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Observation and analysis of results

The experiment that has been conducted made use of the venturi and orifice meters in
determining the head loss and coefficient of discharge for each flowmeters. From the experiment, we
successfully obtained the head loss and coefficient of discharge with comparison of pressure drop.
Determined values for the coefficient of discharge for the venturi meter and orifice meter did not
achieved the desired values on contrary with the standard values. Error can be accounted with the
accuracy of the apparatus, leaks and occasional wearing may affect the data determined.

The sudden change in the flow area in the orifice meters causes considerable swirl and as the
velocity of the flow increases, the vena contracta decreases.The smaller the vena contracta gets the
greater the pressure difference, and thus the higher the energy loss and thus significant head loss. In
general, orifice meter have the highest minor loss coefficient, while venturi meter have the lowest.

In principle states that in a moving fluid, when the area decrease the velocity is increase and the
pressure inside the fluid decrease. According to the laws governing fluid dynamics, a fluids velocity
must increase as it passes through constriction to satisfy the principle of continuity, while its pressure
must decrease to satisfy the principle of mechanical energy. In conclusion, the flow rate in venturi meter
is higher than orifice meter.

Conclusion

In this experiment, we use the differential flow meters that are the orifice meter and venturi
meter. This measuring technique operation and characteristics was used and by comparing pressure
drop that will be calculated that related to the velocity of the fluid in the pipe and calculating the
coefficient of discharge.

From the data obtained, for the orifice meter high pressure drop is unrecovered this is due to
the flow rate is increased at the opening of the orifice plate and not much energy is lost but as it flows
through and starts slowing down, much of the excess energy is lost.

For the venturi meter, the value obtained were closer to the actual this is due to lower pressure
drop that results from its streamlined shape and almost eliminates boundary-layer separation and thus
form drag is assumed negligible. It has a converging and a diverging part, Although, there may be some
pressure loss in the converging part of the venturi meter but in a properly designed venturi meter some
percentage of pressure loss is attained back in the diverging part of the meter. This meter is good for
high pressure and energy recovery. To be concluded, venture meter was more accurate compared to
orifice meter and rotameter.
RECOMMENDATION

In this experiment, there are few recommendations that can be applied to get better data and
results, thus the experiment can be run properly and systematically. In order to get the accurate data,
the experiment must be repeated at least two times and determined the average.

Besides, we have to ensure that there is no air bubbles for better accuracy and to avoid readings
error. We can used a pen or screw driver to depress the staddle valve at the top right side of manometer
board. Depress staddle valve lightly to allow fluid and trapped air to escape out. Allow sufficient time for
bleeding to allowing all bubbles escape

We also have to monitor the water level in the manometer board. If the water level in the
manometer board is too high where it is out of visible point, we need to adjust the water level by using
the staddle valve. With the maximum measureable flow rate, retain the maximum readings on
manometer.