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Calculation Job No. Sheet No. Rev.

FLAT SLAB STR01-KMY/MSTR


sheet
Member/Location
Job Title. PROPOSED MINISTRY BLOCK Org. Ref STR 01/02/KSM/2016
Made by B.O Date 12/12/16 Chd D.O
FLAT SLAB DESIGN GRID 9-9 CALCULATION SHEET 01
Reference CALCULATIONS OUTPUT
FLAT SLAB FLOOR CONSTRUCTION
FLOOR SLABS (1ST,2ND & Roof top)
For a solid slab without drops and a characteristic imposed load
5Kn/m, try a span effective depth ratio of estimated thickness =
5100/36+(25+16/2) = 174.66 say 175mm h= 175mm

BS8110 Durability & Fire resistance Cover = 20mm


3.3 Nominal cover for mild conditions of exposure = 20mm. 1hr fire resistance ok
Table 3.3 Max fire resistance of 175mm slab with 20mm cover = 1hr >1hr
Table 3.4
Loading
Self weight 0.175 x 25 = 4.2 kN/m
Finishes and services = 1.0 kN/m
Characteristic dead load gk = 5.2 kN/m gk = 5.2 kN/m qk
3.5.2.4 Characteristic imposed load qk = 3.0 kN/m = 3.0 kN/m
Table 3.12
Design ultimate load n = 1.4 x 5.2+ 1.6x 3.0 = 12.08 kN/m n= 12.08 kN/m

Analysis
There are several methods of analysis are available, including the use of
simplified moment coefficients, equivalent frame analysis, finite element
analysis, grillage analysis and yield-line methods. Equivalent frame
analysis will be used for this example.

The structure is divided into two orthogonal directions, into frames


consisting of columns and strips of slab. For vertical loading the effective
stiffness of the slab strips may be based on the width between centerlines
of panels.
SUB-FRAME 9-9

Since the sub frame and the load cases are symmetrical about the
centerline, an analysis can be carried out for one half of the sub frame by
taking the stiffness of the central span as half the actual value.
Is= 5100x175/12 = 2.28x 109mm4, Ic=400x500/12 = 4.17x109mm4

Ks, end=Is/4400 = 0.52 x 106mm, Ks,int= Is/3000 = 0.76x 106mm4

Kc,upper= Kc,upper = Is/3250 = 1.28x 106mm4

Distribution factors for unit moment applied at end joints are:

Ds=0.52/(0.52+2 x 0.7 x 1.28) = 0.225

Dc =(1- 0.225)/2 = 0.3875

Distribution factors for unit moment applied at interior joint are:

Ds, end = 0.52/(0.52+0.5x0.76+ 2 x 1.28) = 0.52/3.46 = 0.15

Ds,int = 0.5 x 0.76/ 3.46 = 0.11

Dc = 1.28/3.46 = 0.37

Maximum and minimum design loads for a full panel width of


5.1m, assuming shear force coefficient in the orthogonal direction of 0.6
for each span, are:

1.2 x 5.1 x 12.1 = 74.08 kN/m (max)

1.2 x 5.1 x 7.28 = 44.55 kN/m (min)

Fixed end moments due to maximum load on beams are:

Mend = 74.8 x 4.4/12= 119.52 kN/m

Mint = 74.8 x 3.0/12 = 55.56kN/m

Fixed end moments due to minimum load on beams are:

Mend = 44.55 x 4.4/12= 71.87kN/m

Mint = 44.55 x 3.0/12 = 33.41 kN/m

Although the sub frame can be conveniently analyzed by computer


program the following moment distribution procedure will be used here.
In the table below, the basis operations are shown in rows 1 and 2 with a
50% moment carry-over in the end span. There is no moment carry over
in the interior span as a result of taking only 50% of the actual stiffness
in calculating the distribution factors, Rows 3 and 4 are obtained by
combining rppws1 and 2 in such a way that a moment at one joint can be
balanced without disturbing the equilibrium of the moments at the
other joint Row 5 and 6, which are obtained simply from rows 3 and 4
and can be used to balance moments at each joint in turn.

ANALYSIS

Joint and Member End Joint Interior joint


Row Moment in members due to Upper Beam Lower Upper End Interior Lower
application of moments at column column column beam beam Column
joint
1 Unit moment applied at joint 0.3875 0.225 0.3875 0.1125
2 Unit moment applied at interior 0.075 0.37 0.15 0.11 0.37
joints
3 (Row 1)/ 0.1125- (Row2) 3.4444 1.925 3.444 -0.37 0.85 -0.11 -0.37
4 (Row 2)/0.075 (Row1) -0.387 0.775 -0.387 4.933 1.888 1.467 4.933
5 (Row 0.391 0.218 0.391 -0.042 0.0964 -0.0125 -0.042
3)/(3.444+1.925+3.444)
6 (Row4)/ -0.0293 0.0586 -0.0293 0.373 0.143 0.111 0.373
(4.933+1.888+1.467+4.933)
Case1 Maximum load (74.08 kN/m) on all spans
Fixed end moments - 119.52 -55.56
119.52
(Row 5)x119.52 46.73 26.06 46.73 -5.02 11.52 -1.494 -5.02
(Row 6) x (119.52-55.56) -1.874 3.75 -1.874 23.86 9.15 7.10 23.86
(Sum to obtain final 44.856 -89.71 44.856 18.84 140.19 -49.954 18.84
moments

Case2 Maximum load (74.08 kN/m) at end spans and Minimum (44.55 kN/m) at interior span
Fixed end moments - 119.52 -33.42
119.52
(Row 5)x119.52 46.73 26.06 46.73 -5.02 11.52 -1.494 -5.02
(Row 6) x (119.52-33.41) -2.523 5.046 -2.523 32.12 12.314 9.558 32.12
(Sum to obtain final 44.207 -88.41 44.207 27.1 143.354 -25.346 27.1
moments

Case3 Minimum load (44.55 kN/m) at end spans and Maximum (74.08 kN/m) at interior span
Fixed end moments -71.87 71.87 -55.56
(Row 5)x71.87 28.10 15.668 28.10 -3.019 6.928 -0.898 -3.019
(Row 6) x (71.87-55.56) -0.478 0.956 -0.478 6.084 2.332 1.810 6.084
(Sum to obtain final 27.622 -55.25 27.622 3.065 81.13 -54.648 3.065
moments

The shear forces at the ends of the span and the maximum sagging moment can now be calculated from the following
expression, where the support moments ML and MR both take positive values for the end span,

VL= nl/2 (MR-ML)L and VR=nL-VL

Distance from end of span to point of zero shear, a = VL/n

Maximum sagging moment, M= VL x a/2-ML

For the interior span

VL= VR= Nl/2 and M=nL/8 ML(or MR)


Load Location and End End span Interior Interior Interior
Case Member Support Support Support Span

No. Bending Moment (kNm) in Members for load Case


1 Slab -89.71 65.5775 140.19 -49.954 33.386
Upper Column 44.856 18.84
Lower Column 44.856 18.84
2 Slab -88.414 64.242 143.354 -25.316 24.75
Upper Column 44.207 27.1
Lower Column 44.207 27.1
3 Slab -55.246 39.995 81.13 -54.648 28.647
Upper Column 27.622 3.065
Lower Column 27.622 3.065

Load Location and End End span Interior Interior Interior


Case Member Support Support Support Span

No. Shear Force (kN) in Members for Load Case


1 Slab 151.50 174.452 111.12
2 Slab 151.40 175.376 66.75
3 Slab 92.02 103.78 111.06

Flexural design
Moments
Column strip:

Sagging = 0.55x 65.58 = 36.07kNm


Hogging = 0.75x 143.35 = 107.51kNm

Middle Strip

Sagging = 0.45 x 65.58 = 29.51kNm

Hogging = 0.25 x 143.35 = 35.83kNm

Reinforcement is calculated over full strip width

Column strip

Bar size 12mm

Hogging d= 175-25-6 = 144mm

Sagging d = 175-25-12 = 138mm

Reinforcement for Hogging moments

Column strip

Bar size 12mm

Hogging d= 175-25-12 = 138mm

K = m/fcubd= 107.51 x 106/ 25 x 2200 x 138 = 0.103< 0.156 At supports, bars in


column strip
Z = 138[ 0.5 + (0.25 0.103/0.9)] = 119.80< 0.95d= 136.80mm 16T14(T)

As= 107.51 x 106/ (0.95 x460x119.80) = 2053.57mm

Provide a minimum 14mm diameter to give an area of 2156mm. Two


thirds of this bars 10 bars are placed in the center half of the column strip
at a spacing of 135mm. A further 3 bars are placed in each of the outer
strips at a spacing of 180mm. This gives a total of 14 bars.

Reinforcement for Sagging moments

Column strip

Bar size 12mm

Sagging d= 175-25-6= 144mm


K = m/fcubd= 36.07 x 106/ 25 x 2200 x 144 = 0.032< 0.156

Z = 144[ 0.5 + (0.25 0.032/0.9)] = 138.68< 0.95d= 136.80mm

As= 36.07 x 106/ (0.95 x460x136.80) = 603.36mm

Reinforcement for Hogging moments

Middle strip

Bar size 12mm

Hogging d= 175-25-12 = 138mm

K = m/fcubd= 35.83 x 106/ 25 x 2200 x 138 = 0.0.0342< 0.156

Z = 138[ 0.5 + (0.25 0.0342/0.9)] = 132.54< 0.95d= 131.10mm

As= 35.83 x 106/ (0.95 x460x131.10) = 625.41mm

Provide a minimum 14mm diameter to give an area of 2156mm. Two


thirds of this bars 10 bars are placed in the center half of the column strip
at a spacing of 135mm. A further 3 bars are placed in each of the outer
strips at a spacing of 180mm. This gives a total of 14 bars.

Reinforcement for Sagging moments

Middle strip

Bar size 12mm

Sagging d= 175-25-6= 144mm

K = m/fcubd= 29.51 x 106/ 25 x 2200 x 144 = 0.0259< 0.156

Z = 144[ 0.5 + (0.25 0.0259/0.9)] = 139.73< 0.95d= 136.80mm

As= 29.51 x 106/ (0.95 x460x136.80) = 493.63mm


Shear design
Shear check at column

F = 12.08 x 4.4 = 233.87Kn

Veff= 1.15x Vt

= 1.15 x 233.87 = 268.93kN

a. Column, perimeter shear stress,

V= 1000 Veff/Ucd

Uc =2 x ( 400+500) = 1800mm

V = 1000x 268.93/ 1800x141 = 1.06N/mm

< 0.8 x 251/2 = 4N/mm

Shear stress is satisfactory

b. At 1.5d from the column face

Perimeter U = [ (2 X 1.5 X 141) + 450]4 = 3,492mm

Shear V = 1.15 x 12.08(19.36-0.873)


= 258.36kN
v= 258.36 x 10/ (3492 x 141) = 0.52N/mm

in the center half of the column strip 14mm bars spaced at


125mm centers giving on area of 1231.50mm/m

100As/bd= 1231.50 x 100/(1000x141) = 0.873

The design concrete shear stress is

vc =0.79 x (0.873)(400/141)(30/25)/1.25 = 0.833


vc
v
Deflection

The calculation are made for the middle strip using the total moment at
mid-span and the average of the column and middle strip tension steel.
The basis span/d ratio is 26

M/bd = 65.58 x 106/(4400 x 138) = 0.783

fs = 2 x 460 ((603.36+493.63)/2)/(3 x (905-628)/2) = 219.45N/mm

The modification factor is

0.55 + (477 -219.45)/ (120(0.9+0.783)) = 1.825

Allowable span/ d ration = 1.825 x 26 = 47.46

Actual span d/ ratio = 4400/138 = 31.88

The slab is satisfactory with respect to deflection