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BachelorofBusiness
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Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University, Delhi

Guide: Submitted by:

() (Himanshu Gupta)

Roll No. 04621101709

cnstituteofcnforationechnology anageent,

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Batch (2008-2011)
cntegrate arketing ounicationc 

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integrated Marketing Communications is a simple concept. It ensures that all forms of

communications and messages are carefully linked together.

At its most basic level, Integrated Marketing Communications, or IMC, as we'll call it, means

integrating all the promotional tools, so that they work together in harmony.

Promotion is one of the Ps in the marketing mix. Promotions has its own mix of communications

tools.

All of these communications tools work better if they work together in harmony rather than in

isolation. Their sum is greater than their parts - providing they speak consistently with one voice

all the time, every time.

This is enhanced when integration goes beyond just the basic communications tools. There are

other levels of integration such as Horizontal, Vertical, Internal, External and Data integration.

Here is how they help to strengthen Integrated Communications.

Horizontal Integration occurs across the marketing mix and across business functions - for

example, production, finance, distribution and communications should work together and be

conscious that their decisions and actions send messages to customers.


Ahile different departments such as sales, direct mail and advertising can help each other

through Data Integration. This requires a marketing information system which collects and

shares relevant data across different departments.

Vertical Integration means marketing and communications objectives must support the higher

level corporate objectives and corporate missions. Check out the Hall Of Fame later for more

about missions.

Meanwhile Internal Integration requires internal marketing - keeping all staff informed and

motivated about any new developments from new advertisements, to new corporate identities,

new service standards, new strategic partners and so on.

External Integration, on the other hand, requires external partners such as advertising and PR

agencies to work closely together to deliver a single seamless solution - a cohesive message - an

integrated message.
Ahatcscntegrate arketing ounications

ct is the coorination an integration of all arketing counications
tools,avenues,ansourceswithinacoanyintoasealessrograthataxiizesthe

iactonconsueranotherenusersatainialcost.´

Integrated marketing communication represents a holistic view of marketing.

Marketing communications is a subset of the overall subject area known as marketing. Marketing

has a marketing mix that is made of price, place, promotion, product (known as the four P's), that

includes people, processes and physical evidence, when marketing services (known as the seven

P's).

Is part of the marketing mix, includes all the means by which a company

communicates directly with present & potential customers. The process of presenting an

integrated set of stimuli to a target with the intent of evoking a desired set of responses within the

target market & setting a channel to receive, interpret & act upon messages & identifying new

communication opportunities.

Importance of Marketing Communications not only informs, but is also used

to differentiate the seller¶s products/services may also be effective in affecting the price elasticity

of demand (non price competition) Prerequisite of Marketing Communication the marketing

communications strategy of a firm must be coordinated and linked with concepts such as target

segments, positioning, differentiation, and image.


Marketing communication mix is also called as promotional mix. Integrated

means combine of two or more elements, which may includes advertising, personal selling,

public relation & sales promotion. These 4 elements are very much the traditional components of

the promotional mix. In addition to these, other techniques are now increasingly added to the

overall promotional mix.

Promotion is one of the Ps in the marketing mix. Promotions has its own mix of

communications tools. All of these communications tools work better if they work together in

harmony rather than in isolation. Their sum is greater than their parts - providing they speak

consistently with one voice all the time, every time.

Integrated marketing communication is integration of all marketing tools,

approaches, and resources within a company which maximizes impact on consumer mind and

which results into maximum profit at minimum cost. Generally marketing starts from "Marketing

Mix". Promotion is one element of Marketing Mix. Promotional activities include Advertising

(by using different medium), sales promotion (sales and trades promotion), and personal selling

activities. It also includes internet marketing, sponsorship marketing, direct marketing, database

marketing and public relations. And integration of all these promotional tools along with other

components of marketing mix to gain edge over competitor is called Integrated Marketing

Communication. Although closely linked to Integrated Marketing Communications (IMC), it

should not be confused with it. This is enhanced when integration goes beyond just the basic

communications tools. There are other levels of integration such as Horizontal, Vertical, Internal,

External and Data integration. Here is how they help to strengthen Integrated Communications.
Horizontal Integration occurs across the marketing mix and across business functions

- for example, production, finance, distribution and communications should work together and be

conscious that their decisions and actions send messages to customers.

Vertical Integration means marketing and communications objectives must support the

higher level corporate objectives and corporate missions. Check out the Hall Of Fame later for

more about missions.

Internal Integration requires internal marketing - keeping all staff informed and

motivated about any new developments from new advertisements, to new corporate identities,

new service standards, new strategic partners and so on.

External Integration, on the other hand, requires external partners such as advertising and

PR agencies to work closely together to deliver a single seamless solution - a cohesive message -

an integrated message

?
arketing ounication ix

Each communication tools has its own unique characteristics & costs. The tools that marketers

commonly use to achieve their communication objectives are:


.?
vertising:

Advertising can be used to build up a long term image for a product or trigger quick

sales. Advertising can efficiently reach geographically dispersed buyers. Certain forms of

advertising (TV) can require a large budget, whereas other forms (newspaper) do not. Just the

presence of advertising might have an effect on sales; consumers might believe that a heavily

advertised brand must offer good value. Because of the many forms & uses of advertising it is

difficult to make generalization. Yet the following qualities can be noted:

i.? Îervasiveness:

Advertising permits the seller to repeat a message many times. It allows the buyer to

receive & compare the messages of various competitors. Large scale advertising says something

positive about the seller¶s size, power & success.

ii.?
lifiexressiveness:

Advertising provides opportunities for dramatizing the company & its product through

the artful use of print, sound & color.

iii.? cersonality:

The audience does not feel obligated to pay attention or respond to advertising.

Advertising is a monologue in front of, not a dialogue with, the audience.


è.? Îersonalelling:

Personal selling is the most effective tool at later stage of the buying process, particularly

in building up buyer preference, conviction & action. Personal selling has three distinctive

qualities:

i.? Îersonalcnteraction:

Personal selling involves an immediate & interactive relationship between two or

more persons. Each party is able to observe the others reactions.

ii.? ultivation:

Personal selling permits all kinds of relationship to spring up, ranging from a

matter-of-fact selling relationship to a deep personal friendship.

iii.? esonse:

Personal selling makes the buyers feel under some obligation for having listened to

the sales talk.

cncoarisontootherarketingcounicationstoolssuchasavertising,ersonal

sellingtensto:

G? Use fewer resources, pricing is often negotiated.

G? Products tend to be fairly complex (e.g. financial services or new cars).

G? There is some contact between buyer and seller after the sale so that an ongoing relationship is

built.
G? Client/prospects need specific information.

G? The purchase tends to involve large sums of money.

There are exceptions of course, but most personal selling takes place in this way. Personal selling

involves a selling process that is summarised in the following Five Stage Personal Selling

Process. The five stages are:

1. Prospecting.

2. Making first contact.

3. The sales call.

4. Objection handling.

5. Closing the sale ?


M.? alesÎrootion:

Companies use sales promotion tools - coupons, contests, premiums, & the like - to

draw a stronger & quicker buyer response. Sales promotion can be used for short run effects such

as to highlight product offers & boost sagging sales. Sales promotion tools offer three distinctive

benefits:

i.? ounication:

They gain attention & may lead the consumer to the product.

ii.? cncentive:

They incorporate some concession, inducement or contribution that gives

value to the consumer.

iii.? cnvitation:

They include a distinct invitation to engage in the transaction now.

erearesoeexalesofoularsalesrootionsactivities:

(a)Buy-ne-et-ne-reeB - which is an example of a self-liquidating promotion.

For example if a loaf of bread is priced at $1, and cost 10 cents to manufacture, if you sell two

for $1, you are still in profit - especially if there is a corresponding increase in sales. This is

known as a PREMIUM sales promotion tactic.

(b) ustoerelationshi anageent   incentives such as bonus points or money off

coupons. There are many examples of CRM, from banks to supermarkets.


(c) eweia- Aebsites and mobile phones that support a sales promotion. For example, in the

United Kingdom, Nestle printed individual codes on KIT-KAT packaging, whereby a consumer

would enter the code into a dynamic website to see if they had won a prize. Consumers could

also text codes via their mobile phones to the same effect.

(d) erchanisingadditions such as dump bins, point-of-sale materials and product

demonstrations.

(e) reegifts e.g. Subway gave away a card with six spaces for stickers with each sandwich

purchase. Once the card was full the consumer was given a free sandwich.

(f) iscounterices e.g. Budget airline such as air India and jet airway, e-mail their customers

with the latest low-price deals once new flights are released, or additional destinations are

announced.

(g) Jointrootions between brands owned by a company, or with another company's brands.

For example fast food restaurants often run sales promotions where toys, relating to a specific

movie release, are given away with promoted meals.

(h) reesales (aka. sampling) e.g. tasting of food and drink at sampling points in

supermarkets. For example Red Bull (a caffeinated fizzy drink) was given away to potential

consumers at supermarkets, in high streets and at petrol stations (by a promotions team).

(i) Vouchersancouons, often seen in newspapers and magazines, on packs.

(j) oetitionsanrizeraws, in newspapers, magazines, on the TV and radio, on The

Internet, and on packs.

(k) ause-relateanfair-trae products that raise money for charities, and the less well off

farmers and producers, are becoming more popular.

(l) inanceeals- for example, 0% finance over 3 years on selected vehicles ?


º.? Îublicelations:

Marketers tend to underuse public relations, yet a well-thought-out program co-ordinate

with the other communication mix elements can be extremely effective. The appeal for public

relations & publicity is based on three distinctive qualities:

i.? igh reibility:

News stories & features are more authentic & credible to readers than ads.

ii.?
bilitytocatchbuyersoffguar:

Public relations can reach prospects that prefer to avoid salespeople &

advertisements.

iii.? raatization:

Public relations have potential for dramatizing a company or product.


.? irect arketing:

The many forms of direct marketing - direct mail, telemarketing, internet marketing ±

share three distinctive characteristics. Direct marketing is:

i.? ustoize: The message can prepare to appeal to the addressed individual.

ii.? -to-ate: A message can be prepared very quickly.

iii.? cnteractive: The message can be changed depending on the person¶s response.

There are a number of direct marketing media other than direct mail. These includes :

G? Inserts in newspapers and magazines.

G? Customer care lines.

G? Catalogues.

G? Coupons.

G? Door drops.

G? TV and radio adverts with free phone numbers or per-minute-charging.

G? The Internet and New Media


actorscnettinghe arketing ounication ix:

Companies must consider several factors in developing their communication mix.

They are as follows:

1.? Type of product market.

2.? Push or pull strategy.

3.? Buyer readiness stage.

4.? Product life cycle stage.

5.? The company¶s market rank.

.? yeofÎrouct arket:

Communications mix allocations vary between consumers & markets. Consumer

marketers tend to spend comparatively more on sales promotion & advertising; business

marketers tend to spend comparatively more on personal selling. In general, personal selling is

used more with complex, expensive & risky goods in markets with fewer & larger sellers (hence,

business markets).

Although advertising is used less than sales calls in business markets, it still plays a

significant role. Advertising can perform the following functions in business market:

i.? Advertising can prove an introduction to the company & its products.

ii.? If the product has new features, advertising can explain them.

iii.? Reminder advertising is more economical than sales calls.


iv.? Advertisements offering brochures & carrying the company¶s phone number are an effective

way to generate leads for sales representatives.

v.? Sales representatives can use tear sheets of the company¶s ads to legitimize their company &

products.

vi.? Advertising can remind customers of how to use the product & reassure them about their

purchase.
è.? ÎushorÎulltrategy:

The promotional mix is heavily influenced by whether the company chooses the push

or pulls strategy to create sales. Push strategy involves the manufacturer using sales force &

trade promotion to induce intermediaries to carry, promote & sell the product to end users. Push

strategy is especially appropriate where there is no brand loyalty in the category, brand choices

made in the stores, the product is an impulse item, & the product benefits are well understood.

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A pull strategy involves the manufacturer using advertising in consumer promotion

in order to induce consumers who asks the intermediaries to order it. A pull strategy is

appropriate when there is high brand loyalty & high involvement in the category, people pursue

differences between brands & people choose the brand before they go to the shop. Companies in

the same industry may differ in their emphasis on push or pull.

For instance: Procter & Gamble relies more on pull strategy whereas the Lever Brothers

rely more on push strategy. Top marketing companies such as coca-cola, Intel and Nike skillfully

employ both push and pull strategy.


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a? Î :

Producer marketing activities to Retailers and Aholesalers who resell to

Consumers. Personal selling, trade promotion by producer and personal selling,

advertising and sales promotion by wholesaler/retailer«

b? Î :

Producer marketing activities directed at consumer to create demand from

retailers and wholesalers that then creates demand from producer. Consumer

advertising, sales promotion.

.
M.? Buyereainesstage:

Communication tools vary in cost effectiveness at different stages of buyer readiness.

Advertising & publicity play the most important roles in the awareness building stage. Customer

comprehension is primarily affected by advertising & personal selling. Customer conviction is

influenced mostly by personal selling. Closing the sale is influenced mostly by personal selling

& sales promotion. Reordering is also affected mostly by personal selling & sales promotion, &

somewhat by reminder advertising

º.? Îrouct ife ycletage:

The promotional tools also vary in cost effectiveness at different stages of the product

life cycle.


    
    

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i.? In introduction stage, advertising and publicity have the highest cost effectiveness followed

by personal selling in order to gain distribution coverage and sales promotion to induce trial.

ii.? At the growth stage all the tools can be toned down because demand has its own momentum

through word of mouth.

iii.? In the maturity stage, sales promotion, advertising & personal selling all grow more

important in that order.

iv.? In the decline stage, sales promotion continues strong, advertising & publicity are reduced &

sales people give the product only minimal attention.

.? he oany¶s arketank:

After implementing the promotional plan, the communicator must measure its impact

on the target audience. Members of the target audience are asked whether they recognize or

recall the message, how many times they saw it, what points they recall, how they felt about the

message, & the previous & current attitudes towards the product & company. The communicator

should also collect behavioral measures of audience response, such as how many people bought

the product, liked it & talk to other about it.


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a? Îrootion:

The great Indian brand wagon started nearly four decades ago. Great brands

sometimes outlast their ambassadors as proven by Lux which celebrated its 75th anniversary in

India. The first ambassador, Leela Chitnis featured in a Lux advertisement which flagged off the

Lux wagon. She gave way to a galaxy of stars which includes Juhi Chawla, Madhuri Dixit,

Aishwarya Rai and Kareena Kapoor etc. The last frontier for most actors aspiring to stardom is

becoming a Lux ambassador. The brand has outlasted much soap. From the beginning, Lux

became a household name across the country.

b? alesÎrootion:

Sales promotion, a key ingredient in marketing campaigns, consists of a collection of

incentive tools, mostly short term, designed to stimulate quicker or greater purchase of particular

products or services by consumers or the trade.Ahereas advertising offers a reason to buy, sales

promotion offers an incentive to buy.


c? Îublicelations:

Not only must the company relate constructively to customers, suppliers and

dealers, it must also relate to a large number of interested publics. A public is any group that has

an actual or potential interest in or impact on a companyµs ability to achieve its objectives. PR

involves a variety of programs designed to promote or protect a companyµs image or its

individual products.

?
vertiseents:

The message that the product reflects in its advertisements is the one that is

usually narrated by the corporate itself. Advertising is any paid form of non-personal

presentation and promotion of ideas, goods and services by an identified sponsor. Ads can be a

cost effective way to disseminate messages, whether to build a brand preference or to educate

people.
asestuyè. oca olacnia aunchescntgrate arketing ounicationorè

Coca-Cola, India¶s largest beverage company continues its trend of creating the

most powerful and appealing brand messaging for its consumers in the country. Having made

³Thanda´ synonymous with ³Coca-Cola´, the company announced the launch of an intensive

integrated marketing communication program for the summer of 2007. Based on the theme

³Sabka Thanda Ek´, the campaign has been designed to build the Coca-Cola brand from its

refreshment platform to a higher order of emotional benefit by establishing it as the universal

choice which brings people together.

As part of the integrated communication plan, a range of initiatives including

mass media advertising and leveraging the digital space like the internet are being rolled out. The

new TV commercial to feature- who else but Aamir Khan, the Coca-Cola brand ambassador in

an all new avatar. In the ad, Aamir appears as a no nonsense attendant traveling in a train,

connecting consumers with Coca-Cola. The campaign has been conceptualized by the, Chairman

& National Creative Director. The company also plans to leverage the internet by building and

promoting online communities. According to Venkatesh Kini, Vice President- Marketing, Coca-

Cola India, "Over the years we have made µThanda¶ and refreshment synonymous with Coca-

Cola. The new campaign µSabka Thanda Ek¶ strenghtens the universal appeal of the brand

amongst consumers. It offers a higher order of emotional benefit of bringing people together.

And who else to better communicate this message, but our brand ambassador Aamir Khan, in a

never been seen appearance.´


asetuyM.c naallaily ewsaer

This is a multi-method case study of a small, local newspaper, which

in the last several years has developed innovative product design changes and experienced an

increase in its circulation. Quantitative and qualitative data were gathered through several phases

of research including interviews and a survey. Several major findings emerged from the study.

First, the results extend application of theory in mass communication and integrated marketing

communication (IMC), particularly the work done by Philip Meyer, Don Schultz and the

Readership Institute at Northwestern University.

Second, this study provides a complete picture of the marketing mix for this

newspaper, which extends current literature that addresses only individual aspects. Third, in

evaluating these contact points, this study contributes customer insights specific to not only this

newspaper but also to broader industrial applications. Fourth, this study provides benchmarking

tools for additional research including a reader behavioral score (RBS) and ranking of RBS-

motivating experiences. Fifth, the results of this study build the knowledge of readership with

possible insight for other small newspapers