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# 8/7/2017

## AM demodulation is the reverse process of AM AM Receiver Block Diagram

modulation.
A conventional DSBFC AM receiver simply
back to the original source information

## AMPLITUDE MODULATION RECEPTION AMPLITUDE MODULATION RECEPTION

RF section is the first stage of the receiver and is Receiver parameters are commonly used to
responsible for detecting, bandlimiting and amplifying the
frequencies to intermediate frequencies (IF). IFs are
frequencies that fall somewhere between the RF and The two most important parameters are selectivity
information frequencies (baseband). and sensitivity.
IF section its primary functions are amplification and
selectivity. Selectivity is the measure of the ability of the
AM detector demodulates the AM wave and converts it to receiver to accept a given band of frequencies
the original information signal.
Audio section amplifies the recovered information.
and reject all others.

## AMPLITUDE MODULATION RECEPTION AMPLITUDE MODULATION RECEPTION

Shape factor is the ratio of the two bandwidth levels. It is
One common way of evaluating the selectivity of

mathematically expressed as:
a radio receiver is to give the bandwidth at the -3 % = 100

## dB points. where SF = shape factor (unitless)

B(-60 dB) = bandwidth 60 dB below maximum signal level
This bandwidth, however, is not necessarily a good B(-3 dB) = bandwidth 3 dB below maximum signal level
means of determining how well the receiver will Ideally, the bandwidth at the -3 dB and -60 dB points

reject unwanted frequencies. would be equal and the shape factor would be 1.
However, this value is impossible to achieve in a practical
at two levels of attenuation: -3 dB and -60 dB. A radio receiver must be capable of separating the desired
channels signals without allowing interference from an
adjacent channel to spill over into the desired channels
passband.

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## AMPLITUDE MODULATION RECEPTION AMPLITUDE MODULATION RECEPTION

Recall that thermal noise is directly proportional to Sensitivity of a receiver is the minimum RF signal
level that can be detected at the input to the receiver
bandwidth. and still produce a usable demodulated information
Bandwidth improvement is the noise reduction signal. (Although the quality of a usable information
ratio achieved by reducing the bandwidth. signal is arbitrary.) It is also known as the receiver
threshold.
The sensitivity of a receiver is usually stated in
The sensitivity of an AM receiver depends on:
where BI is the bandwidth improvement, BRF is the RF the noise power present at the input to the receiver,
bandwidth and BIF is the IF bandwidth. the receivers noise figure,

## Dynamic Range Fidelity

is defined as the difference in decibels between the is a measure of the ability of a communications

minimum input level necessary to discern a system to produce, at the output of the receiver, an
signal and the input level that will overdrive the exact replica of the original source information.
receiver and produce distortion. Any frequency, phase, or amplitude variations that
In other words, the dynamic range is the input are present in the demodulated waveform that
power range over which the receiver is useful. were not in the original information signal are
considered distortion.

## AMPLITUDE MODULATION RECEPTION AMPLITUDE MODULATION RECEPTION

Phase distortion is brought about by filtering (both wanted Insertion loss (IL) is generally defined as the ratio
and unwanted). It is not particularly important for voice
transmission (since the human ear is relatively insensitive to of the power transferred to a load with a filter in
phase variations), however, it can be devastating to data the circuit to the power transferred to a load
transmission.
Absolute phase shift is the total phase shift encountered by a
without the filter. Hence, it is associated with the
signal and can generally be tolerated as long as all frequencies that fall within the passband of a filter.
frequencies undergo the same amount of phase delay.
Ratio of the output power of a filter to the input
Differential phase shift occurs when different frequencies
undergo different phase shifts and may have a power for frequencies that fall within the filters
detrimental effect on a complex waveform, especially if the passband and is stated mathematically in decibels
information is encoded into the phase of the carrier as it is as
with phase shift keying modulation.

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## Noise Temperature and Equivalent Noise Temperature AM RECEIVERS

Noise can be expressed in degrees as well as watts or
and noncoherent.
volts:
must see to it that the frequencies generated in the
Equivalent noise temperature (Te) is often used in low- receiver and used for demodulated are synchronized to
noise, sophisticated radio receivers rather than noise oscillator frequencies generated in the transmitter. It has
to have some mechanism on how to retrieve the carrier
figure. Te is an indication of the reduction in the SNR as and synchronize to it.
a signal propagates through a receiver. The lower the
Noncoherent receiver also known as envelope detector,
equivalent noise temperature, the better the quality detects the shape of the modulated envelope of the

## AMPLITUDE MODULATION RECEPTION AMPLITUDE MODULATION RECEPTION

One of the earliest types of AM receiver was the 1. Its bandwidth is inconsistent and varies with center
frequency when tuned over a wide range of input
tuned radio frequency (TRF) receiver. frequencies. This is caused by skin effect.
The TRF includes an RF stage, a detector stage and an 2. It is unstable due to the large number of RF
audio stage. amplifiers all tuned to the same center frequency. High-
frequency, multi-stage amplifiers are susceptible to
breaking into oscillations. This can be reduced by a
technique called stagger tuning wherein each amplifier
is tuned to a slightly different frequency, slightly above
or below the desired center frequency.
3. Its gain is not uniform over a very wide frequency
range due to the non-uniform L/C ratios of the
transformer-coupled tank circuits in the RF amplifiers.

## AMPLITUDE MODULATION RECEPTION AMPLITUDE MODULATION RECEPTION

The non-uniform selectivity of the TRF led to
the development of the superheterodyne receiver
near the end of WWI. It has remained in use until
today because its gain, selectivity, and sensitivity
are superior to those of other receiver
configurations. Heterodyne means to mix two
frequencies together in a nonlinear device or to
translate one frequency to another using nonlinear
mixing.

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## Components of a Superheterodyne Receiver RF amplifier determines the sensitivity of the receiver

RF section consists of a preselector and an amplifier stage. (i.e., sets the signal threshold).
It is a predominant factor in determining the noise
Preselector is a broad-tuned bandpass filter with an figure of the receiver since it is the first active device
adjustable center frequency that is tuned to the desired carrier encountered by a received signal. The advantages of
frequency. including RF amplifiers in a receiver are as follows:
Its primary purpose is to provide initial bandlimiting to prevent a Greater gain, thus better sensitivity
specific unwanted radio frequency, called the image frequency. Improved image-frequency rejection
It also reduces the noise bandwidth of the receiver and provides the Better signal-to-noise ratio
initial reduction of the overall receiver bandwidth to the minimum
bandwidth required to pass the information signals. Better selectivity

## AMPLITUDE MODULATION RECEPTION AMPLITUDE MODULATION RECEPTION

Mixer/converter section includes a RF oscillator stage IF section consists of a series of IF amplifiers and
(local oscillator) and a mixer/converter stage (first bandpass filters and it is often called the IF strip. Most
detector). of the receiver gain and selectivity is achieved in this
section.
Local oscillator can be any oscillator circuit The IF center frequency and bandwidth are constant for
depending on the required stability and accuracy. all stations and are chosen so that their frequency is
Mixer stage - is a nonlinear device the purpose of less than any of the RF signals to be received.
which is to convert RF to intermediate frequencies (IF). Why at a lesser frequency than RF?
Despite the frequency translation (most common IF used It is easier and less expensive to construct high-gain,
in AM broadcast-band receivers is 455 kHz), the shape stable amplifiers for the low-frequency signals.
of the AM envelope remains the same. (IFs range from IF amplifiers are less likely to oscillate than their RF
450 kHz to 460 kHz.) counterparts.

## AMPLITUDE MODULATION RECEPTION AMPLITUDE MODULATION RECEPTION

Detection section its purpose is to convert the IF Frequency Conversion in an AM Superheterodyne Receiver
signals back to the original source information. It is Frequency conversion in the mixer/converter stage is
identical to the frequency conversion in the modulator stage
generally called an audio detector or the second of a transmitter except that in the receiver, the frequencies
detector. The detector can be as simple as a single are down-converted rather than up-converted.
diode or as complex as a phase-locked loop (PLL) RF signals are combined with the local oscillator frequency
or balanced demodulator. in a nonlinear device. (Caveat: The local oscillator frequency
is not the same as the carrier frequency, since a
Audio amplifier section comprises several superheterodyne receiver is the noncoherent-type.)
cascaded audio amplifiers and one or more The output frequencies of the mixer include the sum and
speakers. The number of amplifiers used depends difference frequencies between the desired RF carrier and
on the audio signal power desired. local oscillator frequencies.
The local oscillator is designed such that its frequency of
oscillation is always above or below the desired RF carrier
by an amount equal to the IF center frequency.

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## AMPLITUDE MODULATION RECEPTION AMPLITUDE MODULATION RECEPTION

As a consequence, the difference between the RF and Mathematically, the local oscillator frequency is
the local oscillator frequency is always equal to the IF.
For high-side injection
The adjustment for the center frequency of the
For low-side injection
preselector and the adjustment for the local oscillator
frequency are gang tuned. Where fLO = local oscillator frequency (hertz)
Gang tuning means that the two adjustments are
mechanically tied together.
When the local oscillator is tuned above the RF, it is fIF = intermediate frequency (hertz)
called high-side injection or highbeat injection.
When the local oscillator is tuned below the RF, it is
called low-side injection or lowbeat injection.
always used.

## AMPLITUDE MODULATION RECEPTION AMPLITUDE MODULATION RECEPTION

EXAMPLE:
For an AM superheterodyne receiver that uses high-
side injection and has a local oscillator frequency of
1355 kHz, determine the IF carrier, IF upper side
frequency, and the IF lower side frequency for an RF
wave that is made up of a carrier and upper and
lower side frequencies of 900 kHz, 905 kHz and 895 Note: Sideband inversion occurred during the
kHz, respectively. heterodyning process.