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PRACTICAL MANUAL - FUNDAMENTALS OF AGRONOMY

S.No. Topics No. of


lectures
1. Identification of crops, seeds, fertilizers, pesticides and tillage implements 2
2. Effect of sowing depth on germination and seedling vigour 1
3. Identification of weeds in crops 1
4. Methods of herbicide application 2
5. Methods of fertilizer application 1
6. Study of yield contributing characters and yield estimation 1
7. Seed germination and viability test 1
8. Numerical exercises on fertilizer requirement plant population, herbicides 2
and water requirement
9. Use of tillage implements-reversible plough, one way plough, harrow, 1
leveler, seed drill
10. Study of soil moisture measuring devices 1
11. Measurement of field capacity 1
12. Determination of bulk density and infiltration rate 1
13. Measurement of irrigation water 1
Total 16
Ex 1. Identification of crops, seeds, fertilizers and pesticides

Relevant information :
A. Identification of crop plants
Morphological description of some of the important crops has been summarized as under
1. Wheat
Root system
i. Primary root system: It forms at the time of seed germination and arise at the depth when seed
is planted.
ii. Secondary root system: It arises at a point above the primary root system as the principal
organ of absorption as the young seedling progress to maturity.

Shoot system
It comprises of all plant parts visible above the ground. It is composed of stem, leaves and
inflorescence.
i. Stem: The stem of wheat plant is round or cylindrical. Stem and inflorescence may be called a
culum.
ii. Leaves: Leaf consists of four parts.
a. Leaf sheath: It is the basal part of leaf. It encircles the culum stem and protects the growing
point and auxillary buds from the weather and provides some support to stem.
b. Leaf blade: The flattened, parallel veined portion of the leaf.
c. Ligule: A membranous or cartilaginous fringe at the junction of the sheath and blade on the
side of leaf next to culum. The continuation of the sheath through the collar is known as ligule.
d. Auricle: Lobes of leaf blade which extend downward on each side at the junction of the blade
and sheath. These are horn like or claw like appendages projecting from the collar of the leaf.
iii. Inflorescence: The flowering portion of wheat plant which is called ear or head or spike.
a. Rachis: The central zigzag axis is the rachis. Spikelets are borne on alternate sides of rachis,
which gives it zigzag appearance.
b. Spikelet: It is composed of flowers called florets. The number of florets in a spikelet may vary
from 1-5.
c. Florets: The outer covering of a floret is made up of a lemma and palea. The lemma enfolds
the palea near their attachment point. If an awn is present, it is attached to lemma.
iv. Kernel: Wheat plant has a caryopsis type of fruit. The typical wheat kernel is from 3- 10mm
in length and from 3-5mm in diameter.

2. Maize
Root system
The root system of maize is deep and fibrous. It consists of:
i. Seminal or temporary roots: They consist of radicle and number of lateral roots which arise
at the base of the first node of the stem under soil surface just above the secutellar node.
ii. Crown or coronal roots: They arise from the basal portion of the stem.
iii. Brace, prop or aerial roots: They arise from second, third and sometimes four the nodes
above the soil surface. All may or may not enter the soil.

Shoot system
i. Stem: The stem is made up of approximately 12-18 alternating nodes and internodes, and is
completely filled with the pith. The number of internodes may vary but on an average there are
14 internodes. A leaf is attached to each node, and often a bud or branch arises at a node.
Internodes are somewhat flattened or grooved on the side next to the leaf sheath.
ii. Leaf: the leaves of maize develop alternately on opposite sides of the stem. Each leaf consists
of a thin, flat and expanded blade with definite midrib and smaller veins and a thicker, more
rigid sheath. Each sheath surrounds the internode above the node to which it is attached. The
number of leaves varies from 12 to 20. stomata are present on both surfaces of the leaf.
iii. Inflorescence: Maize is a monoecious plant having both male and female inflorescences on
the same plant. Male flowers are borne in a tassel at the top of stem and female flowers are
borne inside the young cobs.

iv. Kernel or caryopsis: Maize kernel is one seeded fruit or caryopsis. Seed enclosed within the
pericarp consists of the embryo, endosperm and remnants of seed coat and nucleus.

3. Sorghum
Root system
Roots are finer and more fibrous than maize. Coronal roots develop from the lowest nodes of
stem and are heavily branched. Most of the roots are confined to the upper 15 cm of soil but in
later stages of development, they may reach a depth of one or one and a half meter. Pro roots may
develop from the auxiliary buds on the lowest nodes of stem above the ground level.
Shoot system
i. Stem: Sorghum stems are solid, though the centre may become spongy with spaces in the pith.
Culms have 7-18 nodes and internodes.
ii. Leaves: The number of leaves on the main stem varies from 7-24. Mature leaves may reach a
length of 30 to 135 cm, and a width of between 1.5 and 13 cm at the widest point. The length of
the leaf sheath may vary between 15 and 35cm.
iii. Inflorescence: The inflorescence of sorghum is a panicle also known as head. The panicle is
composed of spikelets which occur in pairs, one of them being sessile and the other pedicellate.

iv. Sessile spikelet has two glumes. The glumes enclose two florets, the upper being perfect, the
lower sterile and consisting of lemma only. There are two lodicules lying adjacent to base of the
spikelet.

4. Pearl millet Root system It is fibrous consisting of primary, secondary and prop roots.
Shoot system
i. Stem: Solid and single, made up of nodes and internodes. Nodes are swollen while internodes
are cylindrical and glabrous.
ii. Leaves: Leaves are long and fairy broad and held erect by thick midribs. Leaves consist of
blades and sheath. The length of spike vary from 15-60cm. Spikelets occur in pairs.

iii. Caryopsis (grain): The seed is 3-4 mm long and 2-2.5 mm wide. The colour of grain varies
from whitish yellow to grey or dull light blue.

5. Barley
Root system
It consists of shallow and deep roots. Shallow roots spread laterally. Deep roots go up to 0.75 to
150cm.
Shoot system
i. Stem: Stem is cylindrical and possesses five to seven hollow internodes separated by solid
nodes.
ii. Leaves: Leaves arise alternately and consist of a sheath, blade, ligule and auricle. Auricles are
very conspicuous.
iii. Inflorescence: Inflorescence is called spike or head. Spike consists of spikelets attached at the
nodes of a zigzag rachis, and each spikelet has two glumes and a floret. In two rowed barley, only
central spikelet is fertile whereas in six rowed barley all the three spikelets are fertile.
iv. Kernel (grain): Its grain is a caryopsis consisting of lemma, palea and a rachilla. Caryopsis is
composed of the pericarp, endosperm and embryo.

6. Chickpea
Root system
It is robust, up to 2 m deep, but major portion of the roots is up to 60 cm.
Shoot system
i. Stem: Its plants possess branched, erect or spreading, sometimes shrubby much branched
stems, which are 0.2-1 m tall, glandular pubescent, olive, dark green or bluish green in color
ii. Leaves: They are imparipinnate, glandular- pubescent with 3-8 pairs of leaflets and a top
leaflet (rachis ending in a leaflet); leaflets ovate to elliptical, 0.6-2.0 cm long, 0.3-1.4 cm wide;
margin serrated, apex acuminate to aristate, base cuneate; stipules 2-5 toothed and stipules are
absent.
iii. Flowers: Flowers are solitary, sometimes two per inflorescence, auxiliary; peduncles 0.6-3
cm long, pedicels 0.5-1.3 cm long, bracts triangular or tripartite; calyx 7-10 mm long; corolla
white, pink, purplish (fading to blue) or blue, 0.8-1.2 cm long. The staminal column is
diadelphous (9-1) and the ovary is sessile, inflated and pubescent.
iv. Pods: Pod rhomboid ellipsoid, 1-2 with three seeds as a maximum, inflated and glandular-
pubescent. Seed color cream, yellow, brown, black or green, rounded to angular, seed coat
smooth or wrinkled, or tuberculate, laterally compressed with a median groove around two-thirds
of the seed, anterior beaked; germination cryptocotylar.

7. Lentil
Herbaceous annual plant, erect and bushy with four to six primary branches.
Root system
It has well developed root system including a central tap root and many lateral branches.
Shoot system
i. Stem: Stem is weak and quadrangular.
ii. Leaves: Leaves are small, compound and pinnate, small sessile leaflets occur in pairs of five
to seven. The end of leaflets forms tendrils.
iii. Inflorescence: It is a raceme of two to four flowers. Flowers are small, white tinged with
blue, violet or pink.
iv. Pods: Pods are short, flattened, one to one and a half centimeter long with a curved beak.

8. Groundnuts
It is an annual plant and having about 30-60cm height.
Root system
It has a deep tap root system with well developed lateral roots.
Shoot system
i. Stem: Angular and hairy stem with spreading or erect branches.
ii. Leaves: Leaves are pinnate with two pairs of ovate leaflets.
iii. Flower: Flowers are borne at the axils of the leaves, either above or below the ground.
iv. Fruit: The fruit is an indehiscent pod containing one to five seeds. The shell of pod which
contains seed is morphologically the pericarp, and the thin skin that covers the seed is testa.

9. Sesame
It is an herbaceous annual growing to a height of 0.5 to 2m. Root system In early maturing
varieties, it is poorly developed while in late varieties, it is well developed. Shoot system
i. Stem: Stem is erect, normally square in section. Most common stem colour is darkish green.
The upper part of the stem is particularly covered with short hairs.
ii. Leaf: Leaves are variable in shape and size. Lower leaves are broader while the upper ones are
narrow. The arrangement of leaves on the stem may be opposite, alternate or mixed.
iii. Inflorescence: The inflorescence is raceme and the flowers arise in the axils of the leaves and
on the upper portion of the stem and branches.
iv. Fruit: Fruit is capsule having two or four carpels. Numerous seeds are borne in capsule.
Colour of seed may be black, white brown and their various shades.

10. Cotton
In the wild state, cotton is a permanent plant but most of the cultivated cottons are annual. Root
system Plant has a tap root with secondary roots that branch laterally from primary root. Shoot
system
i. Stem: The main stem is erect and much branched. The branches develop from buds
located at the nodes of main stem. There are two types of branches:
ii. Monopodial branches: The true auxiliary bud develops into a vegetative branch which only
bears leaves and no flowers. This is known as monopodial branch.
iii. Sympodial/fruiting branch: The accessory bud generally develops into sympodial or fruiting
branch which bear flowers. Lower branches are usually vegetative and upper ones are fruiting.
iv. Leaves: Laves are spirally arranged on the main stem and vegetative branches. The leaves
buds which appear as small, pyramid shaped, green structure are called as square. Square
consists of three triangular-shaped leafy structure known as bracteoles and the flower bud.

v. Fruit: Fruit is the enlarged ovary that develops into three to five loculed capsule or boll. Bolls
vary in shape and size but are more or less egg shaped. Number of seeds in each boll may be 24-
50.
11. Sugarcane
It is a tall perennial plant growing erect up to 5 to 6 m.
Root system
It is fibrous and consists of two types of roots, viz., sett roots and shoot roots.
i. Sett roots: When sugarcane sett is planted in the soil and covered with moist soil, the root
primordia situated at the base of every cane joint is activated and produces roots. These roots are
known as sett roots and are mostly temporary.
ii. Shoot roots: After the emergence of primary shoot from the bud, other roots are produced
from lower rings of the lower nodes of the shoot. Those formed first go downwards, whereas
those formed near the soil surface grow in upper layer of soil for providing anchorage for the
plant. These roots produced from shoot are known as shoot roots.

Shoot system
i. Stalk: Sugarcane stalk is roughly cylindrical and is composed of many distinct nodes and
internodes. It is above ground portion of plant which bears leaves and flowers.
ii. Eye/bud: At each node, there is a bud, sometime known as eye appearing on opposite sides
of cane. These buds are protected by leaf sheath.
iii. Leaf scar: Just below the bud is a raised portion known as the leaf scar a point of
attachment of leaf sheath to the stalk. Before this is the wax band.
iv. Tillers: Sugarcane produces branches that grow from below the soil surface. The underground
portion of stem tapers rapidly and from the lateral buds of this region the shoots develop. Single
cane may produce as many as 20-40 tillers.
v. Leaves: The leaves of cane plant grow alternately on opposite sides of the cane stalk from the
nodes. Leaf consists of a sheath and the blade with a ligule in between.
vi. Inflorescence: The inflorescence of sugarcane normally called the arrow is an open panicle.
The arrangement of spikelets is racemose, that is, the oldest flowers are at the bottom and
youngest at the top.
B. Identification of crop seeds
An in depth knowledge of botany of a plant as well as its seed is necessary, for correct
identification of a particular species. In systematic botany or taxonomy the closely related or
similar type of plant are grouped into a single category. These groups are: family, genus, species
etc. In seed identification the particular seed in question must be identified up to the species level.
The seed, a mature ovule consists of an embryo a protective covering and stored food as
endosperm. The identification of seed is usually by comparison, comparing the seeds with a
mental image of what something should be, with specimens in a reference collection or with
illustration of seeds. In most cases, the useful clues for the identification of seed came from the
following characters:
The size, shape and color of seeds
The nature, arrangement and pattern of markings that is lines, ridges, pits, projection on the seed
surface
The shape and position of the attachment scar
The presence of wings, hair or scale, spines etc
The internal structure, position and size of the embryo, presence or absence of the endosperm
Seed keys are developed on the basis of characters pertaining to family, genus, and species. Once
the seed is characterized for a particular family, identification of the seed could easily be made by
studying the above mentioned seed characters. Quite often it is difficult to identify the seeds as
such. In such situation, growing it to a plant could do identification of seed. The original seed
sample of the species is always helpful in identification of unknown unconventional crop and
weed seeds.
Seed characteristics of some common families
1. Poaceae: seed unit is a caryopsis, a fertile floret a spikelet or a spike. The embryo lies on
outside of the endosperm and visible near the base of caryopsis on dorsal side.
2. Leguminoseae: Seeds vary greatly in size, shape and surface characters. The fruit may be one
seeded in several-seeded pod.
a. Mimosoideae' and Caesalpinodeae i. The seeds are elongate broad and flattened, the two
faces being plane or only rounded, colour is varied from black to white and yellow ii. The hilum
is very small, unspecialized and located at one end of the seed.
b. Papilinoideae
i. The seeds vary greatly in size, shape, colour and location of hilum and chalaza. ii. In hilum,
there is a fine longitudinal groove or slit down the middle. The area may be minute, as in some of
the clovers, or may be large enough to be seen without magnification as in vetch. iii. In some
species the hilum is obscured by a persisting layer of corky tissue, as in cowpea and beans. 3.
Crucifereae: The seeds unit may be a true seed, in indehiscent pod or a segment of a pod.
i. The seeds are mostly spherical, or sometimes slightly flattened
ii. The surface has reticulum or netting or lines or ridges
iii. The seed surface is covered with microscopic pits. These pits are usually covered with a
whitish film, giving the appearance of white spots on the surface.

4. Polygonaceae: The fruit or so called seed is an achene which is three angled or flattened. The
outer hull (pericarp) is hard, brown and glossy.
5. Chenopodiaceae: The seeds are flattened, circular or obovate in shape. The embryo is either in
the form of a ring or horse shoe.
6. Caryophyllaceae: The seeds are black or brown, thick and flattened. The surface is
roughened by tubercles of various types which are arranged in definite pattern.
7. Euphorbiaceae: Seeds vary greatly in size, shape and surface configuration.
i. The scar is a flattened area at the base. In some species the scar is obscured by caruncle
(whitish corky outgrowth).
ii. Distinctive feature of the seed in this family is the presence of prominent raphe.

8. Solanaceae: The seeds are orbicular, oval or ovate. They are more or less flattened and may be
thick or thin.
i. The embryo is curved with an abundant endosperm.
ii. The seed surface may be smooth, or variously configure width a reticulum, broken lines or
pits.

9. Compositeae: The seed unit is an achene which is an indehiscent one, seeded fruit. The top of
the achene is usually depressed. In many species there is a fringe of fine bristles or scales around
the outer rim.
2. Characteristics of some crops seeds
1. Hard red spring wheat: The kernel is red in color and egg-shaped with blunt ends. It has a
grayish colored brush on the tip. The germ is short and broad and somewhat wrinkled. The crease
is open and it has angular cheeks.

2. Durum wheat: The kernel has an amber color, and is larger and more tapered than hard red
spring wheat. Kernels are long and pointed, usually lopsided and boat-shaped. The germ is
protruding, oval and more pointed than in hard red spring wheat. The crease is tight. A brush is
not present on most varieties.

3. Hard red winter wheat: The color is red, similar to that of spring wheat, but duller or
creamier. Its shape often is longer and slightly narrower than hard red spring wheat. The germ is
similar to spring wheat but more oval in shape. Generally a brush is present. The crease is tight
with full cheeks.

4. Two-rowed barley: The shape is broad with a flat back (duck-backed) and blunt ends. The
crease is straight and tight, and usually extends out to the end. Plump and short kernels (the result
of only two rows on a head) are usually broader and larger
than in six-row barley.

5. Six-rowed barley: Kernel shape is longer and narrower, with more of a spike tooth taper at the
end than in two-row barley. Two-thirds of the kernel (the outside two rows) is twisted, with a
crooked crease. The crease is more open to the end.

6. Oat: The color is white, yellow or tan and the surface of the
kernel is practically smooth. The awn, if present, is not bent or markedly twisted. The seed
attachment is round and relatively small compared to the large sucker-mouth-shaped attachment
in wild oats. Kernels are long and somewhat pointed at both ends, especially the tip end. The hull
(the lemma and palea) is tightly attached to the kernel and accounts for 25 to 35 percent of its
weight. The hulless kernel or groat comprises the remainder of the kernel weight.

7. Corn: Seed is large, flat and dented in the top. Color ranges from white, yellow, and red to
strawberry. Seeds may have a white cap. (Semi-dent, flint, sweet and pop corn will not be
included in crop judging contests).

8. Rye: Seeds are similar to wheat in shape but are longer and more slender. Color varies but
usually is tan, brown or bluish-green. The germ is on the pointed end.

9. Triticale: This crop is a cross between wheat and rye. Seeds are similar to rye or durum wheat
but are shrunken and wrinkled in appearance. Color is usually a tan or light brown.

10. Grain sorghum: The seeds are more or less egg-shaped or oblong and somewhat flat. They
are about 5/32 inch long and 1/8 inch wide. The color may be white, yellow, red or brown. White
seeds may contain red or brown spots and red seeds may contain red spots, usually due to injury.

11. Flax: The seeds are flat and have a smooth, shiny surface. They usually are dark brown or
yellow in color. The seeds are somewhat lens shaped, although more rounded at the base than the
tip.

12. Safflower: Small hulled seed, light gray, tan or cream in color, often showing brown
discoloration near point of attachment. Similar in shape to sunflower seed but only half the size.

13. Soybean: Seeds vary in color, and vary in shape from nearly round to oval. They are usually
smaller than field beans. The color of the hilum (scar or spot on bean where it was attached to
pod) varies from black to brown to tan or yellow and is a seed characteristic that is considered in
identifying varieties.

14. Oilseed Sunflower: Seeds have a broad base but taper to a pointed end. The color is usually
black or dark grey. An achene (shell) covers the nut-meat or seed within. They are similar to wild
sunflower, only much larger and dark in color.

15. Field pea: Seeds are small and may be round, angular or wrinkled. They vary in color but are
mostly yellow or green.

16. Lentil: Seeds are lens shaped (round and rather flat). Color can be tan, brown, olive green,
black, or purple-and-black mottled. The seed surface is generally smooth, but on some large seeds
may be wrinkled.

17. Buckwheat: Seeds consist of a three-sided triangular pericarp (hull) which encloses one true
seed. Seed color is tan, dark brown or black. Remnants of the flower sepals often adhere to the
outside of the pericarp.

18. Yellow mustard: Small round, irregular seed is a dull yellow color. Some shrunken seed will
result in non-uniformity of seed size.

19. Sugarbeet: Seed is highly irregular in shape. The mature seed is contained within a mature
reddish brown to brown outer seed coat. There are both multigerm and non-germ seed types.
20. Proso millet: Seeds are larger than foxtail millet, glossy and from 1/16 to 1/8 inch long. They
vary in color from yellow and gray through red, brown and black. Seeds are round, but taper to a
point at both ends.

21. Alfalfa: Seeds vary in shape but often are kidney or mitt-shaped and are greenish-yellow to
light brown in color.

C .Identification of manures and fertilizers

1. Manures
2. Fertilizers
D . Identification of hand-tools and tillage implements
Ex 2. Effect of sowing depth on germination and seedling vigour
Relevant information: Each crop requires the optimum depth of sowing, otherwise
germination will be adversely affected. Shallow sowing will result in poor germination due to
moisture constraint. If sowing is done very deep, the seedling will not be able emerge out.
The results of an experiment on the effect of depth of sowing on germination in mungbean
are given below:
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Depth of sowing Germination (%)
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1.0 cm 65

2.0 cm 70

3.0 cm 73

4.0 cm 83

5.0 cm 84

6.0 cm 80

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Ex 3. Identification of weeds in crops
Relevant information:
I Identification of weed plants: Identification is the first step in naming the plant. There are
numerous weeds present in an area. Weeds differ in their morphology, habitat, life cycle,
growth, growing in association with specific crops, stage of competition with crops,
resistance/susceptibility to different insect, pathogens herbicides and various methods of
weed management. Weed identification is necessary to estimate the magnitude of their
harmful effects on crop production and planning an effective weed management strategy.
Materials required
i. Note book and pencil
ii. Polythene bags with rubber bands
iii. Magnifying glass
Procedure
Visit to a farm and record the weed species occurring in different farming situations such as
up land, low land and irrigated field along with weeds present in the waste land and farm
pond.

Cyprus rotundus, Portulaca quadrifida Datura metel


Trianthema monogyna, Amaranthus viridis Digera arvensis
Cynodon dactylon, Argemone mexicana Eclipta alba
Amaranthus viridis Asphodelus tenuifolius Euphorbia hirta
Celotia argentia, Biophytum sensitivum Euphorbia microphylla
Sorghum helepense
Boerhavia diffusa Fumaria parviflora
Chenpodium album,
Asphodelus tenuifolius, Calotropis gigantea Leucas aspera
Vicia spp., Cannabis sativa Malva parviflora
Fumaria parviflora, Cassia tora Melilotus indica
Meliotus alba Centella asiatica Mimosa pudica
Anagalis arvensis Cichorium intybus Oxalis corniculata
Cynodon dactylon Cirsium arvense Parthenium hysterophorus
Dactyloctenium aegyptium Clitoria ternatea Phalaris minor
Echinochloa colona Commelina benghalensis Phyllanthus niruri
Echinochloa crusgalli Convolvulus arvensis Physalis minima
Eichhornia crassipes Coronopus didymus Pluchea lanceolata
Xanthium strumarium Solanum nigrum Portulaca oleracea
Trianthema portulacastrum onchus asper Rumex dentatus
Tribulus terrestris Spergula arvensis Saccharum spontaneum
Tridax procumbens Striga asiatica Setaria glauca
Typha angustata Vernonia cinerea Xanthium strumarium
Chenopodium murale Amaranthus spinosus

II .Identification of weed seeds


Characteristics of some common weeds
1. Family: Caryophyllaceae
Spergula arvensis: The seed 1-15mm diameter lens shaped, dull black, thin, flattish with wing.
Embryo, Linear, U shaped without endosperm.

2. Family: Chenopodiaceae
Chenopodium album (Bathva): The seed is circular, flat and round; diameter 1-11/2mm, black,
smooth and shiny surface.
Chenopodiu murale (Kharthva): Similar to C. album but slightly bigger in size and dull in
appearance.

3. Family: Convolvulaceae
Convolvulus arvensis (Field weed): The seed colour, dull grayish brown, length, 4 to 4 1/2mm;
surface roughened with fine tubercles or short wavy lines. Back side convex and lateral plane,
scar: inverted 'U' shape and at right angles to the seeds long axis. Ipomea hederacea: The seed
diverse in shape (trigonous wedge, two inner faces are equal): size (lanceolate, ovoid to globose
surface; smooth and colour: brown black. Scar: horse shoe shape and usually parallel to long axis.

4. Family: Poaceae
Phalaris minor Retz. (Littleseed canarygrass, Canarygrass, Gulli danda): Seeds hard, with palet
covering the grain, which is oval with an acute angle at one end and about 3-5mm long. Glossy
and brownish grey in colour.
Avena fatua (Wild oat): The seed consists of mature floret, narrowly cylindrical, tapering at apex,
bears a twisted and bent dorsal awn, ventral side flat with fine grooves; colour: grey, brown or
black, yellow to white.
Panicum spp: The seed unit consists of one seeded spikelet. The grain surrounded by glumes
(thin and papery). Lemma and Palea (hard, smooth and shiny, size: 1 1/2 to 2 3/4 mm usually
lance shape.
Setaria etalica: The seed unit consists of one seeded spikelet. The grain surrounded by glumes
(thin, papery and smooth). Lemma and Palea (hard, smooth and shiny)

5. Family: Liliaceae
Asphodelus tennuifolius (wild onion): The seed 1 1/4 long, flattened eleptical three angled.
(sharp) acute and black (crustraceous) testa.

6. Family: Papaeraceae
Argemone mexicana L (Maxican poppy, Satyanashi): Seeds nearly 2 mm long, ovoid, spherical
surface with angular depression and a crest along one side, blackish brown in colour Fumaria
parviflora: Fruit very small, globose, one seeded, indehicent nutlet, rugose when dry and rounded
at the top with two pits, color usually green.

7. Family: Papillionaceae

Melilotus alba (white sweet clover): The seed is identified by size (bigger length about 2 mm
and width 1 mm), shape oblong to oval and translucent in appearance), and colour. (golden
yellow to light brown). Scar lies in shallow indentation near top.

8. Family: Polygonaceae
Rumex sp (wild spinach): Seed three sided acute as both ends, brown, spinning segments if
present with long, fine teeth on the margins.

9. Family: Compositae
Helianthus spp (Wild Sunflower): Seeds are, long in size, trigonous, very small hairs present on
seed surface and dark brown to black in colour.
Cichorium intybus (Coffee chicory, Large rooted chicory, Chicory): Seeds are up to 3 mm Long,
trigonous wedge shaped, pale brown to gray and white in colour, pappus of scales present.
Carthamus oxycantha (Wild safflower): Seeds are smaller than that of cultivated safflower,
elongated in shape, grayish in colour with variegation/mottling on seed coat.
Ex 4. Methods of herbicide application
Relevant information:
Selection of herbicides
Several herbicides are available in the market today and the selection of a herbicide depends
upon weed flora (broad leaved, sedges, grasses, etc.) and time of application (before or after
planting). A single herbicide can not control all weeds. Two or more herbicides may be
mixed together (tank-mix application) to achieve broad spectrum weed control. If they are not
compatible they may be applied one after the other after a gap of a few days (sequential
application). Some formulations with mixture of herbicides: are also available (ready-mix)
for ready use by farmers (e.g. Butanil is the mixture of butachlor and propanil, Almix is the
combination of chlorimuron-ethyl and metsulfuron- methyl).Care may be taken while using
herbicides in situations, where simultaneously more than one crop is grown (inter-or mixed
cropping). Select a herbicide which is safe to all the crops grown. For example, choose
atrazine for weed control in maize and pendimethalin for maize intercropped with legumes.
Selection of an herbicide also depends on its availability in the market and the cost
The following points may be considered for increasing the efficiency of herbicides and to
reduce the cost of weed control
Apply herbicides at recommended rate and time of application
Apply pre-plant and pre-emergence herbicides on a well prepared field free from clods and
crop or weed residues.
Use low dose in light soil and higher dose in heavy soils.
Ensure optimum soil moisture at the time of application, particularly with soil-acting
herbicides.
Lower herbicide dose integrated with hand weeding or hoeing is more effective and
economical, than herbicide alone at higher dose.
Take up spraying of herbicides on a calm, clear and sunny day for maximum benefit. Do not
take up spraying, if the rain is expected in the next 4-6 hours.
The performance of some of the herbicides can be enhanced substantially by adding
adjuvants (e.g. surfactants like Teepol, Selwet, etc.) to the spray solution
Apply post- emergence herbicides on the actively growing vegetation. Never apply when
weeds are too small or when they are overgrown.
Follow herbicide rotation (different herbicides in different years) and use herbicide mixture
to prevent weed flora shifts and development of herbicide resistant weeds.
Application of the herbicide
Uniform application of the herbicide is very crucial for good weed control and for better crop
growth. Often a very small quantity of the herbicide is required to be applied on a large area.
Any deviation would result in serious consequences. While under-dosing would result in poor
weed control, over-dosing may damage the crop. In order to apply the herbicide uniformly,
one needs to calibrate the sprayer and calculate the herbicide requirement carefully.
Herbicides are applied on area-basis (kg or L/ha) not by concentration basis (%) as is done in
case of insecticides or fungicides. However in controlling weeds in non-crop lands, aquatic
ecosystem and in spot application, very often the herbicide is applied on concentration basis.
Herbicide formulations
Most herbicides are formulated as wettable powders (WP) or emulsifiable concentrate (EC)
and aqueous concentrates which are diluted in water and applied with a sprayer. Granular
formulations (G) are used directly mostly in submerged conditions. There is a growing
practice amongst farmers to broadcast the mixture of other formulations of herbicides with
sand, soil or urea, just before irrigation (as done with isoproturon in wheat) instead of
spraying. Many small and marginal farmers in India do not have a sprayer, and it is natural
for them to look for alternative methods to do away spraying. However, it should be pointed
out that mixing of other formulations herbicides with sand, soil or urea to obtain granules is
neither very scientific safe as the farmers invariably make these mixtures by bare hands. It is
difficult to obtain uniform distribution in the field with sand application.
Calibration of the sprayer
Calibration is nothing but finding out how much area could be sprayed with the sprayer you
have. The area sprayed is also dependent on the type of nozzle, spray pressure and the speed
of application. The most practical way to calibrate the spray is by actually using it in the
field. Spraying can be done by moving the spray lance from side to side using a flat fan
nozzle or walk forward holding the spray lance one position using a flood jet nozzle. In both
cases measure the swath width i.e., the width that is to be treated.Mark an area having width
equal to the swath width. Keep the sprayer on a level ground and fill the water to a marked
level. Carry out spraying on the marked area at a normal speed. Avoid skipping or
overlapping. Refill the sprayer to the original level marked earlier.The quantity refilled is the
quantity required to spray the marked area.
Work out the volume rate/ha.
Marked area 20 square meters Quantity of water used 1 litre
Volume rate = (lXl0, 000)/20
= 500 L/ha or 200 L/acre
With the same swath width and operating speed, the spraying could be undertaken to apply
the herbicides in the field.
The basic principle in calibration of a boom sprayer with more than one nozzle or tractor-
mounted sprayer is also similar, the only difference being the flow rate all nozzles in a boom
has to be taken into account.
Calculation of herbicide requirement
The product label and the literature supplied with the herbicide will provide details of
herbicide name, active ingredient (a.i.), date of expiry, directions for use etc. It must be read
before using the herbicide. It is particularly important to note the strength of the product (a.i.)
as the same herbicide may be sold under different trade names with varying amounts of
active ingredient. For example, isoproturon is available at 50 and 75% formulations. For this
reason only, the recommendations are normally made on kg a.i. basis. Even in liquid
formulations the herbicide present is mentioned in g/L.
The amount of commercial formulation of the herbicide required can be calculated by the
following formula:
Dose in kg a.i. /ha
Commercial product (kg/ha) = ----------------------------- X 100
% a. i. in the product
Isoproturon is available as 75% WP and 50% WP. If the recommended rate of application is
0.75 kg ai/ha then the amount of commercial product required is:-
0.75
50% WP product = ----------------X 100 = 1.50 kg/ha
50

0.75
75% WP product =-------------- X 100 = 1.00 kg/ha
75
Ex 5. Methods of fertilizer application
Relevant Information: The choice of method and time of fertilizer application depends on
the form and amount of fertilizer, convenience of the farmer, the efficiency and safety of
fertilizer application.
I. Solid Form
1. Broadcasting - The manures and fertilizers are scattered uniformly over the field before
planting the crop and are incorporated by tilling or cultivating.
2. Drilling and placement - Fertilizers are placed in the soil furrows formed at the desired
depth.
Placement can be done by the following ways.
(i) Plough sole placement - In this method of fertilizers are applied or dropped in the
plough sole, which will be covered by the plough during the opening of adjacent
furrow.
(ii) Deep placement - Fertilizers or manures are placed at the bottom of the top soil at
a depth of 10-12 cm, especially in the puddle rice soil.
(iii) Sub soil application - Fertilizers are applied in the subsoil especially for tree
crops and orchard crops at a depth above 15 cm.
3. Location or spot application - Fertilizers are placed in the root zone or the spot near the
roots from which roots can absorb easily.
(i) Contact of drill placement - Fertilizers or manures are placed at the time of
drilling for placing the seeds. Fertilizers or manures will have good contact with the
seeds or seedlings.
(ii) Band placement - This is the placement of manures or fertilizers or both in bands
on the side or both sides of the row at about 5 cm away from the seed or plant in any
direction.
Such band placement is of three types.
(a) Hill placement - In widely spaced crops, like cotton, castor, cucurbits fertilizers
or manures are applied on both sides of plants only but not continuously along the
row.
(b) Row placement - In widely spaced crops between rows (ExampleSugarcane,
maize, tobacco, potato) manures or fertilizers are placed on one or both sides of the
row in continuous bands.
(c) Circular placement - Application of manures and fertilizers around the hill or the
trunk of fruit tree crops in the active root zone.
(iii) Pocket placement - Application of fertilizers deep in soil to increase its efficiency
Especially for the sugarcane pocket placement is done. Fertilizers are put in 2 to 3
pockets opened around every hill by means of a sharp stick.
(iv) Side dressing - It refers to hill and ring placement of manures or fertilizers. It
consists of spreading the fertilizer between the rows or around the plants.
(v) Pellet application - Nitrogen fertilizers are pelleted like mud ball or urea super
granules (USG) and placed deep (10 cm) into the saturated soils (reduced zone) of wet
land rice to avoid nitrogen loss from applied fertilizers.
Generally placement of fertilizer is done for three reasons.
Efficient use of plant nutrients from plant emergence to maturity.
To avoid the fixation of phosphate in acid soils.
Convenience to the grower.

II. Liquid form


Foliar application: It refers to spraying of fertilizer solution on the foliage of plants for quick
recovery from the deficiency (either N or S).
Fertigation: It is the application of fertilizer dissolved in irrigation water in either open or
closed system i.e., lined or unlined open ditches and sprinkler or trickle systems respectively.
Starter solutions: They are solutions of fertilizers prepared in low concentrations which are
used for soaking seeds, dipping roots, spraying on seedlings etc., nutrient deficient areas for
early establishment and growth.
Direct application to the soil: Liquid fertilizers like anhydrous ammonia are applied directly
to the soil with special injecting equipments. Liquid manures such as urine, sewage water and
cattle shed washing are directly let into the field.
Ex 6. Study of yield contributing characters and yield
estimation
Example 1 : Estimate the grain yield of wheat crop in field sown at 20X5 cm spacing
and plant attributes having effective tillers 4 per plant, grains/spike 45 and test weight is
45g.
Solution : Calculation of plant population in the field:
Row to row spacing of the crop = 20 cm= 0.20 m
Plant to plant spacing of the crop = 5 cm= 0.05 m
I: Space occupied by one plant = 0.20x0.05=0.100 m2
Area of one hectare = 10000 m2
10000
Number of plants per hectare = --------- =1000000 plants
0.01
II: Counting number of plants in one meter row length say 20 at 5 cm plant to plant
spacing.
Row spacing is 20 cm.
Length of one hectare = 100 meter
Breadth of one hectare = 100 meter
Area of one hectare = 100X100 =10000 m2
100
Number of rows at 20 cm in one hectare length = ----------- = 500
0.2
Number of plants in one hectare = 100X20 = 2000
Total plants in one hectare area = 500X2000 = 1000000 plants

III:
Per plant yield = No. of effective tillers/plant X No. of grains per spike X weight of one grain

If number of effective tillers = 4


Number of grains per spike = 45
Test weight = 45g
45
Per grain weight = ---------- = 0.045g
1000

4 X 45 X 45
Per plant yield = ----------------- = 8.1 g
1000
Per hectare yield = Plant population X Per plant yield
= 1000000 X 8.1g = 8100 kg = 81 q/ha.
Example 2 : Estimate the grain yield of rice crop having 30 plants/ m2 and plant
attributes having effective tillers 3.5 per plant, 200 grains/panicle and test weight is 25g.
Solution :

Grain yield/hectare = No. of plants/hectare X No. of effective tillers/plant X No. of grains per
panicleX weight of one grain
30X10000X3.5X200X25
= ------------------------------- = 52.5 q/ha
10X1000X1000

Example 3 : Estimate the theoretical/ha grain yield of chickpea crop in field sown at
30X15 cm spacing and plant attributes having 60 pods per plant, 1.5 grains/pod and 100
seed weight is 20g.

Solution :
Per plant yield = No. of pods/plant X No. of grains per pod X weight of one seed
60 X 1.5 X 20
Per plant yield = ----------------------- = 18 g
100
100 X 100X100 X 100
Number of plants per hectare = ------------------------------- =222222 plants
30 X15
Per hectare yield = Plant population X Per plant yield
= 222222 X 18= 3999996g = 3999 kg = 39.99 q/ha.

Example 4 : Estimate the seed cotton yield of Bt cotton crop sown at 90X60 cm spacing
and having 70 bolls/ plant and weight of each ball was 3.0g.

Solution :
Grain yield/hectare = No. of plants/hectare X No. of effective tillers/plant X No. of grains per
panicleX weight of one grain
30X10000X3.5X200X25
= ------------------------------- = 52.5 q/ha
10X1000X1000
Per plant yield = No. of bolls/plant X weight of one boll
Per plant yield = 70 X 3.0 = 210 g
100 X 100X100 X 100
Number of plants per hectare = ------------------------------- =18518.5 plants
90 X60
Per hectare yield = Plant population X Per plant yield
= 18518.5 X 210= 3888888g = 3888 kg = 38.88 q/ha.
Example 5 : Calculate the cane yield /ha of sugarcane crop sown at row spacing of 60
cm with 3 buded setts with seed rate of 30 q/Ac. The effective canes per meter row
length is 10 and weight of one cane is 1 kg.

Solution :
Number of canes in one row = 10 X 100 = 1000
100 X 100
Number of rows per hectare = ------------------ =166.6 = 167
60
Per hectare yield = No. of rows X No. of canes/ row X Per cane yield
= 167 X 1000 X 1= 167000 kg = 1670 q/ha.
Ex 7. Seed germination and viability test

Relevant information:
Seed germination test
Germination is defined as the emergence and development from the seed embryo, of those
essential structures, for the kind of seed in question, indicates its ability to produce a normal
plant under favourable conditions.
Principles
Germination tests shall be conducted with a pure seed fraction. A minimum of 400 seeds are
required in four replicates of 100 seeds each or 8 replicates of 50 seeds each or 16 replicates
of 25 seeds each depending on the size of seed and size of containers of substrate.
The test is conducted under favourable conditions of moisture, temperature, suitable
substratum and light if necessary. No pretreatment to the seed is given except for those
recommended by ISTA.
Materials required
Substratum
The substratum serves as moisture reservoir and provides a surface or medium for which the
seeds can germinate and the seedlings grow. The commonly used substrate are sand,
germination paper and soil.
1. Sand
Size of sand particle
Sand particles should not be too large or too small. The sand particles should pass through
0.80 mm sieve and retained by 0.05mm sieve.
Toxicity
Sand should not have any toxic material or any pathogen. If there is presence of any pathogen
found then the sand should be sterilized in an autoclave.
Germination tray
When we use the sand, germination trays are used to carry out the test. The normal size of the
tray is 22.5 x 22.5 x 4 cm. The tray may either zinc or stainless steel.
Method of seed placement
Seed in sand(S)
Seeds are planted in a uniform layer of moist sand and then covered to a depth of 1 to 2 cm
with sand.
Top of sand (TS)
Seeds are pressed in to the surface of the sand.
Spacing
We must give equal spacing on all sides to facilitate normal growth of seedling and to avoid
entangling of seed and spread of disease. Spacing should be 1-5 times the width or diameter
of the seed.
Water
The amount of water to be added to the sand will depend on size of the seed. For cereals,
except maize, the sand can be moistened to 50% of its water holding capacity. For large
seeded legumes and maize sand is moistened to 60% water holding capacity.
2. Paper
Most widely used paper substrates are filter paper, blotter or towel (kraft paper). It should
have capillary movement of water, at vertical direction (30 mm rise / min.). It should be free
from toxic substances and free from fungi or bacteria. It should hold sufficient moisture
during the period of test. The texture should be such that the roots of germinating seedlings
will grow on and not into the paper.
Methods
Top of paper (TP)
Seeds are placed on one or more layers of moist filter paper or blotter paper in petriplates.
These petriplates are covered with lid and placed inside the germination cabinet. This is
suitable for those seeds which require light.

Between paper (BP)


The seeds are germinated between two layers of paper. The seeds are placed between two
layers of paper and rolled in towels. The rolled towels are placed in the germinator in an
upright position.

Evaluation of germination test


The germination test is evaluated as
Normal seedlings
Abnormal seedlings
Hard seeds
Fresh and ungerminated seeds
Dead seeds
ISTA classified the seedlings into different categories based on the development of essential
structures.
Normal seedlings
Seedlings which has the capacity for continued development into normal plant when grown
in favourable conditions of soil, water, temperature and light.
Characters of normal seedlings
A well developed root system with primary root except in certain species of graminae
which normally produce seminal root or secondary root.
A well developed shoot axis consisting of elongated hypocotyls in seedlings of
epigeal germination.
A well developed epicotyl in seedlings of hypogeal germination.
One cotyledon in monocotyledon and two in dicotyledons.
A well developed coleoptiles in graminae containing a green leaf.
A well developed plumule in dicotyledons.
Normal seedlings
Seedlings with following slight defects are also taken as normal seedlings.
Primary root with limited damage but well developed secondary roots in
leguminaceae (Phaseolus, Pisum), graminae (Maize), cucurbitaceae (Cucumis) and
malvaceae (cotton)
Seedlings with limited damage or decay to essential structures but no damage to
conducting tissue.
Seedlings which are decayed by a pathogen with a clear evidence that the parent seed
is not the source of infection.
Abnormal seedlings
Seedlings which do not show the capacity for continued development into normal plant when
grown in favourable condition of soil, water, temperature and light.
ypes of abnormal seedlings
Damaged seedlings
Seedligs with any one of the essential structures missing or
badly damaged so that the balanced growth is not expected.
Seedlings with no cotyledons, with splits, cracks and lesions or
essential structures and without primary root.

Damaged seedlings
Deformed seedlings
Weak or unbalanced development of essential structures such as
spirally twisted or stunted plumule or hypocotyls or epicotyls,
swollen shoot, stunted roots etc.

Twisted coleoptiles
Decayed seedlings
Seedlings with any one of the essential structures showing
diseased or decayed symptoms as a result of primary infection
from the seed which prevents the development of the seedlings.

Decayed Seedlings
Hard seeds
Seeds which do not absorb moisture till the end of the test
period and remain hard (e.g.) seed of leguminaceae and
malvaceae

Hard Seeds
Fresh and ungerminated seeds
Seeds which are neither hard nor have germinated but remain
firm and apparently viable at the end of the test period.

Dead Seeds
Seeds at the end of the test period are neither hard or nor fresh
or have produced any part of a seedling. Often dead seeds
collapse and milky paste comes out when pressed at the end of
the test.

No. of Normal seedling


Germination percentage = -------------------------------X 100
Total No. of seeds
Ex 8. Numerical exercises on fertilizer requirement, plant
population, herbicides and water requirement

Fertilizer requirement
Example 1 : For one hectare cultivation of wheat calculate the amount of calcium
ammonium nitrate, single super phosphate and murate of potash fertilizers if one one to
apply 150 kg N, 60 kg P2O5 and 60 kg K2O per hectare nutrients.

Solution: Wheat area to be cultivated = 1 ha or 10,000 m2 amount of nutrients needed to be


applied:
N = 150 kg, P2O5 = 60 kg and K2O = 60 kg.

Fertilizers available:
Calcium ammonium nitrate (CAN) = 25% N
Single ammonium phosphate (SSP) = 16% P2O5
Murate of potash (MOP) = 60% K2O

Since we are aware total amount of nitrogen to be applied to the crop is 150 kg and among
the above three fertilizers CAN contains only 25% N and other two fertilizers do not have N
content so all the amount of nitrogen should be met through CAN.
150 X 100
Amount of CAN required = --------------- = 600 kg
25
Similarly, single super phosphate contains only 16% P2O5
60 X 100
Therefore, the total amount of SSP = ------------- = 375 kg
16
60 X 100
Similarly, the amount of MOP required = ------------- = 100 kg
60
Therefore, 600 kg CAN, 375 kg SSP and 100 kg MOP is required to provide 150 kg N, 60 kg
P2O5 and 60 kg K2O per hectare to the wheat crop.

Example 2: Calculate the quantity of urea, DAP and murate of potash for a crop to be
grown in 2 acre area. The crop requires 120 kg N, 60 kg P2O5 and 40 kg K2O per
hectare.
Solution : Total are under the crop = 2 acre or 8000 m2
Nutrient required in 1 ha (10000 m2) area are:
Nitrogen = 120 kg
P2O5 = 60 kg
K2O = 40 kg
But we have to apply fertilizer to 8000 m2 is as follows:-
120 X 8000
Nitrogen = ---------------- = 96 kg
10000
60 X 8000
P2O5 = ---------------- = 48 kg
10000
40 X 8000
K2O = ---------------- = 32 kg
10000
Fertilizers available: Urea = 46% N, DAP = 18% N and 46% P2O5 and murate of potash =
60% K2O
Now we can calculate the individual fertilizers. But here one point must be noted that
available fertilizers Urea and murate of potash contains only single nutrient but DAP contains
two nutrient elements i.e. nitrogen and phosphorus. Therefore, first it is required to find out
the amount of DAP to meet 48 kg P2O5 per 8000 m2 demand.
48 X 100
Quantity of DAP required for 48 kg P2O5 = ------------- = 104.35 kg
46
18 X 104.35
Nitrogen in 104.35 kg DAP = ----------------- = 18.78 kg N
100
Total nitrogen required = 96 kg
Nitrogen supplied through DAP = 18.78 kg
Balance N to be supplied = 96 18.78 = 77.22 kg
Now, 77.22 kg N should be supplied through Urea (46%)
100 X 77.22
Therefore, the quantity of Urea required = ---------------- = 167.87 kg
46
100 X 32
Similarly, the quantity of murate of potash = ------------- = 53.33 kg
60
Hence, to meet the crop requirement 167.87 kg Urea, 104.35 kg DAP and 53.33 kg murate of
potash is required.

Example 3: Estimate total quantity of fertilizers for a crop to be grown in 4000 m2 area.
The crop requires 150 kg N, 50 kg P and 40 kg K per hectare. The fertilizers available
with the farmer are Urea, SSP and MOP.
Solution: Area to be grown = 4000 m2
Nutrient required in 1 ha (10000 m2) area are: 150 kg N, 50 kg P and 40 kg K.
So, the nutrient required for 4000 m2 is as follows:-
150 X 4000
N = ---------------- = 60 kg
10000
50 X 4000
P = ---------------- = 20 kg
10000
40 X 4000
K = ---------------- = 16 kg
10000
Convert P into P2O5 and K into K2O because SSP and MOP fertilizers contains 16% P2O5 and
60% K2O.
P2O5 = P X 2.29 = 20 X 2.29 = 45.8 kg
K2O = K X 1.20 = 16 X 1.20 = 19.2 kg
Now, we are aware that for 4000 m2 area the nutrient required as per recommendation is:-
N = 60 kg
P2O5 = 45.8 kg
K2O = 19.2 kg
Now, calculate the quantity of individual fertilizer:-
100 X 60
Quantity of Urea required = ------------- = 130.43 kg
46

100 X 45.8
Quantity of SSP required = --------------- = 286.25 kg
16
100 X 19.2
Quantity of MOP required = --------------- = 32 kg
60
Example 4 : Calculate the quantities of urea, SSP and MOP for sugarcane crop to be
grown on half acre area. The crop requires 250 kg N, 100 kg P2O5 and 60 kg K2O per
hectare. Vermicompost (N 2%, P2O5 1% and K2O 1%) @ 10 t per hectare was applied
at the time of field preparation.
Solution : Total area under wheat crop = Half acre or 2000 m2
Vermicompost application = 10 t/ha or 10000 kg /10000 m2 or 1 kg/m2
Amount of vermicompost applied in wheat crop = 1 X 2000 = 2000 kg
Nutrient content in vermicompost = N 2%, P2O5 1% and K2O 1% (as given)
2 X 2000
Amount of N supplied through vermicompost = ------------- = 40 kg
100
1 X 2000
Amount of P2O5 supplied through vermicompost = ------------- = 20 kg
100
1 X 2000
Amount of K2O supplied through vermicompost = ------------- = 20 kg
100
Rate of nutrient application per hectare = 250 kg N, 100 kg P2O5, 60 kg K2O per hectare. But
we have half acre area or 2000 m2.
250 X 2000
Therefore, for 2000 m2 N required is = ---------------- = 50 kg
10000
100 X 2000
2
Therefore, for 2000 m P2O5 required = ---------------- = 20 kg
10000
60 X 2000
2
Therefore, for 2000 m are K2O required = ---------------- = 12 kg
10000
Balance amount of N required:-
Total N N supplied through vermicompost = 50 40 = 10 kg
Similarly, P2O5 required = 20 20 = 0 (Nil)
Similarly, K2O required = 12 20 = -8 (Nil)
100 X 10
Quantity of Urea required = ------------- = 21.7 kg
46
No, SSP and MOP is required as the full dose of P2O5 and K2O was supplied through
vermicompost.
Example 5: On a field of one hectare wheat is to be sown after mungbean. Calculate the
amount of Urea and SSP required if the dose of N and P2O5 are 120 and 60 kg per
hectare. Assume that mungbean left the residual nitrogen in the field @ 20 kg per
hectare. As per soil test report the field was found sufficient in potash.
Solution :
Amount of N required = 120 kg per hectare
Amount of P2O5 required = 60 kg per hectare
Residual N of mungbean = 20 kg per hectare
Balance N required for wheat crop = 120 20 = 100 kg
100 X 100
Therefore, quantity of Urea required = --------------- = 217.39 kg
46
100 X 60
Therefore, quantity of SSP required = --------------- = 375 kg
16

Calculation of seed rate:


Example 1: Calculate the seed rate of wheat for one hectare area with following
observation: Spacing = 20X 5cm, Test weight of seed = 40 g, Establishment of plants
= 70%, Purity percentage = 90, Germination percentage = 90.

Solution:
Purity % X Germination %
Real value of seed = -----------------------------------
100 x100
90 X 90
Real value of seed = ---------------- =0.81
100 x100
Area in one hectare
Plant population needed/ha = -------------------------------------
Space occupied by each plant
100 X 100 X100 X 100
Plant population needed/ha = ----------------------------- = 1000000 plants
20 X5
Plant population needed X Weight of one seed
Seed rate /ha = ----------------------------------------------------------------------------
Unit established plants X Real value of seed X1000X100
1000000 X 40 X 100 X100
Seed rate needed/ha = ----------------------------------- = 70.546 kg/ha
70 X 1000 X 81X1000 X100

Example 2: Calculate the seed rate of hybrid cotton for one acre area with following
observation:

Spacing = 67.5 X 30 cm,Test weight of fuzzed seedand unfuzzed seed is 140 and 150 g,
respectively, Purity percentage = 90. Germination percentage = 80.
Solution: Purity % X Germination %
Real value of seed = -----------------------------------
100 x100
90 X 80
Real value of seed = ---------------- =0.72
100 x100
Area in one acre
Plant population needed/ha = -------------------------------------
Space occupied by each plant
4000 X100 X100
Plant population needed/ha = ----------------------------- = 19753 plants
67.5 X30
Plant population needed X Weight of one seed
Seed rate Kg/ac. = -------------------------------------------------------------------
Real value of seed X1000X100
19753 X 1.4 X 100
Seed rate (fuzzed seed) needed/ac = ----------------------------- = 3.84 kg/ac.
72 X 81X1000 X100

19753 X 1.5 X 100


Seed rate (unfuzzed seed) needed/ac = ----------------------------- = 4.115 kg/ac.
72 X 81X1000 X100
Ex 9. Use of tillage implements-reversible plough, one way
plough, harrow, leveler, seed drill
Relevant information:

Reversible plough : It is also used for turning green manure crop for decaying under the soil,
which adds humus to the soil. It is also used for turning and mixing compost, farmyard
manure or lime into the soil. Features: The two bottom reversible plough is a unique
implement, which is directly mounted to the tractor. With reversible plough, one way
ploughing is carried out.

Harrow: a harrow is an implement for breaking up and smoothing out the surface of
the soil. In this way it is distinct in its effect from the plough, which is used for deeper tillage.
Harrowing is often carried out on fields to follow the rough finish left by plowing operations.
The purpose of this harrowing is generally to break up clods (lumps of soil) and to provide a
finer finish, a good tilth or soil structure that is suitable for seedbed use. Coarser harrowing
may also be used to remove weeds and to cover seed after sowing. Harrows differ
from cultivators in that they disturb the whole surface of the soil, such as to prepare a
seedbed, instead of disturbing only narrow trails that skirt crop rows (to kill weeds).

Leveler: The leveler consists of frame, 3-point linkage, cutting or scraping blade, and thick
curved sheet closed from sides to form a bucket. The scraping blade is made from medium
carbon steel or low alloy steel, hardened and tempered to about 42 HRC. The blade is joined
to the curved sheet with fasteners and can be replaced after being worn out or becoming dull.
The working depth of the implement is controlled by hydraulic system of the tractor.
Leveling of fields and pulling or pushing loosened soil from one place to other.

Seeddrill : Drilling is the term used for the mechanised sowing of an agricultural crop.
Traditionally, a seed drill used to consist of a hopper filled with seeds arranged above a series
of tubes that can be set at selected distances from each other to allow optimum growth of the
resulting plants. Seeds are spaced out using fluted paddles which rotate using a geared drive
from one of the drill's land wheelsseed rate is altered by changing gear ratios. Most modern
drills use air to convey seed in plastic tubes from the seed hopper to the coultersit is an
arrangement which allows seed drills to be much wider than the seed hopperas much as 12
m wide in some cases. The seed is metered mechanically into an air stream created by a
hydraulically powered on-board fan and conveyed initially to a distribution head which sub-
divides the seed into the pipes taking the seed to the individual coulters.
Ex 10. Study of soil moisture measuring devices
Relevant information:
A. Determination of soil moisture content by gravimetric method.

Theory: It is usually expressed in per cent and is a ratio of the weight of moisture present in
the soil to the oven dry weight of the soil. Thus
b--c
Moisture content (%) = -------- 100 %
c--a
where a=weight of empty box
b=weight of (moist soil+box)
c=weight of (oven dry soil+box)
Thus b - c= weight of moisture present in the soil
c - a=weight of oven dry soil
Gravimetric method is the best known method. This gives accurate results. Other methods
are generally calibrated with reference to this method.

Apparatus required: Soil auger, small can or box commonly known as 'soil moisture box',
physical or chemical balance, weight box, electric oven, tong, desiccators, .etc.

Procedure : The soil auger is driven up to a depth of 15 cm (or any desired depth) from the
ground surface. The auger is taken out and the soil from the bottom end is collected into a
moisture box. The lid of the box is closed soon after. This box is weighed. The lid is then
opened and the box is placed in an electric oven at 105 C for 24 hours without any
discontinuity of the power supply. Afterwards, the box with the dried soil is closed with its
lid and is taken out.
To cool, this is placed in desiccators for about 10-15 minutes. The box plus dry soil is then
weighed. The soil is thrown out to make the box empty. The weight of empty box is taken.
Observations and Results:
b=35.50 gm
c =32.60 gm
a =12.90 gm

bc 2.90
Moisture content (%) =------ 100= ------- 100= 14.72%
ca 19.70
Remark: The expression of soil moisture as volume by volume or volumetric moisture
content (%) is considered a comparatively better method. It is as follows:

Moisture content (%) on volume basis


= Moisture content (%) on weight basis X bulk density of the soil
= 14.72 x 1.25 where B.D. =1.25 g/ cc
Moisture content (%)on volume basis
= 18.40 %
11.Measurement of field capacity
B . Determination of soil moisture content by tensiometer
Relevant information: Tensiometer installed in a soil upto a chosen depth measures soil
moisture tension in terms of cm of mercury or water column or atmospheric pressure. This
works on the principle that a partial vacuum is created in a closed chamber and water moves
out through a porous ceramic cup to the surrounding soil, if the soil is dry or vice-versa. This
vacuum is measured as a tension by a manometer or vacuum gauge fitted in it. The
graduation of the gauge is in 1/100th of atmospheric pressure or some equivalent units. A
porous clay cup and a vacuum gauge or a manometer is interconnected by a tube filled with
water. The readings of the tensiometer are converted in to per cent (%) moisture content
using a calibration curve of the tensiometer in use.
It works upto a limit of 0.8 atmosphere pressure after which air enters the system and
the tensiometer ceases to work. Increase in gauge reading means decrease in moisture content
and vice-versa. The tendency of the water in the porous cup and the tube is to maintain a
dynamic equilibrium with the soil adjacent to the cup from the point of view of moisture
status.
The tensiometers are useful in sandy soil wherein about 80% available water is held
between 0-0.8 atm. pressure.
Calibration: It is a process by which the scale of a particular measuring instrument is
compared with another standard (known) instrument or method in order to get the measured
value in terms of commonly used unit. For each tensiometer reading, a soil sample close to
the cup may be taken to determine its moisture content by gravimetric method. This may be
continued for at least five widely different soil moisture status. A simple plot of one against
another will yield a calibration curve.
Procedure: The tensiometer is checked before its installation in the field. In order to know
the air tightness of the system, the tube is filled with boiled water and corked. It is then held
above a hot plate. The gauge reading increases with the evaporation of moisture or water
from the cup surface till at least 0.85 atmosphere (If the system is defective, the needle will
move back before it reaches 0.85 atm. showing the leakage). The tensiometer is then
immersed in free water and after some time the reading is noted as zero.

A spot in the crop field is selected in such a manner that it does not hamper the
normal field operations. A bore hole upto a desired depth is made by a soil auger. The
tensiometer is inserted into the hole. The walls of the cup and the soil are kept in intimate
contact with each other. Care is taken to ensure that the hole diameter coincides
approximately with the diameter of the tensiometer tube. Soil is compacted around the stem
of the tensiometer near the ground surface and a heap of soil about 4 cm high is made to
check water collection around the stem and to prevent its flow directly through the body of
the tensiometer. Area surrounding the tensiometer is enclosed by a bracketing with coloured
stakes. Some thorns are also placed around it.
After about 48 hrs of the installation the readings are taken regularly from 0700 hrs.
Using equation or the calibration curve for the tensiometer and soil, the tension readings are
converted to percent moisture content of the soil.

Observations and results


I Calibration curve readings:
_______________________________________________________________________
S.No. Tensiometer reading (centibars) Moisture (%)
_______________________________________________________________________
1. 9 19.0
2. 14 17.0
3. 20 15.0
4. 24 14.2
5. 28 13.5
6. 32 12.7
7. 38 11.7
8. 44 11.5
9. 50 10.7
10 55 10.0
11 60 8.7
_______________________________________________________________________

Date Time (Hrs.) Tension (atm.) Moisture content (%)


from curve
Soil moisture tension vs. moisture content

70

60

50

40
Series1
30

20

10

0
0 5 10 15 20

Salient points :
1. The effective root zone changes in a growing crop field. The depth of installation,
therefore, is required to be changed suitably with the growth of the crop, if the readings are
required from root zone depth.
2. The difference between two consecutive tensiometer readings should not exceed 10
centibars.
3. If D be the root zone depth of the crop, it is then suggested to measure moisture content at
the ground surface, 0.25D, 0.50D, 0.75D and D. An average of theses may be considered as
moisture content in the root zone. Sometimes five measurements at a single vertical column
become laborious and time consuming. Alternatively, measurements only at 0.25D and 0.75D
are considered sufficient. Ordinarily, depth at 15, 30 and 45 cm are assumed as good enough
for soil moisture measurement in a crop field.
Ex 11. Measurement of Field Capacity
Relevant information:
THEORY: The field capacity of a soil is defined as the amount of water/moisture held in soil
after the excess of gravitational water has drained away under free drainage and minimum
evaporation. Such a stage is reached generally after 48-72 hours of the saturation depending
on soil texture. Sandy soils may reach this stage earlier and clayey soils may take more time.
Organic matter and fine texture increase the field capacity while its value is lowered with the
increase in temperature.
The field capacity is the uppermost limit of available moisture range in relation to plant. The
force with which moisture at field capacity is held varies from 1/10th to 1/3rd of an
atmospheric pressure.
Field capacity can be determined by using pressure plate apparatus in the laboratory. But the
most practicable and easy method is the field method.
MATERIALS REQUIRED:
i) Straw mulch and black polyethylene sheet
ii) Spade
iii) Required quantity of water iv) Screw auger or tube auger v) Moisture boxes
vi) Physical balance with weight box
vii) Drying oven viii) Graph paper
PROCEDURE:
A representative spot of 3m X 3m area is selected in the field and is bunded from all sides.
Pebbles, weeds and plants are removed from this spot. The water table should not be within 2
m from the layer of which field capacity is to be determined. The plot is then field with
sufficient water to completely saturate the soil to the desired depth. The spot is then covered
with the polyethylene sheet or straw mulch of 40 cm thickness. Take soil samples from
different layers upto the root zone depth with auger and determine the moisture content at
every 12-24 hours interval till the values of two successive samples are nearly equal. After
each sampling the plot should be as before. Plot the moisture content versus time on a graph
paper. The lowest reading can be taken to represent the value of field capacity of the soil.

OBSERVATION:
S.No. Time interval Moisture content(%)
1. 24 hrs. after saturation --------
2. 36 hrs. --------
3. 48 hrs. --------
4. 60 hrs. --------
5. 72 hrs. --------

RESULT: Field capacity of the soil is------------%


PRECAUTION:
1. Select a representative site in the field.
4. Take adequate care in prevention of evaporation from the experimental site. .
3. Weigh soil sample carefully.
4. Ensure that water table is not within two metres from the soil surface.
Ex 12. Determination of bulk density and infiltration rate
Relevant information :
A. Bulk Density of Soil
To convert soil water content determined on weight basis to volume basis the bulk density of
the soil layer is needed. The bulk volume includes the actual volume occupied by the soil
solids and pore volume. Bulk density will vary not only with the actual density of the solids
but, also more importantly with the packing of the soil particles. In general, the bulk density
of fine textured mineral soils may range from about 1.0 to 1.3 g /cc and that of sandy soils
from 1.4 to 1.7 g cm-3

Principle: Bulk density of soil is the dry mass, per unit volume of a given soil in its natural
undisturbed condition and is given by:

Ms
Bulk density (g / cc) = ---------
Vb
Where, Ms = Mass of dry soil solid (g).
Vb = Volume of soil (cm3).
To determine the bulk density any of the following three methods can be employed.
i. Core sampler technique: Bulk density is generally obtained by removing a block of soil
from the field under natural conditions. This can be done by using any method that forces a
straight-sided container of known volume into the soil without altering the area to be
sampled. The container is then dug out, excess soil is trimmed away, dried and weighed and
Db calculated. This involves inserting a core of known dimensions into the soil and
extracting a sample of known volume.
ii. Sand pouring technique: In this method, the soil sample is first extracted from a small pit
dug at the site. The pit is filled with sand and the volume of the sand required to fill pit is
made known with the help of measuring cylinder. The oven dry mass of the soil sample
extracted is determined gravimetrically.
iii. Paraffin clod technique: A soil clod or aggregate is collected, coated with an
impermeable material such as paraffin wax or rubber solution. The coated clod is dipped in a
fluid and its volume is determined by the volume the fluid is displaced. its volume
determined by fluid displacement. Subsequently, the oven dry mass of the clod is determined
gravimetrically.
Out of the above three mentioned methods, the bulk density of soil is generally determined by
core sampler technique as it is more accurate .

Determination of bulk density with core sampler technique


Materials: Balance, oven, core sampler with cores, spatula.
Procedure
i. Assemble the core sampler with the core placed inside after a thorough cleaning.
ii. Remove vegetation and loose soil and smoothen the soil surface for surface soil samples.
For samples from lower depths, excavate the soil to the appropriate depth. (Layer wise bulk
density samples are best taken when the soil profile pit studies are being carried out).
iii. Insert the core sampler into the soil with the hammer.
iv. Carefully take out the core sampler and dismantle the assembly and trim out excess soil
from the two ends of the core with a spatula.
v. Transfer the core into a container or remove the soil from the core into the labeled sample
bag for transporting to the laboratory.
vi. Dry the soil samples in a hot air oven at 105-110oC till constant mass is attained. The
dried soil samples are weighed and their masses are recorded on the observation sheet.
vii. Calculate the volume of the core by measuring its diameter and length using calipers. The
bulk density is then calculated by the formula given above.
viii. In case of swell-shrink soils, taking the fresh mass (core + moist soil) of the core is
essential as bulk density values change with change in soil water content.

Relationship between porosity and densities of soil

Bulk density
i. Per cent solid space = ---------------------- x 100
Particle density

ii. Pore space + Solid space = 100

iii. Pore space = 100 - Solid space


Bulk density
OR 100 ----------------------x 100
Particle density

Bulk density
OR 100 (1 ----------------------)
Particle density

Depth Sample Sample core volume Box Sample Mass Bulk


of No. Inner Sample Sample No. Can & Can Sample density
sample dia length volume sample mass mass, (g/cc)
(cm) (cm) (cm) (cm3) dry (g) (g)
mass
(g)
Ex 13. Measurement of Irrigation Water
Relevant information: To obtain high efficiency in irrigation, the correct measurement of
irrigation water is an essential step. Irrigation water is generally measured under two
conditions:
i) At rest- it is measured in units of volume such as litre, cubic metre,. hectare centimetre
(ha-cm) and hectare metre (ha- m)
ii) In motion- it is expressed in rate of flow units such as litres per second, litres per hour,
cubic metres per second, hectare centimetres per hour and hectare metres per day,

UNITS OF VOLUME -
i) Litre: It is a volume equal to 1/1000 cubic metre (1000 cm3). .
ii) Cubic-Metre: It is a volume to that of a 1 metre long, 1 metre wide and 1 metre deep
(1000 litres).
iii) Hectare-centimetre (ha-cm) : It is a volume of water to cover an area of 1 hectare to a
depth of 1 centimetre (100 m3 or 100,000 litres).
iv) Hectare-Metre (ha-m) : It is a volume of water to cover an area of 1 hectare to a depth of
1 metre (10 million litres or 10,000 m3).

UNITS OF FLOW
i) Litre Per Second:. It is the amount of water which is flowing at the rate of 1 litre per
second from the source of water. It is generally used to denote the discharge of a tube-well,
small stream or pipe line.

ii) Cubic-Metre Per Second: It is the amount of water which is flowing at the rate of 1 cubic
metre per second from a stream 1 metre wide and 1 metre deep.

EXAMPLE 1
A tube well with an average discharge of 10 litres per second irrigates 1 hectare cotton crop
in 15 hours. Calculate the average depth of irrigation.
SOLUTION
Discharge in 15 hours = 10 x 60 x 60 x 15 = 540,000 litres
= 540 m3
Volume of water (m3)
Depth of Irrigation = -------------------------------- X 100
Area of land (m2)
540
= ----------------------------- X 100
10,000

Answer = 5.4 cm
EXAMPLE 2
Wheat crop requires 45 cm of irrigation water during crop season of 125 days. How much
area can be irrigated with a flow of 18 Liters per second for 10 hours a day?
SOLUTION
Total discharge during the crop season
18 X 60 X 60X10X125
=------------------------------
1,000
= 81000 m3
Irrigation requirement per hectare
45
=-------X 10,000 = 4,500 m3
100
Volume of water available (m3)
Area Irrigated = ----------------------------------------------
Volume of water required per hectare(m3}
81,036
= -------------- = 18 hectares
4,500
Answer = 18 hectares

Several devices are commonly used for measuring irrigation water.


They can be grouped into four categories:
i) Volumetric measurements
ii) Velocity area methods
iii) Measuring structures (orifices, wears and flumes)
iv) Tracer methods

MEASUREMENT OF IRRIGATION WATER BY VOLUME AND


VELOCITY-AREA METHODS
i) Volume method using a container:
A simple method of measuring small irrigation streams is to collect the in a container of
known volume for a measured perod of time. An ordinary bucket is used as the container. The
time require to fill the container is reckoned with a stop watch or the second's hand of a wrist
watch.
Fig.1 Installation for volumetric measurement of small flows

The of flow is measured by the formula:


Volume of container, litres
Discharge rate, litres/sec = ---------------------------------------
Time required to fill, seconds
Exp. 3

A 24-1itre capacity bucket is filled in 10 seconds by the discharge from a Persian


wheel. What is the rate of flow?
24
Discharge rate, litre/sec = ----- = 2.4 litre/sec or 144 litre/min.
10
2. Velocity--area methods

a) FLOAT METHOD
The float method of making a rough estimate of the flow in a channel, consists of
noting the rate of movement of a floating body. A long necked bottle partly filled with
water or a block of wood, an orange or a lemon may be used as the float. A straight
section of the channel about 30 metres long with fairly uniform cross section is selected.
Several measurements of depth and width are made within the trial section to arrive at the
average cross-sectional area. A string is stretched across each end of the section at right
angles to the direction of flow. The float is placed in the channel a short distance
upstream from the trial section. The time the float needs to pass from the upper end to the
lower end of the section is recorded. Several trials are made to get the average time of
travel.
To determine the velocity of water at the surface of the channel, the length of the
trial section is divided by the average time taken by the float to cross it. Since the
velocity of the float on the surface of the water will be greater than the average, velocity
of the stream, it is necessary to correct the measurement by multiplying it by a constant
factor which is usually assumed to be 0.85. To obtain the rate of flow, this average
velocity (measured velocity coefficient) is multiplied by the average cross-sectional
area of the stream.
Discharge or rate of flow = Area velocity
Q = axv
where Q = discharge rate, m3/sec
a = cross-sectional area of the channel, m/see
v = velocity of flow, m/ sec

b) Water Meters
Water meters utilise a multi-blade propeller made of metal, plastic or rubber, rotating in a
vertical or horizontal plane and geared to a totaliser in such a manner that a numerical
counter can totalise the flow in any desired volumetric units. Water meters are available
for a range of sizes suiting the pipe size commonly used on the farm.
There are two basic requirements for accurate operation of the water meter :
ii ) The pipe must-flow full at all times, and
ii) The rate of flow must exceed the minimum for the rated range. Meters are calibrated
in the factory and field adjustments are usually not required. When water meters are
installed in open channels, the flow must be brought through a pipe of known cross-
sectional area. Care must be taken that no debris or other foreign materials obstruct the
propeller.

Measuring structures

a) Orifices:
Orifices in open channels are usually circular or rectangular openings in a vertical
bulkhead through which water flows. The edges of the openings are sharp and often
constructed of metal. The cross-sectional area of the orifice is small in relation to stream
cross-section. This conditions allow complete contraction of the stream flow and the velocity
of the approach becomes negligible. Orifices may operate under free flow or submerged flow
conditions (Figs. 2 and 3).

The discharge through an orifice is calculated by the formula


Q=0.61 10-4 a _/2gH
where, Q = discharge through orifice, litres/sec
a = area of cross-section of the orifice, cm2
g = acceleration due to gravity, cm/sec2 (981 cm/sec2)
H = depth of water over the centre of the orifice (on the upstream side)
in case of free flow orifice, or the difference in elevation
between the water surface at the upstream (h1) and down-stream
(h2) faces of the orifice plate in case of submerged orifices, cm.
Discharge through a submerged orifice:

The discharge through a submerged orifice is given by the equation:


Q= 0.61 10-3 a _/ 2 gH
Exp.4
If a = length x breadth of the crest
= 30 cm x 15 cm == 450 cm

For submerged flow:


H = h1 - h2 = 15 cm - 7.5 cm = 7.5 cm
g = 981 cm/sec2
Then Q =. 0.61 x 10-3 x 450_/2x981x7.5

= 0.2745 _/14715.60
= 0.2745 121.31 = 33.30 litres/sec

METER GATE

A meter gate is basically a modified submerged orifice, so arranged that. the orifice is
adjustable in area. They are manufactured commercially and are used to control the water
flowing from one channel to another. They may serve the rate of flow, if the head and area of
opening can be determined and the gate has. been calibrated. The head is the same as that
under submerged orifice. Normally the gate and the opening into the outlet are circular and
their area can be determined easily if the gate is fully open. However, under most conditions
the gate is only partially open, leaving a crescent shaped area which is difficult to measure.
Consequently, most gates are calibrated and tables supplied, giving the rate of flow as a
function of the head and the degree of gate opening as measured by the displacement of the
gate stem

Ex.
Measurement of irrigation water through weirs

A weir means a notch in a wall built across a stream. The notch may be: (1) rectangular.
(2) trapezoidal, or (3) 90-V (triangular)

1) Rectangular notch or weir


The length of a weir may be equal to the width of the upstream channel or less. In the
former case, the weir is said to be with suppressed end contractions while in the latter, it
is stated to be with complete end contractions (Fig.). The discharge through a rectangular
weir may be computed by :
i) Suppressed rectangular weir
Q = 0.0184 LH3/2

Where Q = discharge, litres/sec


L= Length of crest, cm
H= head over the weir, cm

ii) Contracted rectangular weir

Q = 0.0184 (L -- 0.2 H) H3/2

Fig. Profile of a weir installation showing essential requirements


Fig. Details of a rectangular weir

Fig. A rectangular weir with end contractions installed in a field


channel

Exp. 5 Compute the discharge of a rectangular weir 40 cm long with a head of 12 cm under
the following conditions:
a) with no end contraction
b) with two end contractions.

Solutions: a) with no end contraction :

Q = 0.0184 L H3/2
= 0.0184 x 45 123/2
= 34.4 litres/sec

b) with one end contraction :


Q =0.0184 (L -- 0.2 H) H3/2
= 0.0184 (45 -- 0.2 x 12) 123/2
= 32.6 lltres/sec.

2) Discharge through 900 V-Notch (with complete end contraction)


V- notch weir is commonly used to measure small and medium sized streams. The
advantage of V-notch weir is its ability to measure small flow accurately.
The discharge through a 900V-notch weir may be computed by the following formula:
Q=0.0138 H5/2
Where Q=discharge, litres /sec
H=head, cm
For heads lower than 5 cm, the weir should preferably be calibrated to obtain the discharge.

Fig. Details of a 900 V- Notch weir

3)Trapezoidal or cipolletti weir (with complete end contractions)


The discharge is given in this case (Fig. 14.9) by the formula:
Q = 0.0186 LH3/2
where Q = discharge, litres/sec
L = length of crest, cm, L1 + L2
here L = -----------
2
H = head over the crest, cm.

Fig. A trapezoidal weir

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