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Justice Jones


UWRT 1104

26 October 2017

Double Entry Journal

MLA Citation:

Grauer, GF. "Early Detection of Renal Damage and Disease in Dogs and Cats." The Veterinary
Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice. 35.3 (2005): 581-96. Print.

Source: (Quote, Page Number or Paragraph Responses

Quote (Paragraph 10): Physical Regular checkups are one of the key factors
examination of the patient at risk for ARF in finding diseases. With regular checkups,
should include evaluation of pulse quality veterinarians can find changes within the
and hydration status. Monitoring body animal, such as body weight or blood
weight, packed cell volume, and plasma changes, that may be signs of an even larger
total solids in comparison to baseline values illness.
may indicate subtle changes in hydration
status. Blood pressure measurement
identifies hypotensive and hypertensive
patients, both of which may be at increased
risk for renal injury.
Quote (Paragraph 11): Numerous urine Even the volume of urine can be a subtle
parameters can herald the development of sign of illness in pets that can be very hard
ARF. Urine output should be monitored in to detect for many people. Most people do
all high-risk patients that undergo not pay attention to the amount of urine
anesthesia; once a patient is anesthetized, their animals output.
placement of an indwelling urinary catheter
and measurement of urine production is
relatively easy. Closed catheter systems
hooked up to empty sterile fluid bags should
be used to quantitate urine production.
Normal urine output is approximately 1 to 2
mL/h/kg of body weight. Decreased renal
perfusion during anesthesia can result in
oliguria (<0.25 mL/hr/kg) or anuria, which
signals the need for prompt treatment.
Quote (Paragraph 12): Detection of Vets can check the components of urine and
enzymes in the urine has proven to be a find certain molecules that show signs of
sensitive indicator of early renal tubular disease.
Quote (Paragraph 15): "CRD leading to Chronic renal damage/Chronic renal failure
CRF is a major cause of morbidity and becomes more obvious with age. But, by the
mortality in dogs and cats. The prevalence time when it is very noticeable, the chances
of CRD increases with age, and the of treating it become slim.
underlying lesions are often irreversible as
well as progressive.
Quote (Paragraph 16): Most acquired Once the dog/cat reaches middle-age,
(versus hereditary or familial) canine and regular checkups are essential to discovering
feline CRD and CRF occur in middle-aged and treating illness before it gets out of
to older patients. An annual health hand.
examination that includes a complete blood
cell count, serum biochemistry profile, and
urinalysis is one of the best ways to detect
declining renal function."
Quote (Paragraph 16): Dogs and cats may If treatment is not done, the primary illness
also become more susceptible to bacterial can cause secondary conditions that
urinary tract infections as their ability to increases the chance of the animal getting
concentrate urine decreases and the another disease.
antibacterial properties of their urine
Quote (Paragraph 22): Based on recent Sometimes, illness can actually be
studies, MA seems to be a good indicator of beneficial for an animal. If the first illness is
early renal disease in dogs detected, such as microalbuminuria, then the
vets can see it as a sign of even more
potential diseases to come, such as renal
disease. This allows them to treat it before
the illness even starts, thus resolving any
possible future health complications.
Quote (Paragraph 25): Other conditions However, one disease could be signs of
have been reported in dogs with MA, even more issues in the animal, as shown
including infectious, inflammatory, with the quote. But does this mean that
neoplastic, metabolic, and cardiovascular some of those issues are not treatable
disease anymore? Have they been in the animal for
too long before being noticed?
Quote (Paragraph 29): In summary, This really drives home the fact that some
proteinuria is a common disorder in the dog diseases can be an early indicator of other
and cat that can indicate the presence of dangers that could come in the future if they
CRD before the onset of azotemia. are not noticed and attended to early.