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For use with small windchargers

Gerrit Jacobs

Arrakis

Formerly

RED Renewable Energy Development vof

October 1998

De Olieslager 7- 5506ER Veldhoven

The Netherlands

Tel: +31(40) 2819454

E-mail: info@arrakis.nl

www.arrakis.nl

RED Renewable Energy Development vof PR-98-05-I

Summary

The non-governmental organisation CESADE (Centro de Estudios y Accin para el Desarrollo) in

Nicaragua is determined to provide affordable electricity for the low income group. With AMEC

(Aerobombas de Mecate) it has developed a small windcharger for charging 12 V batteries. One of

the bottlenecks is the lack of a small (approximately 100W) generator that is affordable

(approximately US$ 50) and reliable.

Results of the tests on two small DC permanent magnet generators that may be suitable are

described: a Bosch generator and an Omni Instruments generator.

The rotational speed of the Omni Instruments generator has to be over 5500 RPM to reach an output

voltage of 12V. Therefore the generator is not suitable to charge a 12 V battery with the AMEC

windrotor, in an unmodified state.

Without modifications, the Bosch generator is capable of charging a 12 V battery, starting

at rotational speeds of approximately 900 RPM. At approximate 2200 RPM the generator

can deliver 50 W which is more or less the maximum power that can be generated without

overheating when charging a battery, because of the small diameter of the wires. The

maximum efficiency that can be reached with this generator is approximately 65% at

rotational speeds of over 3500 RPM.

A generator model has been developed which may be used with permanent magnet DC

generators in general. Using the model, generator performance can be determined with a

minimum of measurements. The model is also useful for matching the generator with the

windrotor.

I am very grateful to Henk Holtslag of Centro de Estudios y Accin para el Desarrollo (CESADE),

Johan van Doorn, Ton Marinburg, , Wim Thirion, Jan van der Veen en Marijn Uyt de Willegen of

the Department of Electrical Engineering: Group Electromechanics and Power Electronics of the

Eindhoven University of Technology, Adriaan Kragten of Kragten Design, Jan de Jongh and Remi

Rijs, of Renewable Energy Development vof (RED) and Paul Smulders for their valuable suggestions

and assistance given.

2

RED Renewable Energy Development vof PR-98-05-I

Contents

SUMMARY............................................................................................................................................................ 2

1. INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................................................ 4

2.1 BOSCH GENERATOR ....................................................................................................................................... 5

2.2 OMNI INSTRUMENTS GENERATOR .................................................................................................................. 5

3. GENERATOR PERFORMANCE.................................................................................................................. 6

3.1 OPTIMISATION OF THE GENERATOR ............................................................................................................... 6

3.2 LOSSES .......................................................................................................................................................... 6

4. THEORY........................................................................................................................................................... 7

4.1 PERMANENT MAGNET DC GENERATOR MODEL.............................................................................................. 7

4.2 REFINEMENT OF THE MODEL .......................................................................................................................... 7

5. MEASUREMENTS.......................................................................................................................................... 9

5.1 METHODOLOGY ............................................................................................................................................. 9

5.2 CALIBRATION OF RPM MEASUREMENT ......................................................................................................... 9

6. BOSCH GENERATOR TEST RESULTS ................................................................................................... 10

6.1 INTERNAL RESISTANCE ................................................................................................................................ 10

6.2 LOAD RESISTANCE ....................................................................................................................................... 10

6.3 MAGNETIC FLUX CONSTANT ........................................................................................................................ 10

6.4 GENERATOR VOLTAGE ................................................................................................................................. 11

6.5 GENERATOR CURRENT ................................................................................................................................. 11

6.6 GENERATOR ELECTRICAL POWER ................................................................................................................ 11

6.7 GENERATOR TORQUE ................................................................................................................................... 12

6.8 GENERATOR EFFICIENCY ............................................................................................................................. 12

7. OMNI INSTRUMENTS GENERATOR TEST RESULTS........................................................................ 13

7.1 INTERNAL RESISTANCE ................................................................................................................................ 13

7.2 LOAD RESISTANCE ....................................................................................................................................... 13

7.3 MAGNETIC FLUX CONSTANT ........................................................................................................................ 13

7.4 GENERATOR VOLTAGE ................................................................................................................................. 14

7.5 GENERATOR CURRENT ................................................................................................................................. 14

7.6 GENERATOR ELECTRICAL POWER ................................................................................................................ 14

7.7 GENERATOR TORQUE.................................................................................................................................... 15

7.8 GENERATOR EFFICIENCY .............................................................................................................................. 15

8. MATCHING OF THE WINDROTOR AND GENERATOR .................................................................... 16

9.1 CONCLUSIONS .............................................................................................................................................. 17

9.2 RECOMMENDATIONS ................................................................................................................................... 17

BIBLIOGRAFY................................................................................................................................................... 18

3

RED Renewable Energy Development vof PR-98-05-I

1. Introduction

The non-governmental organisation CESADE (Centro de Estudios y Accin para el Desarrollo) from

Nicaragua is determined to provide affordable electricity for the low income group. Existing 50 Wp

solar home systems (SHS) cost about US$ 600 in Nicaragua. It is felt that there is a market for small

windchargers when they are cost effective, compared to SHS's. The cheapest commercial small

windcharger that is available costs US$ 700. Therefore two prototype windchargers have been

developed locally by AMEC (Aerobombas de Mecate) with assistance from Mr. Henk Holtslag of

CESADE. Tests indicate that design and performance are promising [1]. However, a bottleneck is the

availability of a small generator and therefore CESADE, through Mr. Henk Holtslag, has asked

Renewable Energy Development vof (RED) to test two small DC permanent magnet generators that

may be used with the AMEC windcharger. The results of the tests are described in this report. Only a

technical analysis is given here. A financial comparison between a small wind charging system and a

SHS is given in [1].

The figure below shows a picture of the type of the AMEC windcharger that is meant to be used with the

generator. The generator is mounted at the bottom of the round rim. The rotor diameter is approximately 2

m. A detailed technical description of the system is given in [1].

4

RED Renewable Energy Development vof PR-98-05-I

The design philosophy of AMEC is not to develop a windcharger that has a maximum energy

efficiency but a machine which is cheap (competitive to SHS's) and suitable for local production. For

the generator this leads to the following criteria:

maximum power output of approximately 100 W,

capable of charging a 12 V battery at a maximum rotational speed of 1500-2000 RPM

(depending on the type of transmission that is used),

sealed construction,

low maintenance and a long life,

cost of approximately $US 50.-.

It is difficult if not impossible- to buy a generator off the shelve that has the above characteristics. Two

generators were identified by CESADE that might be suitable: a Bosch and an Omni Instrument

generator.

The generator is manufactured by

American Bosch and has the

specification: 8(?)078524M030MM.

41080 110V CCW. The nominal

voltage is 110 V DC at 10.000 RPM.

It has two permanent magnets in the

stator and 16 poles in the rotor. The

diameter of the coil wires is 0.3 mm.

The diameter of the shaft is 12 mm

with on one side a ball bearing and on

the other side a brass bush. It has a

commutator with brushes.

The figure shows the dismantled Omni

Instruments generator with the rotor on

the right and the stator housing with

the magnets at the back. Originally the

generator has been designed for

driving an electric bicycle but no

further information is available form

the manufacturer (Omni Instruments

USA, 133 Novak Drive Petaluma,

California). It is a 12 VDC permanent

magnet type with 16 poles in the rotor

and 4 permanent magnets in the stator.

(Photo: Remi Rijs)

The generator has a commutator with brushes. The shaft diameter of the generator is 8.0 mm and the

copper wire in the coil has a diameter of 0.7 mm. There is a combination numbers and letters is printed on

the casing: SHI(?)I(?)T2B, 30/97DE, 6002626, 12V.

5

RED Renewable Energy Development vof PR-98-05-I

3. Generator performance

In its simplest form, a generator is a coil of wire, passing through a magnetic field. By the process an

alternating voltage is induced, of which its magnitude depends on the length of the coil, the number of

turns in the coil, the flux density of the magnetic field and how rapidly the coil passes through the

magnetic field (the effective rate of change of the magnetic field flux through the coil). Two different

methods are used to change alternating current (AC) into direct current (DC): by using a commutator and

brushes (in a DC generator), and using diodes (in an alternator).

To be able to charge a car battery, the DC voltage generated should be higher than the sum of the battery

voltage and the voltage drop over the blocking diode, in case of a generator. If a generator does not satisfy

this condition at rotational speeds that can be provided by a windmill, it can be modified. In redesigning

the generator for higher voltage output, there are a number of parameters that should be taken into

consideration [8]. These include:

the number of poles,

the magnetic flux density of the field,

the number of turns in the coils,

the maximum current through the commutator and the resistance of the wire,

the space available in the armature for the coils.

Since it is not easy to change either the number of poles or the magnetic flux density of the field of an

existing generator, attention is given to the remaining points.

3.2 Losses

There are several reasons why the efficiency of a generator is lower than 100%. These include:

electrical losses:

heat generated in the coils (I2R losses),

hysteresis losses in the iron of the armature,

eddy current losses,

voltage drop over the commutator (brushes and the commutator segments),

and mechanical losses:

pressure of the brushes on the commutator causes friction,

friction in the bearings.

The voltage induced in a coil of wire passing through a magnetic field is proportional to the number of

turns in the coil. However, increasing the number of turns is limited by the available space. With a given

space, decreasing the diameter of the wire can increase the number of turns. This will also increase the

resistance of the wire. Apart from the I2R losses in the coil, not much can be done about the mentioned

losses in an existing generator. The generator voltage is proportional to the number of turns of the coil,

whereas the maximum generator current is inversely proportional to the number of turns, given a fixed

space available. Therefore the generator resistance is proportional to the number of turns squared and as a

result the I2R losses in the coil will not change at a given power. However, I2R losses in the wires between

the generator and the battery will increase with increasing current.

There is a trade-off between the rotational speed, voltage, current and efficiency of the generator. The

characteristics of the generator (and also of the windmill and battery) and the relationship between the

parameters have to be known to be able to optimise a generator for use in a windcharger. In the following

paragraph some theory is given, followed by a discussion on how the generator characteristics have been

obtained and what the results of the measurements are.

6

RED Renewable Energy Development vof PR-98-05-I

4. Theory

4.1 Permanent magnet DC generator model

The generator can be considered as an ideal generator with

an internal resistance in series as illustrated in the figure.

The torque T and rotational speed are input parameters.

The current I and the voltage U are output parameters. The

external resistance is noted as Ru

According to Faraday, the generated voltage is a linear

function of the rotational speed (1) and according to

Lorentz, the generated torque is proportional to the

current (2):

U . (1) T .I (2)

g m g m

In which m is a constant which is proportional to the magnetic flux (m in Vs or Wb).

The voltage U that is supplied at the generator clamps is equal to the voltage generated minus the

voltage drop over the internal resistance, which is also equal to the generated current times external

resistance:

m i u

The torque required to drive the generator is equal to Tg plus the torque required to overcome losses

(T0).

T T T0 substituting Tg: T .I T0 (4)

g m

The efficiency is defined as the ratio of electric power generated and mechanical power required:

P U. I

el (5)

P T T0 .

mec g

The losses L can be calculated as the sum of the power due to the lost torque and heat generated due to

the internal resistance of the generator:

T0 .

2

L I .R (6)

i

The model previously described has been verified with the measurements of the Bosch generator. It was

found necessary to refine the model when describing the Omni Instruments generator because this

generator operates at a much lower voltage. Brush voltage and torque losses are introduced in the revised

model.

Brush voltage

A brush voltage Ub is introduced which has the opposite sign as Ug. Formula 1 changes into:

Ug m

. Ub (7)

7

RED Renewable Energy Development vof PR-98-05-I

Torque losses

From the graph: torque versus rotational speed at zero load (chapters 6.7 and 7.7), it can be observed

that the torque depends on the rotational speed.

This dependency was introduced in the model for the Omni Instruments generator as:

T0 C1 C 2.

The torque T0 can be determined by measuring the torque as a function of the rotational speed at open

circuit (I = 0 A).

In appendix 1 it is shown how the efficiency can be written as a function of the rotational speed and

voltage respectively, using the above equations.

Using the model, the characteristics of a DC permanent magnet generator can be determined

accurately with a minimum of measurements. For instance, using a spring balance, a multimeter and

RPM counter, the efficiency of a generator can be determined.

8

RED Renewable Energy Development vof PR-98-05-I

5. Measurements

5.1 Methodology

Tests of the generator have been carried out

in the laboratory of the Department of

Electrical Engineering, Group Electro-

mechanics and Power Electronics of the

Eindhoven University of Technology. The

generator (at the bottom of the picture) is

clamped-in between wooden blocks and is

connected to a brakedynamo (shown on the

left). The brakedynamo is mounted freely, so

that the generated torque can be measured.

The maximum rotational speed of the

brakedynamo is 4000 RPM. Torque is

calculated using the product of distance and

force. Force is calculated from weight, which

is measured with a scale with a resolution of

1 g. This results in a torque resolution of

0.003 Nm.

For determining the characteristics of the

generator, torque, voltage, current and

rotational speeds have been measured, using a

rheostat as a load.

First the tachometer of the dynamo was calibrated with a handheld tachometer (Shimpo DT205). The

calibration graph is given in Appendix 2. The RPM of the brakedynamo can be calculated using:

RPM=33.8+19.35*Vdyn. The calibration was made without any load connected to the brakedynamo. It

was found that when a load is connected to the brakedynamo there is an over-estimation of the

rotational speed of not more than 2%.

In the following chapter, first the results if the measurements on Bosch generator are discussed, followed

by a discussion of the measurements on the Omni Instruments generator.

9

RED Renewable Energy Development vof PR-98-05-I

First the values of the internal resistance (paragraph 6.1), load resistance (paragraph 6.2) and the

magnetic flux constant (paragraph 6.3) are determined.

The internal resistance of the

generator was measured by varying

the resistance of the rheostat and

maintaining the rotational speed 18

V = 16.68 - 4.77*I

V595

V880

constant, using the circuit of figure 1, 16 V1175

(p7) with an ammeter connected in 14

the circuit. This was done for 12 V = 12.02 - 4.66*I

rotational speeds of 595, 880 and

10

1175 RPM. From the slopes of the

8

graphs it can be determined that the

6

internal resistance of the generator is

approximately 4.7 . The straight 4

V = 7.85 - 4.77*I

lines have been determined by linear 2

this `dynamic internal resistance 0,0 0,5 1,0 1,5 2,0 2,5 3,0

(impedance) is different from the Generator current (A)

`static internal resistance that is

measured with an Ohm-meter.

V = 0.18 + 20.9*I

6.2 Load resistance Vm1

Vm2

V = 0.1 + 14.91*I

The load resistance is the sum of the Vm3

V = 0.11 + 12.55*I

Vm4

resistance of the rheostat and the 35 Vm5

Vm6

internal resistance of the ammeter. It Vm7

V = 0.15 + 10.04*I

30

has been determined by plotting

Generator Voltage (V)

with the load resistance as parameter V = 0.02 + 4.77*I

15

and calculating the slope of the graph

using linear regression. The values of 10

Resistance () Label in all graphs V = -0.05 + 1.30*I

1.30 .1 0

4.77 .2 0 2 4

7.15 .3

10.04 .4 Generator Current (A)

12.55 .5

14.91 .6

20.90 .7 T = 0.046 + 0.1404*Im

TN1

0,6 TN2

6.3 Magnetic flux constant TN3

T = 0.060 + 0.1328*Im

According to formula (4), the magnetic TN4

0,5 TN5

flux constant can be determined from TN6

Generator Torque (Nm)

TN7

have been used in the model are 0,3

0.137 Vs and 0.053 Nm respec-

tively. 0,2

0,1

0,0

0,0 0,5 1,0 1,5 2,0 2,5 3,0 3,5 4,0 4,5

Generator Current (A)

10

RED Renewable Energy Development vof PR-98-05-I

In the paragraphs 6.4 up to 6.8 the squares, circles and triangles represent measured data; the straight

lines and curves have been determined using the generator model which is discussed in chapter 4.

The figure shows the generator Vm1

45

voltage as a function of rotational Vm2

Vm3

speed with different loads. The 40 Vm4

Vm5

straight lines have been obtained by 35 Vm6

using formula (3), without correction 30

Vm7

Vm0

for the brush voltage, and writing the

25

current I as a function of the

rotational speed (see appendix 1). 20

15

10

0

0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000

Im2

Indicated is the generator current 3,5

Im3

Im4

versus rotational speed at different Im5

Im6

loads. The generator model has been 3,0

Generator current (A)

Im7

2,0

1,5

1,0

0,5

0,0

0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000

Since the electrical power is the Pmot2

Pmot1

Pmot2

power increments exponential with Pmot3

Pmot4

the rotational speed. The generated Pmot5

Pmot6 Pmot7

power depends on the load: with R 60

Generated Power (W)

Pmot7

with R = 0 , no voltage is created,

40

so that the generated power is equal

to zero in both cases. The power

reaches a maximum if the load 20

resistance is equal to the internal

resistance of the generator. For

clarity only two curves are shown but 0

all curves calculated with the model 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000

data.

11

RED Renewable Energy Development vof PR-98-05-I

The torque is proportional to the TN1

TN2

rotational speed and increases with TN3

0,7 TN4

incrementing loads (smaller external TN5

resistance). The horizontal line (TN0) 0,6 TN6

TN7

corresponds to the torque without TN0

0,5 TN00

load (I = 0 A). First TN0 was

Torque (Nm)

determined and later the torque with 0,4

0,3

results it became clear that the torque

without load had decreased probably 0,2

and settling of the brushes. Therefore

the torque without load was again 0,0

0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000

measured (TN00, bottom line) with Rotational speed (RPM)

results that better fit the model.

Eff1

6.8 Generator efficiency Eff2 Eff7

Eff6

The generator efficiency is calculated Eff3

Eff4 Eff5

60 Eff4

using formula (5) with the load Eff5

Eff6 Eff3

resistance as parameter. The 50 Eff7

Eff2

The model gives an overestimation of

the efficiency at low rotational 20 Eff1

10

been ignored. Its presence becomes

most obvious at low RPM. Due to the 0

0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000

high torque at no load, the efficiency

decreases rapidly at low rotational Rotational speed (RPM)

speeds of the generator.

efficiency can also be calculated with

the battery voltage as parameter. The Eff (%)

results are shown in the figure for

battery voltages of 12V (dashed line), 40

line). After the battery voltage is

reached, the efficiency increases

rapidly and reaches a clear 20

maximum.

0

500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000

12

RED Renewable Energy Development vof PR-98-05-I

Like in chapter 6, first the values of the internal resistance (paragraph 7.1), load resistance (paragraph

7.2) and the magnetic flux constant (paragraph 7.3) are determined.

From the figure it can be determined 6,0

n=1500 RPM

n=1970 RPM

(see paragraph 6.1) that the internal 5,5 n=2500 RPM

approximately 0.17 . The straight 4,5

lines have been determined by linear 4,0

3,5

regression. V = 5.39 - 0.187*I

3,0

2,5

2,0

1,5

V = 4.29 - 0.168*I

1,0

V = 3.21 - 0.168*I

0,5 V = 2,06 - 0,159*I

0,0

0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20

Generator current (A)

The slopes of the graphs are a V = 0.30 + 0.48*I

Vm1

Vm2

measure of the load resistance and V = 0.015 + 0.89*I Vm3

Vm4

are determined using linear 5 V = 0.016 + 1.41*I

V = 0.156 + 0.397*I

Vm5

V = 0.010 + 0.317*I

resistances are: 4

Generator Voltage (V)

1.41 .1

0.89 .2 V = 0.21 + 0.100*I

2

0.48 .3

0.397 .4

0.317 .5 1

0.100 .6

0

0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18

In theory the torque is independent from TN1

TN2

rotational speed. In practice, the value of 0,40

TN3

m is best determined at high currents and 0,35

TN4

TN5

low rotational speeds because To

Generator Torque (Nm)

TN6

0,30 T = 0.045+0.02*I

depends on the rotational speed.

The values of m and To that have 0,25

and 0.045 Nm respectively, which is

0,15

indicated with the straight line in the

graph. 0,10

0,05

0,00

0 5 10 15 20

13

RED Renewable Energy Development vof PR-98-05-I

In the paragraphs 7.4 up to 7.8 the squares, circles and triangles represent measured data; the straight

lines and curves have been determined using the modified generator model which is discussed in

chapter 4.

The figure shows the generator Vm1

voltage as a function of rotational Vm2 Open circuit voltage

Vm3

5

speed with different loads. The Vm4

U = 0.00217*n

Vm5

straight lines have been obtained by Vm6

using formula (3), modified with the 4 LINE

brush voltage Ub = 0.1 V, as

described in the theory and writing 3

rotational speed (see appendix 1). It 2

not pass through the origin as a result 1

of Ub.

0

0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500

Rotational Speed (RPM)

Im1

7.5 Generator current 20

Im2

Im3

Indicated is the generator current Im4

versus rotational speed at different Im5

Im6

15

loads. Again the generator model has

Generator current (A)

10

0

0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500

Pmot5

Pmot6 Pmot4

Pmot1

Pmot2

7.6 Generator electrical power Pmot3

Pmot4

Pmot3

50

The graph shows a low power output Pmot5

Pmot6

at low rotational speeds and a good

Generator Power (W)

40 Pmot2

concordance of the model with the

measurements.

30 Pmot1

20

10

0

0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500

Rotational speed (RPM)

14

RED Renewable Energy Development vof PR-98-05-I

The line which is most horizontal TN1

TN2

(TNIo) gives the torque versus 0,4

TN3

TN4

rotational speed at zero load (I = 0 TN5

TN6

A). It should be noted that there is a TNIo

Torque (Nm)

torque when the generator is turning.

0,2

This gives an indication of high

losses.

0,1

T = 0.045 + 0.00001*n

0,0

0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500

Rotational speed (RPM)

The generator efficiency is calculated

using formula (5). The generator Eff1

Eff2

reaches a maximum efficiency of just 60 Eff3 Eff 3 withm=0.0215 Vs instead of 0.02 Vs Eff3

over 50% at rotational speeds up to Eff4

Eff5

3500 RPM. The model gives a slight 50 Eff6 Eff4

Eff5

underestimation of the efficiency,

compared with the measured values, Eff (%) 40

Eff1

using m = 0.020 Vs. The curve

30

with the highest efficiency (circles) Eff6

shows the results for Eff4 using m = 20

Eff2

This shows the importance of 10

accurately. Due to the high torque at 0

500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500

low RPM the efficiency decreases

Rotational speed (RPM)

rapidly at low rotational speeds of the

generator. This is also observed with

the Bosch generator.

15

RED Renewable Energy Development vof PR-98-05-I

Using the proposed generator model,

the mechanical power which is

required to drive the generator at a Example of matching the AMEC windrotor with the

Bosch generator

constant voltage as a function of the

number of blades = 3 transmission ratio = 14

rotational speed, can be calculated.

= 2.5 transmission efficiency = 0.85

With the procedure which is Cpmax = 0.22

described in [4], the mechanical

power of the rotor can be calculated.

Pmech (of the generator)

Combining the two procedures, the Vbat=12V Vbat=14V

transmission ratio between rotor and

generator can be optimised. The result

of this procedure, using the 250 Pmech (of the rotor)

characteristics of the AMEC rotor and at v= 8 m/s

Bosch generator, is shown in the

figure on the right. Calculations of the Power 200

mechanical power which is generated (W)

by the rotor at windspeeds of 2, 3, 4, Pelectrical

5, 6, 7 and 8 m/s are shown. Also the 150 v = 7 m/s Vbat = 14 V

mechanical generator power and the

electrical power of the generator for

battery voltages of 12 V and 14 V is

100

given. It can be observed that with a v = 6 m/s

transmission ratio of 14, there is an Vbat = 12 V

almost perfect match between rotor

50

and generator, considering the values

of the parameters that are given at the

top of the graph. It should be noted

that the value of the transmission 0

0 50 100 150 200 250 300

50

efficiency is estimated. The values of

Rotational speed (RPM)

the maximum power coefficient

(Cpmax) and the design value for the

tip-speed ratio () taken from [1].

Electrical power versus windspeed

Using the graph above, the generator output as a function

of the windspeed can be obtained. This is shown in the

60

figure on the right.

It should be noted that this is only a rough estimation Generator

electrical

based on parameters which are not precisely known. For a power

better prediction of the electric output of the generator, (W) 40

into account.

20

0

0 2 4 6 8

Windspeed (m/s)

16

RED Renewable Energy Development vof PR-98-05-I

9.1 Conclusions

Model

The generator model shows a good correlation with the measured data. At low voltages the modified

model has to be used, which takes the brush voltage and also the RPM dependency of the torque at zero

load into consideration. The magnetic flux m should be determined carefully since it determines most

characteristics of the generator and e.g. the relative error in the calculation of the efficiency is four times

the relative error in m. The model may be used with permanent magnet DC generators in general. When

the characteristics of the rotor are known, the model may be applied for determining the optimum match

between rotor and generator.

Bosh generator

Without modifications the Bosch generator will be capable of charging a 12 V battery, starting at

rotational speeds of approximately 900 RPM. At approximate 2200 RPM the generator can deliver 50

W. Due to the small diameter of the wires (D = 0.3 mm) the generator gets hot when generating 50 W

and for sure the generator is not capable of generating 100 W for prolonged periods of time.

The maximum efficiency that can be reached with this generator is approximately 65% at rotational

speeds of over 3500 RPM.

The rotational speed has to be over 5500 RPM to reach an output voltage of 12V. Therefore the generator

is not suitable to charge a battery using the AMEC windrotor and transmission, in an unmodified state.

The maximum efficiency that can be obtained is 55%.

9.2 Recommendations

The Bosch generator might be used with the AMEC windrotor without modifications. However the

transmission ratio has to be high (approximately 15) and the maximum power that can be generated is

limited by the small diameter of the generator wire. It is estimated that the maximum power over

prolonged periods of time is approximately 50 W (depending on ambient temperature, mounting of the

generator, etc.).

For future development, instead of rewinding the generator, improving the rotor design can be considered.

The power coefficient of the rotor is low ( Cpmax = 0.22) and a lot can be gained by improving the blade

design because with a higher Cpmax the rotor may produce the same mechanical power with a smaller

diameter. Keeping the design value of the tip-speed ratio constant, this results in higher RPMs so that a

smaller transmission ratio is required, which improves the overall efficiency. An added advantage is that

the cost of the rotor is reduced because less material is required.

Handling generators

Preferably a generator should not be opened. If a generator has to be opened, this should be done on a

bench without any metal chippings because they are attracted to the permanent magnets and obstruct

its normal operation. The generator should not be hammered to loosen the bolts because this might

diminish the magnetic field or brake the magnets. Care should be taken that the magnets to not turn in

respect to the commutator when assembling the generator. The tested Bosch and Omni Instruments

generators are manufactured in the USA and require non-metric tools.

Care should be taken that the connecting wires do not brake.

The generator shaft should not be welded on. The heat might deform it. Welding will lessen the

lubrication of the bearings and bushes and it might overheat the insulation of the coils.

17

RED Renewable Energy Development vof PR-98-05-I

Bibliografy

[1] Rijs, R, Proyecto pequenos aerogeneradores CESADE-RED, RED Renewable Energy Development

vof, Eindhoven July 1997.

[2] Hengeveld H.J., Lysen E.H., Paulissen L.M.M., Matching of wind rotors to low power electrical

generators, CWD 78-9, December 1978.

[3] Coolen J., Onderzoek naar de generatorkarakteristieken van een naafdynamo, gebruikt als

generator in een kleine windmolen, R 643 S/, Technische Natuurkunde, Technische Universiteit

Eindhoven, Februari 1983 (in Dutch).

[4] Kragten A., Aanpassing van windmolen en generator, KD 05, februari 1994. This publication can

be obtained from Kragten Design, Populierenlaan 51, 5492 SG St. Oedenrode, The Netherlands.

[5] Antec, Electrische fiets A1, Tel. 026 4458777, Amsterdamseweg 108, Arnhem, The Netherlands.

[6] Elektro-Bikes in forscher fahrt, Internationaler Elektro-Bike test 1998, Mobil, Juli 1998, Germany.

[7] ANWB Watersprotinformatie, Electrisch varen, ANWB, The Netherlands.

[8] Sagrillo, M, Rewinding Generators/Aternators for Wind Systems, Homepower 9,

October/November 1990.

18

RED Renewable Energy Development vof PR-98-05-I

U . I. R U and U I. R

m i b u

. U

I. R m . I. R U . I. R R U I m b

u i b m u i b R R

u i

. 2

U

P

2.

I R P m b .R

and el u el u

R R

u i

. U

P T. P .I T . P . m b T .

mec mec m 0 mec m R R 0

u i

Formula (4)

.

2

U

m b .R

P R R u

el u i

P . U

mec . m b T .

0

m R R

u i

U. I

It also can be shown that the efficiency

U I. R U

can be written as a function of I and U : .I T0 . i b

m

m

Fi le: RPMCAL.ORG

3000

Driving motor revolutions (RPM)

2500

2000

1500

Y=A + B* X

1000

Param Value

A 33,795

500 B 19,35

R = 0,99999

0

0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160

19

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