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Fractional Analogous Models in Mechanics and Gravity Theories

Fractional Analogous Models in


Mechanics and Gravity Theories

(survey )

Dumitru Baleanu and Sergiu I. Vacaru *

Department of Mathematics and Computer sciences


Çankaya University, Ankara, Turkey

* Science Department
University Al. I. Cuza, Iaşi, Romania

3rd Conference on Nonlinear Science and Complexity


July 28–31, 2010; Çankaya University, Ankara, Turkey;
http://nsc10.cankaya.edu.tr/program.php

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Differential & Finsler Geometry, Iaşi, Romania


Research group ”Geometry & Applications in Physics”
100 years traditions on mathematics and applications;
originating from supervision and collaborations by/with
D. Hilbert, T. Levi–Civita and E. Cartan of PhD
of some prominent members of Romanian Academy.
E. Cartan visit at Iaşi in 1931 induced 80 years of research
on Finsler/integral geometry etc, ”isolation” after 1944;
”Japanese–Finsler geometry orientation” after 1968
Alexandru Myller (1879–1965), PhD–1906: D. Hilbert
(chair/adviser) and F. Klein, H. Minkowski (commission).
Gheorghe Vrǎnceanu (1900–1979), PhD-1924, from
Levi–Civita, commission head: Volterra; 1927-28,
Rockefeller scholarship for France, E. Cartan, and USA at
Harvard & Princeton (Morse, Birkhoff, Veblen)
Mendel Haimovici (1906–1973); PhD-1933- Levi–Civita.
Radu Miron (1927 - ); 28 monogr., 240 rev. MathSciNet
Lagrange–Finsler, Hamilton–Cartan & higher order,
applications to mechanics and relativity etc.
Iaşi team and ”Romanian Finsler diaspora”: M. Anastasiei, D. Bucataru and M. Crasmareanu

(Iaşi); A.Bejancu(Kuwait); D.Hrimiuc(Canada); V.Sabau(Japan); S. Vacaru

(Cernâuţi/Chernivtsy, Chişinâu/Kishinev, Tomsk, Dubna, Moscow, Lisbon, Madrid, Toronto, Iaşi)

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Subjects

I. Caputo Fractional Calculus on Tangent Bundles

II. Fractional Lagrange–Finsler Geometry

III. Analogous Models of Gravity

IV. Conclusions and Perspectives

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I. Caputo Fract. Calcs on Tangent Bunds

Goals: Elaborate a Model of Fractional Differential Geometry and provide applications in


modern physics and mechanics

1. S. Vacaru, Fractional Dynamics from Einstein Gravity, General Solutions, and Black
Holes, arXiv: 1004.0628
2. S. Vacaru, Fractional Nonholonomic Ricci Flows, arXiv: 1004.0625
3. D. Baleanu and S. Vacaru, Fractional Almost Kahler-Lagrange Geometry, arXiv: 1006.5535
4. D. Baleanu and S. Vacaru, Fedosov Quantization of Fractional Lagrange Spaces, arXiv:
1006.5538
5. D. Baleanu and S. Vacaru, Constant Curvature Coefficients and Exact Solutions in Frac-
tional Gravity and Geometric Mechanics, arXiv: 1007.2864
6. D. Baleanu and S. Vacaru, Fractional Curve Flows and Solitonic Hierarchies in Gravity
and Geometric Mechanics, arXiv: 1007.2866

Fractional left/right Caputo derivatives:


Zx µ ¶s
α 1 0 s−α−1 ∂
1 x ∂ x f (x) := (x − x ) f (x0 )dx0 ;
Γ(s − α) ∂x0
1x

Z2 x µ ¶s
α 1 0 s−α−1 ∂
x ∂ 2 x f (x) := (x − x) − 0 f (x0 )dx0 .
Γ(s − α) ∂x
x

Acting on constants with Caputo derivs we get ZERO.


α α
j α
Fractional absolute differential: d := (dx ) 0∂ j ,
α j 1−α
where dx = j
(dxj )α (x )
Γ(2−α) if 1xi = 0.
α
The concept of fractional tangent bundle T M, for
α ∈ (0, 1), associated to a manifold M of necessary
smooth class and integer dim M = n.1

1 For simplicity, we may write both the integer and fractional local coordinates in the form uβ = (xj , y a ). We underlined the symbol T in

order to emphasize that we shall associate the approach to a fractional Caputo derivative.

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α
Fractional (co) frame bases on T M.
α
α β0 β
A fractional frame basis eβ = e β (u )∂ β 0 is connected
with a fractional µ
local coordinate basis ¶
α α α α α
∂ β0 = ∂ j0 = 1x
j0 ∂ j 0 , ∂ b0 = 1y
b0 ∂ b0 ,

for j 0 = 1, 2, ..., n and b0 = n + 1, n + 2, ..., n + n.


α β α
β0
The fractional co–bases are related via e = eββ0 β
(u )du ,
α 0 ³ 0 0
´
duβ = (dxi )α, (dy a )α .
α
The fractional absolute differential d is written in the form
j 1−α
α
j α
α α
j j α (x )
d := (dx ) 0∂ j , for dx = (dx ) , 1xi = 0.
Γ(2 − α)
The differentials dxj = (dxj )α=1 are used as local
coordinate co-bases/–frames or the ”integer” calculus.
For 0 < α < 1, we have dx = (dx)1−α(dx)α.
The ”fractional” symbol (dxj )α can be used instead of
”integer” dxi for elaborating a co–vector/differential form
calculus. The exterior fractional differential is
Xn
α α α
j α−1 j
d= Γ(2 − α)(x ) dx 0∂ j .
j=1

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II. Fractional Lagrange–Finsler Geometry

Definition of fractional Lagrange/Finsler spaces


A Lagrange space Ln = (M, L), of integer dimension n, is
defined by a Lagrange fundamental function L(x, y), i.e.
a regular real function L : T M → R with nondegenerate
Hessian Lgij = (1/2)∂ 2L/∂y i∂y j .
We can consider that a Lagrange space Ln is a Finsler
space F n if and only if its fundamental function L is
positive and two homogeneous with respect to variables
y i, i.e. L = F 2.
Definition: A (target) fractional Lagrange space
α α α
n
L = (M , L) of fractional dimension α ∈ (0, 1), for a
α α
regular real function L : T M → R, when the fractional
Hessian is
µ ¶
α 1 α α α α α
L g ij = ∂ i∂ j + ∂ j ∂ i L 6= 0.
4
In our further constructions, we shall use the coefficients
α
ij α
L g being inverse to L g ij .
α
n
Any L can be associated to a prime ”integer” Lagrange
space Ln.
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Fractional nonlinear connections


α α
Definition: A N–connection N on T M is defined by a
nonholonomic distribution (Whitney sum) with
α α
conventional h– and v–subspaces, h T M and v T M, when
α α α α
T T M = hT M ⊕v T M.

Locally, a fractional N–connection is defined by a set of


α α α
α
coefficients, N={ Nia}, N= α
Nia(u)(dxi)α ⊗ ∂ a.
α
Proposition: ∃ fractional (co) frames linearly on Nia,
· ¸
α α α
α
eβ = αej = ∂ j − αNja∂ a, αeb = ∂ b ,
α β
e = [ αej = (dxj )α, αeb = (dy b)α + αNkb(dxk )α].

The above bases are nonholonomical (equivalently,


non–integrable/ anholonomic)
γ α
[ αeα, αeβ ] = α
eα αeβ − αeβ αeα = α
Wαβ eγ ,
α γ
nontrivial nonholonomy coefficients Wαβ :
α
α
Wiba
= ∂ b αNia, αWija = αΩaji = αei αNja − αej αNia;
coefficients of the N–connection curvature αΩaji.

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Main Theorem on Geometric Fractional Mechanics


Integer dimension: consider values y k (τ ) = dxk (τ )/dτ,
for smooth curves x(τ ), τ ∈ [0, 1], on a manifold M.
α α α
Fractional: d/dτ → ∂ τ = 1τ ∂ τ , y (τ ) = ∂ τ xk (τ ).
α k

α
Theorem: Any L defines the fundamental geometric
objects determining canonically a nonholonomic fractional
α
Riemann–Cartan geometry on T M with properties:
1. The fractional Euler–Lagrange equations
α α α α α
∂ τ ( 1yi ∂ iL) − 1xi ∂ iL = 0
are equivalent to the fractional ”nonlinear geodesic”
(equivalently, semi–spray) equations
µ ¶2 α
α
∂τ x + 2Gk (x, αy) = 0,
k

α α · µ ¶ ¸
1 α α α α α
where G = L g kj y j 1yj ∂ j
k
i∂ L
1x i
− 1 xi ∂ i L
4
α α
α a
defines the canon. N–con. = 1yj ∂ j G (x, αy).L Nj
k

2. There is a canonical (Sasaki type) metric structure,


α α α k α j α α c α b
L g = L gkj (x, y) e ⊗ e + L gcb (x, y) L e ⊗ L e .
where the preferred frame structure (defined linearly by
α a α α
L Nj ) is L eν = ( L ei , ea ).
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3. There is a canonical metrical distinguished connection


α α α α γ α bi α bi
c D = (h c D, v c D) = { c Γ = ( L jk , Cjc)} , αβ

(in brief, d–connection), which is a linear connection


preserving under parallelism the N–connection
³ α ´ splitting
and being metric compatible, i.e. αcD Lg = 0,

when αcΓi j = α i α γ
c Γ jγ L e
bi jk ek + C
=L bjc
i α c
Le ,
bi = L
for L ba , C
bi = C
ba
jk bk jc bc
α a α a α γ ba ek + C
ba α ec,
cΓ b = c Γ bγ L e =L bk bc L
α bi 1 α ir α α α α α α
Ljk L g (=L e k L gjr + L e j L g kr − L e r L gjk ) ,
2
α ba 1 α ad α α
Cbc = Lg ( ec Lgbd + αec αLgcd − αed αLgbc)
2
are just the generalized Christoffel indices.2

2 for integer dimensions, we contract ”horizontal” and ”vertical” indices following the rule: i = 1 is a = n + 1; i = 2 is a = n + 2; ... i = n

is a = n + n”

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Torsion and Curvature induced by fractional


Lagrangians
Remark: We note that αcD is with nonholonomically
induced torsion structure defined by 2–forms
α i bi α i α c
L T = C jc e ∧ L e ,
α a 1 a α i α j
L T = − L Ω ij e ∧ e +
³ 2 ´
α
eb αLNia − αLbabi αei ∧ αLeb

computed from the fractional Cartan’s structure equations


d αei − αek ∧ α i
cΓ k = − αLT i,
d αLea − αLeb ∧ α a
cΓ b = − αLT a,
d αcΓi j − αcΓkj ∧ α i
cΓ k = − αLRij
α i
in which the curvature 2–form is denoted L Rj .
α
In general, for any d–connection on T M, we can
compute respectively the N–adapted coefficients of torsion
α τ
T = { αΓτβγ } and curvature αRτβ = { αRτβγδ }.

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III. Analogous Models of Gravity

α
Metric structure g = { αgαβ } on fractional nonholonomic
α
manifold V as a symmetric second rank tensor with
coefficients determined locally with respect to a
corresponding tensor product of fractional differentials,
α α
g= gγβ (u)(duγ )α ⊗ (duβ )α.
For N–adapted constructions, it is important to use the
α
property that any fractional metric g can be represented
α
equivalently as a d–metric, g = [ αgkj , αgcb] , when
α α
g= gkj (x, y) αek ⊗ αej + αgcb(x, y) αec ⊗ αeb,
where α 0 0
L gk j = ekk0 ej j 0 αgkj and α
ga0b0 = eaa0 ebb0 αgab.

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Fractional Einstein eqs


α
The Einstein tensor of any metric compatible D, when
α
Dτ αgτ β = 0, is defined α
Ens = { αEαβ }, where
α 1
Eαβ := αRαβ − αgαβ αsR.
2
An unified approach to Einstein–Lagrange/Finsler gravity
for arbitrary integer and non–integer dimensions is
b
possible for the fractional canonical d–connection αD.
The fractional gravitational field equations are formulated
for the Einstein d–tensor following the same principle of
constructing the matter source αΥβδ as in general
relativity but for fractional metrics and d–connections,
αb
E βδ = αΥβδ .
Such a system of integro–differential equations for
generalized connections can be restricted to fractional
nonholonomic configurations for α∇ if we impose the
additional constraints
α bc bjb
Laj = αea( αNjc), αC i
= 0, αΩaji = 0.

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IV. Conclusions and Perspectives


1. Priority of Caputo fractional derivative: a self–consistent
differential geometry preserving a number of analogies
with spaces of integer dimension.
2. In a series of our recent works, we elaborated fractional
versions of geometric flow theory, gravity and geometric
mechanics; fractional calculus is related to various
branches of modern mathematics and mathematical
physics.
3. Analogous fractional and integer mechanics models allow
us to study geometrically and analytically certain theories
of fractional gravitational and matter field interactions
and Ricci flow evolution.

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