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PROBLEM 2.54

KNOWN: One-dimensional system, initially at a uniform temperature T , is suddenly exposed to a uniform heat flux at one boundary, while the other boundary is insulated.

FIND: (a) Proper form of heat equation and boundary and initial conditions, (b) Temperature distributions for following conditions: initial condition (t 0), and several times after heater is energized; will a steady-state condition be reached; (c) Heat flux at x = 0, L/2, L as a function of time; (d) Expression for uniform temperature, T , reached after heater has been switched off following an elapsed time, t e , with the heater on.

SCHEMATIC:

i

f

elapsed time, t e , with the heater on. SCHEMATIC: i f ASSUMPTIONS: (1) One-dimensional conduction,

ASSUMPTIONS: (1) One-dimensional conduction, (2) No internal heat generation, (3) Constant properties.

ANALYSIS: (a) The appropriate form of the heat equation follows from Eq. 2.21. Also, the appropriate boundary and initial conditions are:

2 T

1

T

2

x

 

t

Initial condition:

Boundary conditions:

(b) The temperature distributions are as follows:

T

x

x,0

0

x L

T

i

q

Uniform temperature

 

o

k

T /

x)

0

T/x)

L

0

  o k T / x ) 0  T/  x) L  0

<

No steady-state condition will be reached since

(c)The heat flux as a function of time for positions x = 0, L/2 and L is as follows:

E

in

E

st

and E

in

is constant.

follows:  E in  E  st and E  in is constant. < (d)

<

(d)

If the heater is energized until t = t

reach a uniform temperature, T f . Perform an energy balance on the system, Eq. 1.12b, for an interval of time t = t e ,

e

and then switched off, the system will eventually

E

in

E

st

E

in

Q

in

t

0

e

q A dt q A

o

s

o

s

t

e

E

st

Mc

T

f

T

i

It follows that

q



o

A

s

t

e

Mc T

f

T

i

or

T

f

T

i

q



o

A

s

t

e

Mc

.

<