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21

FIND: (a) Graph of thermal conductivity, k, versus temperature, T, for pure copper, 2024 aluminum

and AISI 302 stainless steel for 300 T 600 K, (b) Graph of thermal conductivity, k, for helium and

air over the range 300 T 800 K, (c) Graph of kinematic viscosity, , for engine oil, ethylene glycol,

and liquid water for 300 T 360 K, (d) Graph of thermal conductivity, k, versus volume fraction, ,

of a water-Al2O3 nanofluid for 0 0.08 and T = 300 K. Comment on the trends for each case.

500

Copper

400

k, W/m^2

300

2024 Aluminum

200

100

302 Stainless steel

0

300 400 500 600

T, Celsius

Note the large difference between the thermal conductivities of these metals. Copper conducts thermal

energy effectively, while stainless steels are relatively poor thermal conductors. Also note that,

depending on the metal, the thermal conductivity increases (2024 Aluminum and 302 Stainless Steel)

or decreases (Copper) with temperature.

Thermal Conductivity of Helium and Air

0.4

0.3

Helium

k, W/m^2

0.2

0.1 Air

0

300 400 500 600 700 800

T, Celsius

Note the high thermal conductivity of helium relative to that of air. As such, He is sometimes used as a

coolant. The thermal conductivity of both gases increases with temperature, as expected from

inspection of Figure 2.8.

Continued

PROBLEM 2.21 (Cont.)

0.01

nu, m^2/s

0.0001

Ethylene Glycol

1E-5

1E-6 H2O

1E-7

300 320 340 360

T, Celsius

The kinematic viscosities vary by three orders of magnitude between the various liquids. For each case

the kinematic viscosity decreases with temperature.

0.8

Nanofluid

0.7

k, W/m^2

0.6

Base fluid (H2O)

0.5

0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08

Volume fraction, j

Note the increase in the thermal conductivity of the nanofluid with addition of more nanoparticles. The

solid phase usually has a higher thermal conductivity than the liquid phase, as noted in Figures 2.5 and

2.9, respectively.

// Copper (pure) property functions : From Table A.1

// Units: T(K)

kCu = k_T("Copper",T) // Thermal conductivity,W/mK

// Units: T(K)

kAl = k_T("Aluminum 2024",T) // Thermal conductivity,W/mK

// Units: T(K)

kss = k_T("Stainless Steel-AISI 302",T) // Thermal conductivity,W/mK

T = 300 // Temperature, K

Continued

PROBLEM 2.21 (Cont.)

// Units: T(K)

kHe = k_T("Helium",T) // Thermal conductivity, W/mK

// Units: T(K); 1 atm pressure

kAir = k_T("Air",T) // Thermal conductivity, W/mK

T = 300 // Temperature, K

// Units: T(K)

nuOil = nu_T("Engine Oil",T) // Kinematic viscosity, m^2/s

// Units: T(K)

nuEG = nu_T("Ethylene Glycol",T) // Kinematic viscosity, m^2/s

// Units: T(K), p(bars);

xH2O =0 // Quality (0=sat liquid or 1=sat vapor)

nuH2O = nu_Tx("Water",T,xH2O) // Kinematic viscosity, m^2/s

T = 300 // Temperature, K

// Units: T(K), p(bars);

xH2O =0 // Quality (0=sat liquid or 1=sat vapor)

kH2O = k_Tx("Water",T,xH2O) // Thermal conductivity, W/mK

kbf = kH2O

T = 300

//Particle Properties

knf = (num/den)*kbf

num = kp + 2*kbf-2*j*(kbf - kp)

den = kp + 2*kbf + j*(kbf - kp)

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