each others magnetic moment.
16. The numbers of tetrahedral and octahedral holes 22. Which of the following statements are correct?
in a ccp array of 100 atoms are respectively (a) A NaCl type AB-crystal lattice can be interpreted
(a) 200 and 100 (b) 100 and 200 to be made up of two individual fcc unit cells of
(c) 200 and 200 (d) 100 and 100 A+ and B fused together in such a manner that
the corner of one unit cell becomes the edge
17. When heated above 916 C, iron changes its crystal
center of the other.
structure from body centred cubic to cubic closed
(b) In a fcc unit cell, the body centre is an octahedral
packed structure. Assuming that the metallic radius
of the atom does not change, the ratio of density of
(c) In fcc unit cell, octahedral and tetrahedral voids
bcc crystal to that of the ccp crystal is
are equal.
(a) 0.681 (b) 0.531
(d) Tetrahedral voids = 2 octahedral voids, is
(c) 0.918 (d) 0.463
true for only ccp and hcp.
18. The density of KBr is 2.75 g/cc, length of the unit 23. Ferroelectricity is exhibited by
cell is 654 pm. Atomic masses are : K = 38, Br = 80, (a) barium titanate (BaTiO3)


(b) sodium potassium tartarate (Rochelles salt) Column I Column II
(c) potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KH2PO4)
(A) 74% occupancy of (P) Cubic close packing
(d) lead zirconate (PbZrO3).
space of identical spheres.
Integer Answer Type (B) Coordination (Q) Hexagonal close
24. The coordination number of barium ion, Ba2+ in number = 6 packing of identical
BaF2 is 8. The C.N. of F ion is spheres.
25. The unit cell cube length for a compound (NaCl (C) 68% occupancy of (R) Body centred cubic
type structure) is 4 . Assuming anion-anion space packing of identical
contact and if the radius of anion is given by x
then the value of x is (D) Coordination (S) Simple cubic packing
number = 12 of identical spheres.
26. Cesium atoms are the largest naturally occurring
(T) AB AB AB ..... type
atoms. The radius of Cs atom is 2.6 . The
of close packing of
number of moles of Cs atoms to be laid side by side
identical spheres.
to give a row of Cs atoms 2.50 cm long is x 1017.
The value of x is A B C D
(a) P, Q S Q, R P, Q
Comprehension Type (b) P, Q, T S R P, Q, T
The number of Schottky defect (n) present in an (c) P, Q, T R,S Q, R P, Q, T
ionic crystal containing N ions at temperature T is given (d) P, T Q,S R,T P, Q
by n = NeE/2kT where E is energy required to create n 30. Match the entries listed in Column I with appropriate
Schottky defects and k is Boltzmann constant. entries listed in Column II.
The number of Frenkel defects (n) in an ionic crystal
Column I Column II
N E /2kT
having N ions is given by n = where E (A) Zinc blende (P) Coordination number
N e
i structure of cation and anion are
is energy required to create n Frenkel defects and Ni is equal.
the number of interstitial sites.
a fcc 3
27. What is the mole fraction of Schottky defect in (B) Rock salt structure (Q) r+ + r =
NaCl crystal at 1000 K? The Hf of Schottky defect 4
is 2 eV and k = 1.38 1023 JK1. (C) Antifluorite (R) Coordination number
(a) e100 (b) e11.6 (c) e10 (d) e14 structure of cation < 6
28. Absorption of photons by crystal asc 3
(D) Cesium chloride (S) r+ + r =
(a) has no effect on imperfection structure 2
(b) produces atomic displacement leading to (T) Anion form fcc lattice.
imperfections A B C D
(c) decreases number of defects (a) P, Q,R S, T Q, R P, S
(d) none of these. (b) P, Q, R,T S, T P, S S
Matrix Match Type (c) P, Q, R, T P, T Q, R, T P, S
(d) P, Q, R, T S,T Q,R P, Q
29. Match the entries listed in Column I with appropriate
entries listed in Column II. Keys are published in this issue. Search now!

Check your score! If your score is

> 90% EXCELLENT WORK ! You are well prepared to take the challenge of nal exam.

No. of questions attempted 90-75% GOOD WORK ! You can score good in the nal exam.
No. of questions correct 74-60% SATISFACTORY ! You need to score more next time
Marks scored in percentage < 60% NOT SATISFACTORY! Revised thoroughly and strengthen your concepts.


C hemistry Musing was started from August '13 issue of Chemistry Today with the suggestion of
Shri Mahabir Singh. The aim of Chemistry Musing is to augment the chances of bright students preparing for
JEE (Main and Advanced) / NEET / AIIMS / PETs with additional study material.
In every issue of Chemistry Today, 10 challenging problems are proposed in various topics of JEE (Main and
Advanced) / NEET. The detailed solutions of these problems will be published in next issue of Chemistry Today.
The readers who have solved five or more problems may send their solutions. The names of those who send
atleast five correct solutions will be published in the next issue.
We hope that our readers will enrich their problem solving skills through "Chemistry Musing" and stand in better
stead while facing the competitive exams.

JEE MAIN/NEET 4. Lanthanum has a stable isotope 139La and

1. 12 mL of a gas mixture containing CO, C3H8 and radioactive isotope 138La of half life 1.1 1010 years
N2 is taken, 25 mL O2 is added and the combustion whose atoms are 0.1% of those of the stable isotope.
is allowed to take place in eudiometer tube. After The rate of decay or activity of 138La with 1 kg of
La (Avogadros number, N = 6 1023 mol1) is
cooling, the contraction in volume is measured to
(a) 8617 s1 (b) 8421 s1
be 15 mL. After the gas is passed through KOH 1
(c) 4001 s (d) 3002 s1
solution, the volume of the residual gas is 4 mL.
What is the percentage by volume of CO in the 5. SnCl2 is dissolved in sodium hydroxide to give a
original mixture? compound (P) which dissolves in excess NaOH to
(a) 33.33% (b) 16.67% give (Q). (Q) then reacts with Bi(OH)3 to form a
(c) 50% (d) 51% black substance (R). Hence,
(a) compound P = Sn(OH)2
2. 25 mL of 2 N HCl, 50 mL of 4 N HNO3 and x mL of (b) compound Q = Na2SnO2
5 M H2SO4 are mixed together and the total volume (c) substance R = Na2SnO3
is made up to 1 L with water, 50 mL of this acid (d) substance R = Bi
mixture exactly neutralizes 25 mL of a 1 N Na2CO3
solution. The value of x is
(a) 25 mL (b) 40 mL 6. C9H12O(A) rotates the plane polarised light,
(c) 60 mL (d) 50 mL evolves H2 with Na metal, reacts with I2 and NaOH
to produce yellow ppt. of CHI3. It reacts with Lucas
3. Which of the following acids has lowest value of reagent in five minutes. It does not react with
dissociation constant? Br2/CCl4. It reacts with hot KMnO4 to form
(a)   compound (B) C7H6O2 which can be obtained
 by reaction of benzene with carbonyl chloride in
(b)    presence of AlCl3, followed by hydrolysis. It loses
optical activity as a result of formation of compound
 (C) on being heated with HI and red P. Which of
(c)    the following is incorrect?
(a) The molecular weight of (C) is 120.

(b) The compound (C) is isopropyl benzene.
(c) The compound (A) is 1-phenylpropan-2-ol.
 (d) The compound (B) is benzoic acid.



All alloy of two metals  and  9. 2.0 g of dolomite was heated to a constant weight of
1.0 g. The total volume of the CO2 produced at STP
Hot and dil. HNO3
(Ca = 40, Mg = 24, C = 12, O = 16) by this reaction
Aqueous solution of 1 and 1 is (0.5 103 x) mL. The value of x is
KI 10. Of the following reactions how many reactions are
considered as oxidation reaction?
4 Filtrate 2 ppt. 2  KMnO4/OH
White NaOH Excess
(excess) of KI 
3(.)  + 3(.) (c) (d) 

KOH (e) (f) 

colour ppt.
7. Consider the following statements : 


(I) Metal P is used in hydrometallurgy of Au.  


(II) Cation in Q2 is diamagnetic.     

(III) Coordination number of Q in Q3 is four. 
(IV) Q2 is a red colour precipitate.   



Using T for True and F for False statements in the 
given sequence, select the correct set of codes. 

(a) TFTF (b) TTTF 
(c) FTTT (d) FFTT           

8. Pick the correct statement. 


"    #
(a) Alloy (P + Q) alongwith HCl can be used in        
Clemmensen reduction. "                
(b) Oxide of Q is thermally more stable than that    
of P.  
(c) If alloy (P + Q) would have been treated with 

conc. HNO3 and then with KI, P would have 
resulted a green coloured precipitate.
(d) When alloy reacts with dil. HCl, only Q gives
Winners of May 2016 Crossword
H2 gas and its chloride.
s Devjit Acharjee, Kolkata
s Debasrija Mondal, West Bengal
MPP-1 CLASS XII ANSWER KEY s Samrat Gupta, Kolkata
1. (d) 2. (b) 3. (a) 4. (b) 5. (d) Winner of June 2016 Crossword
6. (d) 7. (c) 8. (a) 9. (a) 10. (c) s Debasrija Mondal, West Bengal
11. (c) 12. (a) 13. (b) 14. (a) 15. (c) Solution Sender of Chemistry Musing
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Set - 35
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s Indranil Roy, West Bengal
26. (8) 27. (b) 28. (b) 29. (b) 30. (c)


1. Which of the following species is isoelectronic 6. When acetylene undergoes stepwise hydrogenation,
with CO? what is the change in hybridisation of C at each step
(a) HF (b) N2 (c) N+2 (d) O2 starting from acetylene?
2. Which of the following is correct increasing order (a) sp, sp2, sp3 (b) sp3, sp, sp2
(c) sp2, sp, sp2 (d) sp, sp2, sp
of pH of the hydroxide solution of T, P and X ?
7. Ketones (R1COR2); R1 = R2 = alkyl group, can be
obtained in one step by
(a) hydrolysis of esters
(b) oxidation of primary alcohols
(c) oxidation of secondary alcohols
(d) reaction of acid halides and alcohols.
(a) T < P < X (b) X < P < T
(c) P < T < X (d) P < X < T 8. In aniline the NH2 group
(a) activates benzene ring via both inductive and
3. At low pressure, the van der Waals equation is resonance effects
reduced to (b) deactivates the benzene via both inductive and
(a) Z = m = 1 a resonance effects
RT RTVm (c) activates the benzene ring via resonance effect
PVm bP and deactivates it via inductive effect
(b) Z = = 1+ (d) activates the benzene ring via inductive effect
and deactivates it via resonance effect.
(c) PVm = RT
9. Calculate the weight of metal deposited when a
PVm a
(d) Z = =1 current of 15 ampere with 75% current efficiency is
RT RT passed through the cell for 2 hours.
4. Which of the following statements is incorrect ? (Electrochemical equivalent of metal = 4 104)
(a) Oxides of highly electropositive metals can be (a) 32.4 g (b) 43.2 g
reduced by carbon at high temperature. (c) 57.6 g (d) 16.2 g
(b) In smelting to get tin from SnO2, excess lime 10. Which of the given statements does not elucidate
must be avoided. the equilibrium state precisely?
(c) Anodizing is done to produce an oxide coating (a) The equilibrium can be approached from either
on a metal surface by making it the anode direction.
during electrolysis. (b) The equilibrium can be attained only if the
(d) Slag is usually lighter and floats on the surface system is an isolated system.
of the molten metal. (c) The free energy change at constant pressure
5. Phenol on oxidation gives quinone. The oxidant and temperature is zero.
used is (d) It is dynamic in nature.
(a) K2S2O8 (b) KMnO4 11. Which of the following structures for CCl4 will
(c) Na2Cr2O7, H2SO4 (d) none of these. have a zero dipole moment?


(a) Trigonal bipyramidal (a) a blue colour is obtained in ether due to
(b) Square pyramid (carbon at apex) formation of Cr2(SO4)3
(c) Irregular tetrahedron (b) a blue colour is obtained in ether due to
(d) Regular tetrahedron formation of CrO5
12. B.O.D values of four samples of water A, B, C and D (c) a blue colour is obtained in ether due to
formation of CrO3
is given below :
(d) chromyl chloride is formed.
A. 160 ppm B. 35 ppm
C. 180 ppm D. 25 ppm 19. A tripeptide (X) on partial hydrolysis gave two
The decreasing order of extent of pollution in water is dipeptides Cys-Gly and Glu-Cys, i.e.,
(a) C > A > D > B (b) D > B > A > C  
(c) C > A > B > D (d) D > A > B > C       
13. Mixture X containing 0.02 mol of [Co(NH3)5SO4Br] 
and 0.02 mol of [Co(NH3)5Br]SO4 was dissolved 
in water to get 2 L of solution.

1 L of X + Excess of AgNO3 Y mol of ppt.
1 L of X + Excess of BaCl2 Z mol of ppt.
Number of moles of Y and Z are respectively
(a) 0.01, 0.01 (b) 0.02, 0.01 
(c) 0.01, 0.02 (d) 0.02, 0.02 Identify the tripeptide.
(a) Glu-Cys-Gly (b) Gly-Glu-Cys
14. The ether that undergoes electrophilic substitution
(c) Cys-Gly-Glu (d) Cys-Glu-Gly
reactions is
(a) CH3OC2H5 (b) C6H5OCH3 20. A metal crystallises with a face-centred cubic lattice.
(c) CH3OCH3 (d) C2H5OC2H5 The edge of the unit cell is 408 pm. The diameter of
the metal atom is
15. The factor of G values is important in metallurgy.
(a) 288 pm (b) 408 pm
The G values for the following reactions at 800C
(c) 144 pm (d) 204 pm
are given as :
S2(g) + 2O2(g) 2SO2(g); G = 544 kJ 21. The product (CH2OCOCH3)2 is obtained by the
2Zn(s) + S2(g) 2ZnS(s); G = 293 kJ reaction of
2Zn(s) + O2(g) 2ZnO(s); G = 480 kJ (a) acetone and glycol
The G for the reaction, (b) ethanal and ethanol
(c) glycol and CH3COCl
2ZnS(s) + 3O2(g) 2ZnO(s) + 2SO2(g) will be
(d) glycerol and (CH3CO)2O.
(a) 731 kJ (b) 773 kJ
(c) 229 kJ (d) 357 kJ 22. An element A in a compound ABD has oxidation
number An. It is oxidised by Cr2O72 in acidic
16. Aluminium is more reactive than iron but
medium. In the experiment 1.68 103 mole of
aluminium is less easily corroded than iron
K2Cr2O7 were used for 3.26 103 mole of ABD.
The new oxidation number of A after oxidation is
(a) aluminium is a noble metal
(a) 3 (b) 3 n (c) n 3 (d) + n
(b) iron undergoes reaction easily with water
(c) aluminium with oxygen forms a protective 23. Two oxides of a certain metal were separately heated
oxide layer in a current of hydrogen until constant weights
(d) iron forms mono and divalent ions. were obtained. The water produced in each case was
carefully collected and weighed. 2 g of each oxide
17. Which of the following alkali metal ions has lowest gave, respectively 0.2517 g and 0.4526 g of water.
ionic mobility in aqueous solution? This observation illustrates
(a) Rb+ (b) Cs+ (c) Li+ (d) Na+ (a) law of conservation of mass
18. When H2O2 is added to ice cold solution of acidified (b) law of constant proportions
potassium dichromate in ether and the contents are (c) law of multiple proportions
shaken and allowed to stand (d) law of reciprocal proportions.


24. Repeated Hoffmann elimination (exhaustive (a) the basic strength of the hydrides increases
methylation followed by heating with AgOH) (b) almost pure p-orbitals are used for M H bonds
will often remove a nitrogen atom from an amine (c) the bond energies of M H bonds increase
molecule. (d) the bond pairs of electrons become nearer to
 the central atom.

29. Among LiCl, BeCl2, BCl3 and CCl4, the covalent
Which of the following compounds is likely to be a bond character varies as
product in this case? (a) LiCl < BeCl2 > BCl3 > CCl4
(b) BCl3 > BeCl2 > CCl4 > LiCl4
(a) (b) (c) LiCl < BeCl2 < BCl3 < CCl4
(d) LiCl > BeCl2 > BCl3 > CCl4
(c) (d) 30. In the clathrates of xenon with water, the nature of
bonding between xenon and water molecules is
25. In the following sequence of reactions, the (a) covalent
compound B is. (b) hydrogen bonding
  (c) coordinate
 (d) dipole-induced dipole interaction.
(a) CH3CHO (b) CH3CH2CHO 31. The end product (C) in the following reaction
(c) CH3COCH3 (d) CH3CH2COCH3 sequence is
26. Which of the following does not show Br2, red P OH () 
CH3 CH3 
(a) C C (a) CH2 CHCOOH (b)  
H H   
CH3 H 
CO NH   
(b) C C 
NH CO (c) (d)
H CH3   

32. Natural silk and artificial silk differ in one respect
27. Which of the following statements is not correct ?
that one of them contains
(a) A nucleoside is an N-glycoside of heterocyclic
(a) nitrogen (b) sulphur
(c) phosphorus (d) none of these.
(b) Nucleotides are phosphoesters of nucleosides.
(c) The structure of ribose sugar is 33. The right order of the solubility of sulphates of
alkaline earth metals in water is
(a) Be > Ca > Mg > Ba > Sr
   (b) Mg > Be > Ba > Ca > Sr
    (c) Be > Mg > Ca > Sr > Ba
  (d) Mg > Ca > Ba > Be > Sr
(d) A nucleotide has the following typical linkage 34. An organic compound X when exposed to sunlight
  and air, it slowly decomposes into a poisonous gas
Y and HCl. To prevent from decomposition, X is


  stored in dark brown coloured bottle and in 1%
28. In nitrogen family, the H M H bond angle in the ethyl alcohol. This retards the decomposition and
hydrides gradually becomes closer to 90 on going converts Y into harmless compound Z. Identify X,
form N to Sb. This shows that gradually Y and Z.


(a) CCl4, COCl2, C2H5CO3 (b) increase in activation energy of reactants
(b) CHCl3, COCl2, (C2H5)2CO3 (c) decrease in activation energy of reactants
(c) CCl4, CO2, (C2H5)2CO3 (d) increase in the number of collisions between
(d) CHCl3, COCl2, C2H6CO3 reacting molecules.
35. Which of the following compounds is used as a 42. The correct statements regarding defects in solids is
body deodorant ? (a) Frenkel defect is usually favoured by a very small
(a) Aspirin (b) Omeprazole difference in the sizes of cation and anion
(c) Indigosol-O (d) p-Chlorometaxylenol (b) Frenkel defect is a dislocation defect
36. A greenish yellow gas reacts with an alkali metal (c) trapping of protons in the lattice leads to the
hydroxide to form a halate which can be used in formation of F-center
fireworks and safety matches. The gas and halate (d) Schottky defects have no effect on the physical
respectively are properties of solids.
(a) Br2, KBrO3 (b) Cl2, KClO3 43. Of the following statements about enzymes, which
(c) I2, NaIO3 (d) Cl2, NaClO3 one is true?
37. Which of the following reactions will occur on (i) Enzymes lack in specific active sites.
heating AgNO3 at red heat? (ii) Enzymes are highly specific both in binding
(a) 2AgNO3 2AgNO2 + O2 chiral substrates and in catalysing their reactions.
(b) 2AgNO3 2Ag + 2NO2 + O2 (iii) Enzymes catalyse chemical reactions by
(c) AgNO3 Ag + NO + O2 lowering the activation energy.
(d) 2AgNO3 2Ag + N2 + 3O2 (iv) Pepsin is a proteolytic enzyme.
(a) (i) and (iv) (b) (i) and (iii)
38. Two elements A and B form compounds having
(c) (ii), (iii) and (iv) (d) only (i).
molecular formulae AB2 and AB4, when dissolved
in 20 g of C6H6. 1 g AB2 lowers the freezing point 44. According to Kohlrausch law, the limiting value of
by 2.3 K whereas 1.0 g of AB4 lowers it by 1.3 K. molar conductivity of an electrolyte, A2B is

The molal depression constant for benzene is (a) ( A+ ) + ( B ) (b) ( A+ ) ( B )
5.1 K kg moll. The atomic masses of A and B are,
respectively 1
(c) 2 + + (d) 2( A+ ) + ( B )
(a) 26, 42.64 (b) 31.72, 47.02 (A ) 2 (B )
(c) 13.11, 24.25 (d) 19.17, 35.01 45. In Cannizzaro reaction given below
39. In sodium fusion test of organic compounds, the 2 PhCHO PhCH2 OH + PhCOO
nitrogen of the organic compound is converted into
the slowest step is
(a) sodamide (b) sodium cyanide
(a) the attack of :OH at the carboxyl group
(c) sodium nitrite (d) sodium nitrate.
(b) the transfer of hydride to the carbonyl group
40. Knowing that the chemistry of lanthanoids (Ln) is (c) the abstraction of proton from the carboxylic
dominated by its +3 oxidation state, which of the group
following statements is incorrect? (d) the deprotonation of PhCH2OH
(a) Because of the large size of the Ln(III) ions the
bonding in its compounds is predominantly ANSWER KEYS
ionic in character. 1. (b) 2. (b) 3. (a) 4. (a) 5. (c)
(b) The ionic sizes of Ln(III) decrease in general 6. (a) 7. (c) 8. (c) 9. (a) 10. (b)
with increasing atomic number. 11. (d) 12. (c) 13. (a) 14. (b) 15. (a)
(c) Ln(III) compounds are generally colourless. 16. (c) 17. (c) 18. (b) 19. (a) 20. (a)
(d) Ln(III) hydroxides are mainly basic in character. 21. (c) 22. (b) 23. (c) 24. (b) 25. (a)
41. For a reaction, the rate of reaction was found to 26. (c) 27. (c) 28. (b) 29. (c) 30. (d)
increase about 1.8 times when the temperature was 31. (c) 32. (a) 33. (c) 34. (b) 35. (d)
increased by 10C. The increase in rate is not due to 36. (b) 37. (b) 38. (a) 39. (b) 40. (c)
(a) increase in number of active molecules 41. (b) 42. (b) 43. (c) 44. (d) 45. (b)



SECTION 1 (Maximum Marks : 15) 4. The increasing order of atomic radii of the following
This section contains FIVE questions. group 13 elements is
Each question has FOUR options (A), (B), (C) and (D). ONLY (a) Al < Ga < In < Tl (b) Ga < Al < In < Tl
ONE of these four options is correct.
(c) Al < In < Ga < Tl (d) Al < Ga < Tl < In
For each question, darken the bubble corresponding to the
correct option in the ORS. 5. On complete hydrogenation, natural rubber produces
For each question, marks will be awarded in one of the following (a) ethylene-propylene copolymer
categories : (b) vulcanised rubber
Full Marks : +3 If only the bubble corresponding to the correct (c) polypropylene (d) polybutylene.
option is darkened.
Zero Marks : 0 If none of the bubbles is darkened. SECTION 2 (Maximum Marks : 32)
Negative Marks : 1 In all other cases. This section contains EIGHT questions.
Each question has FOUR options (A), (B), (C) and (D). ONE OR
1. P is the probability of finding the 1s electron of MORE THAN ONE of these four option(s) is(are) correct.
hydrogen atom in a spherical shell of infinitesimal For each question, darken the bubble(s) corresponding to all
thickness dr, at a distance r from the nucleus. The the correct option(s) in the ORS.
For each question, marks will be awarded in one of the following
volume of this shell is 4r2dr. The qualitative sketch categories :
of the dependence of P on r is Full Marks : +4 If only the bubble(s) corresponding to the
 correct option(s) is(are) darkened.
Partial Marks : +1 For darkening a bubble corresponding
to each correct option, provided NO incorrect option is
(a) (b) darkened.
Zero Marks : 0 If none of the bubbles is darkened.
  Negative Marks : 2 In all other cases.
 For example, if (A), (C) and (D) are all the correct options for
 a question, darkening all these three will result in +4 marks;
darkening only (A) and (D) will result in +2 marks; and darkening
(c) (d) (A) and (B) will result in 2 marks, as a wrong option is also

6. The product(s) of the following reaction sequence
2. One mole of an ideal gas at 300 K in thermal contact NH2 (i) Acetic anhydride/pyridine
with surroundings expands isothermally from 1.0 L (ii) KBrO3/HBr
to 2.0 L against a constant pressure of 3.0 atm. In (iii) H3O+, heat
this process, the change in entropy of surroundings (iv) NaNO2/HCl, 273 278 K
(Ssurr) in J K1 is (1 L atm = 101.3 J) (v) Cu/HBr
(a) 5.763 (b) 1.013 (c) 1.013 (d) 5.763
3. Among [Ni(CO)4], [NiCl4]2, [Co(NH3)4Cl2]Cl,
Na3[CoF6], Na2O2 and CsO2, the total number of (a) (b)
paramagnetic compounds is
(a) 2 (b) 3 (c) 4 (d) 5


12. The compound(s) with two lone pairs of electrons
on the central atom is(are)
(c) (d) (a) BrF5 (b) ClF3 (c) XeF4 (d) SF4
13. According to the Arrhenius equation,
(a) a high activation energy usually implies a fast
7. The correct statement(s) about the following reaction
(b) rate constant increases with increase in
sequence is(are)
temperature. This is due to a greater number of

       collisions whose energy exceeds the activation
 (c) higher the magnitude of activation energy,

(a) R is steam volatile stronger is the temperature dependence of the
(b) Q gives dark violet colouration with 1% aqueous rate constant
FeCl3 solution (d) the pre-exponential factor is a measure of the
(c) S gives yellow precipitate with 2, 4-dinitro- rate at which collisions occur, irrespective of
phenylhydrazine their energy.
(d) S gives dark violet colouration with 1% aqueous SECTION 3 (Maximum Marks : 15)
FeCl3 solution. This section contains FIVE questions.
The answer to each question is a SINGLE DIGIT INTEGER
8. The crystalline form of borax has ranging from 0 to 9, both inclusive.
(a) tetranuclear [B4O5(OH)4]2 unit For each question, darken the bubble corresponding to the
correct integer in the ORS.
(b) all boron atoms in the same plane
For each question, marks will be awarded in one of the following
(c) equal number of sp2 and sp3 hybridized boron categories :
atoms Full Marks : +3 If only the bubble corresponding to the correct
(d) one terminal hydroxide per boron atom. answer is darkened.
Zero Marks : 0 In all other cases.
9. The reagent(s) that can selectively precipitate S2
14. In the following monobromination reaction, the
from a mixture of S2 and SO42 in aqueous solution
number of possible chiral products is
is (are) 
(a) CuCl2 (b) BaCl2

(c) Pb(OOCCH3)2 (d) Na2[Fe(CN)5NO]  

10. A plot of the number of neutrons (N) against the

number of protons (P) of stable nuclei exhibits  

upward deviation from linearity for atomic number, 

Z > 20. For an unstable nucleus having N/P ratio less 15. The mole fraction of a solute in a solution is 0.1.
than 1, the possible mode(s) of decay is(are) At 298 K, molarity of this solution is the same as
(a) -decay ( emission) its molality. Density of this solution at 298 K is
(b) orbital or K-electron capture 2.0 g cm3. The ratio of the molecular weights of the
(c) neutron emission MWsolute
(d) +-decay (positron emission). solute and solvent, is
MW ,
11. Positive Tollens test is observed for 16. The number of geometric isomers possible for the
complex [CoL2Cl2] (L = H2NCH2CH2O) is
(a) (b) 17. In neutral or faintly alkaline solution, 8 moles
of permanganate anion quantitatively oxidize
thiosulphate anions to produce X moles of a sulphur
containing product. The magnitude of X is
(c) (d) 18. The diffusion coefficient of an ideal gas is proportional
to its mean free path and mean speed. The absolute


temperature of an ideal gas is increased 4 times and diffusion coefficient of this gas increases x times. The
its pressure is increased 2 times. As a result, the value of x is
SECTION 1 (Maximum Marks : 18) 2. The major product of the following reaction sequence
This section contains SIX questions. is
Each question has FOUR options (A), (B), (C) and (D). ONLY ONE 
of these four options is correct. 
For each question, darken the bubble corresponding to the
correct option in the ORS.   

For each question, marks will be awarded in one of the following
categories :
Full Marks : +3 If only the bubble corresponding to the correct
option is darkened. (a) (b)
Zero Marks : 0 If none of the bubbles is darkened.
Negative Marks : 1 In all other cases.
1. The correct order of acidity for the following
compounds is (c) (d)

3. In the following reaction sequence in aqueous
solution, the species X, Y and Z, respectively,
Ag+ Ag+ With time
Clear White Black
solution precipitate precipitate
(a) I > II > III > IV (a) [Ag(S2O3)2]3, Ag2S2O3, Ag2S
(b) III > I > II > IV (b) [Ag(S2O3)3]5, Ag2SO3, Ag2S
(c) III > IV > II > I
(c) [Ag(SO3)2]3, Ag2S2O3, Ag
(d) I > III > IV> II
(d) [Ag(SO3)3]3, Ag2SO4, Ag
4. The qualitative sketches I, II and III given below show the variation of surface tension with molar concentration
of three different aqueous solutions KCl, CH3OH and CH3(CH2)11OSO3Na+ at room temperature. The correct
assignment of the sketches is



(a) I : KCl II : CH3OH III : CH3(CH2)11OSO3Na+

(b) I : CH3(CH2)11OSO3Na+ II : CH3OH III : KCl
(c) I : KCl II : CH3(CH2)11OSO3Na+ III : CH3OH
(d) I : CH3OH II : KCl III : CH3(CH2)11OSO3Na+
5. The geometries of the ammonia complexes of Ni2+, 6. For the following electrochemical cell at 298 K,
Pt2+ and Zn2+, respectively, are Pt(s)|H2(g), (1 bar)|H+(aq), (1 M)||M4+ 2+
(aq), M (aq)|Pt(s)
[M(2aq )]
(a) octahedral, square planar and tetrahedral Ecell = 0.092 V when = 10 x
[M(aq) ]
(b) square planar, octahedral and tetrahedral RT
Given : E 4 + 2 + = 0.151 V; 2.303 = 0.059 V
(c) tetrahedral, square planar and octahedral M /M F
The value of x is
(d) octahedral, tetrahedral and square planar. (a) 2 (b) 1 (c) 1 (d) 2


SECTION 2 (Maximum Marks : 32) (c) self-reduction step to produce 'blister copper'
This section contains EIGHT questions. following evolution of SO2
Each question has FOUR options (A), (B), (C) and (D). ONE OR (d) refining of 'blister copper' by carbon reduction.
MORE THAN ONE of these four option(s) is(are) correct.
For each question, darken the bubble(s) corresponding to all the 11. The nitrogen containing compound produced in the
correct option(s) in the ORS. reaction of HNO3 with P4O10
For each question, marks will be awarded in one of the following (a) can also be prepared by reaction of P4 and HNO3
categories : (b) is diamagnetic
Full Marks : +4 If only the bubble(s) corresponding to all the
correct option(s) is(are) darkened.
(c) contains one N N bond
Partial Marks : +1 For darkening a bubble corresponding (d) reacts with Na metal producing brown gas.
to each correct option, provided NO incorrect option is 12. Mixture(s) showing positive deviation from Raoult's
Zero Marks : 0 If none of the bubbles is darkened.
law at 35C is(are)
Negative Marks : 2 In all other cases. (a) carbon tetrachloride + methanol
For example, if (A), (C) and (D) are all the correct options for (b) carbon disulphide + acetone
a question, darkening all these three will result in +4 marks; (c) benzene + toluene (d) phenol + aniline.
darkening only (A) and (D) will result in +2 marks; and darkening
(A) and (B) will result in 2 marks, as a wrong option is also 13. For invert sugar, the correct statement(s) is(are)
darkened. (Given : specific rotations of (+)-sucrose,
7. According to molecular orbital theory, (+)-maltose, L-()-glucose and L-(+)-fructose in
(a) C22 is expected to be diamagnetic aqueous solution are +66, +140, 52 and +92,
(b) O22+ is expected to have a longer bond length (a) 'invert sugar' is prepared by acid catalyzed
than O2 hydrolysis of maltose
(c) N2+ and N2 have the same bond order (b) 'invert sugar' is an equimolar mixture of
(d) He2+ has the same energy as two isolated He D-(+)-glucose and D-()-fructose
atoms. (c) specific rotation of invert sugar is 20
8. The correct statement(s) for cubic close packed (ccp) (d) on reaction with Br2 water, 'invert sugar' forms
three dimensional structure is(are) saccharic acid as one of the products
(a) the number of the nearest neighbours of an atom 14. Among the following, reaction(s) which gives(give)
present in the topmost layer is 12 tert-butyl benzene as the major product is(are)
(b) the efficiency of atom packing is 74%

(c) the number of octahedral and tetrahedral voids
(a) (b)
per atom are 1 and 2, respectively  
(d) the unit cell edge length is 2 2 times the radius
of the atom. 
(c) (d)
9. Reagent(s) which can be used to bring about the  
following transformation is(are) SECTION 3 (Maximum Marks : 12)
This section contains TWO paragraphs.
    Based on each paragraph, there are TWO questions.
   Each question has FOUR options (A), (B), (C) and (D). ONLY ONE
of these four options is correct.
 For each question, darken the bubble corresponding to the
 correct option in the ORS.
  For each question, marks will be awarded in one of the following
  categories :
(a) LiAlH4 in (C2H5)2O (b) BH3 in THF Full Marks : +3 If only the bubble corresponding to the correct
(c) NaBH4 in C2H5OH (d) Raney Ni/H2 in THF. option is darkened.
Zero Marks : 0 In all other cases.
10. Extraction of copper from copper pyrite (CuFeS2)
involves PARAGRAPH 1
(a) crushing followed by concentration of the ore Thermal decomposition of gaseous X2 to gaseous X at
by froth-floatation 298 K takes place according to the following equation :
(b) removal of iron as slag X2( g ) 2 X( g )


The standard reaction Gibbs energy, rG, of this reaction SOLUTIONS
is positive. At the start of the reaction, there is one mole PAPER-I
of X2 and no X. As the reaction proceeds, the number
1. (c)
of moles of X formed is given by . Thus, equilibrium is the
2. (c) : For isothermal expansion, U = 0
number of moles of X formed at equilibrium. The reaction
As pressure is constant therefore, process is
is carried out at a constant total pressure of 2 bar. Consider
the gases to behave ideally.
qirrev = wirrev = (PV) = [3(2 1)]
(Given : R = 0.083 L bar K1 mol1)
= 3 L atm = 3 101.3 J
15. The equilibrium constant Kp for this reaction at q 3 101.3 J
298 K, in terms of equilibrium, is Ssurr = irrev = = 1.013 J K 1
T 300 K
82equilibrium 82equilibrium 3. (b) 4. (b) 5. (a)
(a) (b) 
2 equilibrium 4 2equilibrium

(c) (d)

2 equilibrium 4 2equilibrium 6. (b) :

16. The incorrect statement among the following, for O

this reaction, is O NH2 NH CH3
(a) decrease in the total pressure will result in C H3O+, 
formation of more moles of gaseous X HO CH3 +
(b) at the start of the reaction, dissociation of
gaseous X2 takes place spontaneously Br Br
(c) equilibrium = 0.7 NaNO2/HCl (Diazotisation
(d) Kc < 1 273 278 K reaction)

N NCl Br
Treatment of compound O with KMnO4/H+
gave P, which on heating with ammonia Cu/HBr
gave Q. The compound Q on treatment with reaction)
Br2/NaOH produced R. On strong heating, Br Br
Q gave S, which on further treatment with 7. (b,c)
ethyl 2-bromopropanoate in the presence  8. (a, c, d) : The formula of borax is
of KOH followed by acidification, gave a Na 2 [B 4 O 5 (OH) 4 ]8H 2 O which contains the
compound T. tetranuclear unit [B4O5(OH)4]2.
17. The compound R is OH
O B O 2
(a) (b) 2 O B 3 O

Only two B atoms lie in the same plane as two
B atoms are sp2 hybridized and other two B atoms
are sp3 hybridized.
(c) (d) 9. (a)
10. (b,d) : Nuclides with Z > 20 lying below the stability
18. The compound T is belt decay by + (positron) emission or K-electron
(a) glycine (b) alanine capture so, that N/P ratio increases to (N + 1)/(Z 1).
(c) valine (d) serine. 11. (a,b,c) 12. (b,c) 13. (b,c,d)


14. (5) : Total five products are formed. PAPER-II
  1. (a)
  C + H C H (Cross aldol
2. (a) :


  CH3 condensation)


  O CH3
H C H+
  (Cross CH2OH




  (Acetal formation takes place)

  3. (a)
 4. (d) :
Surface tension

15. (9)
16. (5) : Total five isomers are possible :
CH3(CH2)11OSO3 Na+
Cl Cl
Co Co Concentration
O O H2N O For KCl curve-Increase of surface tension for
Cl Cl


inorganic salts.
NH2 NH2 For CH 3OH curve-Decrease of surface tension
Cl O NH2 O progressively for alcohols.
Co Co For CH 3 (CH 2 ) 11 OSO 3 Na + curve- Decrease of
Cl NH2 O Cl
O Cl surface tension before CMC (Critical Micelle

(III) (IV) Concentration) and then almost unchanged.
Cl O 5. (a)
Cl O 6. (d) : For the given electrochemical cell, the reactions
NH2 are
17. (6)
(V) At anode : H2(g) 2H+(aq) + 2e
(aq) + 2e M (aq)
At cathode : M4+ 2+
18. (4) : Diffusion coefficient Cmean
(aq) M (aq) + 2H(aq)
H2(g) + M4+ 2+ +
and Cmean T
T 0.059 [M 2 + ][H + ]2
Diffusion coefficient T Ecell = Ecell log
P 2 [M 4 + ]

Diffusion coefficient
T 3/ 2
P (
0.092 = EM 4 + /M 2 + EH+ /H
2 )
log(10 x [H + ]2 )
If T is increased four times and pressure is increased 0.059
0.092 = (0.151 0) log (10x 12 )
two times diffusion coefficient will become 4 times. 2


0.092 = 0.151 0.0295 log 10x eq
0.0295 log 10x = 0.151 0.092 1 2
0.059 pX = Ptotal
log 10x = 1 + eq
10 =Antilog 2 = 102 x = 2
x 2
7. (a,c) 8. (b,c,d) Ptotal
1 + 2
9. (c) : NaBH 4 in C 2 H 5 OH reduces specifically 2
aldehyde to alcohol and do not reduce acid, ester Kp = = Ptotal
and epoxide. eq 2eq
2 P
10. (a,b,c) total 4
11. (b,d) : P4O10 + 4HNO3 2N2O5 + 4HPO3 1 + eq

N2O5 cannot be obtained by reaction of P4 and HNO3, 2
P4 + 20HNO3 20NO2 + 4H3PO4 + 4H2O 42 42 82eq
eq eq

= Ptotal = 2=
 4 2eq 4 2eq 4 e2q


16. (c) : (a) If the pressure on the system is decreased,

the equilibrium will shift in the direction in which
  pressure increases i.e., increase in no. of moles takes
place i.e., in forward direction.
Hence, it is diamagnetic and does not have NN bond.
(b) At the start of the reaction, Q < K thus, the
N2O5 is decomposed by alkali metals,
reaction will proceed in the forward direction i.e.,
N2O5 + Na NaNO3 + NO2 reaction is spontaneous.
(Brown gas)
8 (0.7)2
12. (a,b) (c) If eq = 0.7 then, Kp = >1
4 (0.7)2
13. (b,c) : Invert sugar is prepared by acid catalyzed G = RT lnKp so, G = ve but given G = +ve
hydrolysis of sucrose. so, Kp should be less than 1 hence, eq 0.7.
C12H22O11 + H2O
C6H12O6 + C6H12O6 (d) Kp = Kc (RT)n
Sucrose -(+)-Glucose -()-Fructose Kc < Kp ( RT > 1)
If Kp < 1 then Kc < 1
Invert sugar

Specific rotation of invert sugar is 17. (a) : 

[]mix = 0.5 (+52) + 0.5 ( 92) = + 26 46 = 20 

On reaction with Br2 water, invert sugar forms  

gluconic acid as one of the products. Br2 water 
oxidises glucose into gluconic acid and fructose is


not oxidised by it.  

14. (b,c,d)

15. (b) : X2(g) 2X(g)
At t = 0, 1 0

At eq. 1 eq 
( pX )2

Kp =
( pX )

eq eq 18. (b)

pX = Ptotal = Ptotal

1 eq + 1 + eq For detail solutions refer to :
2 eq 2 MTG JEE Advanced Explorer, 39 years JEE Advanced Chapterwise Solutions.


Total number of moles of carbon dioxide formed

  can be calculated from the observed mass of carbon
14.5 g
dioxide : = 0.330 mol of CO2
SOLUTION SET 35 44.0 g/ mol
1. (d) The total number of moles of CO2 can be related to
2. (c) : HA + aq H+(aq) + A(aq), H = x kJ mol1 in terms of the quantities of C2H4 and CH4 which
have reacted.
H+(aq) + OH(aq) H2O(l), H = 57.3 kJ mol1 Let x be the number of grams of ethylene in the
Hence, HA + OH(aq)
H2O(l) + A(aq), original mixture. Then 5.00 x will be the number
H = (x 57.3) kJ mol1 of grams of methane.
But H = x 57.3 = 56.1 (given), 2x
Moles of CO2 from C2H4 = mol CO2
x = 1.2 kJ mol1 28.0
If no self ionisation of HA occurs at all, H (5.00 x ) g
(ionisation) = 1.5 kJ mol1 Moles of CO2 from CH4 = 1
16.0 g / mol
(1.5 1.2) 2x 5.00 x
% of ionisation = 100 = 20 Now, mol + mol = 0.330 mol
1. 5 28.0 16.0
(0.0714 x) + (0.312 0.0625 x) = 0.330 x = 2.02
3. (b) : When some activating group, e.g., OH is
Mass of C2H4 = 2.02 g and CH4 = 5.00 2.02 = 2.98 g
present along with COOH at ortho or para position,
substitution occurs with respect to OH preferably % C2 H4 = 100% = 40.4%
at para position due to steric factors. In case the 5.00
reagent used is a polar solvent then it abstracts the 7. (b) 8. (d)
phenolic proton to form an anion which activates 9. (2) : Applying Hendersons equation,
the ring and thus, electrophile enters at all possible [Salt]
positions even with the replacement of COOH pH = log log K a
group. [Salt]
4. (c) log = 4.5 + log 1.8 105 = 0.2447
= 0.5692 [Salt] = 0.5692 [Acid]
5. (a) : [Acid]
Also, [Acid] + [Salt] = 0.063 (given)
[Acid] = = 0.040 mol L1
[Salt] = (0.063 0.040) = 2 102 mol L1
10. (4) : F = kq1q2/r2 hence, q1q2 = Fr2/k
q1 = q2 = Fr 2 /k
= (1.00 105 N)(0.01 m)2 /(9.0 109 J.m/ C 2 )
= 3.3 1010 C on each disk
Number of electrons on each disk =
1 electron
= 2.1 10 electrons
(3.3 1010 C) 19
1.60 10 C
     Number of atoms on each disk =
6.02 1023 atoms

    = 5.0 10 atoms
(1.0 g)
      12.0 g
Ratio of excess electrons to total atoms on the

2.1 109 excess electrons
6. (c) : The equations for the reactions are negatively charged disk =
C2H4 + 3O2 2CO2 + 2H2O 5.0 1022 atoms
CH4 + 2O2 CO2 + 2H2O 4 10 electron/atom





Do you have a question that you just cant get
Use the vast expertise of our mtg team to get to the
bottom of the question. From the serious to the silly,

the controversial to the trivial, the team will tackle the
questions, easy and tough.  
The best questions and their solutions will be printed in 
this column each month.


Q 1. Nitrogen (N2) has bond order of 3 whereas    


nitrogen oxide (NO) has bond order of 2.5.  !"#$!%& %
Why? 1 1
(N N a ) = (8 3) = 2.5
Bond order =
(Arman Ameen, Bihar) 2 b 2
Ans. N2 (14) : KK (2s)2 (2s)2 (2px)2 = (2py)2 (2pz)2
Q 2. What is Dunstans test ? Explain it.
(Kishan Mani, UP)

  Ans. Dunstans test is used for the analytical test of

glycerol. In this, 1 drop of phenolphthalein is
added into 5 mL of borax solution in a test tube
and a pink colour is obtained.





Then, concentrated glycerol or its solution is added
dropwise with constant shaking till pink colour
is completely discharged, due to the formation
 of glyceroboric acid (strong acid). On heating
the solution, pink colour reappears due to the
decomposition of glyceroboric acid into glycerol
 (neutral) and acidic boric acid.

1 1 
Bond order = (N b N a ) = (8 2) = 3    

2 2 
NO (15) = KK (2s) (2s) (2p )2

(2px)2 = (2py)2 (2px)1 
In heteronuclear diatomic molecules, atomic 
orbitals of more electronegative atom will be  
shown to have lower energy. 




Readers can send their responses at editor@mtg.in or post us with complete address by 25th of every month to win exciting prizes.
Winners' name with their valuable feedback will be published in next issue.

1. A mixture of O2 and CO2 (5-10%) used for
artificial respiration. (8)
4. The sub-atomic particle with zero e/m value. (7)
8. The system in which hydrogen atom oscillates
between two polyvalent atoms linked together. (4)
9. Scientist who established the molecular formula
of ozone and pointed out that the ozone is an
allotrope of oxygen. (5)
10. The molar conductivity of a type of electrolyte
at infinite dilution that can be calculated using
Kohlrauschs law. (4)
13. The air temperature at which the relative humidity
reaches 100%. (8)
16. The number that locates the position of the
substituent in organic compounds. (6)
22. The form of hydrogen with paired nuclear
spins. (4)
24. In a beta emission the daughter element is a/an
____ of parent element. (6)
25. Cellulose on treatment with conc. NaOH forms a gelatinous 12. The complexes of weak field ligands. (8)
semi-transparent mass which imparts lusture to cotton, the 14. A four level laser. (9)
process is called_____. (13) 15. The name reaction in which all aldehydes with or without
26. Solutions where both the components are solid. (6) -hydrogen atoms undergo Cannizzaros reaction in
28. The meta-stable form of calcium carbonate. (9) presence of aluminium ethoxide. (9)
29. Oxyacids with SS linkages. (9) 17. A copolymer of tetrafluoroethylene and a perfluoro-
DOWN sulphonylethoxy ether. (6)
2. Halide where two halogen atoms are linked to two adjacent 18. Reagent that distinguishes the three types of alcohols. (5)
carbon atoms. (8) 19. The compounds having general molecular formula, AFe2O4
3. The number of carbon atoms in the compound formed where A is a divalent cation. (8)
when methyl iodide undergoes Wurtz reaction. (3)
20. Inorganic benzene. (8)
5. The primary standard chosen to measure any physical
21. The rule which says elimination leading to the formation of
quantity. (4)
more substituted alkene. (7)
6. The temperature at which anti-ferromagnetic transition
occurs. (4) 23. The magnetic nature of carbanions. (11)
7. The energy that is transferred from one body to the other 24. An auxiliary reagent which helps in the detection of the
without any mechanical work involved. (4) completion of the titration. (9)
11. Mixture consisting copper sulphate and lime which is used 27. Another name of sodium sesquicarbonate. (5)
to kill fungi on potatoes. (8)