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# OBJECTIVES

## 1. To determine the waveforms of the input and output voltages of half-

wave and full-wave rectifiers for resistive load.

## 2. To compare the output waveforms of half-wave and full-wave rectifiers

LIST OF REQUIREMENTS

o Equipment
o Three-phase isolating transformer
o Converter, basic unit
o Voltage supply (15V; 1.5A stab)
o Control unit
o Dual-trace oscilloscope with system triggering
o Universal multimeter

COMPONENTS

o 100 Resistive
o Power diodes

THEORY

## o A diode can be used as a rectifier. A rectifier circuit converts ac to

dc signal. There are three main types of rectifier circuits:
1. Half-wave rectifier circuit
2. Centre tap full-wave rectifier
3. Full-wave bridge rectifier circuit
Figure 1
Figure 2
Figure 3
PRE-LAB

## What is the most common function of a diode?

The most common function of a diode is to allow an electric
current to pass in one direction only.

## Today the most common diodes are made from semiconductor

materials such as silicon or germanium.

## A rectifier is an electrical device that converts alternating current

(AC), which periodically reverses direction, to direct current (DC),
which flows in only one direction. The process is known as
rectification.
DISCUSSION

## 1. Discuss the waveforms of the input and output voltages of full-wave

Full wave rectifier can be defined as a device that converts both polarities which
are positive and negative of input AC into output DC. Full wave rectifier also
known as a rectifier that converts complete cycle of input AC into output DC.
The waveform of the input voltages of full-wave rectifiers for resistive load is
sinusoidal waveform. The waveform of the output voltages of full-wave
rectifiers for resistive load is non-sinusoidal waveform. The output voltage of
full-wave rectifier for resistive load is DC voltage while the input voltage of
full-wave rectifier for resistive load is AC voltage. When a simple transformer
with out a center tapped secondary is used, four diodes arranged this way are
called a diode bridge or bridge rectifier. The bridge rectifier can also be used for
translating a DC input of unknown or arbitrary polarity into an output of known
polarity. This is generally required in electronic telephones or other telephony
devices where the DC polarity on the two phone wires is unknown. There are
also applications for protecting against accidental battery reversal in battery-
powered circuits. For a single phase AC, if the transformer is center-tapped,
then two diodes back-to-back can form a full wave rectifier. Twice as many
winding are required on the transformer secondary to obtain the same output
voltage. This is not as efficient from the transformer perspective because current
flows in only one half of the secondary during each positive and negative half
cycle of the AC input.
2. Compare the output voltage waveform of half-wave rectifiers for
resistive load with ideal DC voltage waveforms.

The half-wave rectifier is a type of rectifier that rectifies only half cycle of the
waveform. The half rectifier consist a step down transformer, a diode connected
to the transformer and a load resistance connected to the cathode end of the
diode. Output of half -wave rectifier is not a constant DC voltage. For most
power application, half wave rectification is insufficient for the task.

## 3. Compare the output voltage waveform of full-wave rectifiers for

resistive load with ideal dc voltage waveforms

## The output voltage waveform of full-wave rectifier circuit using a centre

tapped transformer. This circuit uses just two diodes each one conducting on
alternate half cycles. The positive side and the output waveform notice that the
output ripple is now doubled.

CONCLUSION

In a nutshell, we have learnt about the waveforms of the input and output
voltages of half-wave and full-wave rectifiers for resistive load. We also can
compare the output waveforms of half-wave and full-wave rectifiers for