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Authors: D. Baleanu and S. Vacaru, Survey at "3d Conference on Nonlinear Science and Complexity", July 28-31, 2010, Cankaya University, Ankary, Turkey

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Mechanics and Gravity Theories

(survey )

Çankaya University, Ankara, Turkey

* Science Department

University Al. I. Cuza, Iaşi, Romania

July 28–31, 2010; Çankaya University, Ankara, Turkey;

http://nsc10.cankaya.edu.tr/program.php

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Fractional Analogous Models in Mechanics and Gravity Theories

Research group ”Geometry & Applications in Physics”

100 years traditions on mathematics and applications;

originating from supervision and collaborations by/with

D. Hilbert, T. Levi–Civita and E. Cartan of PhD

of some prominent members of Romanian Academy.

E. Cartan visit at Iaşi in 1931 induced 80 years of research

on Finsler/integral geometry etc, ”isolation” after 1944;

”Japanese–Finsler geometry orientation” after 1968

Alexandru Myller (1879–1965), PhD–1906: D. Hilbert

(chair/adviser) and F. Klein, H. Minkowski (commission).

Gheorghe Vrǎnceanu (1900–1979), PhD-1924, from

Levi–Civita, commission head: Volterra; 1927-28,

Rockefeller scholarship for France, E. Cartan, and USA at

Harvard & Princeton (Morse, Birkhoff, Veblen)

Mendel Haimovici (1906–1973); PhD-1933- Levi–Civita.

Radu Miron (1927 - ); 28 monogr., 240 rev. MathSciNet

Lagrange–Finsler, Hamilton–Cartan & higher order,

applications to mechanics and relativity etc.

Iaşi team and ”Romanian Finsler diaspora”: M. Anastasiei, D. Bucataru and M. Crasmareanu

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Fractional Analogous Models in Mechanics and Gravity Theories

Subjects

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Fractional Analogous Models in Mechanics and Gravity Theories

modern physics and mechanics

1. S. Vacaru, Fractional Dynamics from Einstein Gravity, General Solutions, and Black

Holes, arXiv: 1004.0628

2. S. Vacaru, Fractional Nonholonomic Ricci Flows, arXiv: 1004.0625

3. D. Baleanu and S. Vacaru, Fractional Almost Kahler-Lagrange Geometry, arXiv: 1006.5535

4. D. Baleanu and S. Vacaru, Fedosov Quantization of Fractional Lagrange Spaces, arXiv:

1006.5538

5. D. Baleanu and S. Vacaru, Constant Curvature Coefficients and Exact Solutions in Frac-

tional Gravity and Geometric Mechanics, arXiv: 1007.2864

6. D. Baleanu and S. Vacaru, Fractional Curve Flows and Solitonic Hierarchies in Gravity

and Geometric Mechanics, arXiv: 1007.2866

Zx µ ¶s

α 1 0 s−α−1 ∂

1 x ∂ x f (x) := (x − x ) f (x0 )dx0 ;

Γ(s − α) ∂x0

1x

Z2 x µ ¶s

α 1 0 s−α−1 ∂

x ∂ 2 x f (x) := (x − x) − 0 f (x0 )dx0 .

Γ(s − α) ∂x

x

α α

j α

Fractional absolute differential: d := (dx ) 0∂ j ,

α j 1−α

where dx = j

(dxj )α (x )

Γ(2−α) if 1xi = 0.

α

The concept of fractional tangent bundle T M, for

α ∈ (0, 1), associated to a manifold M of necessary

smooth class and integer dim M = n.1

1 For simplicity, we may write both the integer and fractional local coordinates in the form uβ = (xj , y a ). We underlined the symbol T in

order to emphasize that we shall associate the approach to a fractional Caputo derivative.

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Fractional Analogous Models in Mechanics and Gravity Theories

α

Fractional (co) frame bases on T M.

α

α β0 β

A fractional frame basis eβ = e β (u )∂ β 0 is connected

with a fractional µ

local coordinate basis ¶

α α α α α

∂ β0 = ∂ j0 = 1x

j0 ∂ j 0 , ∂ b0 = 1y

b0 ∂ b0 ,

α β α

β0

The fractional co–bases are related via e = eββ0 β

(u )du ,

α 0 ³ 0 0

´

duβ = (dxi )α, (dy a )α .

α

The fractional absolute differential d is written in the form

j 1−α

α

j α

α α

j j α (x )

d := (dx ) 0∂ j , for dx = (dx ) , 1xi = 0.

Γ(2 − α)

The differentials dxj = (dxj )α=1 are used as local

coordinate co-bases/–frames or the ”integer” calculus.

For 0 < α < 1, we have dx = (dx)1−α(dx)α.

The ”fractional” symbol (dxj )α can be used instead of

”integer” dxi for elaborating a co–vector/differential form

calculus. The exterior fractional differential is

Xn

α α α

j α−1 j

d= Γ(2 − α)(x ) dx 0∂ j .

j=1

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Fractional Analogous Models in Mechanics and Gravity Theories

A Lagrange space Ln = (M, L), of integer dimension n, is

defined by a Lagrange fundamental function L(x, y), i.e.

a regular real function L : T M → R with nondegenerate

Hessian Lgij = (1/2)∂ 2L/∂y i∂y j .

We can consider that a Lagrange space Ln is a Finsler

space F n if and only if its fundamental function L is

positive and two homogeneous with respect to variables

y i, i.e. L = F 2.

Definition: A (target) fractional Lagrange space

α α α

n

L = (M , L) of fractional dimension α ∈ (0, 1), for a

α α

regular real function L : T M → R, when the fractional

Hessian is

µ ¶

α 1 α α α α α

L g ij = ∂ i∂ j + ∂ j ∂ i L 6= 0.

4

In our further constructions, we shall use the coefficients

α

ij α

L g being inverse to L g ij .

α

n

Any L can be associated to a prime ”integer” Lagrange

space Ln.

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Fractional Analogous Models in Mechanics and Gravity Theories

α α

Definition: A N–connection N on T M is defined by a

nonholonomic distribution (Whitney sum) with

α α

conventional h– and v–subspaces, h T M and v T M, when

α α α α

T T M = hT M ⊕v T M.

α α α

α

coefficients, N={ Nia}, N= α

Nia(u)(dxi)α ⊗ ∂ a.

α

Proposition: ∃ fractional (co) frames linearly on Nia,

· ¸

α α α

α

eβ = αej = ∂ j − αNja∂ a, αeb = ∂ b ,

α β

e = [ αej = (dxj )α, αeb = (dy b)α + αNkb(dxk )α].

non–integrable/ anholonomic)

γ α

[ αeα, αeβ ] = α

eα αeβ − αeβ αeα = α

Wαβ eγ ,

α γ

nontrivial nonholonomy coefficients Wαβ :

α

α

Wiba

= ∂ b αNia, αWija = αΩaji = αei αNja − αej αNia;

coefficients of the N–connection curvature αΩaji.

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Fractional Analogous Models in Mechanics and Gravity Theories

Integer dimension: consider values y k (τ ) = dxk (τ )/dτ,

for smooth curves x(τ ), τ ∈ [0, 1], on a manifold M.

α α α

Fractional: d/dτ → ∂ τ = 1τ ∂ τ , y (τ ) = ∂ τ xk (τ ).

α k

α

Theorem: Any L defines the fundamental geometric

objects determining canonically a nonholonomic fractional

α

Riemann–Cartan geometry on T M with properties:

1. The fractional Euler–Lagrange equations

α α α α α

∂ τ ( 1yi ∂ iL) − 1xi ∂ iL = 0

are equivalent to the fractional ”nonlinear geodesic”

(equivalently, semi–spray) equations

µ ¶2 α

α

∂τ x + 2Gk (x, αy) = 0,

k

α α · µ ¶ ¸

1 α α α α α

where G = L g kj y j 1yj ∂ j

k

i∂ L

1x i

− 1 xi ∂ i L

4

α α

α a

defines the canon. N–con. = 1yj ∂ j G (x, αy).L Nj

k

α α α k α j α α c α b

L g = L gkj (x, y) e ⊗ e + L gcb (x, y) L e ⊗ L e .

where the preferred frame structure (defined linearly by

α a α α

L Nj ) is L eν = ( L ei , ea ).

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Fractional Analogous Models in Mechanics and Gravity Theories

α α α α γ α bi α bi

c D = (h c D, v c D) = { c Γ = ( L jk , Cjc)} , αβ

preserving under parallelism the N–connection

³ α ´ splitting

and being metric compatible, i.e. αcD Lg = 0,

when αcΓi j = α i α γ

c Γ jγ L e

bi jk ek + C

=L bjc

i α c

Le ,

bi = L

for L ba , C

bi = C

ba

jk bk jc bc

α a α a α γ ba ek + C

ba α ec,

cΓ b = c Γ bγ L e =L bk bc L

α bi 1 α ir α α α α α α

Ljk L g (=L e k L gjr + L e j L g kr − L e r L gjk ) ,

2

α ba 1 α ad α α

Cbc = Lg ( ec Lgbd + αec αLgcd − αed αLgbc)

2

are just the generalized Christoffel indices.2

2 for integer dimensions, we contract ”horizontal” and ”vertical” indices following the rule: i = 1 is a = n + 1; i = 2 is a = n + 2; ... i = n

is a = n + n”

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Fractional Analogous Models in Mechanics and Gravity Theories

Lagrangians

Remark: We note that αcD is with nonholonomically

induced torsion structure defined by 2–forms

α i bi α i α c

L T = C jc e ∧ L e ,

α a 1 a α i α j

L T = − L Ω ij e ∧ e +

³ 2 ´

α

eb αLNia − αLbabi αei ∧ αLeb

d αei − αek ∧ α i

cΓ k = − αLT i,

d αLea − αLeb ∧ α a

cΓ b = − αLT a,

d αcΓi j − αcΓkj ∧ α i

cΓ k = − αLRij

α i

in which the curvature 2–form is denoted L Rj .

α

In general, for any d–connection on T M, we can

compute respectively the N–adapted coefficients of torsion

α τ

T = { αΓτβγ } and curvature αRτβ = { αRτβγδ }.

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Fractional Analogous Models in Mechanics and Gravity Theories

α

Metric structure g = { αgαβ } on fractional nonholonomic

α

manifold V as a symmetric second rank tensor with

coefficients determined locally with respect to a

corresponding tensor product of fractional differentials,

α α

g= gγβ (u)(duγ )α ⊗ (duβ )α.

For N–adapted constructions, it is important to use the

α

property that any fractional metric g can be represented

α

equivalently as a d–metric, g = [ αgkj , αgcb] , when

α α

g= gkj (x, y) αek ⊗ αej + αgcb(x, y) αec ⊗ αeb,

where α 0 0

L gk j = ekk0 ej j 0 αgkj and α

ga0b0 = eaa0 ebb0 αgab.

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Fractional Analogous Models in Mechanics and Gravity Theories

α

The Einstein tensor of any metric compatible D, when

α

Dτ αgτ β = 0, is defined α

Ens = { αEαβ }, where

α 1

Eαβ := αRαβ − αgαβ αsR.

2

An unified approach to Einstein–Lagrange/Finsler gravity

for arbitrary integer and non–integer dimensions is

b

possible for the fractional canonical d–connection αD.

The fractional gravitational field equations are formulated

for the Einstein d–tensor following the same principle of

constructing the matter source αΥβδ as in general

relativity but for fractional metrics and d–connections,

αb

E βδ = αΥβδ .

Such a system of integro–differential equations for

generalized connections can be restricted to fractional

nonholonomic configurations for α∇ if we impose the

additional constraints

α bc bjb

Laj = αea( αNjc), αC i

= 0, αΩaji = 0.

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Fractional Analogous Models in Mechanics and Gravity Theories

1. Priority of Caputo fractional derivative: a self–consistent

differential geometry preserving a number of analogies

with spaces of integer dimension.

2. In a series of our recent works, we elaborated fractional

versions of geometric flow theory, gravity and geometric

mechanics; fractional calculus is related to various

branches of modern mathematics and mathematical

physics.

3. Analogous fractional and integer mechanics models allow

us to study geometrically and analytically certain theories

of fractional gravitational and matter field interactions

and Ricci flow evolution.

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c Dumitru Baleanu & Sergiu I. Vacaru, July 29, 2010 13/ 13

° rayslides.sty

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