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Republic of the Philippines

OUR LADY OF FATIMA ACADEMY OF DAVAO, INC.


Fatima Street, Davao City

SCIENCE INVESTIGATORY PROJECT

Prepared by:

JOHN PAUL D. SAPSAL


THE USE OF ANANAS COMOSUS (CAYENNE PINEAPPLE) LEAF FIBER AS AN
ALTERNATIVE BIOSORBENT FOR OIL SPILL

_________________________

A Science Investigatory Project Presented to the Faculty


of Our Lady Of Fatima Academy of Davao Inc.
Fatima St., Davao City

_________________________

In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements


in Science, English, and Math

_________________________

JOHN PAUL D. SAPSAL

Grade 10 Our Lady of Fatima

August 2017
Chapter 1

INTRODUCTION

A. Background of the Study

Oil in different varieties has always been used in our everyday life, ranging from

liquid petroleum hydrocarbons to simple cooking oils. Because of this abundant

utilization of oil in our day-to-day undertakings, numerous incidents of oil spills have

been recorded and identified which caused adverse effects to the environment and to

the economy due to imprudent and unwise use of this substance in human activities.

Oil spill, by definition, refers to the release of liquid petroleum hydrocarbon into the

environment, especially marine areas, due to human activity, and is considered as a

form of pollution. These harmful phenomenon due to pollution and overexploitation

may take the form of refined petroleum products like gasoline and diesel or their

heavier by-products such as bunker fuel or waste oil.

According to the Oil Tanker Spill Statistics (2016), 3,192,000 tonnes of oil has been

spilt from 1970 to 1979, 1,174,000 tonnes of oil from 1980 to 1989, 1,133,000 tonnes

of oil from 1990 to 1999, 196,000 tonnes of oil from 2000 to 2009, and just recently,

there have been 39,000 tonnes of oil spilt to the environment from years 2010 to

2016. In other words, there have been a total of 5,734,000 tonnes of oil spilt and lost

to the environment since 1970s. These set of values stipulate the fact that 7,898 oil

spill cases have been happening right at the back of the peoples shoulders and they
dont even notice them. Based on the same source, oil spills have been caused by

people mishandling during loading or discharging, bunkering, and other operations

which include ballasting, de-ballasting, tank cleaning, and when the vessel is

underway.

One of the most prominent and largest oil spills in history was the incident which

occurred during the Gulf War in 1991 at Kuwait where about 240 to 336 million gallons

of oil were washed off to the Persian Gulf when the Iraqi forces opened the valves of

oil wells and pipelines to slow the onslaught of the American troops. This phenomenon

exacted permanent damage on coral ecosystems and local fisheries, in accordance

with the report by the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission at UNESCO. In

addition to these, about 210 million gallons were also lost to the environment in 2010

at the Mexican Gulf which stemmed from a sea-floor oil gusher which was marked as

the largest accidental marine oil spill in the history of the petroleum industry and

became the potential reason behind the Deepwater Horizon explosion back in April

20, 2010.

In the Philippines, the so-called worse oil spill in the country was identified as the

Guimaras oil spill which occurred in the Panay Gulf last August 11, 2016 when the oil

tanker, M/T Solar 1, which carried about two million liters of bunker fuel, sank off the

coast of Guimaras and Negros islands in the Philippine vicinity. About 500,000 liters

or 130,000 US gallons of oil was poured into the gulf which reached as far as the

Guimaras and Iloilo Strait. The said unfavorable accident negatively affected marine
sanctuaries and mangrove reserves in three out of five municipalities in Guimaras

Island and reached the shores of Iloilo and Negros Occidental. According to the

Philippine Daily Inquirer (2016), the Philippine Coast Guard has collected 140 liters of

oil pumped out from a bulk carrier ship along the port area of Masbate City. It was

found out that the oil spill in Masbate started at around four in the morning and was

put under control of the authorities by three in the afternoon.

Based on a news report by the GMA News (2014), approximately 500 liters of oil

was spilled on the seawall and foundation post of the Legaspi Oil Company

Incorporated and Insular Oil Incorporated Warf at KM 09, Sasa, Davao City last

January 17, 2014. It was confirmed that coco fatty oil, a by-product of coconut oil,

overflowed from the catch basin at the refinery of the establishment. The Sasa coast

guards were able to take ground of the situation through absorbent booms, scooping

materials and empty drums where they were able to recover at least one drum of

contaminated fatty oil in the end.

In the present time, four underway cleaning operations is still ongoing with regards

to different cases of oil spills in the different parts of the world. The Ennore Oil spill in

India, OT Southern Star 7 Oil Spill in Bangladesh, Napocor Power Barge 103 Oil Spill

in the Philippines, and the Taylor Energy well Oil Spill in the Gulf of Mexico are still

great problems the humanity faces up to the present day. Among the three, the

Napocor Power Barge 103 Oil Spill, which was caused by leaks due to the Typhoon

Haiyan in 2013 and was considered to be the most relevant in the researchers study,
is still becoming an avenue of danger and hazards for Filipinos for 1350 days already.

Hence, the success of this study will greatly contribute in boosting the recovery and

putting an end to the impending adverse effects of oil spill in the Philippines once and

for all.

Oil Spills often result to both short-term and long-term environmental damage.

First of all, oil spills can damage beaches, marshlands, and fragile aquatic ecosystems

beneath the ocean. Oil coming from damaged tankers, pipelines or offshore oil rigs

coats everything it comes in contact and becomes a harmful part of every ecosystem

it enters. In addition to that, mangroves and other fibrous plants which the released

oil comes in contact with can make the whole are unsuitable for wildlife habitat. The

study conducted by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) was

able to discover that 26,000 gallons of oil from the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill back in 1989

was still trapped in the sand along the Alaska shoreline and this residual oil deposit

only disintegrates at a very low rate of four percent annually.

Another adverse effect of oil spills is the death of birds and other species hovering

and flying through the sky above the sea. Fortunate birds are able to relocate

themselves in time before danger of possible oil spill strikes, but sea birds who dived

through the sea looking for food may be caught up in the said unfavorable disaster.

Birds covered in spilled oil are incapacitated to hover and transfer from one place to

another by locomotor movements. In addition to these, their natural waterproofing

and insulation is disrupted, leaving them vulnerable to hypothermia or overheating.


There are also some cases where birds swallow small amounts of oil which can

severely damage their internal organs and lead to death. A good example of this was

also the Exxon Valdez oil spill which killed 250,000 to 500,000 seabirds in one single

strike. Lastly, oil spill also affects the migratory patterns of birds by destroying the

areas where birds usually stop. The Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill which occurred during

the prime mating and nesting season for many bird species is the very example of

this.

The third negative effect of oil spill is illustrated in the death of marine mammals

and fishes. The numerous records of the death of whales, dolphins, seals, and sea

otters were caused by the clogging of their blowholes which made it impossible for

them to breathe and to communicate with one another. Oil also coats the fur of these

poor mammals subjecting them to severe hypothermia. Even by simply eating fishes

which were contaminated by oil washed into the sea can cause them chronic disorders

among their internal organs which may eventually lead to further complications or

ultimate death. The Exxon Valdez oil spill killed thousands of sea otters, hundreds of

harbor seals, and roughly two dozen of killer whales and a dozen of river otters. Even

fishes are greatly affected by oil spills for oil degrades the diffusion of oxygen

throughout the sea, making it difficult for marine species to breathe, which may lead

eventually to suffocation. The Deepwater Horizon oil spills first casualty in 2010 was

the shrimp and oyster fisheries along the Louisiana coast where even up to this day,

these fisheries were not able to recover from their plight.


Oil spills cause destruction of wildlife habitat and breeding grounds which is

considered as the most far-reaching environmental effect. Eggs which made any

contact with oil might fail to develop properly and cause deformities when they hatch

from their eggs. Taking sea turtles for example, they might get oiled as they scurry

towards the ocean across a beach submerged in spilled oil washed ashore. The 2010

Gulf of Mexico Oil Spill was the main reason why 600 sea turtles were found dead

during the oil spill response, of which 18 were visibly oiled. The remaining 450 living,

but oiled sea turtles were rescued, brought into rehabilitation, cleaned, and released

back into the wild.

With regards to its social and economic effects, oil spill has degraded the status

of fisheries and aquaculture. The shore areas affected by oil spill where these

companies are getting their main source of raw products for marketing pose fear to

consumers, making them susceptible that the products being sold are contaminated

and unsafe. As what the Third R&D Forum said about high-density oil response (2002),

sunken heavy fuel oil may have significant impact on seabed resources and fishing

and mariculture activities. Even the tourism and recreational aspect of places affected

by oil spills are adversely harmed for recreational activities like bathing, boating,

angling and diving in beaches and resorts near the affected area may be restricted

for the meantime. A good example of this was the BP Oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico

which caused the commercial fishing industry $94.7 million to $1.6 billion and
anywhere from 740 to 9,315 jobs in the first eight months, in accordance with the

study of the U.S. Bureau of Ocean Energy Management.

As for the health aspect, oil spills also cause problem with regards to the well-

being of citizens. With just a simple inhaling, touching of oil products, or eating

contaminated seafood, one can suffer from horrible health complications. A good

example of this was the health consequences of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill which

resulted to 700 cases of people seeking health services with complaints believed to

be related to the exposure of pollutants from the said oil spill. A study from the

Columbia University on health effects among children in Louisiana and Florida found

that 1,437 parents living less than 10 miles from the coast near the Gulf of Mexico

were directly exposed to the said oil spillage and reported physical and mental health

symptoms among their children and fellow family members.

The researcher chose to use the leaf fiber of Ananas comosus (Cayenne

Pineapple) because of the fact that it contains high composition of fiber. A single

strand of pineapple leaf contains 3% fiber, while the pineapple fruit itself contains 1.4

grams of fiber. Fiber has a property to absorb oil and leave out water, especially when

it is acetylated using acetic anhydride which can increase the fibers ability to absorb

oil only many times. Acetic anhydride can easily be found in aspirin or acetyl salicylic

acid which is used for the acetylation of salicylic acid.

In the present, the society uses propylene fiber and polypropylene web in

filtering oil from the body of the ocean. However, the downfall of these products that
they are using is its inability to biodegrade. Hence, rampant use of propylene fibers

and the like would probably add up to the amount of litter accumulating in the earths

surface, leading to many social and health issues. But through the use of pineapple

leaf fiber as an alternative solution to oil spill, the researcher and his fellow people

would be able to address the impending problems caused by oil spill to the marine

oceans while not worsening the problem of solid waste management throughout the

community.

B. Review of Related Literature

Oil spill constitutes a major source of fresh and seawater pollution as a

consequence of accidental discharge from tankers, marine engines, and underwater

pipes. Therefore, the need for an environmental friendly sorbent material for oil spill

cleanup cannot be overemphasized (T.H.D. Flores-Sahagun, et. al, 2014). Its causes

are either accidental or due to operation whenever oil is produced, transported,

stored, and used on sea or land. Thus, it is not possible for marine life to be liberated

from the danger of an oil spill, despite continued international regulations and policies.

Large plots of land have been permanently affected by its adverse effects, degrades

the entire food chain, and warrants concern for humanity (Mark A. Ceaser, 2015).

According to Jarre, Marx, and Wumb (1979), the most widely used sorbents are

synthetic organic products made from high molecular weight polymers such as

polyurethane and polypropylene that have good hydrophobic and oleophilic properties

and high adsorption capacity. However, there are non-biodegradable substances that
pose threats to the environment once improperly disposed (Choi, Kwon and Moreau,

1993; Deschamps, Caruel, Borredon, Bonnin and Vignoles, 2003). As an alternative

biosorbents for oil spill, clean-up peelings such as Pomelo and Marang were used

(Mata, Dumalagan, Nituda, 2015).

Davao has a land area of 2,443.61 square kilometers, and almost 50% of this is

classified as a timberland or forest for agricultural purposes. This includes the hectares

allocated for Pineapple plantation such as the DAVCO, Kawayan Urban Farm in Calinan

(Davao City, 2014) wherein, the independent variable of this study is a pineapple leaf

fiber, abundant in population here in Davao City. The Philippine Information Agency

(PIA) also announced that the countrys 59,000 hectares of pineapple plantations can

yield 55,483 tons of pineapple fiber (Lorraine Chow, 2015).

Related studies show the effectiveness of agricultural waste products as an

alternative sorbent in oil spill clean-ups. Agricultural byproducts from bananas,

cavendish plants, pineapple, coconut, palm, or other tropical fruit-bearing plants can

be sources of sorbent fiber material (Dimitrios George Hondroulis, et. al, 2000).

According to Sun, R.C. and Sun X.F. (2002), and as cited by Ibrahim, Tahiruddin and

Jaluddin (2013), natural fibers have been more efficient in oil spill clean-up as

compared to the commercial polypropylene fibers. Vegetable fibers were also noted

by Wei, et al. (2003) to have densities close to that of synthetic polymers, showing

high oil sorption capacity.


Despite the truth that synthetic polymers are treated as ideal materials for marine

oil-spillage due to its low density, low water uptake and excellent physical and

chemical resistance, these artificial sorbents are non-biodegradable, becoming a

source of severe environmental impacts (Amico, S.C., 2010).

According to Alcides Leao, Bibin Mathew Cherian, Sivoney Ferreira de Souza, and

Kottai Samy (2010), pineapple leaf fiber (PALF) is rich in cellulose, abundantly

available, relatively inexpensive, has low density, nonabrasive nature, high filling level,

low energy consumption, high specific properties, biodegradability, and has the

potentiality for polymer reinforcement just like synthetic polypropylene.

Ibrahim (2013) stated that high cellulose content ideally is more hydrophilic in

nature because of more hydroxyl groups present. However this great presence of

cellulose lessens the effectiveness of biosorbents in absorbing oil, separating water

from behind due to its hydrophilic tendencies. This can be addressed by the process

of mercerization. According to Valia (2012), the sorption capacity of an acetylated

fiber was higher than that of the commercial synthetic adsorbents such as

polypropylene fiber as well as unmodified or unmercerized fiber. Therefore, these oil

sorption-active materials which are also biodegradable can be used to substitute non-

biodegradable synthetic materials in addressing oil spills.

The two different kinds of compounds possible to be used for treating biosorbents

are Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH) and Sodium Chlorite (NaClO2). According to the

findings of Kaushkik (2012), Sodium cations from NaOH replaces the hydroxyl groups
of cellulose in pineapple leaf fibers, causing a decrease in water sorption and

improving its ability to absorb oil only.

According to the findings of The Huey Yees research (2004), pineapple leaf fibers

were subjected to surface modification by mercerization to further enhance its

sorption capacity of oil from aqueous solutions as a non-conventional low-cost

agrosorbent for oil removal process. Two of these chemicals which he used were the

3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyltrimethyl ammonium chloride for etherification and the

sodium dodecyl chloride for surfactant treatment. The sorbents before and after

mercerization were viewed through a scanning electron microscope (SEM) to study its

modified cellulosic mesh networks.

Based on the findings from the research of Dan Li, et al. (2013), cellulose fibers

from natural oil sorbents like corn straws were acetylated through the use of another

chemical, the acetic anhydride. It was revealed in their data and results that more

than 90% of diesel oil was absorbed by acetylated cellulose fibers within the first five

minutes. These cellulose fibers from corn straws also displayed oleophilic properties

and did not get wet as they made contact with water. Hence, mercerized biosorbents

through the application of acetic anhydride provides potential for the better utilization

of agricultural residues as natural alternative solution in oil spill clean-ups.

In the research of Ridwan Shamsudin, Hanisom Abdullah, and Som Cit Sinang

(2015), biosorbent fibers were experimented in three different fiber particle sizes,

0.04 cm2, 0.80 cm2, and 1.70 cm2. The researchers methodologies involve the
measurement of sorption rate, saturation point, mechanical strength, and

biodegradability. In their research, it was found that longer absorption time did not

significantly affect the absorption and saturation value of the sorbents. The

mechanical strength of a particular sorbent is directly proportional to its

biodegradability. Greater mechanical strength means longer time needed for a specific

sorbent to biodegrade. In the end, the biosorbent with the biggest fiber particle size

yielded to be the most suitable size to make the oil sorbent materials due to its good

networking matrix formation, highest absorption capacity, and mechanical strength.

Therefore, synthetic fibers are surpassed by biosorbents such as Ananas comosus

(Cayenne Pineapple) leaf fiber as an alternative solution for oil spills because of the

fact that it displays excellent sorption capacity and adequate low density on par with

artificial sorbents in the present, and its ability to biodegrade. Knowing that pineapples

are abundant in the Philippine countrys plantation fields, the leaf fibers from the said

fruits are ideal solutions for alternative biosorbents. The main component found in

pineapple leaf fibers is fiber, which is present 3% for every strand of pineapple leaf.

Fibers are capable of adsorbing oil and leaving water behind. However, the high

cellulosic content of pineapples degrades its efficiency in absorbing oil from water.

Hence, mercerization is conducted to modify the mesh fiber networks of cellulosic

biosorbents. Compounds like Sodium Chlorite, Sodium Hydroxide, and Acetic

Anhydride are capable of such alterations. Cations of sodium hydroxide fills in the

hydroxyls in the pineapple fibers, making the oil sorption process more efficient. The
sodium chlorite also hydrolyzes the biosorbents for enhanced oil sorption property.

Lastly, acetic anhydride increases the oleophilic properties of cellulosic fibers, making

them hydrophobic from water molecules. Thus, the great amount of fiber found in

pineapple leaf and the additional use of different compounds in the process of

mercerization would greatly contribute to the success of the researchers

experimentational process.

C. Statement of the Problem


The main concern of this study was to see significance in the use of Ananas

comosus (Cayenne Pineapple) leaf fiber as an alternative sorbent material for oil spill.

Specifically, this study sought to answer the following questions:

Which among the following sorbent samples would exhibit the highest oil

sorption rate?

a. Untreated Sample

b. Sample mercerized with Sodium Chlorite (NaClO2)

c. Sample mercerized with Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH)

d. Sample mercerized with Acetic Anhydride (C4H6O3) from an Aspirin (C9H804)

Which among the following sorbent samples would exhibit the highest oil

saturation point?

a. Untreated Sample

b. Sample mercerized with Sodium Chlorite (NaClO2)

c. Sample mercerized with Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH)


d. Sample mercerized with Acetic Anhydride (C4H6O3) from an Aspirin (C9H804)

Which among the following sorbent samples would exhibit the highest

mechanical strength?

a. Untreated Sample

b. Sample mercerized with Sodium Chlorite (NaClO2)

c. Sample mercerized with Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH)

d. Sample mercerized with Acetic Anhydride (C4H6O3) from an Aspirin (C9H804)

Which among the following sorbent samples would exhibit the highest oil

sorption capacity?

a. Untreated Sample

b. Sample mercerized with Sodium Chlorite (NaClO2)

c. Sample mercerized with Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH)

d. Sample mercerized with Acetic Anhydride (C4H6O3) from an Aspirin (C9H804)

Which among the following sorbent samples would exhibit the highest water

sorption capacity?

a. Untreated Sample

b. Sample mercerized with Sodium Chlorite (NaClO2)

c. Sample mercerized with Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH)

d. Sample mercerized with Acetic Anhydride (C4H6O3) from an Aspirin (C9H804)

D. Objectives

This study aims to achieve the following:


Prove that the Ananas comosus (Cayenne Pineapple) is capable of adsorbing

oil;

Prove that the Ananas comosus (Cayenne Pineapple) possesses high sorption

rate, saturation point, and mechanical strength suitable for biosorbent

characteristics;

Prove that the Ananas comosus (Cayenne Pineapple) hydrophilic tendencies

can be minimized through the application of treatments and mercerization

processes;

E. Conceptual Framework

Figure 1.1:

Independent Variable Dependent Variable

Ananas comosus
(Cayenne Pineapple) Diesel Oil
leaf fiber Water

Figure 1.1 shows the variables of the study. It illustrates the Ananas comosus

(Cayenne Pineapple) leaf fiber as the independent variable of the study, because this

is the variable which remains constant within the experiment of the study. On the

other hand, the diesel oil and water are the dependent variables of the study, because
these are the variables that change accordingly to the independent variable of the

experiment. It change in volume and composition, depending on how many amounts

of oil the Ananas comosus (Cayenne Pineapple) leaf fiber can absorb at a given

amount of time.

F. Hypothesis

Null Hypothesis (H0): There is no significant difference in the use of Ananas

comosus (Cayenne Pineapple) leaf fiber as an alternative sorbent material for oil

spill.

Alternative Hypothesis (H1): There is a significant difference in the use of Ananas

comosus (Cayenne Pineapple) leaf fiber as an alternative sorbent material for oil

spill.

G. Significance of the Study

Those who will benefit from this study are the people suffering from the horrible

consequences of oil spill in their vicinity, most especially, in Iloilo where the Napocor

Power Marge 103 Oil Spill is still becoming a great problem up to the present time.

Through this, the Filipino citizens would be able to devise a new, but eco-friendly way

of reducing the adverse effects of oil spill by using Ananas comosus (Cayenne

Pineapple) leaf fiber whose effectiveness is not degraded by its ability to biodegrade

compared to other synthetic solutions like propylene fiber and polypropylene web in

the present time (Choi, Kwon and Moreau, 1993; Deschamps, Caruel, Borrendon,
Bonnin and Bignoles, 2003). As a result, the amount of litter present in our world

today would be lessened while providing an alternative solution to great

environmental problems like oil spills. Harmful outcomes due to oil spill such as deaths

of marine species in the different bodies of water and destruction of habitats known

to be foundations for survival would be prevented. In addition to that, the success of

this study would help lessen the health issues suffered by numerous cities in our

country. Not only will the success of this study contribute to the prevention of

environmental problems, but it could also help address its the economic downfall

experienced by people in the field of marine and aquaculture businesses in the

country.

H. Scope and Limitations

The scope and limitations of this study are within the vicinity of the city of Davao

only. The study will be conducted from the months of August to September 2017. The

experiment is composed of five phases. The first, second, and fifth phase, which are

the manual extraction of Pineapple leaf fiber, the biosorbent preparation, and the

computation, are to be conducted in the researchers household in Bonifacio Extension

Street, Brgy. 31-D, Davao City. The third and fourth phase, namely the water and oil

sorption test (ASTMs F 726-06 Method) and the sorption rate, saturation point, and

mechanical strength measurement, are to be done at the Science Laboratory of the

Our Lady of Fatima Academy of Davao, Inc. The Phase 1 Extraction of Pineapple

leaf fiber and Phase 2 Biosorbent Preparation which involves the use of Sodium
Chlorite, Sodium Hydroxide, and Acetic Anhydride for mercerization, altogether, will

last for ten days or 240 hours. On the other hand, the Phase 3 ASTMs F 726-06

Method, the Phase 4 Sorption Rate, Saturation point, and Mechanical Strength

Measurement, and the Phase 5 Computation, will last for a couple of days or 48

hours. In total, the whole process of the experiment will last for 12 days or 288 hours.

For Phases 1 and 2, the pineapple leaves to be used are from the researchers hectares

of land located in Darong, Davao del Sur. Phases 2-4 will include three trials for each

experimental group, and another set of three trials for the control group.

I. Definition of Terms

This study encompasses the following terms:

Conceptual Terms:

Adsorption refers to the adhesion in an extremely thin layer of molecules

(as of gases, solutes, or liquids) to the surface of solid bodies or liquids with

which they are in contact

Biosorbent refers to a natural substance that sorbs through the process of

adsorption

Oil refers to a viscous liquid derived from petroleum, especially for use as a

fuel or lubricant
Oil Spill refers to a form of water pollution characterized by the release of

a liquid petroleum hydrocarbon into the environment, especially marine area,

due to human activity

Water refers to a transparent and nearly colorless chemical substance that

is the main constituent of Earths streams, lakes, and oceans, and the fluids of

most living organisms

Operational Terms:

Acetic Anhydride In the researchers study, acetic anhydride is defined as

a compound which can be used for the mercerization of the pineapple leaf

fibers sorption capacity, usually found in aspirin or acetylsalicyclic acid.

Aspirin In the researchers study, aspirin is defined as a medicine which

serves as a potential source of acetic anhydride to be used for mercerization.

Aspirin uses acetic anhydride for the acetylation of salicylic acid.

Cayenne Pineapple - In the researchers study, Cayenne pineapple is defined

as a fruit scientifically known as Ananas comosus whose leaves are great

sources of fiber.

Fiber - In the researchers study, fiber is defined as a component found in

the leaf fiber of Ananas comosus (Cayenne Pineapple) which inhibits its

property to adsorb oil from water.

Mechanical Strength In the researchers study, mechanical strength is

defined as pineapple leaf fibers ability to withstand stress and other rough
weather conditions the. This property is important for biosorbent materials with

high mechanical strength and durability are preferred in order to withstand the

circumstances throughout the various stages of the clean-up process for oil

spills.

Mercerization In the researchers study, mercerization is defined as the

process of modifying a biosorbents cellulosic network arrangement through

the application of a foreign chemical for treatment. By doing this, a natural

materials adsorption property will be maximized.

Oil Saturation point - In the researchers study, oil saturation point is defined

as an indication of a biosorbents maximum oil adsorption capacity. Greater oil

saturation point means greater probability of biosorbents to adsorb oil from

water in maximum capacity.

Oil Sorption Rate - In the researchers study, oil sorption rate is defined as

a measurement of the amount of oil adsorbed by a biosorbent sample at a

given amount of time.

Propylene and Polypropylene - In the researchers study, propylene and

polypropylene are defined as synthetic substances used by the present society

as solutions to oil spill. Despite their great mechanical capability to adsorb, their

downfall is their failure to biodegrade.

Sodium Hydroxide - In the researchers study, sodium hydroxide is defined

as a compound used for the mercerization of the pineapple leaf fiber. Na+
replaces the hydroxyl groups of cellulose in pineapple leaf fibers, causing a

decrease in water sorption (Kaushkik, 2012).

Sodium Chlorite In the researchers study, sodium chlorite is defined as a

compound used for the mercerization of the pineapple leaf fiber (M.M. Kabir,

2012).
Chapter 2

METHODOLOGY

Research Design

A. Research Questions

This study sought to answer the following questions: Which among the following

sorbent samples would exhibit the highest oil sorption rate? Which among the

following sorbent samples would exhibit the highest oil saturation point? Which among

the following sorbent samples would exhibit the highest mechanical strength? Which

among the following sorbent samples would exhibit the highest oil sorption capacity?

Which among the following sorbent samples would exhibit the highest water sorption

capacity?

a. Untreated Sample

b. Sample mercerized with Sodium Chlorite (NaClO2)

c. Sample mercerized with Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH)

d. Sample mercerized with Acetic Anhydride (C4H6O3) from an Aspirin (C9H804)

B. Participants

No other participant, aside from the researcher, is involved during the

experimentation process. He, all by himself, was the one who conducted the whole

experiment of this study. 24 pineapple leaf fibers where six untreated, six mercerized

with Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH), six mercerized with Sodium Chlorite (NaClO2) and six
mercerized with Acetic Anhydride (C4H6O3) from an Aspirin (C9H804), underwent both

oil and water sorption test, mechanical strength test, and

C. Materials and Procedures

Phase I Extraction of Pineapple Leaf Fiber

Materials

For Phase I Extraction of Pineapple Leaf Fiber (PALF), the materials to be used

in the experiment are the following: 24 Cayenne Pineapple Leaves, 1 knife, 1 scissors,

and 1 plank of wood.

Procedure

All the needed materials were gathered. Get a single piece of Cayenne pineapple

leaf by cutting it from the whole pineapple plant with a scissors. Scrape off the surface

of the pineapple leaf fiber with a knife repeatedly until thin fibers come out. Repeat

the process until you accumulate 24 bundles of pineapple leaf fibers.


Phase II Biosorbent Preparation

Materials

For Phase II Biosorbent Preparation, the materials to be used in the experiment

are the following: 24 bundles of pineapple leaf fibers, 4 Trays, 4 cotton cloths, 2

tablespoons of Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH), 3 plastic containers, 1 strainer, 2

tablespoons of Sodium Chlorite (NaClO2), 1 timer, 2 tablespoons, 2 tablespoons of

Aspirin, and 15 cups of tap water.

Procedures

All the needed materials were gathered. In preparing the six untreated samples,

they were simply placed in a clean plastic container, covered with cotton cloth, and

air dried for 24 hours.


In preparing the six samples mercerized with Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH), the

methodological processes were adapted from the findings of Kaushkik (2012) about

NaOH+ replacing the hydroxyl groups in cellulosic fibers, making them more efficient

in oil adsorption. Six of the pineapple leaf fibers were placed in a clean tray and air-

dried for 24 hours. Afterwards, fill a plastic bowl with 5 cups of tapwater and add 2

tablespoons of Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH). Maintain the teaspoon NaOH1 cup

of water ratio. Soak the six air dried pineapple leaf fiber into the metallic bowl with a

solution of Sodium Hydroxide for 5 days. Filter the mercerized pineapple leaf fiber

with a strainer. Wash it with tap water and sundry for another 24 hours.
In preparing for the six pineapple leaf fibers treated with Sodium Chlorite, the

methodological processes were adapted from the published research of M. M. Kabir,

H. Wang, K. T. Lau, and F. Cadorna whose abstract stresses that Sodium Chlorite can

help in the characterization of pineapple leaf fiber biosorbents. In this step, prepare

six of the pineapple leaf fibers and place them in a clean tray. Cover the tray with the

cotton cloth and air dry for 24 hours. Mix in a plastic bowl 2 tablespoons of Sodium

Chlorite and 5 cups of water. Add another six pineapple leaf fiber thoroughly for five

minutes. Rinse it with water and drain the treated pineapple fibers using a strainer.

Sundry for 45 minutes.


In preparing six samples treated with Acetic Anhydride, the following

methodological processes were adapted from the research of Dan Li, et. al (2013)

whose findings stipulate that cellulose fibers acetylated with acetic anhydride exhibit

excellent oil sorption capacity as it was able to adsorb 90% of the diesel oil during the

first 5 minutes adsorption duration. In this step, prepare six of the pineapple leaf

fibers and place them in a clean tray. Cover the tray with the cotton cloth and air dry

for 24 hours. Fill a metallic bowl with 5 cups of tap water and add 2 tablespoons

of aspirin. Mix well. Soak the six air-dried pineapple leaf fiber into the metallic bowl
with a solution of Aspirin for 5 days. Filter the mercerized pineapple leaf fiber with a

strainer. Wash it with tap water and sundry for another 24 hours.

Phase III - ASTMs F 726-06 Method

Materials

For Phase III ASTMs F 726-06 Method, the materials to be used in the

experiment are the following: 24 prepared pineapple leaf fibers (six untreated, six

mercerized, six treated with NaClO2, six treated with C4H6O3), 30 grams of human
hair, 750 mL of tap water, 30 beakers, 30 filter papers, 1 gram scale, 1 timer, and

750 mL of diesel oil.

Procedures

All materials needed both for the oil and water sorption test were gathered. For

the water sorption test, the following methodological processes were based from the

study of Senanurakwarkul, et. al (2013). It was a test for sorbents before they are to

be experimented into the oceans. In this step, weigh the all the prepared sorbents,

whether for water or oil sorption test, by 5 grams using a gram scale. Fill 12 of the

beakers with 50 mL of water. Place the first batch of 12 5 gram pineapple leaf fiber

into each of the beakers filled with water. Wait for 15 minutes. Afterwards, drain the

contents of the beaker with a filter paper for 30 seconds. Weigh and record the data

from each beaker. Repeat steps 2-5 for the three 5 grams of human hair as control

group.
For the Oil Sorption Test, the following methodological processes were adapted

from the American Society for Testing and Materials or ASTM F 726-06 (2008) or

Standard Test Method of Sorbent Performance of Adsorbents. In this step, pour 50

mL of diesel oil into each remaining 12 beakers. Place the remaining batch of 12

pineapple leaf fibers into each beaker filled with diesel oil. Wait for 15 minutes.

Afterwards, drain the contents of the beaker with a filter paper for 30 seconds. Weigh

and record the data from each beaker. Repeat steps 8-11 for the remaining 15 grams

of human hair as control group.


Phase IV - Sorption Rate, Saturation point, and Mechanical Strength

Measurement

Materials

For Phase IV Sorption Rate, Saturation point, and Mechanical Strength

Measurement, the materials needed for the experiment are the following: 12

previously tested bundles of pineapple leaf fibers from oil sorption test, 15 grams of
previously tested human hair from oil sorption test, 1 gram scale, weights, 1 iron

stand, and 1 ruler.

Procedure

For the procedure, the following methodological processes were adapted from the

research of Ridwan Shamsudin, Hanisom Abdullah, and Som Cit Sinang (2015) whose

research stresses the importance of measuring the sorption rate, saturation point, and

mechanical strength of biosorbents. In this step, prepare all the materials needed.

Take note of the initial and final mass of the samples which was collected as data

from Phase III. For the Mechanical Strength test, stretch out the pineapple leaf fibers

to the maximum length. Place a weight to the pineapple leaf fiber little by little until

the fiber tears off from too much stress. Calculate the width as break in meters and

the total mass needed to break the strip of absorbent fiber. Repeat steps 2-4 for the

15 grams of previously tested human hair as control group.

Phase V The Computation

Material

For Phase V The Computation, only 1 scientific calculator, 1 pencil, and 1 sheet

of paper are needed for the methodological process.

Procedure
In this step, gather all the needed data from the previous phases of the

experiment. First, solve for the water sorption capacity of each of the pineapple

leaf fiber using this formula:

Water sorption capacity = Sw/So

where So is the initial dry sorbent weight (in grams), and

Sw is the final weight of the sorbent sample at the end of the water take-up

test (in grams)

Solve for the oil sorption capacity of each of the pineapple leaf fiber using this

formula:

Oil Sorption capacity = Sw/So

where So is the initial dry sorbent weight (in grams), and

Sw is the final weight of the sorbent sample at the end of the water take-up

test (in grams)

The oil sorption rate of a particular pineapple leaf fiber is equal to its oil

sorption capacity (Oil Sorption Rate = Oil Sorption Capacity).

Solve for the Saturation point of each of the pineapple leaf fiber using this

formula:

Saturation point = (W2 W1)/T

where W1 is the initial dry weight of the material sample (in grams),
W2 is the final weight of the material sample after time T (in grams), and

T is the time duration of the adsorption process (in minutes)

Solve for the mechanical strength of each pineapple leaf fiber using this

formula of Breaking Length:

Breaking Length = (mb)/(W BW)

where mb is the total mass needed to break the pineapple leaf fiber (in grams),

W is the width at break (in meters), and

BW or Basis Weight = Sheet Mass/Sheet Area (g/m2)

D. Risk and Safety

For experiment precautions, the researcher maintained the following risk and

safety procedures: wear face mask for prevention of inhaling hazardous chemical

fumes during the process of experimentation, wear laboratory gown to avoid stains

from the clothes, wear gloves to prevent the hands from having any contact with

harmful chemicals, and perform the experiment in a well-ventilated area.

For the waste disposal procedures, the following safety guidelines are derived from

the chemical waste disposal guidelines of the Emory University Department of

Chemistry. These include the following: dilution of acid/base with cold water to lower

concentration, storing of excess base in a container similar to which it was stored, and

labeling of the container with Hazardous Waste tag.


E. Data Gathering

The following data gathered and computed are arranged in the following table for

simpler and easier process of calculation and analysis of variance:

Sodium Sodium Acetic Hair

Type of Untreated Hydroxide Chlorite Anhydride Control

Test Treatment Treatment Treatment Group

Trials 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3

Oil

Sorption

Rate (g/g)

Saturation

Point

(g/min)

Breaking

Length (m)

Water

Sorption

Capacity

(g/g)
Oil

Sorption

Capacity

(g/g)

Figure 3-1: A Table of data from Untreated and Mercerized PALFs together

with Hair Control Group

F. Data Analysis

The following data were treated using the following statistical tool:

One-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA)

The researcher has decided to choose one-way ANOVA as his statistical tool in

order to interpret whether to reject or accept the null hypothesis of the study. The

Analysis of Variance is essentially designated for research whose experimentation

processes include three or more conditions. In this statistical tool, the alpha value of

the analysis is predetermined, 0.5. The F critical value and the variance within and

between groups will also be identified.


Chapter 3

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

Water Sorption Capacities of PALF (g/g)


1.6

1.4
1.4 1.4 1.4
1.2 1.3 1.34
1.24 1.22 1.22 1.24
1 1.16 1.16 1.12
1.1
1.02 1.04
0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0
Untreated Sodium Hydroxide Sodium Chlorite Acetic Anhydride Hair for Control
Treatment Treatment Treatment

Trial 1 Trial 2 Trial 3

Figure 4-1: A graph showing the Water Sorption Capacity of the Pineapple

Leaf Fibers (PALF) at a given time during the Water Sorption Test

The presented graph above shows the water sorption capacities of different

Pineapple Leaf Fiber (PALF) test subjects from varied types of trials and

characterizations. The Water Sorption Capacity was calculated through the use of the

following formula:

Water sorption capacity = Sw/So

where So is the initial dry sorbent weight (in grams), and


Sw is the final weight of the sorbent sample at the end of the water take-up

test (in grams)

Based on the presented data, the Trial 1 of the Untreated PALF exhibited the

lowest water sorption capacity of 1.02 g/g while the Trials 1, 2 of the Sodium Chlorite

treatment and the Trial 3 of the Acetic Anhydride treatment exhibited the highest

water sorption capacity of 1.4 g/g.

MEANS OF WATER SORPTION CAPACITIES


Mean
1.38

1.26
1.25

1.17
1.05

UNTREATED SODIUM SODIUM CHLORITE ACETIC HAIR AS CONTROL


HYDROXIDE TREATMENT ANHYDRIDE
TREATMENT TREATMENT

Figure 4-2: A graph showing the means of water sorption capacities of each

type of characterization process

The graph shown above depicts the different means of water sorption

capacities of each type of test. The following values were obtained by adding the

water sorption capacities (g/g) of each test subject in each characterization process
and dividing the sum by three, which corresponds to the number of trials. Based on

the accumulated data, the Sodium Chlorite Treatment test subjects have shown the

greatest amount of water sorption capacity of 1.38, followed by the 1.26 water

sorption capacity of the Acetic Anhydride Treatment test subjects, the 1.25 mean

value of the Sodium Hydroxide Treatment test subjects, and the water sorption

capacity of the control group of human hair. Finally, the water sorption capacity of

the untreated PALFs came last in the ranking.

The water sorption capacity of each test subject signifies the amount of water

a biosorbent can adsorb at a given amount of time. For a study that aims to increase

the effectiveness and usage of pineapple leaf fibers as alternative biosorbents, a low

rate of water sorption capacity is direly needed to reject the null hypothesis of the

problem. However, the preceding graphs above stipulates the fact that the mercerized

and treatment PALF test subjects have exhibited greater water sorption capacity

compared to a mere untreated PALF test subject. Hence, the researcher can infer that

the characterization process of these PALFs did not make much of a difference in

terms of the water sorption capacity of pineapple leaf fibers.


Oil Sorption Capacities of PALF (g/g)
1.6

1.4 1.52
1.46 1.42 1.44
1.4 1.36
1.2 1.34
1.28 1.24 1.24
1.18 1.22 1.2
1 1.1 1.06
0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0
Untreated Sodium Hydroxide Sodium Chlorite Acetic Anhydride Hair for Control
Treatment Treatment Treatment

Trial 1 Trial 2 Trial 3

Figure 4-3: A graph showing the Oil Sorption Capacity of the Pineapple Leaf

Fibers (PALF) at a given time during the Oil Sorption Test

The shown graph above exhibits the different oil sorption capacities of

Pineapple Leaf Fibers (PALFs) with varied kinds of tests and characterization

processes. The following data were gathered through the following formula:

Oil Sorption capacity = Sw/So

where So is the initial dry sorbent weight (in grams), and

Sw is the final weight of the sorbent sample at the end of the water take-up

test (in grams)


Based on the gathered data, the Trial 2 of the Hair for Control test has

exemplified the lowest amount of oil sorption capacity of 1.06 g/g, while the Trial 2

of the Acetic Anhydride Treatment, on the other hand, has shown the greatest amount

of oil sorption capacity with a reading of 1.52 g/g.

MEANS OF OIL SORPTION CAPACITIES


Mean

1.46
1.32

1.27

1.27

1.17
UNTREATED SODIUM SODIUM CHLORITE ACETIC HAIR AS CONTROL
HYDROXIDE TREATMENT ANHYDRIDE
TREATMENT TREATMENT

Figure 4-4: A graph showing the means of oil sorption capacities of each

type of characterization process

The graph illustrated above shows the different means of oil sorption capacities

for each type of characterization process. In this graph, the acetic anhydride-treated

samples exhibited the highest oil sorption capacity of 1.46, then by the untreated

samples of 1.32, followed by the sodium hydroxide-treated and sodium chlorite-

treaded samples of 1.27, and lastly, by the hair (control group) as the samples

possessing the lowest oil sorption capacity of 1.17.


Oil sorption capacity refers to the ability of biosorbents to adsorb oil at a given

amount of time. Based on the gathered data, the PALFs has shown greater oil sorption

capacity compared to the mere hair samples which were used as control groups for

the process of experimentation. Greater oil sorption capacity could possibly imply that

PALFs are indeed capable of adsorbing oil greater than water. For a study which aims

to prove that Pineapple Leaf Fibers are effective biosorbents, a sample must actuate

greater oil than water sorption capacity. Despite the fact the nine of the samples were

mercerized with three different chemicals, the characterization process did not make

much of a difference between the oil sorption capacity of treated and untreated

biosorbents. This could probably imply that mercerization process wasnt really that

effective to begin with. In addition to that, the Oil Sorption Rate is equal to the Oil

Sorption capacity of a biosorbent sample.

Oil Saturation Points of PALFs (g/min)


0.18
0.16 0.17
0.14 0.15 0.15
0.12 0.14
0.13
0.1 0.12
0.11
0.08 0.09
0.06 0.08
0.07 0.07 0.07
0.04 0.06
0.02 0.03 0.02
0
Untreated Sodium Hydroxide Sodium Chlorite Acetic Anhydride Hair for Control
Treatment Treatment Treatment
Trial 1 Trial 2 Trial 3

Figure 4-5: A graph showing the Oil Saturation Point of Pineapple Leaf

Fibers (PALFs)
The shown graph above exhibits the different oil saturation points (g/min) of

Pineapple Leaf Fibers (PALFs) with varied kinds of tests and characterization

processes. The following data were gathered through the following formula:

Saturation point = (W2 W1)/T

where W1 is the initial dry weight of the material sample (in grams),

W2 is the final weight of the material sample after time T (in grams), and

T is the time duration of the adsorption process (in minutes)

Based on the gathered data, the Trial 2 of the Hair for Control test has

exemplified the lowest amount of oil saturation point of 0.02 g/min, while the Trial 2

of the Acetic Anhydride Treatment, on the other hand, has shown the greatest amount

of oil saturation point with a reading of 0.17 g/min.

MEANS OF OIL SATURATION POINTS


0.15

Mean
0.09

0.09
0.1

0.05

UNTREATED SODIUM SODIUM ACETIC HAIR AS


HYDROXIDE CHLORITE ANHYDRIDE CONTROL
TREATMENT TREATMENT TREATMENT
Figure 4-6: A graph showing the means of oil saturation points for each

characterization process

The graph illustrated above shows the different means of oil saturation points

(g/min) for each type of characterization process. In this graph, the acetic anhydride-

treated samples exhibited the highest oil saturation points of 0.15, then by the

untreated samples of 0.1, followed by the sodium hydroxide-treated and sodium

chlorite-treaded samples of 0.09, and lastly, by the hair (control group) as the samples

possessing the lowest oil saturation points of 0.05.

Oil Saturation Point, as used in the researchers study, refers to an indication

of a biosorbents maximum oil adsorption capacity. Greater oil saturation point means

greater probability of biosorbents to adsorb oil from water in maximum capacity. Oil

Saturation point determines the amount of oil adsorbed by a biosorbent sample with

a particular measurement and a specific time of adsorption; hence, the unit is g/min.

Based on the gathered data, one can notice that the ranking of the means of oil

saturation points of each characterization process is similar to the ranking of oil

sorption capacity. Hence, we can infer the fact that oil saturation point is directly

proportional with the oil sorption capacity of a biosorbent sample. Greater oil sorption

capacity yields higher oil saturation point. However, increasing the time adsorption

could negatively affect the oil saturation point of a biosorbent for longer time

adsorption results to a lesser reading of oil saturation points.


Mechanical Strength of PALFs (m)
10
9
8
9.09
7 7.55
6 6.85 7.14 6.67 6.56
5
4
4.23 3.95 4.17
3
3.23 2.94 3.28
2
1
0.78 0.75 0.85
0
Untreated Sodium Hydroxide Sodium Chlorite Acetic Anhydride Hair for Control
Treatment Treatment Treatment

Trial 1 Trial 2 Trial 3

Figure 4-7: A graph showing the mechanical strength of Pineapple Leaf

Fibers (PALFs)

The shown graph above exhibits the different breaking lengths (m) of

Pineapple Leaf Fibers (PALFs) with varied kinds of tests and characterization

processes. The following data were gathered through the following formula:

Breaking Length = (mb)/(W BW)

where mb is the total mass needed to break the pineapple leaf fiber (in grams),

W is the width at break (in meters), and

BW or Basis Weight = Sheet Mass/Sheet Area (g/m2)


Based on the collected data, the Trial 1 of the untreated sample of PALF has

yielded the greatest and strongest breaking length of 9.09 m. On the other hand, the

Trial 2 of the Sodium Hydroxide-treated PALF sample has shown the lowest and

weakest breaking length of 0.75 m.

MEANS OF BREAKING LENGTH


Mean
7.69

6.93
4.12
3.15
0.79

UNTREATED SODIUM SODIUM CHLORITE ACETIC ANHYDRIDE HAIR AS CONTROL


HYDROXIDE TREATMENT TREATMENT
TREATMENT

Figure 4-8: A graph showing the means of Mechanical Strength in terms of

Breaking Length (m) of each characterization process

The graph illustrated above shows the different means of breaking lengths (m)

for each type of characterization process. In this graph, the untreated pineapple leaf

fibers possessed the highest and strongest breaking length of 7.69, followed by the

hair samples as the control group whose breaking length is 6.93, the 4.12 breaking

length of acetic anhydride-treated samples, the 3.15 breaking length of the sodium

chlorite-treated samples, and having the sodium hydroxide-mercerized PALF samples

with the lowest and weakest breaking length of 0.79.


Mechanical Strength, by its operational definition, refers to the pineapple leaf

fibers ability to withstand stress and other rough weather conditions. This property is

important for biosorbent materials with high mechanical strength and durability are

preferred in order to withstand the circumstances throughout the various stages of

the clean-up process for oil spills (Ridwan Shamsudin, et. al, 2014). If one will

compare the graphs of breaking length and the other graphs of other aspects needed

to be looked upon of a biosorbent (eg: Oil Sorption Capacity, etc.), there is not

correlating relationship between the two conditions. In addition to that, the graph

above implicitly signifies that the mercerization process for pineapple leaf fibers did

not only fail to lessen a biosorbents hydrophilic tendencies, but it has also weakened

the fibers mechanical strength, as seen with the breaking length of the three samples

from the Sodium Hydroxide treatment.

Source of Degrees of Sum of Variation Actual F Tabular F

Variation Freedom Squares (MS) Value Value

(df) (SS)

Between 4 0.19406 0.048515

Groups a = 0.5
F = 17.04
Within 10 0.0285 0.00285 Fcrit = 3.48

Groups
Total 14 17.04 > 3.48; Hence, H0 is rejected.

Figure 4-9: A table showing the One-Way ANOVA of Water Sorption

Capacity of Pineapple Leaf Fibers (PALFs)

The table above shows the one-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) of the Water

Sorption Capacities (g/g) for each Pineapple Leaf Fiber (PALF) sample with five

different characterizations, including hair as the control group. It stipulates that the

null hypothesis with regards to the water sorption capacity of PALFs has been rejected

when the actual F value of 17.04 exceeds the acceptance region of the F critical value

of 3.48. This implies the fact that there is indeed a difference of the means of the five

different characterization processes in terms of water sorption capacity. Hence, there

is a significant difference in the water sorption capacities of Ananas comosus (Cayenne

Pineapple) Leaf Fiber as an alternative biosorbent for oil spill.

Source of Degrees of Sum of Variation Actual F Tabular F

Variation Freedom Squares (MS) Value Value

(df) (SS)

Between 4 0.1366 0.03415

Groups a = 0.5
Within 10 0.1225 0.01225 Fcrit = 3.48

Groups
F = 2.79

Total 14 2.79 < 3.48; Hence, H0 is accepted.

Figure 4-10: A table showing the One-Way ANOVA of Oil Sorption Capacity

of Pineapple Leaf Fibers (PALFs)

The table above shows the one-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) of the Oil

Sorption Capacities (g/g) for each Pineapple Leaf Fiber (PALF) sample with five

different characterizations, including hair as the control group. It stipulates that the

null hypothesis with regards to the water sorption capacity of PALFs has been

accepted when the actual F value of 2.79 did not reach the acceptance region of the

F critical value of 3.48. This implies the fact that there is no difference of the means

of the five different characterization processes in terms of oil sorption capacity. Hence,

there is no significant difference in the use of Ananas comosus (Cayenne Pineapple)

Leaf Fiber as an alternative biosorbent for oil spill.

Source of Degrees of Sum of Variation Actual F Tabular F

Variation Freedom Squares (MS) Value Value

(df) (SS)
Between 4 0.0157 0.00395

Groups a = 0.5
F = 3.0
Within 10 0.0132 0.00132 Fcrit = 3.48

Groups

Total 14 3.0 < 3.48; Hence, H0 is accepted.

Figure 4-11: A table showing the One-Way ANOVA of Oil Saturation Points

of Pineapple Leaf Fibers (PALFs)

The table above shows the one-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) of the Oil

Saturation Points (g/min) for each Pineapple Leaf Fiber (PALF) sample with five

different characterizations, including hair as the control group. It stipulates that the

null hypothesis with regards to the water sorption capacity of PALFs has been rejected

when the actual F value of 3.0 did not reach the acceptance region of the F critical

value of 3.48. This implies the fact that there is no difference of the means of the five

different characterization processes in terms of oil saturation points. Hence, there is

no significant difference in the oil saturation points of Ananas comosus (Cayenne

Pineapple) Leaf Fiber as an alternative biosorbent for oil spill.


Source of Degrees of Sum of Variation Actual F Tabular F

Variation Freedom Squares (MS) Value Value

(df) (SS)

Between 4 95.36516 23.84129

Groups a = 0.5
F = 64.91
Within 10 3.6732 0.36732 Fcrit = 3.48

Groups

Total 14 64.91 > 3.48; Hence, H0 is rejected.

Figure 4-12: A table showing the One-Way ANOVA of Mechanical Strength

of Pineapple Leaf Fibers (PALFs)

The table above shows the one-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) of the

Mechanical Strength in the form of Breaking length (m) for each Pineapple Leaf Fiber

(PALF) sample with five different characterizations, including hair as the control group.

It stipulates that the null hypothesis with regards to the water sorption capacity of

PALFs has been rejected when the actual F value of 64.91 exceeds the acceptance

region of the F critical value of 3.48. This implies the fact that there is indeed a

difference of the means of the five different characterization processes in terms of

mechanical strength. Hence, there is a significant difference in the mechanical


strength in the form of breaking length of Ananas comosus (Cayenne Pineapple) Leaf

Fiber as an alternative biosorbent for oil spill.


Chapter 4

CONCLUSION

Therefore, there is no significant difference in the use of Ananas comosus

(Cayenne Pineapple) leaf fiber as an alternative sorbent material for oil spill. As one

can notice in the previously gathered and presented data, only the Water sorption

capacity and mechanical strength are proven reliable as it was able to negate the null

hypothesis.

For the oil sorption capacity and saturation point, it was proven that all the

means of the different test subjects are equal as there is no significant difference in

the oil sorption capacities and oil saturation points exhibited among the test subjects.

Hence, the test group which manifested the highest oil sorption rate and oil saturation

point cannot be determined.

As for the water sorption rate, the PALF samples treated with Sodium Chlorite

exhibited the highest performance, while the untreated PALFs, on the other hand,

manifested the strongest mechanical strength.


Chapter 5

RECOMMENDATIONS

The following recommendations are offered as possible ways in improving this

study:

Use different types of oil samples for different types of Pineapple Leaf Fiber

(PALF) samples;

Conduct a simulation of the PALFs oil sorption capacity in an oil-water

solution;

Conduct a lab test to prove that there is indeed adequate fiber content for

Pineapple Leaf Fibers in exhibiting remarkable oil sorption capacity; and

Conduct the experiment in different variations in terms of the samples mass

to see if changing the mass also affects the fibers oil sorption capacity
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