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Step 1 Associations: NBME

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1. 2-napththylamine Carcinogenic component of 19. Congenital CMV Hearing loss, seizures, petechial rash
cigarette smoke--Transitional cell
20. Congenital Cataracts, deafness, PDA
carcinoma (bladder, renal pelvis)
2. Acyclovir/Gancyclovir Guanosine analog (inhibits DNA
21. Congenital Chorioretinitis, hydrocephalus, intracranial
MoA replication)
toxoplasma calcifications
3. Alcohol metabolism Pyruvate-->Lactate and OAA--
22. Corticosteroid Decreases bone formation by inhibiting
causes hypoglycemia >Malate inhibits gluconeogenesis
effect on bones osteoblast differentiation
23. Cranial nerve Hearing loss (most commonly acoustic
4. Amphetamine effects Pupillary dilation, fever,
abnormality a/w swannoma)
5. Amphotericin B side Fever/chills ("shake & bake"),
24. Cri-du-chat Deletion on small arm of Chr 5
effects hypothension, nephrotoxicity, IV
25. Cytokeratin, Mesothelioma markers
6. Apical displacement Ebstein's anomaly (Lithium
of tricuspid valve teratogenicity)
26. D2 receptor Ropinirole, pramipexole
7. Aripiprazole unique D2R partial agonist rather than
agonists (non-
property antagonist (less risk of EPS)
8. Baclofen GABA-B agonist
27. Denervation Any denervated muscle becomes
9. Bacteria with capsular H. influenzae supersensitivity supersensitive to its normal
polysaccharide neurotransmitter (e.g. no response to
polyribitol-phosphate drugs requiring intact nerve terminal, but
exaggerated response to
10. Bacteria with GAS
neurotransmitter itself)
hyaluronic acid
capsule 28. Digoxin Tx A-fib by stimulating vagus nerve --> AV
antiarrhythmic nodal block
11. Bacteria with Bacillus anthracis
polypeptide capsule
(D-glutamate) 29. Dipyridamole Increases extracell concentration of
adenosine (stress test use) and inhibits
12. Benzene effect on Aplastic anemia (hypocellular
TXA2 synthesis
bone marrow marrow with fatty infiltration)
30. E. Coli: Transfer Conjugation
13. Beta-thalassemia Point mutations in splicing sites or
of DNA
mutations promoter sequences leads to
defective mRNA processing 31. Energy source Glucose (no mitochondria)
used by RBCs
14. Borrelia: taxonomy Spirochete, bigger so that it can be
during starvation
visualized using Wright or Giemsa
stain in light microscopy 32. Excessive biking Erectile dysfunction due to pressure on
in men perineum damaging blood and nerve
15. Cause of cancer T-cell mediated cytotoxicity
supply to erectile tissue (internal
pudendal artery and pudendal nerve?)
16. CMV histology Large cells with "owl's eye" nucleus
33. Ferruginous Asbestos exposure
and cytoplasmic inclusion bodies of
viral particles
34. Foscarnet MoA Pyrophosphate analog (viral DNA
17. CMV: immune evasion Downregulates Ag peptide
polymerase inhibitor, does not require
presentation by producing protein
activation by viral kinase)
that binds MHC I in ER and reroutes
to cytosol for proteasomal 35. Fracture of Axillary nerve damage
degradation surgical neck of
18. Cocaine MoA Inhibits catecholamine reuptake
(indirect sympathomimetic)
36. Glucagon Activates hormone-sensitive lipase 51. Positive cold Mycoplasma (high IgM titers)
action on hemagglutinin test
adipocytes (bacteria)
37. G proteins GTP to change conformations 52. Positive urine copper Presence of reducing sugar in
require ___ to reduction test urine
53. Positive urine glucose Presence of glucose in urine
38. HPV E6 protein p53 oxidase test
54. Protein A Staphylococci virulence factor,
binds Fc-IgG, inhibiting
through ___
complement fixation and
39. IVDU: Granulomatosis (lung nodules) due to phagocytosis
pulmonary contaminants (cocaine, heroin)
55. Receptor for M3 (ciliary muscle)
40. Ketamine Dissociative anesthesia (PCP analog, blocks
56. Receptor for pupillary M3
effects NMDAR), disorientation, hallucination,
cardiovascular stimulant
57. Receptor for pupillary alpha 1
41. Location of Endoplasmic reticulum
calcium stores 58. Recurrent bacterial Bruton's agammaglobulinemia (BTK
infections after 6 defect blocks B-cell differentiation)
42. "Lower More common in males
months (normal
threshold of
neonatal period)
liability" in
males means... 59. Reticuloendothelial Mononuclear phagocyte system
system (spleen, marrow, other tissues)
43. LPS causes TNF-alpha
shock 60. Reye's syndrome Aspirin metabolites inhibit
through.... mechanism mitochondrial enzymes decreasing
44. Mutation a/w p53
low-grade 61. Risk of ureteral Ovarian or uterine artery and
astrocytoma damage when ligating... ductus deferens (ureters pass
under these structures)
45. Nephrotic Membranous glomerulonephritis (most
syndrome a/w common one in adults) 62. RNA-dependent DNA HIV
drugs (gold, polymerase
captopril) 63. Salk vs. Sabin vaccines: Both induce bloodstream IgG; only
46. Neuroblastoma Child with abdominal mass (tumor of immunity Sabin induces mucosal IgA (similar
adrenal medulla or sympathetic chain), to intranasal vs. injected flu
opsomyoclonus, elevated HVA and VMA, vaccine)
small blue round cell histology 64. SHiN organisms: Transformation
47. Nickel allergy Contact dermatitis (type IV) Transfer of DNA

48. Organs that Brain and heart 65. Site of Only liver and small amount in
use ketone gluconeogenesis kidneys
bodies for fuel 66. Skin necrosis in Arthus rxn: local type III
49. Paroxysmal Bordetella pertussis: inhibits Gi --> incr. location of tetanus hypersensitivity rxn dt Ag-Ab
cough with cAMP --> inhibits chemokine receptor booster complexes activating complement
lymphocytosis (PMN chemotaxis and oxidative 67. Substrates for hepatic Lactate, alanine, adipose tissue
metabolism) causing lymphocytosis gluconeogenesis glycerol, and propionyl-CoA
50. Period of Early diastole 68. Symptoms of Irritability, diarrhea, tachy, weight
maximal thyrotoxicosis loss, muscle wasting
69. T1DM histology Cellular necrosis and lymphocytic
artery filling
infiltration in beta islets
70. T2DM histology Amyloid deposits in beta islets
71. Transient myocardial ischemia Myocyte swelling due to decreased ATP --> decr Na/K exchange --> accum of intracell
causes...due to... Na and Ca
72. Tyramine action Indirect sympathomimetic, displaces NE into synapse
73. Virulence factor of cryptococcus Capsular polysaccharide
74. Zileuton vs. Montelukast MoA Zileuton blocks 5-lipoxygenase; Montelukast blocks LT receptor