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LTE

OPTIMIZATION
INTRODUCTION
LTE Radio Interface Key Features
LTE Radio Evolved Packet Core (EPC)
Access Network (EUTRAN)
SAE-GW
MME Packet
Data
eNode-B Serving PDN Network
GW GW

LTE Radio Interface Key Features


Retransmission Handling (HARQ/ARQ)
Spectrum Flexibility
FDD & TDD modes
Multi-Antenna Transmission
Frequency and time Domain scheduling
Uplink (UL) Power Control
EUTRAN Key Features
LTE Radio Evolved Packet Core (EPC)
Access Network (EUTRAN)
SAE-GW
MME Packet
Data
eNode-B Serving PDN Network
GW GW

EUTRAN Key Features:


Evolved NodeB
IP transport layer
UL/DL resource scheduling
QoS Awareness
Self-configuration
EPC Key Features
LTE Radio Evolved Packet Core (EPC)
Access Network (EUTRAN)
SAE-GW
MME Packet
Data
eNode-B Serving PDN Network
GW GW

EPC Key Features:


IP transport layer
QoS Awareness
Packet Switched Domain only
3GPP (GTP) or IETF (MIPv6) option
Prepare to connect to non-3GPP access networks
LTE/SAE Network Elements
Main references to architecture in 3GPP specs.: TS23.401,TS23.402,TS36.300
Evolved UTRAN (E-UTRAN) Evolved Packet Core (EPC)

HSS
eNB Mobility
Management
Entity Policy & Charging Rule
S6a Function

MME S10
X2 S7 Rx+
PCRF
S11
S1-U S5/S8 SGi
PDN
LTE-Uu Serving PDN
Evolved Node B
Gateway Gateway
LTE-UE (eNB)
SAE
Gateway
Evolved Node B (eNB)
eNB Functions
Inter-cell RRM: HO, load balancing between cells
Only network element defined as part of eUTRAN.
Radio Bearer Control: setup , modifications and
Replaces the old Node B / RNC combination from
release of Radio Resources 3G.
Connection Mgt. Control: UE State Management, Terminates the complete radio interface including
MME-UE Connection physical layer.
Radio Admission Control Provides all radio management functions
eNode B Meas. collection and evaluation To enable efficient inter-cell radio management for
cells not attached to the same eNB, there is a inter-
Dynamic Resource Allocation (Scheduler)
eNB interface X2 specified. It will allow to
IP Header Compression/ de-compression coordinate inter-eNB handovers without direct
Access Layer Security: ciphering and integrity
involvement of EPC during this process.
protection on the radio interface

MME Selection at Attach of the UE


User Data Routing to the SAE GW
Transmission of Paging Msg coming from MME
Transmission of Broadcast Info (e.g. System info,
MBMS)
LTE Radio Interface and the X2 Interface
Control Plane User Plane

TS 24.301 NAS Protocols LTE-Uu


User PDUs
TS 36.331 (E)-RRC Air interface of EUTRAN
TS 36.323 PDCP Based on OFDMA in downlink and SC-FDMA in uplink

TS 36.322 RLC FDD and TDD duplex methods


TS 36.300
Scalable bandwidth: from 1.4 up to 20 MHz
TS 36.321 MAC
Data rates up to 100 Mbps(DL), 50Mbps (UL)
LTE-L1 (FDD/TDD-OFDMA/SC-FDMA)
MIMO (Multiple Input Multiple Output) is a major
component although optional.
LTE-Uu
eNB

X2-CP X2-UP
(Control Plane) (User Plane)
User PDUs X2
TS 36.423 X2-AP GTP-U Inter eNB interface
TS 29.281
X2
Handover coordination without involving the EPC
SCTP UDP
TS 36.422 TS 36.424 X2AP: special signaling protocol
IP IP
During HO, Source eNB can use the X2 interface to
TS 36.421 L1/L2 L1/L2 TS 36.421 forward downlink packets still buffered or arriving from
the serving gateway to the target eNB.
This will avoid loss of a huge amount of packets during
TS 36.420 inter-eNB handover.
[X2 general aspects & principles)
eNB
S1-MME & S1-U Interfaces
TS 36.410
[S1 general aspects & principles]
S1-MME
Control interface between eNB and MME
S1-MME
MME and UE will exchange non-access stratum signaling via eNB (Control Plane)
through this interface. TS 24.301 NAS Protocols
E.g.: if a UE performs a tracking area update the TRACKING AREA MME
TS 36.413 S1-AP
UPDATE REQUEST message will be sent from UE to eNB and the eNB
will forward the message via S1-MME to the MME. SCTP
TS 36.412
S1AP:S1 Application Protocol IP
S1flex 1 eNB to connect to several MME eNB L1/L2 TS 36.411

S1-U
(User Plane)
User PDUs

S1-U TS 29.281 GTP-U Serving


User plane interface between eNB and serving gateway. UDP Gateway
It is a pure user data interface (U=User plane). TS 36.414
IP
S1flex-U also supported: a single eNB can connect to several Serving
GWs. TS 36.411 L1/L2

Which Serving GW a users SAE bearer will have to use is signaled


from the MME of this user.
TS 36.410
[S1 general aspects & principles]
S10 & S6a Interfaces
S6a
S10 (Control Plane)
(Control Plane) S6a Appl.

TS 29.274 TS 29.272
GTP-C DIAMETER
MME MME HSS
UDP SCTP
IP IP
L1/L2 L1/L2

S10
Interface between different MMEs
Used during inter-MME tracking area updates (TAU) and S6a
handovers Interface between the MME and the HSS
Inter-MME TAU: The new MME can contact the old MME the The MME uses it to retrieve subscription information from HSS
user had been registered before to retrieve data about identity (handover/tracking area restrictions, external PDN allowed, QoS,
(IMSI), security information (security context, authentication etc.) during attaches and updates
vectors) and active SAE bearers (PDN gateways to contact, QoS, The HSS can during these procedures also store the users
etc.) current MME address in its database.
Obviously S10 is a pure signaling interface, no user data runs on
it.
S11 Interface

MME

S11
(Control Plane)

S11
TS 29.274 GTP-C
Interface between MME and a Serving GW
UDP A single MME can handle multiple Serving GW each one with its own S11 interface
IP Used to coordinate the establishment of SAE bearers within the EPC
SAE bearer setup can be started by the MME (default SAE bearer) or by the PDN
L1/L2 Gateway.

Serving
Gateway
S5/S8 Interface

S5/S8 3GPP Alternative


Control User
Plane Plane
User PDUs

Serving TS 29.274 GTP-C GTP-U TS 29.281 PDN


Gateway UDP Gateway
SGi
PDN
IP
L1/L2

S5/S8

Interface between Serving GW and PDN GW


S5: If Serving GW and PDN GW belong to the same network (non-roaming case)
S8:If this is not the case (roaming case)
S8 = S5 + inter-operator security functions
Mainly used to transfer user packet data between PDN GW and Serving GW
Signaling on S5/S8 is used to setup the associated bearer resources
S5/S8 can be implemented either by reuse of the GTP protocol from 2G/3G or by using Mobile IPv6 with some IETF enhancements.
Gx (or S7) & Gxc Interfaces
Gxc (Control Plane) Gx (Control Plane)
Gx Application Gx Application
TS 29.212 TS 29.212
DIAMETER PCRF DIAMETER

SCTP SCTP

IP IP

L1/L2 L1/L2

SGi
IMS/PDN

Serving
S5/S8
PDN
Gateway Gateway

Gxc Gx (Also referred as S7)


Interface between Serving GW (S-GW) and PCRF (Policy
Interface between PDN GW and PCRF (Policy and Charging
Rule Function)
and Charging Rule Function)
This interface is only needed in case the S5/S8 interface is
It allows:
based on PMIP (IETF candidate) the PCRF to request the setup of a SAE bearer with
appropriate QoS
The reason is that only in this case the S-GW will perform
the mapping between IP service flows in S5/S8 and GTP the PDN GW to ask for the QoS of an SAE bearer to setup
tunnels in the S1-U interface. The information to do the to indicate EPC status changes to the PCRF to apply a new
mapping comes from directly from the PCRF policy rule.
Rx & SGi Interfaces

Rx
(Control Plane) Rx
Interface between PCRF (Policy & Charging Rules Function) and the external
RX Application PDN network/operators IMS (in general, towards the Service Domain)
TS 29.214 Standardized in 3GPP TS 29.214: Policy and Charging Control over the Rx
DIAMETER reference point (release 8)
PCRF SCTP

IP

L1/L2
SGi
Interface used by the PDN GW to send and receive data to and from the
external data network or Service Platform
SGi It is either IPv4 or IPv6 based
(User Plane) Downlink data coming from the external PDN must be assigned to the right
SAE bearer of the right user by analysis of the incoming packets IP addresses,
Application port numbers, etc.
PDN
UDP or TCP This interface corresponds to the Gi interface in 2G/3G networks
PDN IPv4/IPv6
Standardized in 3GPP TS 29.061: Interworking between the Public Land
Gateway TS 29.061 Mobile Network (PLMN) supporting packet based services and Packet Data
L1/L2 Networks (PDN)
LTE UE Categories
Power Tx Power Tolerance
All categories support 20 MHz Class (dBm) (dB)
1 [+30]
64QAM mandatory in downlink, but not in uplink (except 2 [+27]
Class 5 & 8) 3 +23 +/-2 dB
2x2 MIMO mandatory in other classes except Class 1 4 [+21]

Class 1 Class 2 Class 3 Class 4 Class 5 Class 6 Class 7 Class 8

peakrate DL/UL 10/5 Mbps 50/25 Mbps 100/50 Mbps 150/50 Mbps 299/75 Mbps 301/50 Mbps 301/102 Mbps 3000/1500 Mbps

RF bandwidth 20 MHz 20 MHz 20 MHz 20 MHz 20 MHz 20 MHz 20 MHz 20 MHz

Modulation DL 64QAM 64QAM 64QAM 64QAM 64QAM 64QAM 64QAM 64QAM

Modulation UL 16QAM 16QAM 16QAM 16QAM 64QAM 16QAM 16QAM 64QAM

Rx diversity Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

MIMO DL Optional 2x2 2x2 2x2 4x4 2x2 or 4x4 2x2 or 4x4 8x8
LTE Advanced - Carrier Aggregation (CA)
High peak data rate of 1 Gbps in downlink and 500 Mbps in uplink can be achieved with bandwidth
extension from 20 MHz up to 100 MHz.
Backwards compatibility to Release 8 by combining N Release 8 component carriers to N x LTE
bandwidth, for example 5 x 20 MHz = 100 MHz
Old LTE terminals use one carrier, new ones all N
LTE-Advanced maximum bandwidth Both contiguous and
non-contiguous CA is
Rel8 BW Rel8 BW Rel8 BW Rel8 BW Rel8 BW supported offering
improved spectrum
flexibility (e.g. for
Carrier 1 Carrier 2 Carrier 3 Carrier 4 Carrier 5
refarming).

CA also offers opportunities for


autonomous interference
management schemes
especially relevant for
heterogeneous networks.
Carrier Aggregation (CA)

CA capable UE

Carrier 1

Carrier 2
RESOURCE BLOCK

Physical Resource Block or Resource Block (PRB or RB)


12 Sub carrier x 1 slot period in time domain
Capacity allocation is based on RB
Resource element (RE)
1 sub carrier x 1 symbol period
Theoretical minimum capacity in allocation unit
1 RE is equivalent of 1 modulation symbol on a
subcarrier, i.e. 2 bits for QPSK, 4 bits for 16QAM and 6
bits for 64 QAM

Link to understand RB :
http://niviuk.free.fr/lte_ca_spectrum.php
http://dhagle.in/LTE
Cell-Specific Reference Signals Mapping

R0 R0

For Channel estimation


One antenna port

R0 R0

R0 R0
Measurements (e.g. RSRP)
R0
l 0
R0
l 6 l 0 l 6
Synchronisation in frequency & time
Cell Id (Physical Layer Cell Identity)
Resource element (k,l)

R0 R0 R1 R1
Two antenna ports

R0 R0 R1 R1
Not used for transmission on this antenna port
For more detailed information
according to UE specific
R0 R0 R1 R1
Reference symbols on this antenna port
Reference Signals and their
R0
l 0
R0
l 6 l 0 l 6 l 0
R1
l 6 l 0
R1
l 6
position see: TS 36.211; 6.10.
RSRP: Reference Signal Received Power

R0 R0 R1 R1 R2 R3
Four antenna ports

R0 R0 R1 R1 R2 R3

R0 R0 R1 R1 R2 R3

R0 R0 R1 R1 R2 R3
l 0 l 6 l 0 l 6 l 0 l 6 l 0 l 6 l 0 l 6 l 0 l 6 l 0 l 6 l 0 l 6

even-numbered slots odd-numbered slots even-numbered slots odd-numbered slots even-numbered slots odd-numbered slots even-numbered slots odd-numbered slots

Antenna port 0 Antenna port 1 Antenna port 2 Antenna port 3


DL Physical Channels
There are no dedicated channels in LTE, neither UL nor DL.

PDSCH: Physical Downlink Shared Channel


carries user data, L3 signaling, System Information Blocks & Paging
PBCH: Physical Broadcast Channel
for Master Information Block only
PMCH: Physical Multicast Channel
for multicast traffic as MBMS services
PCFICH: Physical Control Format Indicator Channel
indicates number of OFDM symbols for Control Channels = 1..4
PDCCH: Physical Downlink Control Channel
carries resource assignment messages for DL capacity allocations & scheduling grants for UL
allocations
PHICH: Physical Hybrid ARQ Indicator Channel
carries ARQ Ack/Nack messages from eNB to UE in respond to UL transmission
UL Physical Channels
PUSCH: Physical Uplink Shared Channel
Transmission of user data, L3 & L1 signaling (L1 signaling: CQI, ACK/NACKs, etc.)

PUCCH: Physical Uplink Control Channel


Carries L1 control information in case that no user data are scheduled in this subframe (e.g. H-ARQ
ACK/NACK indications, UL scheduling request, CQIs & MIMO feedback).
These control data are multiplexed together with user data on PUSCH, if user data are scheduled in
the subframe

PRACH: Physical Random Access Channel


For Random Access attempts; SIBs indicates the PRACH configuration (duration; frequency;
repetition; number of preambles - max. 64)
INFORMATION BLOCK

MIB ( Master information Block) Radio Network Temporary identifier


DL BW information
Configuration PHICH
(SI-RNTI) is allocated to SIB1 and
System Frame Number another SIB
broadcast in the Physical
Broadcast Channel (PBCH)
Every 40 ms

System Information Block 1 (SIB1)


Scheduling info other SIB
PLMN ID
TA
Cell Identifier OTHER SIB
Cell Usage Restriction
Frek Information
Broadcasted via PDSCH

Every 80 ms
INFORMATION BLOCK DESCRIPTION
LTE system information
Description
blocks
MIB Carries physical layer information of LTE cell which in turn help receive further SIs, i.e. system bandwidth
Contains information regarding whether or not UE is allowed to access the LTE cell. It also defines the scheduling of the other SIBs.
SIB1
carries cell ID, MCC, MNC, TAC, SIB mapping.
Carries common channel as well as shared channel information. It also carries RRC, uplink power control, preamble power ramping,
SIB2
uplink Cyclic Prefix Length, sub-frame hopping, uplink EARFCN

SIB3 carries cell re-selection information as well as Intra frequency cell re-selection information

carries Intra Frequency Neighbors(on same frequency); carries serving cell and neighbor cell frequencies required for cell reselection
SIB4 as well handover between same RAT base stations(GSM BTS1 to GSM BTS2) and different RAT base stations(GSM to WCDMA or GSM
to LTE or between WCDMA to LTE etc.) . Covers E-UTRA and other RATs as mentioned

Carries Inter Frequency Neighbors(on different frequency); carries E-UTRA LTE frequencies, other neighbor cell frequencies from
SIB5
other RATs. The purpose is cell reselection and handover.

SIB6 carries WCDMA neighbors information i.e. carries serving UTRA and neighbor cell frequencies useful for cell re-selection

carries GSM neighbours information i.e. Carries GERAN frequencies as well as GERAN neighbor cell frequencies. It is used for cell re-
SIB7
selection as well as handover purpose.
SIB8 carries CDMA-2000 EVDO frequencies, CDMA-2000 neighbor cell frequencies.
SIB9 carries HNBID (Home eNodeB Identifier)
SIB10 carries ETWS prim. notification
SIB11 carries ETWS sec. notification
UL Physical Resource Block: DRS & SRS
The Demodulation Reference Signal is
transmitted in the third SC-FDMA
symbol (counting from zero) in all
Note: when the 12 subcarriers
resource blocks allocated to the PUSCH
subframe contains the carrying the user data.
.. ..
PUCCH, the
This signal is needed for channel
Demodulation Frequency estimation, which in turn is essential for
Reference Signal is
coherent demodulation of the UL signal
embedded in a 1 ms subframe or
in the eNodeB.
different way TTI

The Sounding Reference Signal SRS


0.5 ms slot provides UL channel quality information
as a basis for scheduling decisions in the
Time
Demodulation Reference base station. This signal is distributed in
Sounding Reference Signal Signal in subframes that the last SC-FDMA symbol of subframes
on last OFDM symbol of 1 carry PUSCH that carry neither PUSCH nor PUCCH
subframe; data. [SRS is always disabled in FDD RL20
Periodic or aperiodic and before.]
transmission

SRS can be used to implement beamforming in TDD. PUCCH: Physical UL Control Channel
Modulation Schemes
3GPP standard defines the following options: QPSK, 16QAM, 64QAM in both
directions (UL & DL) Physical Modulation
channel
UL 64QAM not supported in RL10
PDSCH QPSK, 16QAM,
Not every physical channel is allowed to use any modulation scheme: 64QAM
Scheduler decides which form to use depending on carrier quality feedback
information from the UE PMCH QPSK, 16QAM,
64QAM: 64QAM

16QAM: 6 bits/symbol PBCH QPSK


QPSK:
4 bits/symbol PDCCH, QPSK
2 bits/symbol 64QAM PCFICH
b0 b1b2b3 b4 b5 PHICH BPSK
QPSK 16QAM Im
b0 b1 b0 b1b2b3 PUSCH QPSK, 16QAM,
Im Im 1111 64QAM
01 11

Re PUCCH BPSK and/or


00 10Re Re QPSK
0000
Cell Search (1/2)
Remember?
What are all the steps and the physical
channels involved ?
1. PSS Primary Synchronisation Signal
(Time-slot & Frequency synchronisation
+ Physical cell id (0,1,2) )

2. SSS Secondary Synchronisation Signal


(Frame synchronisation
+ Physical Cell id group (1..168) )

3. DL Reference Signals
(Channel estimation & measurements
UE
eNodeB 4. PBCH Physical Broadcast Channel
(MIB DL system bandwidth, PHICH configuration)
MIB = Master Information Block
PHICH = Physical HARQ Indicator Channel
Cell Search
Challenge:
The PBCH contains only the MIB (Master Information Block) the SIBs (System Information
Blocks) are on the PDSCH (Physical Downlink Shared Channel)!
need to read SIBs on PDSCH
Problem: The UE should read PDSCH but it doesn't know which resource blocks are reserved for
it and where are they placed (in time & frequency)

Solution:
PCFICH (Physical Control Format Indicator Channel) indicates the size of PDCCH (Physical
Downlink Control Channel)
the PDCCH is indicating which resource blocks are scheduled and where are located
Cell Search (2/2)
5. PCFICH Physical Control Format Indicator Channel
(How many OFDM symbols (1,2,3) in the beginning of
the sub-frame are for PDCCH)

6. PDCCH Physical Downlink Control Channel


(Resource allocation for PDSCH )

7. PDSCH Physical Downlink Shared Channel


(SIBs: Cell global ID, parameters for cell selection / UE
reselection, )
eNodeB

CELL SELECTION & RESELECTION


SIB: System Information Block
What are the Next Steps?

The UE has selected one cell camping on the cell procedure

The camping on the cell procedure will be explained later

The UE can start the initial access

I have found one suitable


cell. What is next?
UE eNodeB
Random Access (1/2)
8. PRACH preamble (A)
(A 1st random preamble*)

.
.
. (C)
8. PRACH preamble
(C 3rd random preamble)
UE
eNodeB
Challenge:
Several UEs may send the same preamble. How to solve the
collision ?
Solution:
contention resolution
* 64 Random Access Preamble Signatures available per Cell
Random Access (2/2)
response to RACH Preamble on PDSCH

9. PCFICH Physical Control Format Indicator Channel


(How many OFDM symbols (1,2,3) in the beginning of
the sub-frame are for PDCCH)
10. PDCCH Physical Downlink Control Channel
(Resource allocation for PDSCH)

11. PDSCH Physical Downlink Shared Channel


(Random Access response: ID of the received UE
preamble, C-RNTI)
eNodeB

C-RNTI: Cell Radio Network Temporary Identity


Contention Resolution for the Initial Access
several UE with same RACH
Preamble Signature
getting same UL grant 8. PRACH Preamble
collision with RRC
Connection Request

11. PDSCH Physical Downlink Shared Channel


(Random Access response: ID of received preamble, UL
resources for TX*, C-RNTI)

12. PUSCH Physical Uplink Shared Channel


(RRC: RRC Connection Request, *C-RNTI, TMSI or
random number) UE
eNodeB 13. PDSCH Physical Downlink Shared Channel
(Contention Resolution, C-RNTI & TMSI or random
TMSI = Temporary Mobile Subscriber number)
Identity * UL grant PUSCH resources All other UEs not receiving correct
answer (TMSI)
restart Random Access (8)
What are the Next Steps?

The random access procedure is successfully finished


Next steps:
- RRC Connection Establishment
- Registration
- UE-CN signaling (Attach)
Higher layer signaling -> not shown here eNodeB

Now I am connected so I can


download the web page from the
Internet. www.nokia.com
UE
DL Transmission
1. DL Reference signals Channel Estimate / CQI

2. PUCCH Physical Uplink Control Channel (or PUSCH) Note:


(CQI based on DL reference signals measurements) CQI along with
3. PCFICH Physical Control Format Indicator Channel data PUSCH
(How many symbols (1,2,3) in the beginning of the
sub-frame are for PDCCH)
4. PDCCH Physical Downlink Control Channel
(DL assignment for PDSCH: Modulation & coding,
resource blocks*)
5. PDSCH Physical Downlink Shared Channel UE
(user data initial transmission)
eNodeB
6. PUCCH Physical Uplink Control Channel (or PUSCH)
CQI = Channel Quality Indicator (ACK/ NACK for HARQ)
ACK = Acknowledgment
NACK = Negative ACK 7. PDSCH Physical Downlink Shared Channel
HARQ = Hybrid Automatic
Repeat Request (user data eventual re-transmission)
* Physical Resource Allocation
UL Transmission
1. PUCCH Physical Uplink Control Channel (or PUSCH)
(UL scheduling request*)
2. UL Sounding Reference Signal SRS
(used by Node-B for channel dependent scheduling)

3. UL Demodulation Reference Signal


(UL channel estimation, demodulation like DPCCH in UMTS)
4. PDCCH Physical Downlink Control Channel
(UL grant capacity allocation)
5. PUSCH Physical Uplink Shared Channel
eNodeB (user data initial transmission)
UE
6. PHlCH Physical HARQ Indicator Channel
DPCCH = Dedicate Physical Control
Channel (ACK/ NACK for HARQ)
ACK = Acknowledgment
NACK = Negative ACK 7. PUSCH Physical Uplink Shared Channel
HARQ = Hybrid Automatic Repeat
Request (user data eventual re-transmission)
* scheduling request only needed for applications with QoS like best effort
VoIP in LTE
Voice is still important in LTE
CS voice call will not be possible in LTE since there is no CS core interface
Voice with LTE terminals has a few different solutions
The first voice solution in LTE can rely on Call Setup FallBack redirection where LTE terminal will be moved to
2G/3G to make CS call
The ultimate LTE voice solution will be VoIP + IMS

Call Setup FallBack (CSFB) EPS Bearers for Conversational Voice


IP Multimedia Subsystem, a set of specifications from 3GPP for delivering IP multimedia to mobile users
VoIP
Single Radio Voice Call Continuity (SR-VCC)
Options for voice call continuity when running out of LTE coverage
1) Handover from LTE VoIP to 3G CS voice
Voice Handover from LTE VoIP to WCDMA CS voice is called SR-VCC
No VoIP needed in 3G
2) Handover from LTE VoIP to 2G CS voice
Voice Handover from LTE VoIP to GERAN CS voice is called SR-VCC
No VoIP needed in 2G

2G CS voice 2G CS voice 2G CS voice Single Radio Voice Call


Continuity (SR-VCC)
LTE VoIP LTE VoIP
3G CS voice 3G CS voice 3G CS voice 3G CS voice
LTE Voice Evolution

LTE broadband for high speed data Fast-Track VoLTE IMS for enriched IP multimedia services

LTE LTE LTE


HSPA HSPA VoIP HSPA VoIP
I-HSPA EPC MSS I-HSPA I-HSPA NVS
NVS MSS IMS
2G/3G 2G/3G
EPC
EPC

Introduce NVS Evolution to IMS


VoIP solution VoIP solution

Simple upgrade of MSS with NVS IMS-centric service architecture


Main focus on LTE data (VoIP) function Rich Communication Services with
CS Fallback to 2G/3G CS access for Fully IMS compatible reuse of CS full multimedia telephony
voice infra-structure for LTE VoIP capable Support for any access
Re-use existing MSC Server system handsets SRVCC (HO LTE VoIP to 3G VoIP)
for voice SRVCC (HO LTE VoIP to 3G CS)
Uplink- Downlink-to-Uplink Subframe number
downlink Switch-point
LTE TDD/FDD configuration
0
periodicity
5 ms
0

D
1

S
2

U
3

U
4

U
5

D
6

S
7

U
8

U
9

Frame and 1
2
5 ms
5 ms
D
D
S
S
U
U
U
D
D
D
D
D
S
S
U
U
U
D
D
D

Channel Type 3
4
10 ms
10 ms
D
D
S
S
U
U
U
U
U
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
5 10 ms D S U D D D D D D D
6 5 ms D S U U U D S U U D
LTE Physical Layer - Introduction
It provides the basic bit transmission functionality over air
LTE physical layer based on OFDMA DL & SC-FDMA in UL
This is the same for both FDD & TDD mode of operation
There is no macro-diversity in use
System is reuse 1, single frequency network operation is feasible
no frequency planning required
There are no dedicated physical channels anymore, as all resource mapping is dynamically driven by the scheduler

FDD Frequency band 1


.. ..
Frequency band 2
.. ..

TDD Single frequency band


.. ..

Downlink Uplink
LTE Physical Layer Structure Frame Structure (FDD)
FDD Frame structure ( also called Type 1 Frame) is common to both UL & DL
Divided into 20 x 0.5ms slots
Structure has been designed to facilitate short round trip time
- Frame length = 10 ms
0.5 ms slot
- FDD: 10 sub-frames of 1 ms for UL & DL
sy0 sy1 sy2 sy3 sy4 sy5 sy6
- 1 Frame = 20 slots of 0.5ms each
10 ms frame - 1 slot = 7 (normal CP) or 6 OFDM symbols
(extended CP)
s s s s s s s s .. s18 s19
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
0.5 ms slot
SF: SubFrame
SF0 SF1 SF2 SF3 .. SF9
s: slot
1 ms sub-frame Sy: symbol
In FDD, there is a time offset between uplink and downlink transmission .
LTE Physical Layer Structure Frame Structure (TDD)
Frame Type 2 (TS 36.211-900; 4.2)
each radio frame consists of 2 half frames = 10 subframes = 10 ms (1 subframe = 1 ms)
Half-frame = 5 ms = 5 Sub-frames of 1 ms
UL-DL configurations with both 5 ms & 10 ms DL-to-UL switch-point periodicity are supported
Special subframe with the 3 fields DwPTS, GP & UpPTS; length of DwPTS + UpPTS +GP = 1 subframe; (i.e. depending on frame
configuration one or two Special Subframes)
DL / UL ratio can vary from 1/3 to 8/1 according to service requirements of the carrier
Radio Frame: 10ms
Half Frame: 5 ms
f SF SF SF SF SF SF SF SF
DwPTS

DwPTS

UpPTS
UpPTS
GP

GP
UL/DL
carrier
#0 #2 #3 #4 #5 #7 #8 #9

Subframe 1ms time


DwPTS: Downlink Pilot time Slot Downlink Subframe
UpPTS: Uplink Pilot Time Slot Uplink Subframe
GP: Guard Period to separate between DL/UL Special Subframe
DL or UL Subframe
UL/DL Configurations
TDD allows flexible bandwidth allocation between UL & DL to support asymmetric traffic
The number of subframes dedicated to UL & DL within the 10ms frame can be adjusted
7 different frame configurations
Chosen UL/DL Configuration should be the same across all cells of a network to avoid interference between transmission
directions (Rel.8 static or semi-static TDD system)
Nokia RL45 supports Configuration 1 & 2:
Configuration 1 DL:UL=2:2
Configuration 2 DL:UL=3:1

Uplink-downlink Downlink-to-Uplink Subframe number


configuration Switch-point periodicity 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
0 5 ms D S U U U D S U U U
1 5 ms D S U U D D S U U D
2 5 ms D S U D D D S U D D
3 10 ms D S U U U D D D D D
4 10 ms D S U U D D D D D D
5 10 ms D S U D D D D D D D
6 5 ms D S U U U D S U U D

D Downlink S Special U Uplink


Special Subframe Configuration More info: TS36.21
Total length of special subframe is 1ms but the length of the each field may vary
9 different formats supported

Fields:
Downlink Pilot time Slot (DwPTS)
shortened DL subframe
for Reference Signals & control information
may carry user data
contains PSS (note: SSS transmitted on
the last symbol of subframe 0)
Uplink Pilot Time Slot (UpPTS)
mainly used for RACH and SRS transmission
Guard Period (GP)
Switching point between DL & UL transmission
Compensates for the delay when switching between transmission directions
Its length determines the maximum supportable cell size

For 5ms periodicity subframe#6 is also a


special subframe (otherwise is normal)

SUBFRAME 1
TD-LTE Downlink Peak Bit Rate- MAC Layer
Condition:
20MHz bandwidth, total 100 PRBs allocated
2x2 MIMO (2 antennas for TX, 2 Antennas for RX)
Maximum TB Size in normal DL subframe = 75376 bits
Maximum TB Size in DwPTS = 55056 bits
MAC layer peak bit rate in different configurations:
2DL:2UL configuration, SF configuration 5

2DL:2UL configuration, SF configuration 7 (75376x2x2)/5ms = 60.30 Mbps


3DL:1UL configuration, SF configuration 5
(75376x2x2+55056x2x1)/5ms = 82.32 Mbps
3DL:1UL configuration, SF configuration 7
(75376x2x3)/5ms = 90.45Mbps

(75376x2x3+55056x2x1)/5ms = 112.47 Mbps


2) SINR measurment
4) TX power level
3) Setting new power offset
adjustment with the new
offset

LTE Radio 1) Initial TX power level

Resource
Management
Scope of RRM
Scope of RRM:
Management and optimized utilization of the (scarce) radio resources:
Provision for each service/bearer/user an adequate QoS (if applicable)
Increasing the overall radio network capacity and optimizing quality

RRM is located in eNodeB


See next slide eNB

X2

LTE-Uu
Evolved Node B
LTE-UE (eNB)
LTE RRM: Scheduling
Motivation
Bad channel condition avoidance

CDMA OFDMA
Single Carrier transmission does The part of total available
not allow to allocate only channel experiencing bad
particular frequency parts. Every channel condition (fading) can be
fading gap effects the data. avoided during allocation
procedure.
LTE RRM: Link Adaptation by AMC (UL/DL)
Optimizing air interface efficiency

Motivation of link adaptation: Modify the signal transmitted to and by a particular user according to the
signal quality variation to improve the system capacity & coverage reliability.
It modifies the MCS (Modulation & Coding Scheme) & the transport block size (DL) and ATB (UL)
If SINR is good then higher MCS can be used more payload per symbol more throughput.
If SINR is bad then lower MCS should be used (more robust)
Flexi Multiradio BTS performs the link adaptation for DL on a TTI basis
The selection of the modulation & the channel coding rate is based:
DL data channel: CQI report from UE
UL: BLER measurements in Flexi LTE BTS

Adaptive Transmission Bandwidth (ATB): Calculates maximum number of PRBs that UL SCH can assigned to a
particular UE taking into account UE QoS profile and available UE power headroom
Link Adaptation / AMC for PDSCH
START

Procedure:
Initial MCS is provided by O&M Retrieve Default MCS
(parameter INI_MCS_DL) & is set as
default MCS
If DL AMC is not activated (O&M
parameter ENABLE_AMC_DL) the Dynamic AMC
active?
algorithm always uses this default
MCS no
If DL AMC is activated HARQ
retransmissions are handled HARQ
differently from initial transmissions retransmission? yes
(For HARQ retransmission the same
MCS has to be used as for the initial no
transmission) Determine avaraged CQI Use the same MCS as for
Use Default MCS
A MCS based on CQI reporting from value for allocated PRBs initial transmission

UE , shall be determined for the


PRBs assigned to UE as indicated by
Determine MCS
the DL scheduler

END
Outer Link Quality Control (OLQC)
Optimize the DL performance

Feature: CQI Adaptation (DL)


CQI information is used by the scheduler & link adaptation in such a way that a certain BLER of the 1 st HARQ
transmission is achieved
CQI adaptation is the basic mean to control Link Adaptation behaviour and to remedy UE measurement errors
Only used in DL
Used for CQI measurement error compensation
CQI estimation error of the UE
CQI quantization error or
CQI reporting error
It adds a CQI offset to the CQI reports provided by UE. The corrected CQI report is provided to the DL Link
adaptation for further processing
CQI offset derived from ACK/NACK feedback
Support of aperiodic CQI reports
Functionality
Aperiodic CQI reports scheduled in
addition to periodic reports
Periodic CQI reports on PUCCH
Aperiodic CQI reports on PUSCH
Description UL grant + CQI indicator
Controlled by the UL scheduler
Triggered by UL grant indication Perio
(PDCCH) dic C
QI (P
UC CH)
Basic feature
Ap e r
iodic
CQIs
(PU S
Benefits CH )
Not so many periodic CQIs on PUCCH needed
Allow frequent submission of more detailed
reports (e.g. MIMO, frequency selective parts)
LTE RRM: Power Control
Improve cell edge behaviour, reduce inter-cell interference & power consumption

Downlink:
There is no adaptive or dynamic power control in DL but semi-static power setting

eNodeB gives flat power spectral density (dBm/PRB) for the scheduled resources:
The power for all the PRBs is the same
If there are PRBs not scheduled that power is not used but the power of the remaining scheduled
PRBs doesnt change:
Total Tx power is max. when all PRBs are scheduled. If only 1/2 of the PRBs are scheduled the
Tx power is 1/2 of the Tx power max ( i.e. Tx power max -3dB)

Semi-static: PDSCH power can be adjusted via O&M parameters


Cell Power Reduction level CELL_PWR_RED [0...10] dB attenuation in 0.1 dB steps
Power Control
Improve cell edge behaviour, reduce inter-cell interference and power consumption
Uplink:
UL PC is a mix of Open Loop Power Control & Closed Loop Power Control:

PPUSCH (i) min{ PCMAX ,10 log10 ( M PUSCH (i)) P0 _ PUSCH ( j ) ( j ) PL TF (i) f (i )}[dBm]

Closed Loop PC component f(i): Makes use of feedback from the eNB. Feedback are TCP commands send via PDCCH to instruct the
UE to increase or decrease its Tx power

UL Power control is Slow power control:


2) SINR measurment
No need for fast power control as in 3G: if UE Tx power 3) Setting new power offset
4) TX power level
adjustment with the new
was high it incremented the co-channel for other UEs. offset
In LTE all UEs resources are orthogonal in frequency & 1) Initial TX power level
time

TPC: Transmit Power Control


Power Control
Uplink (cont.):
UL PC is a mix of Open Loop Power Control & Closed Loop Power Control:

PPUSCH (i) min{ PCMAX ,10 log10 ( M PUSCH (i)) P0 _ PUSCH ( j ) ( j ) PL TF (i) f (i )}[dBm]
PCMAX: max. UE Tx power according to UE power class; e.g. 23dBm for class 3
MPUSCH: # allocated PRBs. The UE Tx Power is increased proportionally to the # of allocated RBs. Remaining terms of the formula are
per RB
P0_PUSCH: eNB received power per RB when assuming path loss 0 dB. Depends on
: Path loss compensation factor. Three values:
= 0, no compensation of path loss
= 1, full compensation of path loss (conventional compensation)
{ 0 ,1 } , fractional compensation
PL: DL Path loss calculated by the UE
Delta_TF: increases the UE Tx power to achieve the required SINR when transmitting a large number of bits per RE. It links the UE
Tx power to the MCS.
3GPP Transmission Modes Summary
transmission modes defined by 3GPP TS36.331234
BF: beamforming SM: spatial multiplexing

Mode 1 Single-antenna port (SISO)

Mode 2 Transmit diversity (SFBC, Frequency Shift Time Diversity)

Open-loop SM (CQI and RI reported by UE, PM def. by eNb, rank adapt., rank
Mode 3
1 TM2, otherwise SM)
FDD & TDD
Mode 4 Closed-loop SM (CQI, RI, PMI reported by UE, rank adaptation) Rel 8

Mode 5 Multiuser-MIMO

Mode 6 Closed loop rank 1 precoding

Mode 7 Single-antenna port, port 5 (BF, DRS)


TDD only
Mode 8 Dual layer BF (port 7 and/or 8) Rel 9

Mode 9 Multi-stream beamforming with CSI-RS (Channel state information) Rel 10 FDD & TDD
Transmit diversity for 2 antennas

Benefit: Diversity gain, enhanced cell coverage


Each Tx antenna transmits the same stream of data with Receiver gets replicas of the same signal which
increases the SINR.
Synchronization signals are transmitted only via the 1st antenna
eNode B sends different cell-specific Reference Signals (RS) per antenna
It can be enabled on cell basis by O&M configuration
Processing is completed in 2 phases:
Layer Mapping: distributing a stream of data into two streams
Pre-coding: generation of signals for each antenna port
Spatial multiplexing (MIMO) for 2 antennas
Two code words
Benefit: Doubles peak rate compared to 1Tx antenna (S1+S2) are
transmitted in
Signal generation is similar to Transmit Diversity: i.e. Layer parallel to 1 UE
Mapping & Precoding double peak rate
Can be open loop or closed loop depending if the UE provides
feedback S2

Spatial multiplexing with 2 code words


Supported physical channel: PDSCH
2 code words transferred Layer Mapping
S1
when channel conditions Precoding
Code word 1 Map onto Resource
are good Modulation
L1
Elements OFDMA

W1
Scale
Map onto Resource
Elements OFDMA
Code word 2
Modulation
L2
W2
Precoding
Precoding generates the signals for each antenna port
Precoding is done multiplying the signal with a precoding matrix selected from a predefined codebook
known at the eNB and at the UE side
Closed loop: UE estimates the radio channel, selects the best precoding matrix (the one that offers
maximum capacity) & sends it to the eNB
Open loop: no need for UEs feedback as it uses predefined settings for Spatial Multiplexing & precoding

Pre-coding codebook for 2 Tx antenna case


eNB
NB LTE

Inter Layer WCDMA

Mobility
Introduction to Inter-layer Mobility
Connected mode 4G to 3G
Idle mode 4G-3G, 3G-4G

3G F1 to 3G F2 LTE F1 to LTE F2
Connected, idle Connected, idle

LTE
WCDMA

Connected mode 3G-2G, 2G-3G


Idle mode 2G-3G, 3G-2G GSM 4G Connected mode to
2G Idle mode

4G Idle mode to
2G Idle mode
Reselection Flow
Measurement Management for cell Reselection
LTE Thresholds and periodicity for measurements
RSRP [dBm] serving cell

sintrasearch -112 dBm


Search for higher priority frequency/RATs (low periodicity)
Re-select higher priority frequency/RATs if target is better than
Threshx,high
sNonintrsearch -116 dBm
Search for higher and lower priority frequency/RATs (high periodicity)
Re-select higher priority frequency/RATs if target is better than Threshx,high

ThresServLow -118 dBm


Search for higher and lower priority frequency/RATs (high periodicity)
Re-select higher priority frequency/RATs if target is better than Threshx,high
Re-select lower priority frequency/RATs if target is better than Threshx,low

S-criteria qRxLevMin -122 dBm


Start cell selection
Idle Mode
Cell Selection

-68 dBm -118 dBm -124dBm -130 dBm

When RSRP < -68 dBm UE When RSRP < -118 dBm UE
starts to measure intra-freq starts to measure on LTE (Inter)
neighbours and WCDMA

interFrqThrL
sIntrasearch sNonIntrsearch threshSrvLow Qrxlevmin (Used by Serving Cell)
qrxlevminintraF (Used By Neigh Cell)
LNCEL:threshSrvLow = 6 (-124 dBm)
LNCEL:Qhyst = 3dB UFFIM:utraFrqThrL = 0 (-115 dBm)
IAFIM: qOffestCell = 0dB UFFIM:qRxLevMinUtra= -115 dBm
LNCEL:threshSrvLow= 6 (-124 dBm)
Reselection to other LTE cell will happen: IRFIM:interFrqThrL = 4 (-120 dBm) If no suitable LTE cell found, then reselection to
1. When neighbor is 3dB better than serving IRFIM:qRxLevMinInterF= -130dBm WCDMA will happen
2. For a time 1. When serving cell is below -124 dBm and
LNCEL:tReselEutr = 1s Reselection to LTE Inter cell will happen: neighboring WCDMA cell RSCP > -115 dBm
3. AND more than 1 s has elapsed since the 1. When serving is below -124dBm 2. For a time UFFIM:tResUtra = 1s
UE camped in the currrent cell AND LTE neighbours RSRP is better 3. AND more than 1 s has elapsed since the UE
than -118 dBm camped in the current cell
2. For a time
IRFIM:intertResEutr = 1s
3. AND more than 1 s has elapsed
since the UE camped in the current
cell
Confidential
HO Process
Intra RAT HO events

A1 -> Serving cell becomes better than threshold

A2 -> Serving cells becomes worse than threshold

A3 -> Neighbour becomes offset better than serving

A4 -> Neighbour becomes better than threshold

A5 -> Serving becomes worse than threshold 1 & neighbour


becomes better than threshold 2
Inter RAT HO events

Event B1 -> Inter RAT neighbour becomes better than threshold

Event B2 -> serving becomes worse than threshold 1 and


neighbour becomes better than threshold 2
Measurement Activation

radio coverage by RSRP decreases


RSRP (reported)
Threshold2GERAN Threshold2Wcdma Threshold2InterFreq Threshold1

Intra-frequency Intra-frequency Intra-frequency Intra-frequency No neighbors


& Inter-frequency & Inter-frequency & Inter-frequency measurements measurements
& GERAN & UMTS & UMTS measurements only except the serving
measurements measurements cell

Assumptions* for this example:


Threshold2GERAN < Threshold2Wcdma < Threshold2InterFreq< Threshold1

threshold2InterFreq threshold2GERAN threshold2Wcdma


Trigger for inter-frequency Trigger for GERAN Trigger for WCDMA
measurements measurements measurements
LNCEL; 0..97dB; 1dB; - LNCEL; 0..97dB; 1dB; - LNCEL; 0..97dB; 1dB; -
HO Flow

70
X-2 Ho Preparation

71
X-2 HO Execution

72
X-2 HO Completion

73
Inter eNB Handover via S1 (preparation, execution)

74
Inter eNB Handover via S1 (completion)

75
HO to WCDMA
HO to WCDMA
Connected Mode
Intra and Inter-frequency Handovers

Trigger: RSRP below Thresholdx

Threshold1 Threshold2InterFreq Threshold3InterFreq Threshold4


Threshold3
-50 dBm -100 dBm -116 dBm -122dBm -140 dBm

Only Serving UE measure UE measure


Cell intra Frequency inter Frequency UE perform HO RRC Release
UE perform HO
Measurement Neighbors Neighbors Neighbor to inter Freq with Redirect
Neighbor

UE stops to
measure intra
Frequency
Neighbors
-80 dBm -120 dBm
Threshold3aInterFreq
Threshold2a

Trigger: RSRP above Thresholdxa


Connected Mode
IRAT WCDMA Handovers

Trigger: RSRP below Thresholdx

Threshold1 Threshold2InterFreq Threshold4


Threshold3 b2Threshold1UTRA
-50 dBm -100 dBm -116 dBm -124dBm -140 dBm

Only Serving UE measure UE measure UE


Cell intra Frequency inter Frequency measure UE perform HO RRC Release
Measurement Neighbors Neighbors WCDMA to WCDMA with Redirect
Neighbor Neighbor
s

UE stops to
measure intra
Frequency
Neighbors
-80 dBm
Threshold2a
Trigger: RSRP above Thresholdxa
HO to WCDMA

Source Target
UE MME S -GW SGSN P -GW
eNB RNC
RRC: RRC Connection Reconfiguration (LNCEL: A1, A2 & LNHOW: B2 thresholds 1
& LNADJW: WCDMA frequency & scrambling code )

2 Measurements activation/deactivation of
WCDMA based on A2/A1 events. UE
measurement reports triggered by event B2

3 RRC: Measurement Report (target WCDMA cells)

4 Decision to perform
WCDMA HO

S1AP: Handover Required (LNADJW: target WCDMA cell)

5 Handover Preparation
S1AP: Handover Command

RRC: Mobility From EUTRA Command 6

S1AP: S1 Application Part Protocol


Redirection from LTE to WCDMA
Another mobility from LTE to WCDMA is Redirection. With redirection, LTE RRC connection is released with
target RAT information. Ue Released from LTE , than go idle mode in WCDMA

[..] RRC: MEASUREMENT REPORT

event A2
RRC: RRC CONNECTION RELEASE for redirection
target RAT
indicated
CS Fallback to UTRAN
No CS domain in Evolved Packet System (EPS)
eNB
NB
LTE E-UTRAN attached UEs
WCDMA request CS voice service

UEs must be redirected / handed over


towards other Radio Access Technology
(RAT) that provides CS-domain services
CS Fallback

eNB MME
UE

RRC:
S1AP: UL NAS TRANSPORT
(Extended Service Request)

S1AP: (CS Fallback Indicator)


CS Fallback
MME
/ eNB MO UE RNC MSC

Extended Service Request (MO CSFB)


Start MO call
ESR Procedure
RRC Connection Setup Procedure

RRC Connection Release (with UARFCN)

UMTS
Acquisition UMTS cell
MO CSFB Call Setup Duration

acquisition
< Status: UMTS Cell Acquired >

UMTS
SIB Read Time SIB reading
< Status: Camped on UMTS Cell >

UE time to Send
RRC Connection
Request
RRC Connection Request

NW RRC
RRC Connection Setup
UMTS
Call Setup
Duration UE UMTS Service
Req. (Location Update Procedure)

( = RRC & NAS Procedures


CM Service Request
on UMTS)
CC Setup
UMTS NAS
CC Call Proceeding

CC Alerting

83
RF
Measurement
LTE Measurements
Physical layer measurements have not been extensively discussed in the LTE standardization. They could change.
Intra LTE measurements ( from LTE to LTE)
UE measurements
CQI measurements
Reference Signal Received Power (RSRP)
Reference Signal Received Quality ( RSRQ)
eNB measurements
Non standardized (vendor specific): TA, Average RSSI, Average SINR, UL CSI, detected PRACH
preambles, transport channel BLER
Standardized: DL RS Tx Power, Received Interference Power, Thermal Noise Power
Measurements from LTE to other systems
UE measurements are mainly intended for Handover.
UTRA FDD: CPICH RSCP, CPICH Ec/No and carrier RSSI
GSM: GSM carrier RSSI
UTRA TDD: carrier RSSI, RSCP, P-CCPCH
CDMA2000: 1xRTT Pilot Strength, HRPD Pilot Strength

CSI: Channel State Information (received power per PRB)


TA: Timing Advance
UE Measurements: RSRP & RSRQ
RSRP (Reference Signal Received Power)
Average of power levels (in [W]) received across all Reference Signal symbols within the considered measurement frequency
bandwidth.
In other words RSRP (Reference Signal Receive Power) is the average power of Resource Elements (RE) that carry cell specific
Reference Signals (RS) over the entire bandwidth, so RSRP is only measured in the symbols carrying RS.
UE only takes measurements from the cell-specific Reference Signal elements of the serving cell
If receiver diversity is in use by the UE, the reported value shall be equivalent to the linear average of the power values of all
diversity branches
Reporting range -44-133 dBm

RSRQ ( Reference Signal Received Quality)


Defined as the ratio NRSRP/(E-UTRA carrier RSSI), where N is the number of RBs of the E-UTRA carrier RSSI measurement
bandwidth. The measurements in the numerator and denominator shall be made over the same set of resource blocks
Reporting range -3-19.5dB

E-UTRA Carrier Received Signal Strength Indicator, comprises the total received wideband power observed by the UE from all RS
symbols for antenna port 0, including co-channel serving and non-serving cells, adjacent channel interference, thermal noise etc.
eNodeB Measurements
DL Reference Signal Transmitted Power
Average of power levels (in [W]) transmitted across all Reference Signal symbols within the considered
measurement frequency bandwidth
Reference point for the DL RS TX power measurement: TX antenna connector
The DL RS TX power signaled to the UE is not measured, it is just an eNB internal setting
Received Interference Power:
Received interference power, including thermal noise, within one PRBs bandwidth
Thermal noise power: No x W
Thermal noise power within the UL system bandwidth (consisting of variable # of resource blocks)
No: white noise power spectral density on the uplink carrier frequency and W: denotes the UL
system bandwidth.
Optionally reported with the Received Interference Power
Reference point: RX antenna connector
In case of receiver diversity, the reported value is the average of the power in the diversity branches