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Chemical Water Quality Parameters: Total Hardness

Calculation of Total Hardness. Hardness in natural waters comes from the dissolution of minerals from
geologic formation that mostly contain calcium (Ca2+) and Magnesium (Mg2+). Water that rich in these
cations is said to be Hard. Hardness also provides a measure of the influence of human activity. For
instance, acid mine drainage often results in the release of iron into a stream. The iron produces
extraordinarily high hardness is a useful water quality indicator.

START

READ CONCENTRATION OF
Ca2+, Mg2+

TOTAL HARDNESS = (Ca2+x50)/20 +


(Mg2+x50)/12.2

F T
TH <250

CLASS III, IV.V CLASS I, IIA/IIB

DO YOU WANT TO
CALCULATE CARBONATE
HARDNESS (Y/N)
CHOICES T
READ CONCENTRATION
==Y
OF HCO3-

F
CARBONATE HARDNESS = (HCO3-x50)/61

PRINT CH

CHOICES T READ CONCENTRATION


==Y OF CO32-

F
CARBONATE HARDNESS = (CO32-x50)/30

TOTAL CARBONATE HARDNESS =


(HCO3- + C032-)

END