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Suspension is the system of tires, tire air, springs, shock absorbers and linkages that connects a vehicle
to its wheels and allows relative motion between the two. Suspension systems must support both road
holding/handling and ride quality, which are at odds with each other. The tuning of suspensions involves
finding the right compromise. It is important for the suspension to keep the road wheel in contact with
the road surface as much as possible, because all the road or ground forces acting on the vehicle do so
through the contact patches of the tires. The suspension also protects the vehicle itself and any cargo or
luggage from damage and wear. The design of front and rear suspension of a car may be different.

The suspension system and frame must also position the wheels and tires properly to provide
normal tire life and proper steering control. If the suspension system does not position each wheel and
tire properly, wheel alignment angles are incorrect and usually cause excessive tire tread wear. Improper
wheel and tire position can also cause the steering to pull to one side. When the suspension system
positions the wheels and tires properly, the steering should remain in the straight-ahead position if the
car is driven straight ahead on are reasonably straight, smooth road surface. However, if the wheels and
tires are not properly positioned, the steering can be erratic, and excessive steering effort is required to
maintain the steering in the straight-ahead position. The steering system is also extremely important to
maintain vehicle safety and reduce driver fatigue. For example, if a steering system component is
suddenly disconnected, the driver may experience a complete loss of steering control, resulting in a
vehicle collision and personal injury. Loose steering system components can cause erratic steering,
which causes the driver to continually turn the steering wheel in either direction to try and keep the
vehicle moving straight ahead. T is condition results in premature driver fatigue.

The operation performed in braking is the reverse of that carried out in accelerating. In the latter, the
heat energy of the fuel is converted into kinetic energy of the car, whereas in the former, the kinetic
energy of the car is converted into heat.

Furthermore, when driving the cars, the torque of the engine produces a tractive effort at the peripheries
of the driving wheels, so when the brakes are applied, the braking torque introduced at the brake drums
produces a negative tractive effort or retarding effort at the peripheries of the braking wheels. As the
acceleration possible is limited by the adhesion that is available between the driving wheels and the
ground, so the deceleration possible is also limited.

The deceleration possible with modern braking system is however, high enough to make braking of the
entire road wheels desirable. This is a legal requirement in some countries.

The study of the forces at work on a moving car is called vehicle dynamics, and you need to understand
some of these concepts in order to appreciate why a suspension is necessary in the first place. Most
automobile engineers consider the dynamics of a moving car from two perspectives:

Ride - a car's ability to smooth out a bumpy road

Handling - a car's ability to safely accelerate, brake and corner

These two characteristics can be further described in three important principles - road isolation, road
holding and cornering. The table below describes these principles and how engineers attempt to solve
the challenges unique to each.

Principle Definition Goal Solution

Absorb energy from
road bumps and
Allow the vehicle body to
The vehicle's ability to absorb or isolate road dissipate it without
Road Isolation ride undisturbed while
shock from the passenger compartment causing undue
traveling over rough roads.
oscillation in the
The degree to which a car maintains contact
with the road surface in various types of
directional changes and in a straight line Keep the tires in contact with Minimize the transfer of
(Example: The weight of a car will shift from the ground, because it is the vehicle weight from
the rear tires to the front tires during braking. friction between the tires and side to side and front to
Road Holding
Because the nose of the car dips toward the the road that affects a back, as this transfer of
road, this type of motion is known as "dive." vehicle's ability to steer, weight reduces the tire's
The opposite effect -- "squat" -- occurs during brake and accelerate. grip on the road.
acceleration, which shifts the weight of the car
from the front tires to the back.)
Minimize body roll, which
occurs as centrifugal force
Transfer the weight of
pushes outward on a car's
the car during cornering
Cornering The ability of a vehicle to travel a curved path center of gravity while
from the high side of the
cornering, raising one side of
vehicle to the low side.
the vehicle and lowering the
opposite side.


The automobile suspension system has the following functions;

1. To provide smooth and comfortable ride.

2. To support the entire weight of the vehicle.
3. To allow for steering action.
4. To prevent excessive roll when negotiating a bend.
5. To prevent excessive body squat when accelerating or heavily loaded.
6. To prevent excessive body dive during brakes actuation.
7. To keep the tyres in firm contact with the ground.


According to the different suspension types of automobile orientation institutions, a vehicle suspension
system can be divided into: independent suspension and non-independent suspension. From the picture
below, you can easily find the difference.

The Independent Suspension System

Independent suspension is a broad term for any automobile suspension system that allows each wheel
on the same axle to move vertically (i.e. reacting to a bump in the road) independently of each other.
This is contrasted with a beam axle or deDion axle system in which the wheels are linked movement
on one side effects the wheel on the other side. Note that "independent" refers to the motion or path of
movement of the wheels/suspension. It is common for the left and right sides of the suspension to be
connected with anti-roll bars or other such mechanisms. The anti-roll bar ties the left and right
suspension spring rates together but does not tie their motion together.

The non independent suspension system

Non-independent suspension is widely applied on heavy duty vehicles, in that it can bear big load and
much stronger than independent suspension. the wheel is installed in both sides of an overall axle, axle
connect to the frame(or body) via suspension. The suspension structure is simple, reliable power

transmission, but shock and vibration from the two wheels affect each other. This kind of suspension is
generally used for trucks, buses and other vehicles.


The front and rear suspension systems are extremely important to provide proper wheel position, steering
control, ride quality, and tire life. The impact of the tires striking road irregularities must be absorbed by
the suspension systems. The suspension systems must supply proper ride quality to maintain customer
satisfaction and reduce driver fatigue, as well as provide proper wheel and tire position to maintain
directional stability when driving. Proper wheel position also ensures normal tire tread life. Typical
components in a short-and-long arm (SLA) front suspension system are illustrated in Figure 1-5. This
type of front suspension system has a long lower control arm and a shorter upper control arm. The main
front suspension components serve the following purposes:

1. Upper and lower control armscontrol lateral (side-to-side) wheel movement.

2. Upper and lower control arm bushingsallow upward and downward control arm movement
and absorb wheel impacts and vibrations. The average car manufactured in the United States
contains 347 lb (157 kg) of aluminium. A decade ago, the average car contained 242 lb (110 kg)
of aluminium, and in 1973, the average car contained 81 lb

The front suspension system

3. Coil springsallows proper suspension ride height and control suspension travel during driving
4. Ball jointsallow the knuckle and wheels to turn to the right or left.
5. Steering knucklesprovide mounting surfaces for the wheel bearings and hubs.
6. Shock absorberscontrol spring action when driving on irregular road surfaces.
7. Strut rodcontrols fore-and-aft wheel movement.
8. Stabilizer barreduces body sway when a front wheel strikes a road irregularity.

A MacPherson strut front suspension system has no upper control arm and ball joint; instead, a strut is
connected from the top of the knuckle to an upper strut mount bolted to the reinforced strut tower in the
unitized body (Figure The strut supports the top of the knuckle and also performs the same function as
the shock absorber in a SLA suspension system. The coil spring is mounted between a lower support on
the strut and the upper strut mount. Insulators are mounted between the ends of the coil spring and the
mounting locations. A bearing in the upper strut mount allows the strut and coil spring to rotate with the
spindle when the front wheels are turned.


Rear Suspension Systems A typical live-axle rear suspension system has a one-piece rear axle housing.
Trailing arms are connected from the rear axle housing to the chassis through rubber bushings. The
coil springs are mounted between the trailing arms and the chassis. Because the rear axle housing is a
one-piece assembly, vertical movement of one rear wheel causes the opposite rear wheel to be tipped

outward at the top. This action increases tire tread wear and reduces ride quality and traction between
the tire tread and road surface.

Figure 3: Live rear axle suspension system with coiled springs

Types of Spring Suspension

The main types of springs are coil springs, leaf springs, torsion bars and air springs. Coil springs are the
most common among passenger cars and are the simplest to visualize because they are in the prototypical
spiral shape. Springs are simple. With the exception of air springs, which are more like tires or inner
tubes filled with air, all the springs mentioned above are made of spring steel that resists bending. As
incorporated in the suspension system, their job is to resist compression and expansion, which allows
the wheels to move up and down independent of the vehicle but always returning them to a center


Any spring, whether its a leaf, torsion or coil spring, must compensate for irregularities in the road
surface, maintain the suspension system at a predetermined height and support added weight without
excessive sagging.

Heavy-Duty Suspension

Payload requirements are the most important consideration for correct suspension selection in heavy
duty vehicles. Accurately project what the truck will be hauling, how much it weighs, and the potential
for overload. A correct rear suspension specifications should leave a small buffer for payload capacity,
without going to extremes. An overloaded suspension could lead to premature failure; an under-loaded
suspension could cause a harsher ride.

Heavy Duty Suspension Types

For medium-duty trucks, from 14,001-lbs or 6,350.747-kg. to 26,000-lbs or 11,793.402-kg. gross vehicle
weight rating (GVWR), there are two predominant suspension types:

Multi-leaf: Multi-leaf suspensions provide extra stability and rigidity in applications that require heavy
loads on the rear axle. They are also cost effective and provide a good fit for purchases driven by price.

Air ride: Air ride suspensions provide for superior ride quality, whether laden or unladen, and there are
several that have been specifically designed for vocational applications. The suspension's air-dump
capability lowers the chassis height and enables easier loading and unloading. Air ride suspensions also
carry a higher price tag than multi-leaf spring suspensions.


Ride Quality

A suspension that is too rigid for the application will ride rough and cause discomfort for the vehicle
operator. For applications where the truck is typically always laden, such as service and lube trucks, this
[rough ride issue with rigid suspensions] is minimized.

Roll Stability

High centre-of-gravity applications need suspensions that have horizontal roll stiffness to keep the
vehicle upright and tracking properly,


Trucks that routinely carry heavier loads need a suspension that has vertical stiffness to support the
weight and also minimize performance issues and maintenance concerns.

Air Suspension System

Leaf Spring Suspension

Air Suspension

Air suspension is a type of vehicle suspension powered by an electric or engine-driven air pump or
compressor. This compressor pumps the air into a flexible bellows, usually made from textile-reinforced
rubber. This in turn inflates the bellows, and raises the chassis from the axle.

Air suspension is used in place of conventional steel springs in passenger cars, and in heavy vehicle
applications such as buses and trucks. It is broadly used on semi-trailers, trains (primarily passenger

The purpose of air suspension is to provide a smooth, constant ride quality, but in some cases is used for
sports suspension. Modern electronically controlled systems in automobiles and light trucks always
feature self-levelling along with raising and lowering functions. Although traditionally called air bags

or air bellows, the correct term is air spring (although these terms are also used to describe just the rubber
bellows element with its end plates).


Air Compressor: this compresses air into the air tank and is driven either electrically or
mechanically by the engine.

Air Tank: This stores the air for future use.

Air Bellows: They are sometimes refer to as air spring, they suspend the vehicle body from the

Solenoid Valve Manifold: this controls the air travelling to each air spring.

Air Lines: these are passages through which the air travels to the air springs.

Air Filter: this filters the air of any unwanted particle.


Air bag or air strut failure is usually caused by wet rust, due to old age, or moisture within the air
system that damages it from the inside. Air ride suspension parts may fail because rubber dries out.
Punctures to the air bag may be caused from debris on the road. With custom applications, improper
installation may cause the air bags to rub against the vehicle's frame or other surrounding parts, damaging
it. The over-extension of an air spring which is not sufficiently constrained by other suspension
components, such as a shock absorber, may also lead to the premature failure of an air spring through
the tearing of the flexible layers.

Air line failure is a failure of the tubing which connects the air bags or struts to the rest of the air system,
and is typically DOT-approved nylon air brake line. This usually occurs when the air lines, which must
be routed to the air bags through the chassis of the vehicle, rub against a sharp edge of a chassis member
or a moving suspension component, causing a hole to form. This mode of failure will typically take some
time to occur after the initial installation of the system, as the integrity of a section of air line is
compromised to the point of failure due to the rubbing and resultant abrasion of the material. An air-line
failure may also occur if a piece of road debris hits an air line and punctures or tears it, although this is
unlikely to occur in normal road use. It does occur in harsh off-road conditions but it still not common
if correctly installed.

Air fitting failure usually occurs when they are first fitted or very rarely in use. Cheap low quality
components tend to be very unreliable. Air fittings are used to connect components such as bags, valves,
and solenoids to the airline that transfers the air. They are screwed into the component and for the most
part push-in or push-to-fit DOT line is then inserted into the fitting.
Compressor failure is primarily due to leaking air springs or air struts. The compressor will burn out
trying to maintain the correct air pressure in a leaking air system. Compressor burnout may also be
caused by moisture from within the air system coming into contact with its electronic parts. This is far
more likely to occur with low specification compressors with insufficient duty cycle which are often
purchased due to low cost. For redundancy in the system two compressors are often better options.

Dryer failure the dryer, whose function is to remove moisture from the air system, eventually becomes
saturated and unable to perform that function. This causes moisture to build up in the system and can
result in damaged air springs and/or a burned out compressor.


Hydro pneumatic suspension is a type of motor vehicle suspension system, designed by Paul Mags,
invented by Citron, and fitted to Citron cars, as well as being used under licence by other car
manufacturers, notably Rolls-Royce (Silver Shadow), Maserati (Quattro Porte II) and Peugeot. It was
also used on Berliet trucks and has not recently been used on Mercedes-Benz cars. Similar systems are
also used on some military vehicles. The suspension was referred to as olopneumatique in early
literature, pointing to oil and air as its main components.

The purpose of this system is to provide a sensitive, dynamic and high-capacity suspension that offers
superior ride quality on a variety of surfaces.

A hydro pneumatic system combines the advantages of two technological principles:

Hydraulic systems use torque multiplication in an easy way, independent of the distance between
the input and output, without the need for mechanical gears or levers
Pneumatic systems are based on the fact that gas is compressible, so equipment is less subject to
shock damage.
Gas absorbs excessive force, whereas fluid in hydraulics directly transfers force

The suspension system usually features both self-levelling and driver-variable ride height, to provide
extra clearance in rough terrain.

The principles illustrated by the successful use of hydro pneumatic suspension are now used in broad
range of applications, like aircraft oleo struts and gas filled automobile shock absorbers, first patented
in the U.S. in 1960.


This system uses a belt or camshaft driven pump from the engine to pressurise a special hydraulic fluid,
which then powers the brakes, suspension and power steering. It can also power any number of features
such as the clutch, turning headlamps and even power windows.

Nitrogen is used as the trapped gas to be compressed, since it is unlikely to cause corrosion. A nitrogen
reservoir with variable volume yields a spring with non-linear force-deflection characteristics. In this
way the resulting system does not possess any Eigen frequencies and associated dynamic instabilities,
which need to be suppressed through extensive damping in conventional suspension systems. The
actuation of the nitrogen spring reservoir is performed through an incompressible hydraulic fluid inside
a suspension cylinder. By adjusting the filled fluid volume within the cylinder, a levelling functionality
is implemented. The nitrogen gas within the suspension sphere is separated from the hydraulic oil
through a rubber membrane.


A shock absorber (in reality, a shock "damper") is a mechanical or hydraulic device designed to absorb
and damp shock impulses. It does this by converting the kinetic energy of the shock into another form
of energy (typically heat) which is then dissipated. A shock absorber is a type of dashpot.

In a vehicle, shock absorbers reduce the effect of traveling over rough ground, leading to improved ride
quality and vehicle handling. While shock absorbers serve the purpose of limiting excessive suspension
movement, their intended sole purpose is to damp spring oscillations. Shock absorbers use valving of oil
and gasses to absorb excess energy from the springs. Spring rates are chosen by the manufacturer based
on the weight of the vehicle, loaded and unloaded. Some people use shocks to modify spring rates but
this is not the correct use. Along with hysteresis in the tire itself, they damp the energy stored in the
motion of the unsprung weight up and down. Effective wheel bounce damping may require tuning shocks
to an optimal resistance.

Spring-based shock absorbers commonly use coil springs or leaf springs, though torsion bars are used
in torsional shocks as well. Ideal springs alone, however, are not shock absorbers, as springs only store
and do not dissipate or absorb energy. Vehicles typically employ both hydraulic shock absorbers and
springs or torsion bars. In this combination, "shock absorber" refers specifically to the hydraulic piston
that absorbs and dissipates vibration.


A wheel is a circular component that is intended to rotate on an axle bearing. The wheel is one
of the main components of the wheel and axle which is one of the six simple machines. Wheels, in
conjunction with axles, allow heavy objects to be moved easily facilitating movement or transportation
while supporting a load, or performing labor in machines. Wheels are also used for other purposes, such
as a ship's wheel, steering wheel, potter's wheel and flywheel.

Common examples are found in transport applications. A wheel greatly reduces friction by facilitating
motion by rolling together with the use of axles. In order for wheels to rotate, a moment needs to be

applied to the wheel about its axis, either by way of gravity or by the application of another external
force or torque.

Early wheels were simple wooden disks with a hole for the axle. Some of the earliest wheels
were made from horizontal slices of tree trunks. Because of the uneven structure of wood, a wheel made
from a horizontal slice of a tree trunk will tend to be inferior to one made from rounded pieces of
longitudinal boards.

Wheels on an ancient Etruscan chariot, 2nd quarter of the 6th century B.C. Wheel with bronze sheeting
from rokalja. 1000 BC. The spoked wheel was invented more recently, and allowed the construction
of lighter and swifter vehicles. In the Harappan civilization of the Indus Valley and Northwestern India,
we find toy-cart wheels made of clay with lines which have been interpreted as spokes painted or in
relief, and a symbol interpreted as a spoked wheel in the script of the seals,[19] already in the second
half of the 3rd millennium BCE. The earliest known examples of wooden spoked wheels are in the
context of the Andronovo culture, dating to c. 2000 BCE. Soon after this, horse cultures of the Caucasus
region used horse-drawn spoked-wheel war chariots for the greater part of three centuries. They moved
deep into the Greek peninsula where they joined with the existing Mediterranean peoples to give rise,
eventually, to classical Greece after the breaking of Minoan dominance and consolidations led by pre-
classical Sparta and Athens. Celtic chariots introduced an iron rim around the wheel in the 1st
millennium BCE.

Radially (left) and tangentially- (right) wire-spoked wheels, both with pneumatic tires

The spoked wheel was in continued use without major modification until the 1870s, when wire-spoked
wheels and pneumatic tires were invented. The wire spokes are under tension, not compression, making
it possible for the wheel to be both stiff and light. Early radially-spoked wire wheels gave rise to
tangentially-spoked wire wheels, which were widely used on cars into the late 20th century. Cast alloy
wheels are now more commonly used; forged alloy wheels are used when weight is critical.

The invention of the wheel has also been important for technology in general, important applications
including the water wheel, the cogwheel (see also antikythera mechanism), the spinning wheel, and the
astrolabe or torquetum. More modern descendants of the wheel include the propeller, the jet engine, the
flywheel (gyroscope) and the turbine.

TYPES OF WHEELS: Alloy wheel, Artillery wheel, Bicycle wheel, Big wheel, Caster, Pressed Steel
wheel, Driving wheel, Hubless wheel, Mansell wheel, Mecanum wheel, Omni wheel, T weel, Square
wheel, Steering wheel (Ship's wheel), Train wheel, Wire wheel


A driving wheel can be braked in three ways; either directly by means of braking on a drum attached to
it, or indirectly, through the transmission by a brake acting on a drum on a the main shaft of the gearbox,
or on the level pinion, or worn shaft of the final drive.


There are two demands that are made upon the brakes of motor vehicles.

1. In emergencies, brakes must bring the vehicle to rest in the shortest possible distance.
2. They must enable the control of the vehicle to be retained when descending steep hills.

The first demand calls for brakes which can apply large torques to the brake drums, while the second
calls for brakes that can dissipate large quantities of heat without a large rise in temperature.


Brakes may be applies into three groups as follows:

1. Friction brakes.
2. Fluid brakes.
3. Electric brakes.

The last two types, in practice, are confined to heavy vehicles and are not used in cars.

Fluid Brakes

The principle of the fluid brakes is that a chamber has am impeller inside it that is rotated by the motion
of the road wheels so that if the chamber is filled with fluid (usually water),a churning action occurs and
kinetic energy is converted into heat thereby providing a braking effort. To dissipate the heat, the water
may be circulated through a radiator. The construction is somewhat similar to that of a fluid flywheel.
The unit is generally placed between the gearbox and the front of the propeller shaft but it can be
incorporated with the gearbox. The chief drawbacks of this type are as follows:

1. It is difficult to control the braking effort.

2. It can supply very little braking effort at low speed and none at all when the road wheels are not
rotating at all.
3. It can be used only to supplement a friction brake and so such devices are often called retarders
rather than brakes.

Electric Brakes

The electric brake is in effect of an electric generator which, being driven by the road wheels, converts
kinetic energy into an electric current and thence, by passing the current through resistance, into heat.

The eddy current brake employs the same principle as the eddy current clutch. It has the same drawback
as the first fluid type I.e. it cannot provide any effort at zero speed and can be used and can be used only
to supplement a friction brake.

This vast majority of brakes are friction brakes, they may be sub-divided into

1. Drum brakes.
2. Disc brakes.

External contracting brakes are now used in epicyclic gearbox.


Several methods of applying the brakes shoe assembly to the drum have been used in the past. The brake
shoes on all the present day passenger vehicles are actuated by hydraulic pressure. The parking brake is
applied by mechanical means through the use of cables and levers.

TABLE 1.1: types of brakes and their applications

Types Application
1. Mechanical brakes Vehicles, cars / bicycle
2. Electric brakes Horse trailers
3. Air brakes Heavy trucks and buses

Mechanical Brakes

A system of levers, rods or cables creates a mechanical advantage for expanding the brake shoe when
drivers depress the brake pedal.

Electric Brake

This is the use of electricity to operate the drum-type brakes. An electric cable from the brake controller
in the vehicles to a detachable plug connector to the trailer hitch provides a convenient coupling for
separating the control circuit from the trailer brake circuit.

The brake shoes are actuated by an electromagnet, which is attached to the brake backing plate. As the
control lever of the controller is moved toward the applied position, current flows though the
electromagnet thereby energizing the magnet. The magnetic field which is developed causes the magnet
to shift, which in turn moves the brake shoe actuating the mechanism. As more current is supplied to the
magnet, more force is developed on the actuating mechanism.

Air Brakes

In an air brake system, compressed air is employed to actuate the brake mechanism. Air pressure in a
closed system is transmitted equally in all direction, the same as fluid pressure in a hydraulic brake

The brake mechanism is the same as that used in a hydraulic drum brake system except that a cam for
actuating the shoes is located between the ends of the shoes in place of a hydraulic wheel cylinder.

The air brake system which consists of a compressor a governor, reservoir, safety valve, brake control
valve, a brake chamber containing a diaphragm, quick release valve and a relay valve.

1. An air compressor supplies air under pressure to the reservoir for storage.
2. A government regulates the pressure in the reservoir and prevent the building up of excessive
pressure in the system
3. The reservoir is designed to withstand pressure in excess to pressure enquired to operate the
4. A safety valve is usually located at the tank to relive air pressure when it reaches a pre determined
5. The brake control valve is place in the airline between the reservoir and the lines leafing to the
individuals wheel brakes when the brake control valve is in the applied position, air under high
pressure from the reservoir is admitted to the diaphone high pressure from the reservoir is
admitted to the diaphragm in the brake chamber at each wheel. In the off position the air pressure
from the reservoir is cut off and the lines are paned to the atmosphere. The valve is so designed
as to permit controlled application of the brakes
6. The brake chambers are equipped with a moveable diaphragm as to permit controlled application
of the brakes
7. The brake chambers are equipped with a moveable diaphragm connected by a rod to the brake
shoe operating mechanism at the wheels. The admission of air pressure to the front side of the
diaphragm moves the diaphragm and linkage which actuates the brake shoes
8. A quick release valve is used in the front brake line to speed up the release of air from the brake
chamber directly to the atmosphere
9. A relay valve is used to speed up the application and the release of air at the rear brakes


The brake valve controls the brakes of the vehicles and be activated by means of an integral treadle or
by linkage from a conventional brake pedal. The movement of the treadle controls the movement of an
inlet and exhaust valve assembly, which regulates the air pressure in the brake chamber of the vehicle.
The valve imparts a relative reaction to movement of the treadle so that the driver can sense the degree
of brake application.


As the weight of a vehicle goes up, the force that must be exerted on the pedal of a simple brake system
in order to produce the maximum deceleration permitted by the state of the road also goes up. When the
weight exceeds two to three tons, it may be greater than a man can exert. However, the driver must be
given some assistance in applying he brakes. This can be done in two days these are:

1. By using a servo mechanisms which adds to the drivers effort

2. By using power operation in which case the effort of the driver is a controlling effort only and is
nor transmitted to the brake at all

Servo system are usually lower in cost than power operated system it is frequently fitted as an addition
to a vehicle having an ordinary brake system.

Power operated brake is used for heave vehicles where the weight exceeds six tons or so and for vehicles
that are used with trailers.

The essential features of both servo and power brake system are as follows:

1. The time lag of the system i.e the time interval between the movement when the brake pedal is
depressed and the moment when the brakes come on must be very small
2. The system must be such that the drive can judge the intensity of the application to the brakes
faintly accurate

Further Effort Supplied by a Servo System includes:

1. The momentum of the vehicle itself

2. Vacuum in a reservoir
3. Oil under pressure supplied by a pump driven by the engine or some part of the transmission
4. Air under pressure supplied by an air compressor driven by the engine.

Hydraulic Application

In a hydraulic brake system, the movement of Colum of liquid accomplished the movement of the brake
shoe assembly against the drum. It should be noted that liquid cannot be appreciably compressed. A
Colum of liquid confined in a tube represents a solid linkage when pressure is applied to the liquid.
Therefore the pressure in every part of a hydraulic system is the same.

Hydraulic Operation

The brake pedal operates a piston forcing from the master cylinder into the pipeline system, which is
already completely filled with fluid and increase in pressure is therefore produced. This pressure acts on
pistons in the wheel cylinders, which are in contact with the brake shoe and so forces the shoes against
the brake drums

The fluid operation eliminates the friction of mechanical linkage and gives inherent compensation, whilst
wheel movement is readily accommodated by flexible shoes. Using larger diameter wheel cylinders and
pistons can increase the force on the brake shoes.

Hydraulic Operation Disadvantage

1. Unlike a liquid , air is readily compressible and if it is allowed to enter the system, will reduce
the efficiency and gives a spongy peal action
2. Unless a special master cylinder contraction is used a serious leakage in any part of the system
will cause a complete heraldic failure
3. A separate mechanical connection from the hand brake to the rear brake shoes is necessary
4. Periodical topping up of the fluid reservoir is necessary

Types of Master Cylinders

Lockheed type operation

In the returned position, the piston, the piston sealing cup washer uncovers a port allowing fluid o enter
from or return to enter to the reservoir as its volume varies with expansion. The brake pedal has a small
free movement to ensure the piston uncovers this port.

Delivery to the pipeline is through an inner non return valve. When the brake pedal is released and the
fluid is returned to the master cylinder by the action of the brake shoe return springs, it must reuse the
valve assembly against the tension of the piston return spring, this maintains a pressure of about 55 nm2
in the pipeline. This residual pressure ensures that the cup washers in the wheel cylinder are expanded
and exclude air.

An annular space behind the piston head is supplied with fluid through a separate drilling from the
reservoir. This prevents air leakage past the piston on the return stroke. The reservoir, which may be
internal with the master cylinder or be separately mounted has a disc valve in the filler cap to allow air
to enter if the pressure fals below the atmosphere pressure.

Girling-Type Operation

In the returned position of the plunger, the valve seal is retracted within the valve spacer by the action
of the spring retainer and valve shank allowing a free flow of fluid between the pipeline and fluid

The initial movement of the plunger releases the valve shank and with the valve spacer in contact with
end face of the cylinder, the seal is forced on to its seat by the spring washer. Continued movement
displaces fluid into the pipeline, the valve shank passing further into the hollowing centre of the plunger.


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