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RESILIENT BRIDGEPORT

CLAIM THE EDGE, CONNECT THE CENTER


WB unabridged w/ Yale ARCADIS
RESILIENT BRIDGEPORT
CLAIM THE EDGE, CONNECT THE CENTER
1 OVERVIEW 3
2 FRAMEWORK FOR RESILIENCE 16
3 INVESTMENT AREAS 23
4 IMPLEMENTATION 61
5 COMMUNITY ENGAGEMENT 75

A BRIDGEPORT ATLAS 87

T TECHNICAL SECTIONS 116

LETTERS OF SUPPORT 133

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RESILIENT BRIDGEPORT
CLAIM THE EDGE, CONNECT THE CENTER
The proposal combines natural and fortified solutions to
facilitate more resilient forms of inhabitation in the places
most at risk from severe storms. It asserts, too, that living
and working along Connecticuts coastline and waterways
is not only necessary, but that is possible to do so with an
incremental and integrative approach that restores the
environment, strengthens connectivity, enhances the
regional economy, reduces long-term risk, and restores
the centrality of the citys waterways and downtown to the
citys identity.

In this way, Bridgeport can become a model for other


cities along the Long Island Sound and throughout New
England.

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OVERVIEW

1 OVERVIEW
1.1 PROTOTYPE FOR THE REGION
Strategies for Coastal Cities

1.2 PRINCIPLES
Integration : Exchange : Identity

1.3 PROPOSAL
Integrated Strategies for Four Investment Areas

1.4 WHY BRIDGEPORT?


Proud Past : Resilient and Prosperous Future

1.5 TEAM, PROCESS, AND APPROACH

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OVERVIEW

1.1 PROTOTYPE FOR THE REGION

Bridgeport is an sound that are projected to inundate


the coast periodically will reveal the
opportunity to find geography of Bridgeport to consist
strength at the waters of peninsulas and islands, just as
New Orleans or a Dutch polder can
edge and to reconnect be characterized as a bowl. Islands
the urban core to the are the areas of high ground along the
coast that will remain dry, while pen-
citys neighborhoods. insulas are the upland areas bounded
and defined by riparian corridors.
A Place of Exchange Urban Core
Stormwater flows from upland ar- Bridgeport is one of the few urban ar-
eas, bringing with it sediments, nu- eas in Connecticut that are poised to
trients, and pollutants. Tides push A city central to the
capture growth as baby boomers age Long Island Sound
in and out, and storm surge lifts the out of suburban settings and millen-
Long Island Sounds waters up and nials are forecasted to be less like-
over coastal boundaries. The coastal ly to desire suburban (or ex-urban)
ecology and economy exist because housing removed from downtown
of the exchanges that are only possi- shops, amenities, and cultural activi-
ble at this juncture. Along the other ties. Focusing on Bridgeport as a pro-
axis, transportation infrastructure, totypical de-industrialized mid-sized
utilities, and information networks American city and what that city, its
link Bridgeport to regional markets infrastructure, and its public realm
and centers. Coastal hydrology, too, might look like in the future is fun-
sweeps sediment and other materi- damental to the Resilient Bridgeport
als along the coastline, constantly proposal.
reshaping the line between land and
water.

City of Peninsulas
At the most extreme, sea level rise
and the influx of waters from the
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OVERVIEW

1.2 PRINCIPLES

Three basic principles Exchange


Facilitating the flow of materials and
underlie every project in people along the coast is critical to
the Resilient Bridgeport the regional economy and ecology.
Building extensive walls and flood-
proposal. gates will inhibit or obstruct flows,
such as fish swimming upstream to
spawn. A variegated edge that pro-
Integration tects critical facilities but maintains
The integration of multiple lines of and even enhances flows between
defense and resilience provide re- land and water and along the coast
dundancy and higher levels of safety. will provide greater long-term bene-
Berms, floodwalls, and surge gates fits.
provide critical surge protection, and
are complemented by offshore break- Identity
water reef and wetland systems. In- Connecting the citys residents to
termediate and internal measures and along waterways and waterfronts
ranging from green infrastructure to restores the centrality of water to
hazard mitigation strategies such as Bridgeports identity. Further, doing
home elevation improve overall re- so connects residents to local and re-
silience, as do resilience and design gional ecologies and provides oppor-
centers that also serve as catalysts tunities for improved quality of life
for urban revitalization. and economic development.
In times of storm, some of these cen-
ters double as shelters that are ar-
mored against floodwaters, winds,
debris impacts, and other hazards.
They provide continuity of opera-
tions for services such as communi- Integrated Riparian, Urban,
cations, drinking water, power, heat, and Coastal Strategies
and wastewater.

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1.3 PROPOSAL

Integrated Strategies for Restore Ecology


Enhance habitats and both coastal
Four Investment Areas and riparian ecosystems.

Resilient Bridgeport integrates ripar- Install Green Infrastructure


ian, urban, and coastal strategies to Combine stormwater capture with
be implemented over the next thir- filtration and streetscape improve-
ty-five years. The design team has ments.
drawn and quantified Phase One
projects in four economic develop- Direct & Divert Flood/Surge
ment and environmental restoration Implement structural measures to
zones: Black Rock Harbor, South protect against floodwaters.
End, Downtown Bridgeport, and
throughout the Lower Pequonnock Remove, Elevate, Mitigate
Watershed. These projects provide Make space for floodwaters with
locations where innovations with- proven mitigation measures.
in the resilience framework can be
tested and integrated with existing Support Enterprise
assets and planned infrastructure in- & Development
vestments. Provide education, job-training, and
sites for innovation and development.
There are two project types: imme-
diately practicable projects that can
be constructed in the near term, and Provide Housing &
more advanced concepts that require Community Services
a feasibility study or further planning Provide resources for transforming
to pave the way for development and underserved neighborhooods.
implementation in the coming years.
Provide Implementation
Together, the strategies and projects
that comprise the Resilient Bridge- Mechanisms
port Framework are designed to: Facilitate collaborative processes to
achieve Resilient Bridgeport goals.
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The Phase One proposals


are located in four
investment zones that
define the citys most
vulnerable areas:

South End
Along the land side of Olmsteads
Seaside Park, a multipuprose berm
protects the neighborhood with its
historic buildings and developments
including the University of Bridge-
port, and continues west through
the park and north towards Down-
town. This new landscape feature,
combined with an onshore treatment
park and offshore living shoreline,
adds value and creates opportunities
in spatial as well as risk reduction
terms. Resilience is embedded at the
center of community here.

Black Rock Harbor


Technical innovations to protect
the Eco-Industrial Park, including a
later-phase Bridge with Integrated
Surge Protection, set the next stan-
dard. The Elevated Infrastructure
Corridor network is a key public in-
vestment with large stormwater and
utility distribution benefits, the first
step in a series of needed public and
private adaptations. These include
phased improvements for the P.T. Projects for 2015
Barnum housing complex up the cor-
ridor above the Offshore Treatment The proposal outlines 10 projects
that can be implemented today
Park, and for the utilities and indus- using proven technologies.
trices that abut the harbor. This area
is the battery that powers Downtown.
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Downtown alyzes a string of improvements that
Cars, trucks, and trains pass through nurture resilience. Conditions and lo-
Downtown, the locus of Bridgeports cations needed for economically pro-
health and resilience. The ferry con- ductive aquaculture are prioritized as
nects at the Port across the Sound to room is given back to the flood plain.
Long Island. Yet too few people stop The network of East Side Green
and walk, shop or eat here. In an era of Streets mitigates runoff and pollu-
concurrent globalization and region- tion, demonstrating watershed bene-
alism, given Bridgeports proximity fits at neighborhood scale. Repetitive
to Manhattan, and its centrality to loss properties near the intersection
the busy NYC-Boston corridor, there of the river with US 1, where a mar-
are many opportunities to attract and ginal shopping center is built on top
guide development in the city. Protec- of the confluence with Island Brook,
tion and connection are provided by are targeted for reorganization, to
a Waterside Promenade that coordi- allow daylighting the water system,
nates and aligns with train platforms commercial revitalization, upscaling
in current or shifted locations. Long and reorientation of development to
term Northeast Corridor highway and the water, and the creation of a new
rail system relocations need further upland entry for Bridgeport.
study, though benefits to Downtown
are evident. An Urban Design Center,
operating in conjunction with univer-
sities will focus on smart adaptation
strategies and implementation of
the Resilient Bridgeport framework.
Foremost is to give Bridgeport back
its bridges, and to begin by rebuild-
ing the Congress Street Bridge. This
vital investment will regenerate com-
merce, the lifeblood of resiliency, by
restoring the lost connection from
the East Side and Washington Square
to Downtown, marked by a new Con-
gress Green where the bridge touches
down at Middle Street.

Pequonnock
Rarely is a river so ripe for reclama- Plans and Feasibility
tion as the Pequonnock. Connecting Studies
water and park systems from the Ol-
msted-designed freshwater Beards- An additional 5 plans and studies
round out the Rebuild by De-
ley Park to brackish Seaside Park cat- sign proposal for Bridgeport.

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OVERVIEW
Phase One projects
are the basis for a
comprehensive resilience
framework with four key
elements.

Hard Lines
Protective Infrastructure Links Com-
munities
Natural and fortified solutions com-
bine to create a stronger edge in the
places most at risk during storms.
Through multiple layers, the commu-
nity finds safety, retains insurability,
and thus gains opportunity. These
Hard Lines Soft Lines
living lines of defense extend and
prolong habitation along waterfront
edges, are integral with the topogra-
phy, bathymetry, and geology of the
coastal zone, and are designed for
adaptation to changing situations.

Soft Lines
Pequonnock River, Inland Water-
ways, and Offshore Habitats
The Pequonnock River Watershed is
an ideal area for integrative and com-
prehensive water-based planning for
redevelopment.
Through targeted restructuring and
rezoning of land uses within the wa-
tershed, opening up and reclaiming
the Pequonnock River, as well as
other impaired inland streams, risks
will be reduced, development value
increased, ecological functions im-
proved, and Bridgeport revitalized. Resilience Centers Economic Lines

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OVERVIEW
Centers
Resilience Education and Design
Resilience education and design cen-
ters are located at key points where
systems intersect, and where they
can provide maximal benefits to the
safety, ecology, social conditions,
and economy of the neighborhoods
where they are located and the city
as a whole. Each of these projects
is specific to the local conditions of
landscape and neighborhood, but to-
gether establish prototypes for the
New England coastline, so that the
strength of these project concepts
extends to neighboring communities
such as Stamford and Norwalk, New
Haven and New London.

Growth
Neighborhood Revitalization and
Economic Development
Like other similarly-sized, post-in-
dustrial cities, Bridgeport faces many
obstacles to revitalization with low
employment rates, a stagnated hous-
ing market, and many blighted prop-
erties. Of the citys 12.9 square miles
of parcel area, nearly a 1/4 are tax ex-
empt. This and the citys boundaries
establish the geographic constraints
on the citys tax revenues, and ne-
cessitate more economic productivi-
ty throughout the city and especially
along its waterfronts. The goal is a
staged revitalization for Bridgeport
and its communities, its economy, Resilient Bridgeport
and its ecology through increased
connection, innovation, production, A comprehensive plan and process
and exchange. that integrates environmen-
tal and economic objectives.

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Phase One Projects

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1.4 WHY BRIDGEPORT?

The city is a sound place Northeast Corridor: 35 million riders


on the rail line, 54 million people on
for investment and Interstate 95, and 1 million ferry pas-
innovation. sengers commuting across the Sound
each year. There are diverse options
for connecting to nearby communi-
History ties, Boston, and New York City.
The culture of innovation is strong
here, with metalworking and textiles River Runs Through It
driving the Industrial Revolution, The system of regional greenway
first flight in 1901, and contributions trails that connect neighborhoods
as the Arsenal of Democracy during along the Pequonnock and Yellow
World War II. The legacy of P.T. Bar- Mill Rivers is growing. The 2011
nums election as Mayor in 1875 en- Parks Master Plan designed by Sa-
dures, and his designs for the city as saki Associates forms the blueprint
a civic leader and entrepreneur guide for extending parks and open space
development even today. throughout the city.

Diversity and Skills Model City Initiatives


There is a rich history of welcoming Bridgeport has a record of successful
immigrants and talents, beginning completion of award-winning model
with the founding of the International projects, including the remediation
Institute of Bridgeport in 1918. There of the former Barnum Winter Head-
are over 70 languages spoken in quarters to become a park; making
Bridgeport, and a wealth of cuisines, affordable housing sustainable; com-
religions, and cultures represented munity training workshops in envi-
in the citys restaurants, people, and ronmental justice; and design awards
University of Bridgeport students. for a fish ladder and streamside buf-
fers along the rivers. The Eco-Indus-
Regional Connections trial Park at Black Rock Harbor is a Park City, City on the Water
The city is a crossing point, and a showcase for waste stream diversion Bridgeport exists at the junc-
multimodal transit hub within the and renewable energy projects. ture of coast and river.

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1.5 TEAM, PROCESS, AND APPROACH

Gulf Coast experience, lines of defense providing higher mental in shaping the focus and con-
levels of risk-reduction. A water- tent of the design teams work. Each
extensive community shed-based planning approach yields event has been an opportunity to
engagement, and an an integrated resilience framework share water management strategies
for coastal communities with similar and principles for resilient design
integrative approach. geology and topography, while iden- with the community, to empower cit-
tifying key interventions for each izens to engage in the conversation
Waggonner and Ball, unabridged landscape type and opportunities about their citys future, and to build
Architecture, and the Gulf Coast for economic development and envi- together towards a shared vision and
Community Design Studio bring 24 ronmental restoration. The team is implementation strategy.
years of combined experience living testing the resilience framework at
in, working with, and designing for specific sites, finding ways to orient
disaster-affected communities along people to the landscape and flow of
the Gulf Coast of the United States. water. This framework suggests spac-
Yale University and ARCADIS pro- es and places that not only provide
vide additional expertise in ecology, safety and services in times of storm
urban and landscape design, coastal but also instruct people on how to
engineering, and stormwater man- transition to a way of living and thriv-
agement, as well as specific knowl- ing with water.
edge of the Long Island Sound and
the Northeast Atlantic region. For the design team, integrating the
design process and community en-
Process gagement efforts has allowed for the
At the city and regional scales, the participation of diverse local and re-
team has mapped risks, assets, and gional stakeholders in the develop-
land use to determine the value of ment of a resilience framework for
varying forms of interventions along Bridgeport. Workshops with commu-
the Connecticut coast and densely nity partners, ongoing conversations
settled I-95/Metro North Railroad with government officials, design
Corridor. Interventions considered charrettes with critical stakeholders,
and a series of public open houses Design Charrette
are for a variegated edge of hard and
soft protection zones with multiple and educational activities with both Discussing the Pequonnock at the
youth and adults have been instru- All-Scales Workshop on 2/28.

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OVERVIEW
Approach provide a vision for the future that not as strategic investments for to-
Resiliency planning, like all efforts might be, as an inspiration and goal. day. They however inform all strate-
to plan for the future, is by defini- gies that are proposed.
tion speculative, balancing the pres- What We Have Not Done
ent and preparing for the unknown. The Bridgeport team has not used We have not asked that grand plans
When faced with forecasting mod- the worse climate and flood condi- be completed wholesale, in toto (even
els of global warming, population tions predicted for the next century, when in fact that might be the most
growth and migration, fossil fuel de- although we modeled this as a sce- cost effective or efficient way to
cline, habitat degradation, or shifting nario. We have suggested solutions proceed), and proposed instead an
economic trends, the variables over- that are immediately implementable, icremental approach that minimizes
whelm all formulae. The team also that are incrementally expandable, disruption to communities and viable
knows that cataclysmic events can and that are based on a slightly more industries, and that initiate projects
change the model at any moment. knowable prediction span (say 20-30 over time to engender social and fi-
years). These solutions assume con- nancial momentum.
The team has seen predictions of ris- tinuing monitoring with an enhanced
ing seas and more frequent and se- feedback cycle, and that more im- What We Have Done
vere weather events, from droughts provements will take place over time, The Bridgeport Design Team has
to storms to deluge. The team has as new events unfold. prepared a comprehensive resiliency
predictive models of surge elevations plan for a coastal city that address-
of 21 feet at the Connecticut coast We have not asked that great or im- es water management from inland
by the year 2100. We see popula- mediate investments be made in proj- to sea, and integrates ecological re-
tion projections for a Bridgeport with ects that involve entrenched regional sources with social resources and
twice the current population by the political and financial structures that economic development.
same time. Railways predict ridership will take years to unwind even if some
increases of 50% in the near future. are essential. For example, even as- We have devised structural, bio-dy-
We see utility companies planning to suming automobile travel remains in namic, hydrogeological, and econom-
move from one fossil fuel to anoth- its current form, the interstate will ic tools to resolve urban resiliency
er while new co-generation efforts need to change. As it migrates away problems in infrastructure, housing,
evolve. We saw predictions for infor- from the shoreline, we see a by-pass city planning, and habitat.
mation technology that made work that will reunite Bridgeport as a major
We have proposed a series of cata-
commutes and educational campus- economic tool. Similarly the removal
lytic projects that use those tools in
es obsolete, while in fact commutes of raised rail traffic through the cen-
an incremental manner as part of an
are slowing and campuses expand. ter of the city has been a common de-
overall approach, that over time will
We see that trends in demographics velopment phase for growing cities.
create a safer, more ecologically re-
have validity for a generation or two The creation of an underground com-
sponsive, energy efficient and eco-
at best. We see few trends toward a muter rail, new stations, and a new
nomically vibrant Bridgeport. This
more egalitarian or supportive so- light rail at-grade transit system have
will be a model city for New England
ciety. Few of the predictions we see the potential to serve as tremendous
and America with a strong downtown
today will become reality, and for economic engines that cannot be ig-
core, identified by cohesive neigh-
those that do the timeframe is likely nored. But for now those alterations
borhoods, vibrant waterfronts, inter-
decades or even beyond this centu- are deferred. We present these only
laced parks and waterways, and new
ry. Yet planners must guess, we must as visions of what perhaps should be,
economic opportunities.

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2 FRAMEWORK FOR RESILIENCE


2.1 RISKS AND OPPORTUNITIES

2.2 INTEGRATION, EXCHANGE, AND IDENTITY

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2.1 RISKS AND OPPORTUNITIES

The top five hazards and most dense city in Connecticut,


with the greatest diversity of ethnic
listed in the 2012 backgrounds, will flood regularly.
Bridgeport Climate The city has the most socially vul-
nerable population in the state, and
Preparedness Workshops more affordable housing than neigh-
Findings Report are all boring cities. Critical infrastructure 2014
will be inundated or inaccessible,
related to water in excess including two power plants (coal and
as floodwater, or in waste-to-energy), two wastewater
treatment plants, two hospitals, plus
shortage during times of a downtown financial center, hock-
drought. ey arena, ball park, university, and
several theaters and concert venues.
Not unlike many other communi- Transportation systems, including
ties in the Northeast, Bridgeport is the Metro-North Rail and Interstate
a land-constrained, property tax-de- 95, will be regularly interrupted, and
pendent municipality. The City will the one-week shutdown in 2012 from
be hard-pressed to limit development Hurricane Sandy will occur all too
in floodplains or coastal impact areas regularly. This will impact not only
unless its plans for development are the 35 million riders of the rail line
supportive of a clear strategy to si- annually and the 54 million commut-
multaneously add value and increase ers each year that use the interstate
the productivity of the upland areas to get to work and other services, but
will cause broader disruptions to the
that remain. Any discussion of risk
and opportunity must take these con- food distribution and other critical 2050
ditions into account. networks.
The Emergency Operations Center Floodplain and Storm Surge
Climate Change activated 250 times in 2010, and Modeled 100 year storm today
What is at stake: without protection, 48,000 residents (20% of the pop- and in 2050 with anticipat-
by 2100, large swathes of low-ly- ulation) are recommended or re- ed sea level rise of 2.19.
ing land across the most populous quired to evacuate in severe storms.
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FRAMEWORK FOR RESILIENCE

Although Hurricane Sandy in 2012


was a merely a Category One storm
when it came ashore in Connecticut,
6,000 residents of Bridgeport used
the citys shelters.
Disruptions to regional supply chains
and power interruptions caused se-
rious complications for local indus-
tries. Sikorsky and other local indus-
tries have suffered from this, which
is one of the reasons for the develop-
ment of decentralized alternatives,
including the solar array and the fuel
cell projects. Ensuring the continuity
of operations at the district scale is
critical to maintaining industrial and
commercial functions in the city.

Opportunities
Bridgeport provides clear opportuni-
ties to demonstrate resilience mea-
sures that allow for the continued
inhabitation of the coastline, while
protecting critical historic and in-
frastructural assets, enhancing the
regional ecology and economy, and
building the strength of the citys Value in the Flood Plain
neighborhoods and urban core.
There is close to $4 billion in assessed property value
along with numerous critical assets and facilities rang-
ing from power and sewage treatment plants to the
University of Bridgeport located in the floodplain.

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2.2 INTEGRATION, EXCHANGE, AND IDENTITY

Integration favorable for species suited to low benefits because improved water
wave energy environments. In some quality supports regional fisheries
places this buffer will allow beaches and local tourism industries provid-
Resiliency is increased with the in- or marshes to develop. The shellfish, ing a potential for more economic
tegration of natural and engineered marsh grasses, and sea grasses that development by providing the seeds
lines of defense. With all engineered can then take root will improve wa- with which to promote commer-
structures there remains the possi- ter quality by trapping sediment and cial shellfish aquaculture across the
bility of failure. Where lives are at and taking up nutrients that would Sound.
stake, it is necessary to create multi- otherwise pollute the Sound, whille
ple lines of defense to accomodte un- providing food and habitats to oth-
certainties and changing conditions. er species. The living shoreline will
help remediate the pollution from the
Outer Lines of Resilience citys combined sewer overflows and
Creating a strong outer layer of de- urban run-off, and potentially efflu-
fense is critical to reducing storm ent from wastewater treatment facil-
damage as it can reduce wave heights ities as well.
and wave energy protecting the land
behind. Between the water and the Along with the environmental bene-
engineered flood defense a natural fits of the living shoreline, building
buffer will improve the effectiveness the outer layer of protection with liv-
of flood defenses and reduce their ing organisms such as mussels, oys-
maintenance costs over the lifetime ters and other filter feeders provides
of the structures as high water levels an organic system that will be able
and wave action are reduced. to adjust to changing sea levels and
environmental conditions, and that
The natural buffer or living shore- can repair and rebuild itself after a
line provides several ecological disturbance. This lessens the need
functions. Between storms the for repeated repair and reinvestment Coastal Protection
buffer reduces wave energy, which after a storm. Areas of high ground, such as the
slows rates of erosion and changes landfill seen in the background
the pattern of sediment accumula- The benefits to environmental quali- of this Black Rock Harbor pic-
tion, creating habitats that are more ty and biodiversity improve environ- ture, can be incorporated into
mental quality and have economic coastal protection systems.

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Living shorelines will add to the ex- rates. Longer term, modification of
isting artificial breakwaters at the the park design (such as replacing the
mouth of Bridgeport and Black Rock concrete boardwalk with a shell or
Harbors, which will soon be reno- gravel path) would reduce the vulner-
vated by the Corps of Engineers. ability of the park.
Bridgeport is fortunate to have two
large natural buffers along its coast Intermediate measures
including Pleasure Beach and Wild- Across the southern edge of the city
life Sanctuary protecting the East an internal line of defense is pro-
End and Seaside Park protecting the posed to protect against increasing-
South End. These natural defenses ly-common severe weather events.
reduce wave heights and wave energy This line of defense will provide mul-
when water levels rise above a normal tiple benefits to the community be-
high tide. tween storms, and will be designed
to double as a continuous pedestrian
Pleasure Beach is a particular- and bicycle path along the entire city
ly strong asset because the barrier waterfront from Black Rock Harbor
beach can move and migrate to adjust to Pleasure Beach.
to new sea levels or storm regimes.
However, there are certain areas that Improving the existing drainage sys-
are vulnerable to a breach (despite tem is important to avoid internal
the presence of groins) which could flooding and to manage stormwater in
reduce the flood protection provided both ordinary and large storm events.
to low-lying areas in both Bridgeport Updating the citys drainage system
and Stratford. This should be moni- is an expensive and time consuming
tored and future dune construction process. The city is in the beginning
or beach nourishment may be need- stages of a $300 million project to
ed. separate their combined sewers. Giv-
en available resources the project
Seaside Park directly protects South will not be completed until around
End residents. The park, however, 2040. Green infrastructure along
was damaged during Sandy and rep- with improvements to engineered in-
resented the largest single expense frastructure provides a more flexible
for the city following the storm. This approach that can begin to reduce
damage was due in large measure to flooding issues in the short term.
the lack of natural buffer between Targeted areas are where increasing
the concrete sea wall and the Sound. infiltration and diversion of surface Coastal Buffers
The wall remains vulnerable to ero- run-off will have the greatest impact Bridgeports Seaside Park and
sion and future failure, despite the on reducing the pressure on the ag- other natural and man-made
riprap placed at its base. To protect ing combined sewer network and may landforms along the coast buf-
Seaside Park, it is necessary to fo- be able to reduce the level of public fer coastal neighborhoods
cus on reducing wave impacts at the against the direct wave action
investment required to address the of the Long Island Sound.
waters edge and reducing erosion
20 RESILIENT BRIDGEPORT CLAIM THE EDGE, CONNECT THE CENTER WB unabridged w/ Yale ARCADIS
FRAMEWORK FOR RESILIENCE
issue of combined sewer overflows. ers and estuaries that feed the Sound.
This natural system is the framework
The installation of green infrastruc- for economic and social systems. En-
ture throughout the city also creates hancing the exchanges between the
immediate co-benefits for individual ecological, social, and economic sys-
neighborhoods by improving air and tems is improves the overall health
water quality, and reducing the urban and resiliency of the city.
heat island effect. More importantly
increasing access to green spaces has Design for Resiliency
been shown to be beneficial for pub- Flood protection structures offer
lic health by encouraging a more ac- places for social interaction and re-
tive lifestyle and improving environ- sources to serve the community.
mental quality. Green infrastructure Green streets provide filtration for
has also been shown to have a bene- stormwater, bike lanes, and sidewalks
ficial effect on property values in the for informal recreation as well as so-
adjacent parcels. cial connectivity. Aquaculture jobs at
the waters edge recall the manufac-
Internal Measures turing of the past, but point to a more
The innermost layer of defense is sustainable future for food produc-
constructed at the building scale. It tion in cities. Higher density devel-
is the last bastion against the storm. opment along the waterfront revives
Shelters are armored against flood- awareness of waterways as prominent
waters, winds, debris impacts, and features within the city, and provides
other hazards. A shelter is the place opportunities for social contact at
to go for safety when ones own house common spaces, promenades, and
feels flimsy and insecure. Ideally, restaurants along the edge.
these are located outside of the flood
zones, but in a city of peninsulas, like Distributing community centers
Bridgeport, where people may be cut throughout neighborhoods, instead
off from help, they must create their of centralizing them at one spot, cre-
own high ground through siting and ates redundancy and greater contact
design, and also by providing conti- between citizens, government, and
nuity of operations for services such community organizations. Resil-
as communications, drinking water, ience centers are part of an expand-
power, heat, and wastewater. ed network of exchange, with plac-
es to go for information, education,
Exchange food, daycare and healthcare. These
Internal measures
facilities should become part of the
everyday life of the community so Both green infrastructure, such
The Long Island Sound is an estuary
that people are not afraid to go there as these features on the Fairchild
of national significance and histori- Wheeler Campus, and innovations
when storms threaten.
cally was productive because of the in architectural design provide
unique conditions created by the riv- for greater levels of resilience.

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FRAMEWORK FOR RESILIENCE
Identity sound, can once again become a key
aspect of the citys identity. Bringing
the rivers edge to life with landscape
Bridgeports identity was once inex- and with social spaces will change
tricable from its working waterfront. the identity of the river from a sense
The exchanges between social, eco- of loss and neglect to one of life and
nomic and ecological systems made care. The proposals for Bridgeport
places of commerce. As commerce seek to create an identity that values
relocated away from the waterfront water and makes places of exchange.
to places shaped by automobiles and Integrated lines of resilience are also
as industry became more mecha- places of social and ecological ex-
nized and isolated the waterfront lost change, thereby re-creating Bridge-
much of its importance. The project ports identity as a living waterfront.
seeks to restore places of exchange
that connect people to the water in Resilient Bridgeport inscribes a sin-
multiple ways. Bridgeports future gle, unbroken line connecting the
identity can create new places to live, Phase One projects to the citys ex-
work and play along the water with isting waterfront assets, from Black
integrated and resilient systems. Rock in the southwest, along the edge
of the Sound and up the Pequonnock
The new working waterfront identity at Congress Street, to the coast-
is not the single-use industrial mod- al protection project underway at Ash Creek
el of the past. The new identity is a Steele Point Harbor in the East Side.
complex multi-use waterfront con- Later phases will build on this line, One of the beautiful places of
ecological and social exchange
necting Downtown to the Pequon- and protect the East Side all the way that characterize the coast-
nock River and to the coast with to Pleasure Beach, where a new water line where natural habitats are
intensified and continuous social, taxi service will begin operations this maintained. Ash Creek is central
commercial and recreational spaces. summer, in place of one of the broken to the identity of the adjoining
Just as successful cities in the twen- bridges in Bridgeport. Black Rock neighborhood.
tieth century have adapted industrial
Securing the waterfront for public ac- Water Assets
areas into multiuse cultural, educa-
tional, recreational, and commercial cessibility is a critical component of Bridgeport has a wide range of
centers, Bridgeports waterfronts this plan, resulting in an 8-mile long waterfront assets, and Resilient
can be made into intensified multi- necklace of green spaces, marinas, Bridgeport seeks to protect,
use places suited for the twenty-first low-impact corridors and recreation- enhance, and connect these as-
al trails, and opportunities for eco- sets so that the citys waterways
century. The new integrated layers and waterfronts are once again
of protection can increase the places nomic development. Ranging from central to the citys identity.
of exchange and bring the waterfront historic neighborhoods to modern
to life ecologically as well as socially developments, traversing this water-
and economically. The Pequonnock front edge brings people into contact
River, which was once a living, natu- with the best of Bridgeport.
ral system connecting the city to the

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INVESTMENT AREAS

3 INVESTMENT AREAS
3.1 SOUTH END
Protecting the Community

3.2 BLACK ROCK HARBOR


Powering the City

3.3 DOWNTOWN
Connecting the Center

3.4 PEQUONNOCK
Claiming the Edge

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INVESTMENT AREAS: SOUTH END

3.1 SOUTH END

Protecting Assets States worst performing schools and S.1 Multifunctional Berm
is part of a locally defined target area
and Transforming the for comprehensive neighborhood
Neighborhood transformation that has a poverty
S.2 Living Shoreline
rate over 50%, an unemployment
rate over 35%, a vacancy rate in resi-
Bridgeports South End is a place dential properties of over 50%, and a
with both spectacular resources and concentration of crime. Our proposal S.3 Neighborhood Transformation with
extreme challenges. It is the home of
the Frederick Law Olmsted-designed
protects the many assets in the South
End and uses strategic investments to
Resilience Education and Community
Seaside Park and numerous other support the transformation initiative Center
buildings and districts recognized proposed by the Housing Authority
by the US Department of Parks and of the City of Bridgeport and a host
Historic Preservation to have nation- of local collaborators.
al significance. The neighborhood is
within a short walk to downtown, a The South End is one of the most
Metro-North and Amtrak rail station, vulnerable parts of the city. The low
the beach, universities, YMCA, and peninsula is exposed to storm surge
numerous services and resources. and at increasing risk due to sea lev-
There are several strong faith-based el. It is occupied by over 8,000 peo-
communities, a thriving University of ple, including students, public hous-
Bridgeport, and active and engaged ing residents, and othervulnerable
residents and other stakeholders populations. The neighborhood is
with Marina Village, Seaside Village, host to industrial uses next door to
the Freeman Homes and other his- historic homes, including grand man-
toric sites. However, the closing of sions, tiny cottages, and the Free-
many area industries and the demo- man Homes. Sweeping views include
lition of the notorious Father Panick Frederick Law Olmsteds Seaside
Village public housing has left the Park and the exclamatory red and
community with expanses of crum- white striped smokestack of the coal
bling buildings and vacant lots. The plant. The South End offers the most
community also sends students to the vibrant contrasts in Bridgeport.

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INVESTMENT AREAS: SOUTH END
The center of the neighborhood is pated 6 sea level rise. The berm is
Park Avenue, where showman and placed along the northern edge of the
Mayor P.T. Barnum marched his hors- park to minimize the impact on the
es and acrobats, elephants and side- 1867 design of Olmsteds lyrical ge-
show performers. The street follows ometries, rolling greens, and groves
the ridge line to the double stone of shade trees. Sections of the berm
gateway at the entrance to Seaside incorporate Waldemere Avenue atop
Park. Park Avenue forms the locus the berm, plus sidewalks and bike
of commercial services for the neigh- paths. Geotubes filled with sand and
borhood, which have declined in re- soil form the basis of the berm struc-
cent years. ture, with sloped and stepped edges
for access. The berm is customized
Neighborhood revitalization depends to work around existing features -
on knitting the fabric of he neighbor- houses, trees, roadways and thereby
hood back together. With a current create safe development areas along
population of 8,400 (including stu- the waterfront. The inland alignment
dents at the University of Bridge- of the berm also allows the elevation
port), the one square mile area could of the berm to be low relative to the
support increased population if ade- surroundings because of the rapid as-
quate coastal protections are put in cent in elevation as one moves away
place. Infill around the historic dis- from the waterfront.
tricts of Seaside Village, Barnum-Pal-
liser, Railroad Avenue Industrial Resilience Education and
District, Cottage Development, and
Marina Park in scale with the context Community Center
can include three-story rowhouses The South End Resilience Center is
and other multi-unit configurations, proposed to be located on the high
including apartment buildings and ridge of Park Avenue, and to employ
renovated mill structures along the technical solutions for high-perfor-
edges and Park Avenue. mance construction that is elevated,
floodproof, and self-sufficient. It
Multifunctional Berm protects the 12,600 residents and
The addition of a berm provides employees within the South End,
coastal protection at an elevation of and repairs the broken windows at Historic Assets at Risk
17, which provides protection from the gateway to the neighborhood. It
is also visible from the rail line and Seaside Village and the Olm-
a 100 year urge today, in contrast to sted-designed Seaside Park
the current elevation of Seaside Park interstate. The location within the are two of the beloved histor-
at 3 to 5 feet, which is sufficient to South End increases access to many ic assets that are at constant
protect against a near term 100 year services, creating greater economic risk from floodwaters due to
capacity within the neighborhood. their location on the coast.
surge. The height of the berm will be
increased to 21 feet by the year 2050 The Center provides a mix of uses
to protect against the the antici- to support 400 transformed public

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INVESTMENT AREAS: SOUTH END
housing units at Marina Village and of Bridgeport. which is under a con-
the rest of the South End, includ- sent decree to replace all of the units
ing uses such as a workforce train- of the demolished Father Panick
ing center, fresh food co-op, health Village public housing. The Author-
care clinic, senior activities and child ity has reached an agreement with
care. Possibilities include apprentice- Connecticut Legal Services and the
ships and vocational training for ret- Residents Association to replace all
rofitting buildings, weatherization, 406 units of Marina Village Housing.
green stormwater infrastructure, HUDs Demo/Disposition order is the
flood-proofing, sustainable energy first step toward moving ahead with
infrastructure, and environmental redevelopment. As new development
remediation. A shelter capacity of and rehabilitation occur, tenants will
1,500 people within the classrooms be located to new homes. The capi-
and lecture halls for emergencies tal structure for the project includes
is anticipated. The design propos- private equity from the developers
al includes 35 one-bedroom units of (JHM Companies, POKO Partners,
elderly/disabled housing within the and Bridgeport Neighborhood Trust),
South End Resilience Center, built so FEMA funding, low-income tax cred-
residents can shelter in place. The its, and Connecticut Housing Finance
complex creates a neighborhood hub Authority bonds and Department of
with an active plaza and streetscape. Housing loans. This will restore hous-
ing for the 1,200 or so residents of
Features that promote self-sufficien- Marina Village, some displaced since
cy are critical to the centers success. Hurricane Irene. Physical redevelop-
For example net-zero energy use re- ment of Marina will be paired with
duces demand so that emergency sit- assistance for homeowner improve-
uations can be met with onsite solar ments in the area and other support
energy and a recycled battery fuel for mixed-income development.
cell, harvested rainwater keeps the
toilets flushing and treats effluent, Connection to Downtown
and secure communications ensures Along the eastern edge of the South
connectivity for building residents. It End the landscape is reconfigured for
is a place where neighborhoods resi- water retention, protection of vital
dents can recharge and make contact. resources, and environmental safety.
Neighborhood A combined sewer overflow (CSO) Opportunities
Transformation Park will create a vegetated filtra-
Vacant housing units and prop-
The South End investment leverages tion system for combined sewer and erties provide opportunities for
the planned $150,000,000 redevel- stormwater outfalls, an important transforming the neighborhood.
opment of public housing at Marina element in the protection of water
Village, severely damaged by Sandy quality for recreation at Seaside Park
by the Housing Authority of the City and for future aquaculture indus-

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INVESTMENT AREAS: SOUTH END
tries offshore. It also establishes a through the urban area. The pro-
buffer between PSEGs coal-power posed top level is at 17 elevation
peak demand plant, which is project- to protect the historic districts and
ed tobe replaced by gas-fired gen- structures. As for the berm, it will be
eration within this decade, thereby raised to to 21 by 2050. Additional
shrinking the plants footprint from funding may be pursued through FTA
50 acres to approximately 20 acres. and ConnDOT for evacuation routes.
Phytoremediation in areas adjacent
to the park can assist in the remov-
al of heavy metals caused by decades
of coal storage and burning. A living
shoreline for coastal protection just
offshore will reduce wave energy and
protect functions of this area, as well
as provide a framework for oysters
and other mollusks and fish species.
Green streets funnel stormwater
from the South End to the CSO Park
for filtration before release. The City
of Bridgeport anticipates pursuing
grants from EPA, USDA Watershed
Protection, DEEP revolving fund for
clean water, and Long Island Sound
Futures funding to acquire, con-
struct, and restore this area, along
the Nature Conservancy, of the Resil-
ient Bridgeport coalition.
Singer Street Redevelopment cre-
ates a secure platform for continued
industrial operations and new devel-
opment along the eastern edge of the
South End. The elevated roadway and
smart utility corridor will serve as an
evacuation route during emergencies,
and as a conduit for utilities includ-
ing potable water, sewer, stormwa-
ter, power, and communications. It
also functions as an extension of the Assets
Seaside Park berm that connects to
the proposed wontwon Floodwall in Historic Seaside Park and a
order to pride contiuous protection strong community are trade-
marks of the South End.

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INVESTMENT AREAS: SOUTH END S.1.1 MULTIFUNCTIONAL BERM
A berm integrated into the Seaside Park
landscape that is designed for the current
worst case 100 year Base Flood Elevation of
17
adaptable to meet future BFE standards rather than building to
those standards today
allows for overtopping without failure of system
elimination of existing road and replacement with berm and bike
path on top as a new connection through the South End neighbor-
hood and Seaside Park
slopes of 1:3 for ease of maintenance

S.1.2 ELEVATED SINGER STREET


Elevation of current roadway by three feet with
an integrated 4 floodwall on the water side
protects historic assets

S.1.3 FEASIBILITY STUDY FOR


ONSHORE CSO PARK
Explore possibility to integrate treatment
park into buffer zone between industrial and
residential areas
An Integrated Berm study feasibility of redorectomg CSO outfall that currently drains
into the Harbor
The berm is integrated into the ex-
isting contours of the land to mini- develop concept for a multifunctional treatment park that doubles
mize its impact on the community.
as a green corridor supporting adjacent mixed-use development

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INVESTMENT AREAS: SOUTH END

S.2 LIVING SHORELINE


Offshore breakwater structures along the
South End waterfront that provide wave
attenuation to allow for lower retaining heights
of storm surge features in the South End, and
to provide a reef structure to support aquatic
wildlife
building out the full alignment of the breakwaters alongside Sea-
side Park creates the potential to use the Living Shoreline as a
water treatment corridor
breakwater creates a low-energy environment on the land side
which allows for wetland formation, counteracting the loss of
wetlands due to sea level rise and development
structures can be built using the re-use of clean dredge materi-
als in geo-textile tubes, such as materials that are dredged from
Bridgeport channels/harbors as well as nearby cities along the
Sound
The Living Shoreline is a cost-effective concept that has been
studied and proven worldwide

Living Shoreline
Offshore breakwaters pro-
vide wave attenuation and
ecological benefits.

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INVESTMENT AREAS: SOUTH END

S.3 NEIGHBORHOOD
TRANSFORMATION WITH RESILIENCE
EDUCATION AND COMMUNITY CENTER
A resilience center that serves the
neighborhoods 12,600 residents and
workers with a wide range of community-
driven programming, and as a catalyst for the
transformation of the neighborhood at a key
gateway to the area
center provides uses ranging from workforce training and fresh
food co-op to healthcare clinic, senior activities center, and child
care
during severe weather, center provides shelter capacity for 1,500
people, with services made more resilient through self-sufficient
utilities
provides a model for resilient architectural strategies
leveraging of planned $150 million redevelopment of public
housing at Marina Village, which was damaged during Hurricane
Sandy

Shelter
The resilience center provides a
place for neighborhood residents
to evacuate to that is close to
home, top left, while new develop-
ment can be designed to allow for
sheltering-in-place, bottom left.

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INVESTMENT AREAS: SOUTH END

New, Safer Development


Strengthening the coastal pro-
tection and water management
infrastructure of the South End
provides opportunities for safer
forms of coastal inhabitation.

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INVESTMENT AREAS: SOUTH END

South End Transformed


The neighborhood, University of
Bridgeport, and historic Seaside
Park are protected with integrated
lines of resilience, with improved
connections to downtown. Orange
lines diagrammtically indicate
perimeter lines of defense.
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INVESTMENT AREAS: SOUTH END

Raised infrastruc- Berm along inland edge Develop green Living Shoreline and South End Resilience
1 ture corridor
2 of Seaside Park
3 infrastructure
4 5
CSO Park Study Center and Neighbor-
along Singer hood Transformation
Street

Bioretention gardens,
constructed wetlands,
sand filters, permeable
Protects the historic parking, tree plantings, and
community from future bioswales will reduce CSO Layering soft and hard Provide catalysts for
sea level rise
COMMUNITY and improve water quality infrastructure at different neighborhood revitalization
heights will attenuate
waves, and protect land
Green streets and Blue
behind it
streets will improve
ECOLOGY appearance of streets Study CSO Park potential
to improve water quality
Constructed wetlands
behind the wall and future
CSO parks on the outside Commercial aquaculture
of the wall will improve creates future job
Berm connects with
water quality opportunities
adjacent high ground of
the University of
Bridgeport creating new
pedestrian network

URBANISM
Bike path on berm increases
connectivity to the
downtown area

FIRST STEPS

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INVESTMENT AREAS: BLACK ROCK HARBOR

3.2 BLACK ROCK HARBOR

Black Rock Harbor is The following proposed projects are B.1 Offshore Outfall Park with Study for
important to the overall Resilient
a place for making and Bridgeport plan as well as to provid- Onshore Mitigation and Neighborhood
powering the city. ing access, accommodating sea level Transformation
rise and storm surge, and maintain-
ing services within this critical link
The Harbor is the most visually dis- between the neighborhoods and
tinctive area in Bridgeport. It fea- households of Bridgeport. B.2 Elevated Infrastructure Corridor
tures the photogenic 1823 Black
Rock Harbor Light on Fayerweather Offshore CSO Outfall Park
Island that protected mariners from
the shoals by serving as a beacon to
This is one of several locations in the B.3 Comprehensive Feasibility Study for
lead ships into Cedar Creek. It still
city where storms cause the release
of untreated raw sewage, up to 70
Bridge with Integrated Surge Protection
guards the entrance today. million gallons a year. The concept
But while Cedar Creek remains an is fully proven, though performing
active hub for barges filled with fuel this feat offshore offers an innova-
oil, waste materials, rock and gravel, tive twist. A well-designed reef and
the lands at its verge are low and sus- wetland structure can treat up to the
ceptible to flooding. Private compa- annual 2-year rain event; current-
nies that rely on access to waterways ly, even a 0.2 year event leads to an
and roads for their transfers and the combined sewer outfall (CSO) into
Citys Eco-Industrial park that spe- Black Rock Harbor.
cializes in sustainable processing Recreational paths offer an oppor-
and renewable energy generation are tunity to create an attractive water-
located here. Critical infrastructure front for the Black Rock and West
is at risk including the waste-to-en- End/West Side communities, adjoin-
ergy plant that processes 250,000 ing the popular Captains Cove. It is
tons of garbage per day, a sewage also an opportunity for interpretive
treatment plant, a mattress recycling exhibits, especially in conjunction
facility, and a fuel cell power genera- with the Aquaculture Science and
tor. None of these are easy to relo- Technology School nearby.
cate.

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INVESTMENT AREAS: BLACK ROCK HARBOR
The project pairs an investment in an er level, which serves as a model for
innovative offshore treatment wet- transitioning facilities in coastal flats
land with a study for onshore miti- to less susceptible elevations while
gation and neighborhood transfor- remaining in place.
mation. Because CSOs are caused
by excess runoff, addressing the root Comprehensive Feasibility
cause is of equal importance. Inte- Study for a Multi-functional
grating possibilities for transform-
ing the P.T. Barnum housing complex Bridge with Integrated
with green infrastructure and broad- Surge Protection
er neighborhood objectives provides As severe weather accelerates, there
opportunities for finding innova- is an urgency to research the feasibil-
tive solutions that address multiple ity and technical function of a surge
needs. gate to reduce risks of future storm
surge events in the Black Rock Har-
This effort is an immediate-term solu- bor and bordering communities such
tion to address current conditions in as Black Rock and the South End.
Cedar Creek; to address storm surge The result of this study will be the
in the future, other measures need to basis for the first multi-functional
be taken and will be studied, such as bridge with integrated surge protec-
B.3, below. tion in the US. The multifunctional
bridge will become an attraction, a
Elevated Infrastructure best practice of how the human fac-
Corridor tor is combined with structural pro-
Elevating roads and utility corridors tection through good design.
are an innovative approach to address
future sea level rise. This is the first Three different alignments will be
step in creating a resilient Eco-Indus- studied for the configuration of raised
trial Park, which is a centerpiece of infrastructure along Black Rock Har-
the citys many sustainability initia- bor. The study will determine the
tives. New stormwater drainage dis- necessary level of flood protection
connects stormwater flows from the for the inner harbor and vicinity. The
sewer system, dramatically reducing flood gates will allow traffic in and
the potential for untreated sewage out during normal operation, but
releases. will be closed to resist storm surge
during severe weather. Curved gates
Implementation will begin with one beneath the walkway provide an aes- Critical Infrastructure
street as a pilot, and eventually be ex- thetic element to the structure. The
tended to additional streets through- sheet pile foundations are hidden to Black Rock Harbor is home
blend with the surroundings. Each to one of Bridgeports sewage
out the area so that all industries that treatment plants, and also the
become part of the Eco-Industrial gate can be lifted out for major main- popular Captains Cove marina.
Park eventually build to a higher saf- tenance, reducing interruptions to

35 RESILIENT BRIDGEPORT CLAIM THE EDGE, CONNECT THE CENTER WB unabridged w/ Yale ARCADIS
INVESTMENT AREAS: BLACK ROCK HARBOR
waterway traffic.
The bridge provides a connection to
Seaside Park from the Black Rock
community, and a direct link for the
South End community to the nearby
Fairfield Metro train station. The
walkway bridge allows easy access to
the gate surface for repairs. It also
functions as an emergency route for
pedestrian evacuation in the event of
disasters.

A Place for Making, A


Place for Innovation
Bridgeports Eco-Industrial Park
is a centerpiece in Bridgeports
many sustainability initiatives,
especially in regards to power gen-
eration. The Aquaculture Science
and Technology campus is also
located adjacent to the harbor.
Here students learn skills ranging
from water quality analysis and
kelp farming to boat-building.

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INVESTMENT AREAS: BLACK ROCK HARBOR B.1.1 OFFSHORE OUTFALL PARK

A pilot for reef and wetland structures that


clean water in a working coastal landscape

designed to treat up to the annual 2 year rain event, and some of


the 70 million gallons of untreated raw sewage that are released
each year, while cleaning water flowing through adjacent Cedar
Creek even when it is not raining (currently, a 0.2 year event leads
to a CSO into Black Rock Harbor)
CSO treatment offshore is innovative, while being a relatively low
cost measure with simple filter-feeder reef construction using
dredged materials that allow for the formation of marsh in the
low-energy area behind the reef structure
improves aesthetics of waterfront area without impeding Cap-
tains Cove boat traffic to and from marina
provides educational opportunities for adjoining neighborhood
and Aquaculture Science and Technology School
Other Soft, Non Structural Stabilization B.1.2 STUDY FOR ONSHORE
MITIGATION AND NEIGHBORHOOD
Use natural, nonstructural, or biodegradable materials TRANSFORMATION
Typically use in low-energy environments (tidal creeks, Development of a transition strategy for
tributaries, streams, rivers) neighborhood transformation that integrates
January 2001 April 2004
green infrastructure and hazard mitigation
reorganize land use and related zoning to buffer current residen-
tial areas from elevated industrial uses, esp. P.T. Barnum Housing
adapt infrastructure from grey to green systems

Creating Wetland Habitats


Reef structures double as
breakwaters that allow for the
formation of salt marshes.

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INVESTMENT AREAS: BLACK ROCK HARBOR

B.2 ELEVATED INFRASTRUCTURE


CORRIDOR

Bostwick Avenue pilot for a network of


elevated street and utility corridors in the
EcoIndustrial Park and surrounding areas

innovative approach to adddress sea level rise in coastal flats


lift road and utilities 3, integrating with existing road and drain-
age reconstruction initiatives
70 R.O.W
PRECAST CONCRETE UTILITY TRENCH
new stormwater drainage pipe allows for disconnection of both
PROPERTY LINE

PROPERTY LINE

public and private paved surfaces to reduce runoff, while serving


4 as a best practice for the rest of the city
SMART INFRASTRUCTURE CORRIDOR
ADJACENT BUILDING VARIES
potential for integration into broader surge protection alignment
POROUS PAVEMENT

POROUS PAVEMENT

PLANTED BANK

for Black Rock Harbor and the South End in later phases
UTILITY TRENCH

UTILITY TRENCH

10 LONG?
PRECAST CONCRETE

PRECAST CONCRETE
ROADWAY

6-8

10 6 6 26 6 6 20%
+5
VARIES
0-3 0-5 EXISTING GRADE

UTILITY LINES
0 5 10 15 20 GRAVEL ROAD BED + FILL EXISTING 72 CAST-IN-PLACE CONCRETE FOOTING
SEWER LINES

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INVESTMENT AREAS: BLACK ROCK HARBOR

B.3 COMPREHENSIVE FEASIBILITY


STUDY FOR BRIDGE WITH INTEGRATED
SURGE PROTECTION

A study is needed to assess all aspects relating


to the protection of the Black Rock Harbor and
adjoining communities in the future
study will examine different measures for protecting Black Rock
Harbor and water-related critical facilities that form the Bat-
tery that powers the city
study will develop thorough benefit-cost analyses to compare
alignment alternatives
inovation in the concept of a multifunctional bridge with an inte-
grated surge gate -- first of its kind in the US
bridge will serve as pedestrian connection Seaside Park and the
Black Rock community, and also provide a direct link to the near-
by Fairfield Metro station
potential surge study will examine design possibilities for enhancing the human
protection alignments factor, including aesthetics and daily use of the structure

Innovative Surge Protection


There are not yet any surge
gates in the United States that
are also designed to provide
connectivity across water as a
publicly-accessible bridge.
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Elevated Infrastructure
An elevated street and utilities
along the southern edge of Cedar
Creek can double as flood pro-
tection with which to prevent
storm surge from entering the
low-lying areas of the South End.

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INVESTMENT AREAS: BLACK ROCK HARBOR

Black Rock Harbor


Offhsore reef and wetland
structures improve water quality
year-round while the addition of
a surge barrier at the mouth of
the harbor provides critical assets
and coastal neighborhoods with
protection from storm surge.

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INVESTMENT AREAS: BLACK ROCK HARBOR

Raised road and Construct offshore out- Green Infrastructure for Identify and market Feasibility study for
1 utility corridor
2 fall park
3 stormwater reduction
4 5
development sites storm surge protection

Improve water quality

New evacuation route


makes neighborhood Add and replace at higher
safer ground portion of PT Reduce long term risk
Barnum housing of flooding

New development can


tie into the raised utilities
ECOLOGY Develop green streets,
bioswales, rain gardens and
corridor and attract
industries that benefit
pervious parking areas to from or require access
New park incorporated increase stormwater retention to water and access to
into embankment and infiltration and reduce other amenities of the
COMMUNITY Promotes this area as run-off to CSO EcoTechnology Park
an Eco Industrial Park.

Green street connects Fairfield


URBANISM Ave to the Aquaculture School
and to the Cove
Reduces risk for new
investors

FIRST STEPS

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INVESTMENT AREAS: DOWNTOWN

3.3 DOWNTOWN

Downtown is the most Lower Floodwall D.1 Lower Floodwall


The Singer Street Redevelopment
critical piece of the citys creates a secure platform for new de-
resilience velopment from the eastern edge of
D.2 Upper Floodwall
the South End to the railroad. The
extension of the elevated Singer
All roads (and bridges, and tracks, Street in S.1.2 to Downtown provides
and other systems) lead to the central an elevated smart utility corridor D.3 Congress St. Bridge and Green
business district. Downtown is the that serves as an evacuation route
financial and governmental center and emergency acces to and from
of the city, where business decisions the South End during emergencies, D.4 Design Center and Community
are made, where deals are struck, and and provides a new conduit for util-
where thousands of people could live ities including potable water, sewer
Development
and work. and stormwater, power, and commu-
nications. The top of this corridor is
As Downtown becomes more attrac- initially set at 17 elevation to protect D.5 Transportation and Investment Plan
tive to residents who value the con- the historic districts and structures
venience of walking to work, cultur- behind from sea level rise. Additional
al attractions, and the train station, funding may be pursued through FTA
more services will coalesce here. and ConnDOT for evacuation routes,
Downtown is experiencing the begin- although this is not a state route.
nings of a renaissance and it is the
primary candidate for locating thou- Upper Floodwall
sands of new residents over the next Continuing along the rail line to
75 years. Space for additional units downtown and up to the Congress
and services must capitalize on the Street Bridge, the upper floodwall is
waterfront and the relatively steep a waterside promenade on two lev-
topography that lifts downtown out els: a lower walkway to bring people
of the floodplain. into contact with the waters edge
that includes mooring for ferries and
visiting pleasure boats and a higher
level to maintain access during emer-

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gencies that links to the level of the at the terminus of Middle Street, pro-
station platforms and provides an un- viding a common open space for the
paralleled lookout onto the river and State Superior Court, Fire House, and
harbor. The project marries safety the Majestic Theatre. This landscape
with economic development by incor- feature will encourage private devel-
porating places for new restaurants, opment of vacant lots in this area,
attractions, and waterside amenities. further activating the north edge of
downtown.
Congress Street Bridge and
Green Downtown Design Center
Reconnecting the severed neighbor- Downtown is the center of govern-
hoods of Downtown and the East Side ment and business, so locating addi-
is a critical piece of Bridgeports eco- tional resources for the implementa-
nomic recovery. The Congress Street tion of resilience planning is desirable
Bridge was frozen in an upright po- here. The Design Center will be a
sition in 1997 and finally removed in place for design professionals to con-
2010. The bridge approaches lead tinue implementing projects; provide
to nowhere and businesses on both technical assistance for moving, ret-
sides of the missing span continue to rofitting, elevating, and floodproof-
suffer from the 16-year interruption. ing structures; and to build capacity
within the city to modify policies to
This proposal calls for a restored promote resilience. The Center will
bridge for bicyclists, pedestrians, provide a stopping point for visitors
and vehicles. $1.8 million in funding and a meeting point for public offi-
was received for a pedestrian/bicycle cials, neighborhood residents, aca-
link that would be lifted in and out demics, students, and planning pro-
with a crane at the times when wa- fessionals.
terborne commerce requires access
to the Pequonnock River. Excluding One potential site is on the ground
vehicle crossings, however, would not floor of the City Trust Building, with
restore the full capacity of this vital 1929 Art Deco-style offices recently
transportation link for both everyday converted into modern apartments
use and connectivity during emer- (although other downtown sites may
gencies. be considered as long as they are
outside of the 2100 projected flood
and surge zone). The Center would Downtown Bridgeport
A full sevice bridge is necessary to
connect Downtown with the original include the following program ele-
suburb of Washington Square Park, ments:
first set aside in 1851. The shaded
square on the East Side will be bal- Mapping of the City of Bridge-
anced by a New England-style town port, incorporating all current
green on the west side of the bridge available information materials
and displaying images of the en-
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tire city or specific neighbor- station, and includes a parking
hoods through arrays of wall garage for 295 cars.
monitors and computer kiosks.
This information could be used This center will provide public educa-
generically as a guide to local tion and community capacity-build-
attractions, restaurants, wayfin- ing services, as well as an off-campus
ding, etc, as well as for the pro- design center to assist property own-
fessional and academic pursuit of ers directly. Although it will work
resilient design and planning. closely with the City of Bridgeport,
it could be operated by two univer-
Exhibition spaces for display of sities: the University of Connecticut
materials pertaining to resilience Landscape Program, and Yale Urban
tools and techniques (floodproof- Design Workshop. Long-term opera-
ing, wall sections, rainwater tional funding for this non-profit will
harvest, solar energy, etc) and be from the universities, and from
current development issues and foundation grants.
projects.
Transportation and
A flexible 80-seat hall for formal
public meetings and presenta- Investment Plan
tions. Recognizing that the regions rail
and highway infrastructure is both
Conference Room for meetings vulnerable to coastal storm impact
with property owners, neighbor- and impedes evacuation between
hood groups, etc. coastal and inland neighborhoods,
these large aging systems will need
Workspace for 10 staff members, to be addressed. As both the high-
case managers, interns, and a di- way and the rail cut across the City
rector. of Bridgeport, they consume acres of
potentially developable land, much
Loft bedroom space for six stu- of which is outside of the flood-
dents, interns, or travelling fel- plain and represents opportunities
lows. to strengthen the urban fabric in re-
Support space restrooms, show- silient ways. Additionally, the rail
ers, janitor, kitchen, and storage takes a circuitous route through the
space. city, adding significant travel time to
those navigating the Northeast Corri-
To encourage pedestrian and bi- dor. Any travel time savings between
cycle use, parking for 250 and New York and Bridgeport would bring
renting facilities would be avail- this city closer to the orbit of the eco-
able for commuting and recre- nomic driver that New York is, and
ation. The proposed City Trust increase the likelihood of spillover
site is within 450 of the train activity and back office locations.

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A rail realignment could simultane- periods.
ously reduce travel between Boston
and NYC providing benefit to all of The parking garage adjacent to the
New England, increase rail utiliza- train station, for example, forms an
tion reducing carbon emissions from excellent shelter location. Its unusu-
transportation, increase economic al design, with flat floors and exte-
prospects for Bridgeport by bringing rior walls, creates the ideal base for
it closer to Stamford and New York a temporary shelter that addresses
City, free up land for economic de- another concern of evacuees -- the
velopment in and around downtown desire to remain with their pets, their
in upland areas outside of the flood possessions, and their families. Of-
plain, and remove a barrier to evacua- ten, their most valued possession is
tion during times of disaster between their vehicle, so keeping it with them
lowland and upland neighborhoods is critical during the evacuation peri-
of the city. od.
The design team convened a spirited Transit Shelters need a hardened
discussion of the future of transporta- core to keep people safe during the
tion during the All-Scales Workshop event, modified to add sliding hurri-
to identify the scope of the problem, cane shutters over the existing ven-
but appropriate solutions will require tilation windows. At each level, re-
more time and careful study. strooms and showers are added to
serve a capacity of approximately
The Phase One request is to fund a 200 people per floor. The corner
Transportation and Investment Plan. towards the public plaza becomes a
DOT funding for major projects is visual reminder of the fluidity of re-
allocated until approximately 2050, silience, and the changes it petitions
so there are no short-term projects. our cities to make.
A strategy which looks at the future
configuration of Interstate-95, the A solar canopy providing 0.8MW en-
Amtrak line, and how existing infra- ergy will ensure uninterruptible pow-
structure might be reconfigured for er, and a rainwater collection tank
local access will consider the draw- will maintain wastewater service. A
backs of relocation, but also the ben- backup communication base station
efits: the interstate alone occupies makes this a dependable hub, and ex-
85 acres of downtown. tends wifi for the area. A bridge con-
nects the garage to the upper level of
The plan will also examine the use of the train platform, ensuring safe pas- Critical Transit Lines
Transit Centers as an existing net- sage even in flood conditions. Along the Down-
work of state-owned resources which town Waters Edge
may be modified to provide shelter
during crises, as long as they do not
interfere with service during normal

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D.1 LOWER FLOODWALL

A protective floodwall elevated to 17 that


connects from the elevated Singer Street in
the South End to the existing railroad station
downtown
level of protection provided is for the current 100-year Base
Flood Elevation
floodwall is designed with integrated high promenade, which al-
lows for continuous public access along the riverfront

D.2 UPPER FLOODWALL

An extension of the Lower Floodwall, also at


the 21 elevation, from the railroad station to
Congress St.
level of protection provided is for the current 100-year Base
Flood Elevation + anticipated sea level rise for 2050, which pro-
vides the highest leveel of protection for the citys urban core
Provides continuous line of protection that facilitates develop-
ment along the riverfront
features both high and low promenades, as shown in the render-
ing, above left, that reconfigures the rivers edge to encourage
public inhabitation and commercial activity along the waterfront

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D.3 CONGRESS ST. BRIDGE AND GREEN

Re-establishment of a critical link between


Downtown and East Side neighborhoods

restores pedestrian and automobile connections across the Pe-


quonnock at important juncture at the urban core
replacement bridge was allocated for $40 million federal dollars
in 2010, but project stalled
two designs were developed and cost estimated; a recreation of
the concrete and steel bascule bridge and a slender, arching steel
bridge with generous pedestrian and bicycle lanes

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INVESTMENT AREAS: DOWNTOWN

D.4 DOWNTOWN DESIGN CENTER AND


COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT

A center for facilitating implementation of the


Resilient Bridgeport framework, for design
Concept sketch for education, and resilience research
interior of Downtown
Design Center continues the community-engaged design process initiated by Re-
build by Design, with collaboration of institutions of higher learning
manages a high-production program for resiliency improvements
and rehabilitation
researches and develops cost-effective strategies for resilient con-
struction
develops and supports a network of neighborhood-based resiliency
services and shelters facilitated by a small grant program
located in a rehabbed downtown building to serve as catalyst for
downtown redevelopment

Precedent: Gulf Coast


Community Design Studio

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D.5 TRANSPORTATION AND


INVESTMENT PLAN

A plan for reimagining the future of transit


in Bridgeport, including the possibility of
publicly-owned parking garages serving also as
resilience centers.
review and catalog current and projected regional transportation
system.
focus and remap as relevant current and projected system and
alternatives.
assess impacts on Bridgeport and environs
develop and assess alternatives for multi-modal transportation
hub/station.
plan development of the station area, with connections to and
through new infrastructure, Downtown, East Side and South End.
identify priority properties for development.
identify network and systems for future and locations of key el-
ements.
identify long-term opportunities for redevelopment with rail and
highway alternatives.
identify mid-term targets for enhanced economic and environ-
mental performance of Downtown
develop design and implementation plan for parking garage resil-
ience center

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Downtown
Looking upriver, with a new
riverfront train station, Con-
gress St. Bridge, and oyster
beds in the distance alongside a
consolidated industrial area.

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City Campaign for City establishes ease- HUD Funding for critical
1 Connecting
2 ment to create initial
3 connections in loop
Downtown loop

Rebuild Congress Street Bridge


Remediates riverfront and Green
and improves water
quality, to facilitate other Railroad esplanade to provide
Connect Neighborhoods future uses. architectural passage connecting
downtown to the Stratford Ave
COMMUNITY Bridge and Ferry terminal

Wall behind Sliver by the River to


become a pedestrian bulkhead and
terraced edge along the rail line
ECOLOGY
Reduces emissions by
Greenway floodwall with waterfront
improving access to train
walkways along the northern part of
and bus station &
the Sliver by the River
facilitating walking & biking
Terraced Floodplain Park to allow
access down to the rivers edge
and ramps up to Washington
Street Bridge connecting parks to
streets.

URBANISM Design Center for housing


Increases connectivity to rehabilitation, design for coastal
the downtown area. resilience, and urban development.
Focus on foreclosed housing
redevelopment.

FIRST STEPS

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INVESTMENT AREAS: PEQUONNOCK

3.4 PEQUONNOCK

The Pequonnock River runs from


the Town of Monroe -- approximate-
falls continue to impact water quali-
ty. Adverse impacts on this river and
P.1 East Side Green Streets
East Main, Arctic, Barnum
ly 15 miles north -- through the city within its watershed area -- including
of Bridgeport and down to the har- the addition of impervious surfac-
bor in the southwestern portion of es, soil compaction, and vegetation P.2 Lower Pequonnock Design and
Connecticut and out into Long Is- removal in sensitive watershed ar- Implementation Plan
land Sound. Land use within the eas -- have broader ecological impli-
watershed varies from undeveloped cations and exacerbate stormwater
or lightly-developed areas near the runoff issues. These changes to the
headwaters in Monroe, portions of built environment reduce water in-
which serve as a backup drinking wa- terception, evapotranspiration, and
ter supply; to low- and medium-den- infiltration and increase the quantity
sity residential and commercial uses and lower the water quality of runoff.
through Trumbull and the northern Inadequate handing of runoff loads
portions of Bridgeport; and finally to by conventional infrastructure places
downtown and former industrial and Bridgeport at greater risk for receiv-
manufacturing uses near the mouth ing polluted water which not only has
of the river at Bridgeport Harbor. ecological implications, but impacts
Multiple towns and over 15,000 acres human health and well-being as well.
of land fall within the Pequonnock
River watershed. The river is tidal through most of
the city, including the industrialized
Historical land uses, including heavy areas south and east of Boston Ave-
industry and manufacturing, im- nue and including Island Brook Ave-
pact the quality of the water, which nue down to the River Street Bridge.
currently does not meet minimum The river transitions into freshwater
standards for recreation or habitat above Bunnells Pond dam. In fact,
for fish, or other aquatic life, and the park and dam in Glenwood Park
wildlife along approximately 80% of are pivotal for the city. Thus, the lo-
the Pequonnock River. Urbanization cation of Beardsley Park, an Olm-
patterns and post-industrial brown- sted-designed park, crucially links
field sites and contamination along the upper freshwater suburban and
with multiple combined sewer out- rural portion with the lower estuary
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below the dam-med portion of the East Side Green Streets
Pequonnock. The Beardsley Zoo and Downstream flooding along the Pe-
Park function as a portal to the city quonnock is tied to upstream imper-
where the regional community vis- vious surfaces, storm events and tidal
its for park and zoo programming. action. The dominant land use within
Originally, fish made their way up the Pequonnock floodplain in Bridg-
into the watershed but the dam and port is industry, though many indus-
other obstructions have deterred fish tries have left and what is left behind
passsage. A recently constructed fish are vast industrial brownfield sites.
ladder creates some opportunities Neighborhoods surrounding the Pe-
for alewife and other fish to move up- quonnock have limited access to the
stream. riverfront. Part of the proposal is to
recapture riverfront along the Lower
The communities of the Great- Pequonnock River through redevel-
er Bridgeport Planning Region are opment efforts following the lead of
working to implement a regional the recently redeveloped Knowlton
bikeway plan, Pequonnock Valley to Street Park brownfield site. We are
the Sound, which includes the de- proposing to build on these redevel-
velopment of a continuous 16-mile opment catalyst sites along the water
multi-use trail from the Newtown/ with green streets that can tie infill
Monroe town line to Bridgeports and rehabilitated housing within the
Water Street Dock. Much of the trail neighborhoods to the east of the
follows the abandoned and inactive ship and explore opportunities to re- Bunnells Pond
Pequonnock back down to the river
Housatonic Railway line and the Pe- organize and redevelop commercial
corridor, and serve as a catalyst for The Pequonnock River has a scenic
quonnock River Greenways and rec- and industrial zone around US High-
broader economic development. quality in Beardsley Park at the
reational trails, however, the trail is way 1, converting property owners to northern end of Bridgeport that
currently obstructed by Highway 1 shareholders. disappears rapidly beyond the
and Chopsey Hill Road.
Lower Pequonnock Design dam at the lower end of Bunnells
and Implementation Plan Alongside the goal of initiating flood Pond, which poses a challenge to
Resilient Bridgeport recognizes the The proposal includes the develop- plain excavation strategies and pro- fish swimming upstream, despite
grams to decrease risk, improve ecol- the addition of a fish ladder that
value of the Pequonnock as a con- ment of a plan that reenvisions the is visible in the mid-ground.
fluence of multiple natural and man- entire length of the Lower Pequon- ogy, and enhance aquaculture for
made systems that can become a nock. water quality treatment, we are also
model for adaptive urban ecosystem seeking to reconnect Bridgeport to
design that benefits the social (recre- A large interconnected park and con- its upland watershed neighborhoods.
ational, educational), economic (sus- nected bike path system is seen as a To do so, we propose a new and en-
tainable business, aquaculture, and critical connector linking Olmsteads hanced fish ladder connecting over
design center), and environmental Beardsley Park to the north to Sea- the existing dam and a complemen-
(remediation of the riparian water- side Park along the harbor via reme- tary native fish hatchery with alewife
shed to improve the health of the riv- diated brownfield sites along the Pe- and american eel introduced to help
er) aspects of the Long Island Sound quonnock to Sound. To phase these promote fish migration upstream. Es-
and enhance the quality of life and proposed redevelopment strategies tablishing viable habitats in Bridge-
the wildlife that rely upon them. we plan to catalogue property owner- port will put pressure on upstream
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communities to reduce obstructions values of fisheries. The aquaculture
and improve fish habitat. To sup- and fisheries components provide
port this agenda, we are proposing to added value within the Beardsley
model the Pequonnock River water- Park system, where plans for future
shed including interactions of coast- access and educational participation
al surge, urban stormwater, and river are in place including demonstration
flows. We will evaluate and propose projects for schools in the region
strategic daylighting projects for the (e.g. Fairchild-Wheeler Inter-dis-
Pequonnock River and Island Brook trict Magnet High School Biology/
as well as the inland buried river, the Zoology concentration, Bridgeport
Ox Brook combined with proposals Aquaculture High School, Trumbull
for dry feet and wet feet develop- Agri-science/Biotechnology Region-
ment types. Our watershed study is al High School, Discovery Magnet
intended to help towns coordinate Middle School, local colleges and
around habitat improvement as well universities, etc.). The location of
as to promote proactive land use Beardsley Park provides easy access
changes including opportunities for for all of the surrounding municipal-
transfers, using sending and receiv- ities via the highway system and the
ing zones. The daylighting proposals Rail to Trail Project, which encourag- commercial and industrial establish- Abandoned Riverfront
will be combined with approaches to es pedestrian-friendly and complete ments with a goal of generating de-
The Pequonnock was once a
improve hydrologic function and to streets designs. The proposals that velopment plans for a commercial thriving industrial corridor.
explore energy generation and cap- we are making all complement and zone along US Highway 1/Boston Av-
ture from flowing waters. Along with build on the current infrastructure enue to Route 8 and sending some of
the watershed study, we will develop development and the scale of the pol- the big box development within the
an ecological assessment of the larg- icies and projects currently underway floodplain to other locations to facil-
er urban riparian system to establish in this Bridgeport region and in the itate daylighting and excavation for
a baseline of the current species and Pequonnock River Watershed. improved hydrology, increased water
related health of the river. Building retention volumes, and aquaculture.
on this we propose to create ecologi- The plan will also include proposals
cal design and adaptive management for a combination of new neighbor-
design guidelines to facilitate long hood types with both dry feet and
term adaptive management. We will wet feet housing developments
work with each municipality to es- combined with parklands, green-
tablish a Watershed Overlay District ways, and daylighting strategies to
in each town along the river from reactivate the riverfront. These new
Monroe to Trumbull to Bridgeport. neighborhoods will have ready ac-
Finally, to complement the aquacul- cess to shared recreational and pub-
ture and fishery production, we pro- lic amenities along the water. At the
pose to develop a fin-fish economic same time, these neighborhoods can
development and industrial water- adapt to flooding and promote both
front redevelopment study to define infiltration and ecological function.
locations and potential economic We propose to evaluate existing

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INVESTMENT AREAS: PEQUONNOCK

P.1 EAST SIDE GREEN STREETS

Revitalization through Green Infrastructure


investments in the East Side

Barnum, Arctic and East Main Street are the first of a network of
streets to be reconstructed
curb extensions, urban bioswales and tree vaults will detain, filter
and infiltrate stormwater
runoff interception will reduce street flooding and improve water
quality in downstream water bodies
green streets create attractive shaded corridors that connect
neighborhood residents down to the riverfront

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INVESTMENT AREAS: PEQUONNOCK

P.2 LOWER PEQUONNOCK DESIGN AND


IMPLEMENTATION PLAN

A plan to redevelop the river as a critical


ecological, industrial, and cultural resource for
the city.

P.2.1 Design and Implementation Plan from


Beardsley Park to River Street

P.2.2 Regional Watershed Planning


Documentation

P.2.3 Aquaculture and Fin-fish Economic


Development and Industrial Redevelopment
Study

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Island Brook Junction


Potential to daylight parts of the
Pequonnock that are now buried
in a culvert and to incorporate
new mixed-use development
along revitalized waterways

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Reclaiming the River


View looking downstream
towards the Long Island Sound

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Expanded Floodplain and Pequonnock Daylighting


1 Aquaculture Area
2 Feasibility Study
3 East Side Green Streets

Bioretention gardens,
Study considers floodplain as constructed wetlands, sand
sending zone where building filters, permeable parking, tree
owners are provided with plantings, and bioswales will
incentives to move out of reduce CSO and improve water
Revitalizes neighborhoods
the floodplain to an adjacent quality
and creates riverfront
receiving zone on higher
access and a bikeway trail
COMMUNITY along the riverfront
ground

Connects neighborhood to
ECOLOGY Pequonnock River
Rivers edge is terraced
and landscaped to provide
enhanced riverine habitats,
provide increased capacity
for rain events and storm
surges

URBANISM

FIRST STEPS

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IMPLEMENTATION

4 IMPLEMENTATION
4.1 COST BENEFIT ANALYSIS

4.2 IMPLEMENTATION COALITIONS

4.3 FUNDING SOURCES

4.4 INTEGRATION WITH EXISTING INITIATIVES

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4.1 COST BENEFIT ANALYSIS

This review provides a high-level es- cally calculated by FEMA in a CBA. 2000 year flood event
timate of the costs of project compo- Proposed projects provide co-ben-
nents, and to the extent possible, the efits in terms of improved environ- Constructed protective align-
quantifiable benefits of those same mental quality, long-term economic ment would reduce losses to half of
interventions. The team used FE- development potential, or improved the 100 year flood event after the lev-
MAs CBA toolkit Damage Frequency connectivity and cohesion (reviewed el of protection is breached.
Assessment module for a prelimi- in the figure below). In some cases
Interrupted electricity ser-
nary benefit cost review. Factors for these may overshadow the flood risk
vice costs ($131/day) were assumed to
building, contents, and displacement reduction benefits in the short term.
last for 45 days following a 100-year
costs have been included, along with Because many of these benefits do
event and 130 days following a 500-
anticipated loss of electrical utility not lend themselves easily to quanti-
year event
and evacuation costs. Casualties have fication, we consider this cost benefit
been calculated, but not included in analysis to be conservative. Further- Seven days of evacuation for a
the review ratio. Also not included more, the methodology used did not 100-year event and 14 days for a 500-
in the CBA were the costs associat- fully capture project-level costs and year event
ed with emergency management. We benefits, so for example the fact that
know, however, that during Hurri- Bostwick Avenue (where the elevated All land uses in the floodplain
canes Irene and Sandy the city alone utility corridor is to be sited) is in a assumed to be either commercial or
provided over $3.2 and $3.6 million very poor condition and needs to be residential
respectively in public assistance. replaced within the next five years is
The review has been conducted using not captured in this analysis. Used constant 2014 prices
both the FEMA standard discount
A building replacement value
rate of 7% and Rebuild by Designs Cost Benefit Analysis of $100 per sq ft. for residential &
recommended rate of 5%. The full review of assumptions and commercial properties
the data used are provided in the sup-
Bridgeport presents a number of porting materials; however, a few key Analysis of the parcel level data
unique challenges and it was an ex- assumptions used for this analysis in- available for Bridgeport also required
plicit decision of the project team to clude: several intermediate assumptions in-
pursue only projects that had immedi-
cluding:
ate co-benefits to the community be- A project horizon of 50 years
yond reducing physical damages, loss Exclusion of buildings that
of function, casualties, and emergen- Constructed protective align- shared the same address, build-
cy management costs that are typi- ment would provide protection to the

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ings without a building elevation or ries to calculate rental losses. er and drainage network to come
building value (assumed to indicate into compliance with federal regula-
a vacant lot), buildings which did not Our analysis has assumed a reference tions, this costly endeavor (estimat-
have square footage data (assumed to situation where large-scale multi- ed to cost upwards of $300 million)
be vacant), structures outside of the year public infrastructure projects is not expected to be completed until
100-year floodplain and excluded all are not completed within the next 50 2040. Without the strategic green in-
P.O. boxes. years to protect the South End, Black frastructure investments proposed it
Rock and downtown against rising is reasonable to assume that the city
If a structure had neither BFE flood risks. We believe this is consis- will be required to invest in the full
nor elevation, the flood depth was tent with the pace of large-scale pub- cost of the upgrade. And while that
assumed to be zero; however, the lic infrastructure investments given work is being completed, combined
structures were not excluded as there recent constraints and the reality of sewer overflows would continue to
are still benefits associated with a very limited private funding sources degrade water quality and prevent
0 flood depth due to the presence available to augment public invest- recreational and commercial uses in
of a basement. However, this should ment. the city waterways. Furthermore, we
be reviewed in the next iteration to believe it is reasonable to assume
understand if this is overly conserva- Interviews over the past several
that given the high cost of this long-
tive. months have revealed that the lack
term upgrade, very limited resources
of flood defenses and increasing
would be available for additional im-
For structures within the ben- flood insurance rates is already hav-
provements such as using treatment
efiting zone and in the floodplain ing a strong negative impact on the
wetlands to further improve water
that did not have a BFE associated already strained real estate market
quality, enhancing streetscapes with
with the 100-year flood, the BFE was in the South End. Without outside
green infrastructure, or redesigning
assumed to be 13 as this was the av- intervention to ensure the safety of
parks to retain and mitigate storm-
erage for all structures. these homes, it is reasonable to as-
water run-off.
sume conditions could continue to
If no stories were listed, it decline as flooding becomes more We also considered in our reference
was assumed to be 1 story. frequent and premiums rise. scenario that without intervention
Basements were assumed. the area of wetlands and shellfish
Coastal flooding issues and rising
beds would continue to diminish. As
groundwater tables are also exacer-
Square footage was deter- sea levels rise coastal ecosystems,
bated by aging sewer infrastructure.
mined by multiplying the first floor such as saltwater marshes, can loose
While the city has plans to upgrade
square footage by the number of sto- area of viable habitat and therefore
and fully separate the combined sew-
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shrink overtime if suitable migra- fers would diminish. In the case of would take many more years (if not
tion corridors are not in place. As Seaside Park, the damage to the park decades) before local fisheries and
Bridgeport has already experienced, assets such as the concrete walkway beaches would be restored to histor-
the loss of these fringing ecosystems and breakwater represented the sin- ic conditions. However, this process
creates a spiral of worsening water gle biggest expense for the city fol- can accelerate that progress and fa-
quality. While overall trends have lowing Sandy and it is reasonable to cilitate the rebuilding of a strong,
been positive nationally in improving assume that these damages would local fishing industry and attractive
water quality, the legacy pollution only continue to increase without the natural beaches that are an anchor
and continued industrial activity in proposed living shoreline. for the citys tourism industry.
Bridgeport create a very challenging
environment for natural recruitment. It is reasonable to assume that with- Many of these benefits are difficult
Without specific interventions to re- out a holistic and comprehensive in- to quantify and model and therefore
store these ecosystems, it is not un- tervention such as the one facilitated were not included in the cost benefit
reasonable to assume that they could by the Rebuild by Design process, analysis; however, they would pro-
diminish in area due to the stress of many of these problems would be ad- vide substantial contributions to the
climate change. Without active inter- dressed in a piecemeal way without benefits of flood protection that are
vention along Pleasure Beach, for ex- consideration for (or opportunity) to captured in the BCA.
ample, it is likely that another breach integrate multiple concerns and im-
could occur in the barrier island, plement more effective and efficient
which would change the wave action solutions. Integration of flood pro-
and tidal range in the estuary behind tection, green infrastructure, neigh-
it. These changes could then have a borhood transformation, and rec-
cascading effect on the wildlife ref- reational amenities into coastal and
uge behind it as marshes retreat and riparian strategies allows all of these
shrink to adjust to the new wave en- problems be addressed in a more
vironment. cost-effective and sustainable way.
For example, without the concerted
While Bridgeport is protected by nat- interventions proposed to simulta-
ural barriers such as Pleasure Beach neously reduce sewer overflows, fil-
and Seaside Park in the South End, ter urban run-off with constructed
it is very likely that without the con- wetlands, improve water clarity and
struction of protective living shore- reduce nutrient loading with living
lines their capacity as natural buf- reefs to it is reasonable to assume it
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65 RESILIENT BRIDGEPORT CLAIM THE EDGE, CONNECT THE CENTER WB unabridged w/ Yale ARCADIS
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4.2 IMPLEMENTATION COALITIONS

South End Historic Preservation, the State of Secretarys Award for Public-Philan-
S.1 Multifunctional and Integrated CT Historic Preservation and Muse- thropic Partnership including the fol-
Protective Alignment um Division, FedDOT and ConnDOT, lowing local service providers: New
It is anticipated that part of this ini- Haven Home Recovery (NHHR), Fair-
The City of Bridgeport and Great- tiative will be to build a Friends of field County Community Foundation
er Bridgeport Regional Council will Seaside Park organization that will (FCCF), the Metis Association, Child
lead this work. As the proposal will work with the City to make this inter- First, Bridgeport Child Advocacy
protect and impact key historic, nationally significant attraction more Coalition (BCAC), Bridgeport Board
economic and community resourc- sustainable. of Education, The Coastal YMCA,
es, implementation of the work will Bridgeport Daycare, Hill Neighbor-
be multidisciplinary with expertise S.2 Living Shoreline hood House (NHN), The WorkPlace/
from housing and marine science to Career Resources, Action for Com-
parks and historic preservation. Key This element will be integrated into
munity Development (ABCD), the
local participants along with the WB the Multifunctional and Integrat-
Housatonic Community College and
unabridged team include the Na- ed Protective Alignment described
the Bridgeport Area Youth Ministry
ture Conservancy, the University of above.
(BAYM). This partnership will pro-
Bridgeport, the South End Neigh- S.3 Neighborhood Transformation vide resident outreach and commu-
borhood Revitalization Zone (a local with South End Resilience Educa- nication, research and identification
planning entity that represents resi- tion and Community Center of Best Practices, case management
dents and stakeholders in the South assessment, personal counseling
End), the Downtown Special Ser- Housing Authority of the City of and coaching, individual family ac-
vices District, Amtrak, Metro-North, Bridgeport (HACB) with experienced tion plans and supportive services
the Yale Urban Design Workshop, LIHTC developers JHM Companies, program management and coordina-
Yale Urban Ecology and Design Lab POKO Partners, the WB unabridged tion for each MV household member.
(that has constructed rain gardens Team, and the CDC, Bridgeport Support is also requested from HUD,
in the area) and Long Island Sound Neighborhood Trust working with FEMA, the Economic Development
Futures. The initiative will work in HACBs People Partners, which is a Administration, Department of La-
cooperation and with support from consortium of service providers unit- bor, Department of Health and Hu-
the USACE, Connecticut Department ed by a partnership agreement simi- man Services and USDA.
of Energy and Environmental Pro- lar to that formed for the HACBs P. T.
tection (DEEP), EPA, USDA, US Fish Barnum Housing Complex, which re-
and Wildlife, the National Parks and cently was recognized with the HUD

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Black Rock Harbor These elements will be implement- been isolated from downtown since
B.1 Offshore Outfall Park with Study ed in conjunction with the planning the span failed.
for Onshore Mitigation and Neigh- for the above item B.2 with the same
borhood Transformation team. D.4 Downtown Design Center and
Community Development
The City of Bridgeport, the Housing Downtown Bridgeport Neighborhood Trust,
Authority of the City of Bridgeport D.1 Lower Floodwall (Connecting
and the BlackRock NRZ will lead this UConn Landscape Architecture Pro-
from RR to South End (Singer Street) gram, the WB unabridged Team, and
neighborhood transformation initia-
tive with services provided by the WB This project will be integrated with Yale Urban Design Workshop in co-
unabridged Team working with the S.1 and include the same manage- operation with City of Bridgeport,
Design Center (Project D.4), Bridge- ment and stakeholders. ConnDOT, FEMA and HMGP. A new
port Neighborhood Trust, and oth- 501 (c) (3) non-profit organization
er regional stakeholders such as the D.2 Upper Floodwall (North of RR to will be formed with a board of direc-
Nature Conservancy and Long Island Congress St. Bridge) tors representing local professional
Sound Futures in cooperation with schools, philanthropic organizations
This project will be integrated with and the community. It will be a sister
USACE, Connecticut Department of S.1 and D.1 and include the same
Energy and Environmental Protec- organization to the Bridgeport Neigh-
management and stakeholders. borhood Trust and share administra-
tion (DEEP), EPA, ASDA, US Fish and
Wildlife, FedDOT and ConnDOT. tive functions with this established
D.3 Congress St. Bridge + Green community development corporation
B.2 Elevated Infrastructure Corri- City of Bridgeport will select an ex- allowing it to move quickly to scale.
dor perienced bridge designer with a The community design initiatives of
proven track record of cost-effective the UConn Landscape Architecture
These elements will be implement- implementation in cooperation with Program and the Yale Urban Design
ed in conjunction with the planning FedDOT and ConnDOT. This project Workshop will provide partnerships
for the above item B.1 with the same will be coordinated closely with the with experienced practitioners and
team. implementation coalition for item opportunities for research, intern-
D.2 and its constituents as well as ships and student engagement.
B.3 Comprehensive Feasibility
Study of Bridge with Integrated the East End Neighborhood Revital- D.5 Bridgeport Transportation and
Surge Protection: ization Zone (NRZ), the community Downtown Investment Plan
planning and stakeholder group on
the east end of the bridge, which has
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The City of Bridgeport with the Ecology and Design Lab research on include waterfront and floodplain
Bridgeport Neighborhood Trust, the rain gardens in the South End. This parks, sending and receiving zones,
newly established Design Center active initiative will yield immedi- a feasibility study for daylighting ,
and the Greater Bridgeport Regional ate improvements in the quality of adjoining land uses, redevelopment,
Council will secure the services of a life, water quality and storm protec- fish passage, and power production:
firm with transportation expertise to tion as well as facilitate community thereby requiring a truly interdis-
work with the WB unabridged Team stakeholder engagement in long-term ciplinary and cooperative team ap-
to undertake this study and build planning and provide a platform for proach. It will build on the NY & CT
the necessary coalition for its imple- university and community based in- Sustainable Communities Initiative
mentation. The initiative will work novation in water management. and the Coastal Resilience for Long
with the CT Main Street Center, the Island Sound studies.
Downtown Special Services District, P.2 Lower Pequonnock Design and
and the myriad groups and individu- Implementation Plan
als directly impacted by regional and
Greater Bridgeport Regional Coun-
local transportation arteries in and
cil (GBRC) Pequonnock River Initia-
through Bridgeport. It will build on
tive -- this operating coalition was
the Regional Transportation Plan.
established in 2010 and includes the
City of Bridgeport and the Towns of
Monroe and Trumbull. It will coordi-
Pequonnock River nate work with technical and process
P.1 East Side Green Streets (East experts, the WB unabridged Team,
Main, Artic, Barnum) the Design Center, UConn Land-
scape Program, Yale Urban Design
Greater Bridgeport Regional Council Workshop, the Nature Conservancy,
(GBRC) with the City of Bridgeport, and Long Island Sound Futures in
The WB unabridged Team, the Design cooperation with USACE, Connecti-
Center, UConn Landscape Program cut Department of Energy and Envi-
and Yale Urban Design Workshop. ronmental Protection (DEEP), EPA,
These projects will be implement- ASDA, US Fish and Wildlife, US DOT
ed in conjunction with the planning and ConnDOT to develop an integrat-
and design initiative described below ed multi-jurisdictional planning and
in P.2. They will build on Yale Urban design solutions. This initiative will

68 RESILIENT BRIDGEPORT CLAIM THE EDGE, CONNECT THE CENTER WB unabridged w/ Yale ARCADIS
IMPLEMENTATION Awarded Projects
Funding Source/Agent Amount Project Status
City of Bridgeport & Fish and Wildlife $5,000,000 + Demolition of 37 properties on barrier beach, Awarded and work underway
Service $909,000 renaturalization and restoration of Pleasure Beach.
Increasing recreational access with water taxi
Department of Transportation $310,000 Emergency erosion control and bank stabilization Awarded and work completed
under the train station
Army Corps of Engineers $2,000,000 Repair of harbor breakwaters Awarded and work underway
Department of Transportation TIGER $11,000,000 Steel Pointe project including elevation of roadways, Awarded and work underway
4.3 FUNDING SOURCES grant burying utilities, and construction of harborside
boardwalk and bike path linking downtown & east end
Greater Bridgeport Regional Council Facilitating Bridgeports application to join the Awarded and work underway
$90,000 Community Rating System (CRS) as part of a regional
Many of the proposed projects in group, providing enhanced flood protection city-wide
the proposal build upon ongoing USDA Emergency Watershed $1,200,000 Purchasing easements within the floodplain to Awarded but project timeline is
projects in Bridgeport and are well Protection Program Floodplain construct living shorelines uncertain
Easement
aligned with existing investment pri- Brownfields Revolving Loan Fund $350,000 Awarded
orities for the city. Below are a few of Federal Highway Administration (FWHA) $1,800,000 Reconstructing a pedestrian crossing on Congress Awarded but project timeline is
the most significant projects, which Congestion Mitigation Air Quality Street bridge uncertain
strongly shaped the proposed Resil- (CMAQ) Grant
Federal Emergency Management $3,016,427.61 Repair of damage to public housing buildings and the Partially awarded (eligibility review
ient Bridgeport project phasing. A Agency University of Bridgeport, protective measures, and for some projects is still in
number of projects are well underway debris removal progress)
that will reduce coastal vulnerability, Bridgeport Housing Authority, JHM $150,000,000 Marina Village Housing redevelopment Awarded
such as the Steel Pointe Harbor road Companies, & CFHA
and utilities elevation project, repair Total Amount Invested or Awarded: $52,823,271
of the breakwaters at the mouth of
Bridgeport Harbor, and restoration Pending Grants or Projects
work on Pleasure Beach. In these in-
stances the team made a decision to The following funding streams have been identified as a high priority for the project team and are well aligned with the project goals. This is
just a small subset of the potential funding sources for these projects; however, these funding sources have been identified either by the
focus in Phase One on areas that had city or the design team as priorities over the coming months.
not received similar investments. All
projects selected for Phase One com-
Hurricane Sandy Coastal $1,348,868 Coastal resiliency planning, emphasizing Application Submitted
plement existing (or pending) invest- Resilience Competitive Grant opportunities to address areas of shared risk,
ments (for example funding for Ma- Program (NFWF/DOI) implement green infrastructure and facilitate
rina Village housing redevelopment Brownfields Area-Wide Planning $200,000
marsh migration.
Application Submitted
or previously received funding to re- Grant
build the Congress Street Bridge) and Recreation and Natural Heritage Application for acquisition of property to expand Application in development
Trust Program recreational areas and access to waterfront.
attempt to capitalize on the window Long Island Sound Futures Fund ~$150,000 Program aligned with several project proposals, Application in development
of opportunity to steer those invest- (National Fish and Wildlife including living shorelines, wetlands and shellfish
ments in a more sustainable direc- Foundation & Long Island Sound restoration projects, and green infrastructure
Study) interventions.
tion. NOAA Coastal Wetlands ~$200,000 Application to restore and enhance wetlands and Application in development
Conservation Grant acquire marsh migration corridors.
New England Interstate Water $23,000 Green infrastructure and low-impact development Application in development
Pollution Control Commission potential to reduce pressure on Long Island Sound
Stewardship sites.
Total amount requested $1,921,868

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4.4 INTEGRATION WITH EXISTING INITIATIVES

The team grounded team.


the design work within The city leadership understands the
potential of Rebuild By Design to
the context of current benefit the City of Bridgeport. This
initiatives in Bridgeport. understanding was made clear from
the start. In an early meeting David
Kooris was asked if the city was will-
City As Partner ing to be a key partner in the project
The City of Bridgeport was engaged coalition. With a thoughtful and stra-
from the beginning with the Rebuild tegic response, David Kooris asked,
By Design team. Mayor Bill Finch and Is your team willing to be a partner
the Director of Planning and Eco- with the city? By turning the ques-
nomic Development, David Kooris, tion around he put the challenge to
were eager to work with the design the design team to fully consider the
team. Along with other city person- needs of the city. In addition he com-
nel, the Mayor and David Kooris have municated that he wanted the design
been involved almost daily in the de- team and the city to work in full col-
cision-making process and are well the South End has been seen as a Mayors Exchange
laboration. Such a strong partnership primary focus of the design team for
informed regarding the direction of has been a solid framework for the The design team joins the Dep-
the design proposal. The citys un- several reasons: first, the South End uty Mayor of Amsterdam, Car-
work and promises to lead to the suc- had extensive flooding from Sandy;
derstanding of the project was appar- olien Gehrels, at a meeting with
cessful implementation of the project second, much of the citys industry is Bridgeports Mayor Bill Finch
ent in a recent community meeting proposals.
when David Kooris explained Rebuild in the South End; third, there are two and Rebuild By Deisgns Henk
Bridgeport Housing Authority sites in Ovink for a discussion on resil-
By Design in general and the Resil- David Kooris was also well aware of ience and urbanism in January.
ient Bridgeport Plan in particular. the South End that are in the process
the potential confusion that the Re-
His explanation was as good as any of being redeveloped; and finally, the
build By Design effort might have on
of the design team could have done city already had some ideas about
the ongoing work of the city if not
and better as far as the community is flood protection for the South End.
well coordinated. In particular he
concerned. It was good to have the The timing of Rebuild By Design co-
needed to align the planning work
project explained by the city staff incided with the citys plan to work
with an important but complicated
and to show such complete collabora- with the residents of the South End
Bridgeport neighborhood the South
tion between the city and the design to produce an updated Neighborhood
End Neighborhood. From the start

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Revitalization Zone (NRZ) Plan. Da- the establishment of the Bridgeport building stock includes properties
vid asked that the design team partic- Office of Sustainability. This office that are functionally obsolescent and
ipate in the South End NRZ planning continues to bridge efforts of multi- deteriorating. Therefore the Author-
process, which at first was expected ple city departments, public sector, ity would like to replace up to half
to start with a community workshop and non-profit partners to achieve of the units within the next two de-
on February 8th. However, early in goals outlined in the BGreen 2020 cades. Funding for this scale of re-
the process it became apparent to the document. In 2013 the BGreen Prog- development is very challenging in a
city and some members of the com- ress Report indicated a 5% reduction small state such as Connecticut that
munity that issues with NRZ leader- in greenhouse gas emissions since
ship first needed to be resolved. The 2010.
procedure to change NRZ leadership
took time so the meeting planned for Along with the city, the Bridgeport
February 8th was postponed to March Housing Authority (BHA) is another
8th. Changing the NRZ meeting re- partner that has been working with
quired the design team to revise their the design team from the beginning.
community engagement plan to hold BHAs recently appointed Executive
a series of community workshops in Director, Sharon Ebert, like David
February ahead of the NRZ planning Kooris, sees the opportunity that Re-
workshop. build By Design brings to Bridgeport.
Sharon brings several valuable assets
In addition to the South End NRZ to the BHA. She is trained as an ar-
plan there are two other on-going city chitect and has worked with housing
efforts that are important for Rebuild and community redevelopment for
By Design. These are the citys high many years. She has a successful re-
profile initiative called BGreen 2020, cord in transforming public housing
and the citys Emergency Operations and overseeing capital major projects
Centers effort to create Neighbor- using mixed-finance. In addition, she
hood Disaster Plans. has a pragmatic and progressive ap- South End Neighborhood
proach that is needed to reform BHA. only had enough tax credits to fund Revitalization Workshop
The BGreen 2020 Initiative is a She understands the BHAs poor 347 units statewide in 2013. There-
ten-year plan that charts the course reputation in the community and is Design team members partic-
fore the strategy developed for this ipated as facilitators and pre-
for Bridgeports government, busi- working to make sure the agency is proposal describes ways to extend senters during a city planning
nesses, and residents to rebuild its more responsive to residents. She is the life of existing projects and to workshop for the South End
economy as a resilient, efficient, and able to be a good critic of the BHAs neighborhood, one of the four
reduce the cost of redevelopment as
green community. The BGreen 2020 development projects that are in Phase One investment areas in the
well as to build the comprehensive
Plan was created through collabo- process and she is looking for bet- Resilient Bridgeport proposal.
services required for transformation.
ration between a number of city de- ter ways to develop in order to meet The BHA has two developments in-
partments and over 150 stakeholders the needs of families, while ensuring cluded in the Resilient Bridgeport
from the community and the private long-term resilience. proposal: Marina Village in the South
sector. Since its creation in 2010, the
End and P.T. Barnum Apartments in
BGreen 2020 initiative has been in- The Bridgeport Housing Authori-
Black Rock/West End.
strumental in mobilizing community ty owns and manages almost 2600
efforts. The BGreen Plan has lead to units of housing. This challenging
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Marina Village is located on the west are against the Bridgeport Housing
side of the South End neighborhood. Authority developing the site and
Residents like living in this develop- recently have added the fact that
ment and the South End. They find the site is in a flood zone as reason
the community to provide a high to build market-rate instead of sub-
quality of life. Before Sandy, when sidized housing. Residents of Mari-
the development was fully occupied, na Village prefer their current units
there were 389 households. About that are configured as townhouses to
half of the units (unfortunately in- the proposed raised apartment block
cluding most of the renovated units) type. The housing authority has their
had to be evacuated due to interior own questions about building in this
water damage from a combination of location. Typically the construction
flooding and roof damage from the cost of affordable housing is more
storms wind. With the revised flood than its market value. However, in
maps most of the remaining occupied the case of the Broad Street site the
units are in a flood zone. The rede- ratio of cost to value is around four to
velopment plan for Marina Village one, bringing into question whether
is shaped by the Authoritys goal to the current approach to the project is
rebuild 200 public housing units as the most appropriate.
part of a mixed-income development
on Housing Authority-owned land in P.T. Barnum Apartments are home to
the South End and to move the re- the P.T. Barnum Partnership of the
maining 189 public housing units to Fairfield County Community Foun-
other sites in the South End. dation, which received one of 10 na-
tional 2013 HUD Secretarys Awards
The BHA has a current proposal for for Public-Philanthropic Partner-
replacement housing for a portion of ships. This multidisciplinary initia-
Marina Village that includes the con- tive is tackling the severe challeng-
troversial Broad Street development. es of a vulnerable population in this Marina Village Housing
The site has been vacant for over two 360-unit development that enjoys The design team has worked
decades following the demolition of proximity to the Aquaculture Science closely with the Bridgeport
Father Panick Village. It is current- and Technology School but is isolated Housing Authority to integrate
ly being designed for construction from other residential neighborhoods resilience strategies from the
of 78 units. The debate regarding and locally considered to be housing Resilient Bridgeport proposals into
housing replacement initiatives.
the site is complicated, with several of last resort. Safety is hampered by
viewpoints. Affordable housing ad- a plan that isolates courtyard spaces
vocates in the community have been and inhibits wayfinding. The build-
critical of the housing authority for ings were modified from apartment
years for reducing the number of blocks to stacked townhomes that
housing units in the South End and are elevated just above the flood
see the unbuilt project as evidence of plain in an area that is designated in
this. Some neighborhood residents the Resilient Bridgeport proposal to

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IMPLEMENTATION
incorporate green infrastructure and River watershed; and Brownfield, a Council, The Nature Conservancy,
stormwater retention features in the tool to identify and track any prop- Clean Air Cool Planet, and The Re-
mid-term. The near-term proposal is erties that maintain official brown- gional Plan Association to address
to remove two building to increase field status. In addition, in 2007, the risks of climate change. The part-
onsite water retention and to con- GBRC prepared the Regional Natural nerships focus was on increas-
struct a boardwalk to facilitate oc- Hazard Mitigation Plan (RNHMP), ing awareness of risks associated
cupancy and/or evacuation in storm which was adopted by the six munic- with extreme weather and natural
events along with a connection to ad- ipalities of the Greater Bridgeport and climate-related hazards and
jacent raised utilities. Managed relo- planning region. The RNHMP makes
cation and redevelopment will occur the communities eligible for certain
in the intermediate future as funding mitigation project grants adminis-
is available for replacement units. tered and provided by the Federal
Emergency Management Administra-
Regional Partners tion (FEMA). The 2007 Plan expired
There are two organizations at the in January, 2012, necessitating an
regional scale that are doing relevant update. The planning effort is being
work. The Greater Bridgeport Re- completed by the GBRC, in coordi-
gional Council (GBRC) is the Regional nation with the Connecticut Depart-
Planning Agency for Bridgeport and ment of Energy and Environmental
the surrounding communities and is Protection, and is funded by a grant
responsible for the Regional Trans- from FEMA. The goals of hazard mit-
portation Plan. GBRC projects that igation plan are to reduce the loss
are relevant to Rebuild By Design life and property damage caused by
include: NY & CT Sustainable Com- extreme natural hazard events, in-
munities Initiative, which integrates cluding coastal and inland flooding,
housing, economic development, storm surge from tropical storms and
transportation, and environmental hurricanes, high speed winds from
planning through partnerships in tornados and thunder storms, and
New York and Connecticut; Coast- severe winter storms, and make our assessing the risks, strength and Primary Coalition Partners
al Resilience for Long Island Sound, communities more resilient to these vulnerabilities within the City of
events as well as to sea level rise and Bridgeport. The Nature Conser- Ongoing conversations with the
in conjunction with the Nature Con- Nature Conservancy and the
servancy, GBRC, along with other climate change. vancy ran the Bridgeport Climate Greater Bridgeport Regional
regional planning agencies, which is Preparedness Workshop in 2012, Council have been the basis for
helping to implement an interactive The other regional organization that engaging community stakehold- forming some of the key partner-
tool to help cities and towns better is doing relevant resilient work is ers in order to facilitate education, ships in the Resilient Bridgeport
predict and plan for coastal flooding The Nature Conservancy. The Nature planning, and ultimately imple- implementation coalition.
along the coast of Long Island Sound; Conservancy for Connecticut takes a mentation of priority adaptation
Pequonnock River Initiative, which leadership role around issues of cli- actions.
was formed in 2010 as a partnership mate change and community resilien-
between the City of Bridgeport and cy. In fall of 2011, a partnership was
the Towns of Monroe and Trumbull formed between the City of Bridge-
to develop a plan for the Pequonnock port, Greater Bridgeport Regional

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IMPLEMENTATION

BGreen 2020 Progress


Report Release
Resilient Bridgeport integrates
with existing initiatives such as
Bridgeports BGreen 2020 plan.

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COMMUNITY ENGAGEMENT

5 COMMUNITY ENGAGEMENT
5.1 OBJECTIVES AND OUTCOMES

5.2 COMMUNITY WORKSHOPS

5.3 AGENCY AND MUNICIPAL PRESENTATIONS

5.4 ALL-SCALES WORKSHOP

5.5 COMMUNITY OPEN HOUSES

5.6 CITYMAKING! BRIDGEPORT

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COMMUNITY ENGAGEMENT

5.1 OBJECTIVES AND OUTCOMES

Community engagement values the South Ends historic neigh- two buses.
borhoods and is looking to the city
occurred at three scales: to provide flood protection. Many Housing improvements: Residents
are aware of future housing devel-
regional, city and families have lived in the South End
opments but are not optimistic that
for generations, and acknowledge the
neighborhood. increasing strength and decreasing the developments will improve the
The goals were to: 1) increase pub- interval between storms. housing opportunities for the com-
lic awareness of risk, resilience, and munity. There is an urgency to re-
Rebuild by Design; 2) get input from Emergency preparedness: Residents build and a desire to add program ele-
leaders, stakeholder and residents to have post-disaster needs but are not ments to serve the public housing and
formulate a strong, well-integrated satisfied with the citys communica- the neighborhood. The community
Rebuild by Design proposal; 3) con- tion and recovery performance. They hopes to continue to participate in
tribute to ongoing efforts to incorpo- are hesitant to leave their homes and decisions about housing in the South
rate resiliency measures into existing neighborhoods because of crime, End, through an open and transpar-
policy and; 4) educate leaders, pro- and afraid to stay because access to ent process.
fessionals and the public about resil- emergency services will be curtailed.
ient design strategies. Education about storm dynamics and Community Identity: The elements
hazards, as well as the options avail- of this city that exert a claim on res-
The participatory activities includ- able, is important, especially to the idents memories are the smokestack
ed five community workshops, two 25% of the community that struggles of the PSEG plant, Seaside Park,
state and regional agency meetings, with English as a second language. the historic cottage district, Seaside
the Resilient Bridgeport All-Scales Village, and the many Victorian-era
Workshop, two community open Transportation improvements: The buildings throughout the South End
houses, and four community activi- South End has problems with road and downtown. Many of these are at
ties that engaged youth and others. access and with safe pedestrian risk, in new and future floodplains of
Although most of the meetings were movement. Park Avenue is valued the city. Without them, there would
held downtown and in the South End, but needs improvements, especially be less of a historic city fabric.
the focus area was much wider. in flood conditions. Other streets
lead to pockets of crime and aban-
Summary of input from doned sites. Although there is good
bus service, transportation to ser-
community meetings vices -- such as fresh food, daycare,
Flood protection: The community
health clinic -- requires transfers on

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COMMUNITY ENGAGEMENT

5.2 COMMUNITY WORKSHOPS

Mercy Learning Center storms, explaining that they either to better coordinate their efforts. We
February 4, 2014 stayed in their house without power met in the community center at the
or went to a family or friends house. PT Barnum Housing Development.
Participants: women from low-in- The primary reason they gave for not The PT Barnum neighborhood is in
come households using shelters was safety. Either they a flood zone and has other building
did not want to leave their belongings and site problems such as the waste-
The workshop presented basic as- to be stolen or they felt unsafe in a water treatment plant across the
pects of emergency preparedness to shelter. It is important to note that street that call into question the long
the entire group. The participants most of the women at Mercy Learn- term use of the site for public hous-
were then divided into four tables of ing Center are immigrants, speak ing. Highlights of feedback are: 1.
around 18 people per table to com- Spanish, and worry about their immi- Coordinated services are needed and
plete a questionnaire and to do an gration status.
activity in which the women selected
cards with various items that could Bridgeport Housing
be part of an emergency plan. The
questionnaire included information Authority Partners
about the impact of storms on house- February 19, 2014
holds, transportation, housing and
Participants: representatives of so-
communication preferences and sug-
cial service organizations that work
gestions for neighborhood improve-
with Bridgeport Housing Authority
ments. Members of the group all had
residents
experienced both Sandy and more
than one winter storm that led to The workshop presented Rebuild By
power outages. Highlights of feed- Design in general and summarized
back are: 1. communication during the Bridgeport project. The group
storms is lacking and leads to con- was then divided into three tables
fusion; 2. Even though they all come and worked around maps. Most of
from low-income households most of the participants are part of PT Part-
them own automobiles, explaining nership, which is a recently orga-
that it is difficult to live and work in nized coalition of service providers Mercy Learning
Bridgeport without an automobile; that works with the Bridgeport Hous- Center Workshop
3. None of the over 50 participants ing Authority, and who have a grant
went to a shelter after one of the
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COMMUNITY ENGAGEMENT

are already showing positive effects; a place that has a reputation for be- ment efforts should learn from the
2. Households have challenges with ing unsafe, but have found that they good aspects of the current site.
childcare and transportation; 3. Sev- are actually able to walk in safety; 3.
eral low-income neighborhoods have Bridgeport could benefit from being South End Neighborhood
food access problems, especially the better oriented to the university as Revitalization Zone
East End neighborhood. far as housing and commerce is con-
cerned; 4. the entrance into campus Planning Workshop
University of Bridgeport on Park Avenue is affected by poorly March 8, 2014
Students maintained houses and by blight in
Participants: South End residents,
February 19, 2014 Marina Village.
city staff, and local design profes-
sions
Participants: University of Bridge- Marina Village Residents
port students and faculty advisors February 19, 2014 The workshop was organized by the
city to get residents in the communi-
The workshop presented Rebuild By Participants: Marina Village Resi- ty involved in the South End Neigh-
Design in general and summarized dents and advocates borhood Revitalization plan. David
the Bridgeport project. The group Kooris ran the meeting and after pre-
was then divided into two tables and The meeting was a regularly sched-
uled residents meeting and the senting background information for
worked around maps. Each partici- the South End provided the Rebuild
pant introduced herself or himself, speaker before the Rebuild By Design
presentation was an impassioned ad- By Design team the opportunity to
explaining their background, their present the parts of the Resilient
experience living in Bridgeport and vocate for Marina Village to not be
torn down. This shaped the discus- Bridgeport proposal that are most
suggestions for resiliency. The group relevant to the South End. The group
was well informed about resiliency at sion and gave great insight into the
community commitment to Marina was especially interested in the flood
the global scale and very interested control measures presented. The
in the various resilience strategies Village and its important history.
Highlights of feedback are: 1. There group was divided into three tables
for Bridgeport. Highlights of feed- with local design professionals and
back are: 1. The students think that is a long history of families staying in
Marina Village; 2. Residents express Rebuild By Design team members
the city does a poor job of commu- helping to facilitate and visualize the
nicating and inviting the university frustration with maintenance; 3. The
type of housing, which is townhouse ideas of residents.
to be part of city activities; 2. The
students have adjusted to being in with all units having their own front Highlights of feedback that are rele-
door, is preferred and \redevelop-

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COMMUNITY ENGAGEMENT

vant to Rebuild By Design are: 3. The notion of a Broad Street con- 6. A good walking street that serves
nection to downtown is agreed upon; as a pedestrian-friendly corridor con-
1. The historic neighborhoods of necting east to west is needed;
Seaside Village and the Cottages are 4. The baseball park and arena are
highly valued by the community; seen as more of a traffic and parking 7. The University of Bridgeport is
problem than an asset that brings seen by the community as being a
2. The community is looking to the business. This is because there is no good neighbor but the community
city to provide flood protection in retail near the baseball stadium; doesnt expect the university to do
order to protect and preserve the his- much in regard to neighborhood re-
toric neighborhoods; 5. Park Avenue is valued but needs vitalization.
improvement;

Broad Engagement
The design team engaged a wide
range of stakeholders through
structured meetings, one-on-
one conversations, workshops,
and presentations on a broad
array of topics relevant to the
development of a resilience
framework for the city.

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COMMUNITY ENGAGEMENT

5.3 AGENCY AND MUNICIPAL PRESENTATIONS

State and regional agency Participants: Bridgeport housing or- $1.00 to get the property back on
ganizations, lenders, financing offi- the tax rolls. The East Side and East
meeting cials, and lawyers End are primary neighborhoods, but
January 16, 2014
are plagued by crime. People want to
Bridgeport Neighborhood Trust in- hear hammers instead of gunshots.
Participants: State and regional agen-
vited the design team to present at
cy representatives, New Haven Plan-
their monthly convening of local Maxine Streeter lives near Park and
ning Director, Bridgeport City staff,
housing agencies and financing orga- Capitol, and knows that her house
Bridgeport Housing Authority
nizations. built on top of a buried river. Home
The City of Bridgeport took the lead inspector Ray sees a lot of inland
The group is concerned about shar- flooding at Boston Avenue, and it
in organizing a meeting of state and
ing changing flood maps and growing concerns him.
regional agencies. The meeting was
flood zones, and about the uncertain
held at the University of Bridge-
viability of waterside neighborhoods. Mayors Exchange
port and included around 30 partic-
They believe that changes to flood in- January 16, 2014
ipants. The design team did a brief
surance will cause an exodus of mod-
presentation. Most of the time was
erate and low-income homebuyers. Participants: Deputy Mayor of Am-
spent on obtaining input from state
Realtors have lost several sales in the sterdam, Bridgeport and New Haven
and regional agencies. The repre-
South End, as debt to income ratios officials, business leaders, and the
sented agencies included, CT DEEP,
became unworkable when flood in- general public
Conn DOT, EPA, HUD, Bridgeport
surance was factored in.
Housing Authority, FEMA, and CT Synergies between Bridgeport and
Department of Housing. The meet- Wells Fargo has a specific program for Amsterdam were the focus of a lec-
ing strengthened the partnership be- down payment assistance in the South ture and discussion on January 29 at
tween the city and the design team End, contributing up to $5000.00 as the Bijou Theatre in Bridgeport. The
and connected the Rebuild By Design a grant. The buyer does not have to first-ever indoor theatre for motion
work to ongoing state programs and receive their mortgage through Wells pictures was the site of a fast-paced
potential funding. Fargo to be eligible. introduction to the inventive and col-
laborative nature of the Dutch. Re-
Bridgeport Neighborhood Habitat for Humanity concentrates build by Designs Henk Ovink spoke
Trust Conversation on neighborhoods, and they do not of the Dutch multi-layered strategy
February 21, 2014 build basements in flood zones. They for planning, protection, and disaster
elevate. The City gives them lots for response, and to the spiraling cost

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COMMUNITY ENGAGEMENT

of damages. Innovations in coastal from traffic to effluents so that com-


protection and living with water are panies can test applications and
fundamental to the prosperity of the products, and create business out of
Netherlands, where 26% of the coun- better services.
trys land mass is below sea level, and
an additional 50% at sea level. Transforming a city into a vibrant
and open platform for people to pros-
Deputy Mayor of Amsterdam, Caro- per doesnt happen overnight -- it
lien Gehrels, presented the systems, took Amsterdam 40 years of target-
powers, and values that encourage ed investment. For Bridgeport and
collaboration and diversity within the other communities along the Con-
Dutch economy. A tradition of cre- necticut coast, disasters like Hur-
ativity mixed with Calvinism led to ricane Sandy are opportunities to
canal houses, not palaces, and to art- better understand the needs of their
ists celebrating the milkmaid rather residents and to make smarter long-
than the king. Dutch society encour- term investments that strengthen the
ages all citizens to take responsibility city, its quality of life, infrastructure,
for the environment, and the physical economy, and ecology.
infrastructure facilitates this, leading
to tremendous gains in public transit
use, bicycle commuting, and air qual-
ity.
Ger Baron, Program Manager at the Mayors Exchange
Amsterdam Economic Board, spoke The deputy mayor of Amsterdam,
to the process of developing a smart Carolien Gehrels, and Bridgeports
city. Three requirements open Mayor Bill Finch. Deputy Mayor
data, open connectivity, and an open Gehrles visited the cities of New
Haven and Bridgeport for a day
smart grid support innovation in the in January in order to discuss
digital age. The Board orchestrates issues relating to resiliency and
living laboratories for metropolitan the transformation of cities.
solutions in three neighborhoods,
to measure and monitor everything

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COMMUNITY ENGAGEMENT

5.4 ALL-SCALES WORKSHOP

Design ing, Conn DOT, CT DEEP, American


The largest participatory activity Planning Association, Royal Nether-
was the Resilient Bridgeport All- lands Embassy, GBRC CTAC.
Scales Workshop. The program of
the workshop was two full days of The workshop was held in a storefront
design with over 60 participants. in downtown Bridgeport and was
The participants were the Rebuild open to the public. The workshop was
By Design team with invited de- followed up by an open house so that
sign professionals, along with par- the public could provide feedback on
ticipants with the following affilia- the output. The workshop divided up
tions: Bridgeport Mayor, Bridgeport into topical tables: shoreline protec-
Planning and Econ. Development , tion, improvements and development
Bridgeport Environmental Projects along the Pequonnock River, storm-
Coordinator , Bridgeport Housing water improvements, housing, trans-
Authority, Bridgeport Neighbor- portation, Marina Village, Resilience
hood Trust, The Nature Conservancy, Center programming, and City Iden-
Greater Bridgeport Regional Council, tity. The workshop integrated ideas
Bridgeport Regional Business Coun- from the various topics to develop de-
cil, Bridgeport Chamber of Com- sign proposals. The workshop both
merce, Trust for Public Land, Yale advanced the design proposals and
Masters in Environmental Science, strengthened the coalition for the
School of Forestry, City of Stamford project.
Planning Department, CT Coalition
for Environmental Justice, Jonathan
Rose Companies, Bridgeport Emer-
gency Management and Homeland Working with Stakeholders
Security, Bridgeport Health Depart-
The workshop was an opportunity
ment, Greater Bridgeport Transit, to draw with stakeholders such
Freeman Center, Bridgeport Regional as local industry representatives
Aquaculture Science & Technology and residents at the same table.
Education Center, PSEG Power CT,
O&G, HUD, EPA, CT Dept of Hous-

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COMMUNITY ENGAGEMENT
All-Scales Workshop
and Open House
February 27 through March 1.
Two-and-a-half days to share,
learn, draw, revise, and discuss
Rebuild by Design proposals, with
invited designers and planners
joining stakeholders ranging
from federal, state, and local
government officials to Bridge-
port residents at the table.

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COMMUNITY ENGAGEMENT

5.5 COMMUNITY OPEN HOUSES

All-Scales Open House


March 1, 2014
Following the All-Scales workshop a
public open house with a presenta-
tion was held. The participants in-
cluded city and community leaders,
many of the stakeholders involved in
the project, community members and
activists. The mayor addressed the
participants and outlined the chal-
lenges and opportunities in the im-
plementation of the Rebuild By De-
sign proposals.

South End Open House


March 8, 2014
The open house was held in conjunc-
tion with the South End Neighbor-
hood Revitalization Zone Planning
Workshop. The workshop was held South End Workshop
at Roosevelt School cafeteria in the and Open House
South End and the open house was put
The design team joined city
up in an entry corridor so that people planning officials for a full-day
participating in the open house could neighborhood revitalization plan-
see the Rebuild By Design work, ask ning workshop in the South End.
questions and provide input. De-
sign team members presented the
Resilient Bridgeport framework and
served as design facilitators through-
out the workshop.

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COMMUNITY ENGAGEMENT

5.6 CITYMAKING! BRIDGEPORT

The Van Alen Institute worked with their newly-learned skills to develop
the Rebuild By Design team to orga- designs for the river, taking into ac-
nize a series of activities that raised count the programming, land uses,
community awareness and engaged and hydrological issues discussed
different groups in design. earlier during the bike ride.

River Walk Citymaking! Event


February 22, 2014 March 15, 2014
This was a planning session in which A wide range of activities were avail-
city residents involved in the plan- able to the general public. Design
ning of the Citymaking! Event could team members again led a group of
join design team members and city participants on a bike ride along the
officials on a walk along the Pequon- Pequonnnock, providing for more
nock. It was an opportunity for a con- valuable exchange about the role of
versation between the participants the river in the lives of residents.
on the history, function, and pres- Artists and cycling activists provid-
ent-day uses of the river. ed a clinic on bike repairs and bike
art, and community design facilitator
Bike Ride and Youth Design James Rojas led a collaborative work-
Workshop shop in which residents used simple
March 8, 2014 modeling techniques to propose their
visions for the riverfront.
A group of Bridgeport teenagers
joined design team members and cy-
cling activists for a bike ride along
the Pequonnock. Older participants
talked about the bustling waterfront
that the Pequonnock once had. This
was followed by a design workshop Sharing Stories on
in which the teens learned how to Bike Rides and at City-
make sectional drawings, and used making! Bridgeport

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COMMUNITY ENGAGEMENT

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BRIDGEPORT ATLAS
THE SOUND AND THE CITY

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BOSTON

BRIDGEPORT

NEW YORK CITY

PHILADELPHIA

WASHINGTON DC

NORTHEAST REGIONAL CORRIDOR Legend


NEC REGIONAL RAIL STOP
NEC REGIONAL RAIL CORRIDOR
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LONG ISLAND
SOUND
PROTOTYPE

Legend
ATLANTIC OCEAN METRO-NORTH STOPS
RAIL INFRASTRUCTURE
FERRY ROUTES
ECONOMIC NETWORK
POPULATION DENSITY
GREEN INFRASTRUCTURE
HABITAT RESTORATION
OFF-SHORE HABITATS

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The Long Island Sound is an estu-
ary of national significance, 1,320
isting land uses at the waterfront in
conjunction with investment in in-
of Bridgeport shipping is not as a ma-
jor cargo hub but for local distribu-
LONG ISLAND
square miles in area, but impacted land structures and programs that tion, repair, and maintenance. SOUND
by 16,820 square miles of water-
sheds in Connecticut and New York
support shifting some settlements to
higher ground was determined to of- The ecology surrounding the Sound PROTOTYPE
and the 23 million people who live fer the highest benefits. is similar, without reference to state
within 50 miles of the shoreline. The or direction: upland, riparian corri-
shallow water estuary spawns at least Settlements developed at the waters dor, coastal flat, and estuary types.
50 species, and hosts more than 170 edge here, and 62% of the states
population of 3.57 million lives in Uplands are the contributing ar-
finfish species, 1200 species of in-
coastal counties. Bridgeport is the eas that shed water into the ri-
vertebrates, and dozens of species
largest and densest city at 146,000, parian corridors. Upland habi-
of migratory birds. Water quality,
followed by New Haven with 130,000, tats include urban forest, urban
habitat preservation, and watershed
Hartford and Stamford with about shrub/scrub, and urban grass-
management are critical issues to
125,000 each, and Waterbury with land. Issues include pollution,
maintain the Sound as a safe place for
115,000. As a result, much of the nutrients, sediment, fragmented
recreational and commercial fishing,
critical infrastructure at risk from in- habitat, and loss of species di-
as well as for recreation, tourism and
creasing sea levels also lies within the versity. High rates of runoff here
property values.
coastal floodplain, including elec- can cause pluvial flooding along
At Bridgeport, the sea level at the tricity generation, wastewater treat- riparian corridors.
Sound is predicted to rise by 6.182 ment, and potable water supplies.
Riparian corridors defend against
by 2100, impacting a significant
Waterborne transportation has plied runoff, erosion, flooding, and act
percentage of the 16 square miles of
the waters of the Sound for centuries. as filters for pollutants. They
Bridgeport. The team studied poten-
From trading canoes to steamers, provide habitat and corridors for
tial closure structures in relation to
to the popular car ferries between wildlife, shade for waters, and
the changing shoreline. The distance
Bridgeport and Port Jefferson, people scenic value and recreational op-
from Watch Hill across Fishers Is-
and goods move economically via the portunities for people.
land to Orient Point on Long Island,
is 20 miles; in addition, a shorter water. Over one million people and
Coastal flats are the tidal marsh-
section of about a mile between the 460,000 cars use the ferry to and
es, beaches, and dunes which
Bronx and Queens would be neces- from Bridgeport each year, a 90-min-
provide habitat, shoreline stabili-
sary to reduce storm surge through- ute ride across 18 miles of water. A
zation, food storage, natural fil-
out the Sound. However, the impacts high-speed ferry is proposed to link
tration, and dampen storm surge.
to water quality would be signifi- Bridgeport, Stamford, and New York
cant, reducing dissolved oxygen and City.
increasing nitrogen and pesticides
Freight traffic in Bridgeport has de-
to potentially toxic levels, besides
clined considerably in the 21st centu-
posing a threat to waterborne trans-
ry. Until 2006, it was the 8th largest
portation. Instead, a system of com-
banana port in the country, but with
bined strategies along the coast, with
no dredging since 1963, sediment has
investments in closure structures,
made it impossible for ships to navi-
marshes, and levees to maintain ex-
gate Bridgeport Harbor. The future

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HISTORIC CITY
1893
Historical landscape and de-
velopment patterns are illu-
minated by the overlaying of
available maps dating from the
early 1800s. Primary roads in
the 1700s are the framework
of the modern city. Park Ave-
nue and Main Street are still
the major north/south routes on
the west side of the city, while
Kings Highway and Fairfield
Avenue link Bridgeport to her
neighboring cities. Waterbod-
ies and wetland areas are over-
layed to indicate how the form
of the landscape has been mod-
ified over time. Shallows were
filled, waterways narrowed or
covered. Urban development,
delineated on the 1893 USGS
Quadrangle map with bold line-
work, was for the most part,
limited the natural peninsula
boundaries. 20th Century in-
dustrial development happened
along the low lands adjacent to
the rivers and wetlands - areas
most at risk to flooding today.
Legend
2012 NATIONAL DATASET
WATER
1700-1893 WATER OVERLAY
2012 NATIONAL DATASET
WETLANDS
1848-1893 WETLANDS OVERLAY
1893 USGS QUADRANGLE MAP
BRIDGEPORT HISTORIC
DISTRICTS
HISTORICALLY DESIGNATED
PARCELS
1700 ROADS

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Dutch and British settlers found salt overlaid to indicate how the form along the whole waterfront as far as HISTORIC CITY
water, sandy beaches, salt marshes of the landscape has been modified the western boundary line of Bridge-
with brackish water, mudflats, tidal over time. Shallows were filled, wa- port. Seaside Park became the 1893
wetlands, many fresh water streams, terways narrowed or covered. Urban dressy promenade, and held Sunday
springs, and ponds, cedar swamps, development, delineated on the 1893 concerts for the benefit of working
grassy meadows, and towering prime- USGS Quadrangle map with bold people.
val forests of old-growth trees when linework, was mostly limited to the
they arrived along the coastal inlets natural peninsula boundaries. Twen- Park Avenue links the two jewels in
of Connecticut in the late 1700s. The tieth century industrial development the citys green crown, both designed
landscape of ridges and peninsulas happened along the low lands adja- by Frederick Law Olmsted using the
created inviting habitats for animals cent to the rivers and wetlands ar- contours of land and sculpting shady
as diverse as the right whale and the eas most at risk to flooding today. groves and rustic parterres. Olmsted
oyster, black bears and beavers, farm said of Beardsley Park, it is just such
and timber lands which supported Bridgeports reputation as the Park a countryside as a family of good taste
the native Pequonnock tribe for cen- City began with two donations from and healthy nature would resort to, if
turies. residents to the city: P. T. Barnums seeking a few hours complete relief
35 acres for Seaside Park in the from scenes associated with the wear
The city now known as Bridgeport South End in 1864, and cattle bar- and tear of ordinary town life.
was an important crossing point on on James Beardsleys 100 acres of
the trail linking New Haven to the land in the North End in 1878. Bar- The railroad and industrialization
New Amsterdam colony, as it is to- num wrote of the landscape before brought innovators in steel, textiles,
day. Because of its protective harbor it became Seaside Park: Up to 1865 and machines from carriages to aero-
and its natural estuary, it was a desir- the shore of Bridgeport west of the planes, but the decline of industry led
able place for shipbuilding, whaling, public wharves, and washed by the Bridgeport to balance on the edge of
and rapid growth in the 18th and 19th water of Long Island Sound, was in- viability. A legacy of abandoned sites
centuries. Historical landscape and accessible to carriages or even to the and environmental brownfields have
development patterns are illuminat- horsemen, and almost impossible for led to failing infrastructure, troubled
ed by overlaying maps dating from pedestrians. The shore edge was in public housing, crime, and poverty.
the early 1800s. Primary roads in fact strewn with rocks and boulders. The waterfront became an invisible
the 1700s are the framework for the A narrow lane reaching down to the geography, with barriers in place of
modern city. Park Avenue and Main shore enabled parties to drive near to connections to the life and prosperity
Street are still the major north/south the water for purposes of clamming, on the water.
routes on the west side of the city, and occasionally bathing; but it was
while Kings Highway and Fairfield all claimed as private property by
Avenue link Bridgeport to neighbor- the land proprietors, whose farm ex-
ing cities. tended down to the waters edge... I
was satisfied that a most lovely park
Water bodies and wetland areas are might be, and ought to be, opened

92 RESILIENT BRIDGEPORT CLAIM THE EDGE, CONNECT THE CENTER WB unabridged w/ Yale ARCADIS
URBAN FABRIC

Legend
MODELED STORM SURGE
POTENTIAL
FEMA 100 YEAR FLOOD ZONE
PARK OR OPEN SPACE
VACANT PARCELS
METRO NORTH RAIL AND
STOPS
BROWNFIELD SITE

93 RESILIENT BRIDGEPORT CLAIM THE EDGE, CONNECT THE CENTER WB unabridged w/ Yale ARCADIS
LAND USE

Legend
MODELED STORM SURGE
POTENTIAL
FEMA 100 YEAR FLOOD ZONE
SINGLE FAMILY RESIDENTIAL
MULTI-FAMILY RESIDENTIAL
COMMERCIAL
DOWNTOWN DEVELOPMENT
ZONE
INSTITUTIONAL
INDUSTRIAL

94 RESILIENT BRIDGEPORT CLAIM THE EDGE, CONNECT THE CENTER WB unabridged w/ Yale ARCADIS
CORRIDORS
Commercial corridors de-
veloped along the spines of
Bridgeports peninsulas, on
high ground and following
Native American and Colo-
nial trading routes that pre-
date the city, as indicated on
the Historic Overlay Map.
Industrial zones located
along rivers and estuaries
for shipping access are most
at risk from storm surge
flooding and sea level rise.

Legend
MODELED STORM SURGE
POTENTIAL
FEMA 100 YEAR FLOOD ZONE
COMMERCIAL
INDUSTRIAL

95 RESILIENT BRIDGEPORT CLAIM THE EDGE, CONNECT THE CENTER WB unabridged w/ Yale ARCADIS
DRAINAGE
Stormwater flows to the sea via
streams, culverts, subsurface
drainage pipe. This combina-
tion of natural and man made
water channels is typically
hidden behind properties or
buried below ground. Trash
and pollution impacts wa-
ter quality and impairs flow.
Combined sewer overflow
discharges are an ecological
challenge for Bridgeports
estuaries during major storm
events. Repetitive street
flooding occurs in the valleys
and low lying areas due to
both runoff and sea level rise.

Legend
LONG ISLAND SOUND MODELED STORM SURGE
POTENTIAL
FEMA 100 YEAR FLOOD ZONE
WATERSHED BOUNDARIES
CSO PIPE
CSO OUTFALL
STORM DRAINAGE PIPE
STORM DRAINAGE OUTFALL

96 RESILIENT BRIDGEPORT CLAIM THE EDGE, CONNECT THE CENTER WB unabridged w/ Yale ARCADIS
GEOLOGY
This map illustrates the uncon-
solidated glacial and postgla-
cial deposits of Connecticut.
The surficial deposits along
the coastline are typically
fine grained sand and gravel
glacial deposits and alluvium,
beach sand or tidal marsh soils,
while the upslope consists of
heavier rock. The soils along
the coast are well-drained due
to the predominance of sand
and gravel and are well suit-
ed for infiltration of storm-
water though raingardens,
bioswales or other BMPS.

Legend
MODELED STORM SURGE
POTENTIAL
FEMA 100 YEAR FLOOD ZONE
THIN GLACIAL TILL
THICK GLACIAL TILL
SAND AND GRAVEL
SAND
SAND AND GRAVEL OVERLYING
SAND
SAND AND GRAVEL OVERLYING
SAND OVERLYING FINES
SAND OVERLYING FINES
ALLUVIUM OVERLYING SAND
SALT MARSH AND TIDAL MARSH
DEPOSITS
BEACH DEPOSITS
ARTIFICAL FILL

97 RESILIENT BRIDGEPORT CLAIM THE EDGE, CONNECT THE CENTER WB unabridged w/ Yale ARCADIS
LONG ISLAND SOUND
2100: COASTAL RISK/INLAND RISK Legend
METRO-NORTH STOPS
RAIL INFRASTRUCTURE
MAJOR ROAD
INFRASTRUCTURE
ROAD INFRASTRUCTURE
100-YEAR FLOOD
STORM SURGE
17 0

98 RESILIENT BRIDGEPORT CLAIM THE EDGE, CONNECT THE CENTER WB unabridged w/ Yale ARCADIS
2014: COASTAL RISK/INLAND RISK Legend
METRO-NORTH STOPS
RAIL INFRASTRUCTURE
MAJOR ROAD
INFRASTRUCTURE
ROAD INFRASTRUCTURE
100-YEAR FLOOD
STORM SURGE
17 0

99 RESILIENT BRIDGEPORT CLAIM THE EDGE, CONNECT THE CENTER WB unabridged w/ Yale ARCADIS
MEDIAN
HOUSEHOLD
INCOME
AT RISK 2014

Legend
MORE THAN $82,000
$68,001 TO $82,000
$53,001 TO $68,000
$39,001 TO $53,000
(US MEDIAN: $50,157)
$24,001 TO $39,000
$24,000 OR LESS
NO HOUSEHOLDS

100 RESILIENT BRIDGEPORT CLAIM THE EDGE, CONNECT THE CENTER WB unabridged w/ Yale ARCADIS
MEDIAN
HOUSEHOLD
INCOME
AT RISK 2014

Legend
MORE THAN $82,000
$68,001 TO $82,000
$53,001 TO $68,000
$39,001 TO $53,000
(US MEDIAN: $50,157)
$24,001 TO $39,000
$24,000 OR LESS
NO HOUSEHOLDS

101 RESILIENT BRIDGEPORT CLAIM THE EDGE, CONNECT THE CENTER WB unabridged w/ Yale ARCADIS
Bridgeport is the poorest city in the
state and one of the 10 poorest cities
a. Demographic data
(a) Total population of the Target Area 144,229
SOCIO-
in the nation. Ironically, it is locat- (b) Total population under the age of six (6) 10,731
ECONOMICS
ed within Fairfield County, one of the
wealthiest counties in the state. The (c) Number/percentage under the age of 6 with an elevated blood lead level 1,932 /18%
citywide poverty rate is almost 25%
with certain census tracks demon- (d) Area Median Income $39,571
strating poverty rates of 80% (2000
Percentage of population at 80 percent of the area median income level 54%
Census). Poverty and poor health
are inextricably linked. Destitute Percentage of population at 50 percent of the area median income level 40%
urban populations inevitably live in
conditions that compromise physi- Sources:
cal and emotional well-being, which 2010 Census
then results in a much higher rate Bridgeport Health Department Stellar 2008 Report
of disease. Families living in dilapi- 2000 Census
dated housing are often exposed to b. Housing data
lead-based paint, cockroaches, dust, (a) Number of housing units that were built before 1978 48,233
dust mites, mold, and mildew and are
more vulnerable to natural disasters. (b) Number of housing units that were built before 1940 25,490
The health consequences for people
contending with such a multitude (c) Number and percentage of housing units that are rental 28,549 / 56.7%
of adverse conditions are harsh and
Number and percentage of housing units that are rental and owner 21,758 / 43%
debilitating; they suffer from higher
occupied.
rates of asthma, strokes, lead and
poisoning, malnutrition, and higher Source: U.S. Census 2000
mortality rates in general.
Bridgeport has always been a place al Workers, Construction Laborers,
resentatives, accountants, and con- Equipment Operators, Roofers, Road
for the working class in Connecti- struction workers. Most residents
cut. Proximity to jobs in manufactur- Maintenance Workers, and related
(72%) have a high school diploma, but construction occupations. Bridge-
ing, shipping, and trade gave rise to only 14% have a bachelors degree or
modest incomes and modest homes. ports Green Business Zone has cre-
higher educational attainment. Ad- ated new and expanding businesses
The overall unemployment rate for vanced manufacturing is replacing
Connecticut decreased to 7.2% last to a previously blighted neighbor-
heavy industry, so preparing workers hood filled with abandoned factories.
month while Bridgeports rate re- for the growing demand is a critical
mained stubbornly high at 11.8%. task of the proposed workforce train- One quarter of the city population is
The most common occupations are ing center. DOL researchers project foreign-born, primarily from Latin
in information and records-keeping, high growth occupations that pro- America. This is significantly higher
media and communications equip- vide a family-sustaining income and than Connecticuts average of 13%,
ment workers, customer service rep- require one year or less of training and may be due to the linked history
include: Hazardous Material Remov- of immigration and manufacturing,
102 RESILIENT BRIDGEPORT CLAIM THE EDGE, CONNECT THE CENTER WB unabridged w/ Yale ARCADIS
the lack of entry level housing in sur-
rounding communities and the pres-
ent households, large families, ed- Please note that this area is different SOCIO-
ucation less than high school, rapid than the planning area reference in
ence of the University of Bridgeport, population growth, lack of access to the South End Section. ECONOMICS
which has a high rate of international medical services, high special needs
students, arriving from 70 countries. populations such as homeless, tour- Our proposal addresses comprehen-
(International full-time engineering ists, transients, and nursing home sive transformation in the South End.
graduate students total 95% of the residents, and high numbers of social An annotated bibliography of our ap-
program, an anomaly even among security recipients. As demonstrated proach to transformation follows, as
graduate engineering programs.) by the information in this section, does the full text of the State of the
Also, since 1918, the International Bridgeport is a community at risk. Child in Bridgeport 2013.
Institute of Connecticut has been lo-
cated in the west end, bringing immi- South End of Bridgeport
Annotated Bibliography of Evi-
grants from all parts of the globe to dence Based Best Practices
The South End has a population of
the city.
8,825 people, a predominant white
population of 45%, followed by Af- Ladder of Opportunity to the Middle
Bridgeport struggles with homeless- Class
ness, poverty, and blight. According rican American at 30%, Asian at
3% and all other of 22%. The South The programs identified below are
to the RAND Corporation, the social
End Neighborhood has approximate- just a few of the many programs that
cost of crime in Bridgeport can be
ly 2,400 units of housing. 23% are demonstrate successful strategies
calculated as follows: 20 murders per
owner occupied, 64% are renter oc- for the type of transformation pro-
year at $8,649,216 each; 116 rapes
cupied and 12.2% are vacant while posed for the South End including
at $217,866 each; 610 robberies at
11.4% of all units are overcrowded. the public housing at Marina Village.
$62,277 each; 1540 burglaries at
Approximately 5% of the South End They are selected from a larger group
$13,096 each, and so on. Schools are
housing was built in the last 20 years, identified documented as part of our
challenged: with 20,800 students, it
suggesting a historic but aging hous- research. Quality of programming,
is the second largest district in the
ing inventory. Making matters worse, quality of trained staff/program lead-
state, but has a ranking of 158th of
this neighborhood lost over 500 hun- ers, specific characteristics of the
164 districts.
dred units of public housing when the program (e.g., diversity of options
The Index of Social Vulnerability Pequonnock Apartments and the Bar- for participants), staffing ratios,
synthesizes 30 socioeconomic vari- num Avenue Apartments were demol- availability of funding, and fidelity of
ables, which reduce a communitys ished and never replaced. In addition implementation are key in any pro-
ability to prepare for, respond to, the public housing project Marina grams success.
and recover from hazards. Factors Village, which consists of 400 units
Children enter kinder-
which increase vulnerability include: is planned for redevelopment and
garten ready to learn
low income or socioeconomic status, nearly 25% have been vacated.
female head of household, non-Cau- Program: Parent Child
casian ethnicity, elderly or under 18 The South Ends average household Home Program
ages, renters, unemployment, occu- income is $20,444 which falls well Description: The Parent-Child Home
pation as agricultural workers or in below the City average of $34,659 Program is a 2-year early literacy and
low skilled service jobs, single par- and County average of $77,690. parenting program designed for fam-

103 RESILIENT BRIDGEPORT CLAIM THE EDGE, CONNECT THE CENTER WB unabridged w/ Yale ARCADIS
ilies whose children are at risk for ed-
ucational disadvantage. Families en-
3. Participating parents interacted
more positively with their chil-
Description: Success for All (SFA) is
a whole-school reform model for stu-
SOCIO-
ter the home visiting program when dren during and after program dents in pre K 12th grade. Program ECONOMICS
their children are 2-3 years old. Fam- implementation. Positive par- components include: leadership,
ilies are visited for 30 minutes twice ent-child interactions were found powerful instruction, school wide
a week for a minimum of 23 weeks to last in participating families support and intervention tools, pro-
(46 visits) per year. During the visits, compared to control group fami- fessional development and coaching,
trained home visitors model and en- lies and their effect was correlat- and research.
courage parents to interact verbally ed with increased cognitive and
with their children through reading social emotional skills in the 1st Evidence of success: Success For Alls
and educational toys provided by the grade. implementation has been thoroughly
home visitor. evaluated and proven to be replicable
4. Program participation signifi- for student achievement in more than
Evidence of success: Over the past cantly reduced the need for spe- 30 research studies, most of which
40 years, The Parent Child Home cial education (at the 3rd grade, were done by independent research-
Program has been evaluated repeat- 14% of program graduates need- ers. Success for All has been found
edly. Longitudinal, randomized con- ed special education services to increase reading achievement, cut
trol group studies have found that the compared to 39% for controls). the achievement gap between African
program is successful in increasing Americans, Hispanic, and white stu-
positive parenting and involvement, For summary and citations for all dents, and prepare teachers to sup-
preparing children for school and in- research summarized above see: port the needs of English learners.
creasing school success and achieve- http://www.parentchild.org/assets/
ment, and increasing earning poten- Proven_Outcomes/Research_Summa- See sources below for citations
tial for program participants. Some ries/PCHP_Research_Summary.pdf and study findings/details
key research findings include the fol- Source: Parent Child Home Program Source: http://www.successforall.org/
lowing: (http://www.parent-child.org) See also: http://www.successforall.
1. Low income children who com- See also: http://www.parent-child. org/SuccessForAll/media/PDFs/
pleted 2 years of the program org/assets/Proven_Outcomes/ Borman_CSR_meta_RER.pdf
went on to graduate from high Research_Summaries/PCHP_Re- Also http://ies.ed.gov/ncee/
school at the rate of middle in- search_Summary.pdf wwc/pdf/intervention_re-
come children nationally, 20% For a summary of sources of inde- ports/wwc_sfa_081109.pdf
higher than their SES peers and pendent evaluations see: http:// Also: http://earlyed.newamerica.
30% higher than the control www.parent-child.org/assets/Prov- net/blogposts/2013/success_for_
group. en_Outcomes/Research_Summaries/ all_with_i3_program-96104
Independent_Evaluations_of_the_Par-
2. Children who participated in the ent-Child_Home_Program.pdf Also: http://www.mdrc.org/publica-
program had statistically sig- tion/success-all-model-school-reform
nificant increases in IQ and re-
ceptive vocabulary development Children are proficient in Cradle-through-college-
compared to control groups. core academic subjects to career solutions
Program: Success for All
104 RESILIENT BRIDGEPORT CLAIM THE EDGE, CONNECT THE CENTER WB unabridged w/ Yale ARCADIS
Program: Positive Action tary and secondary school levels, a
counselors kit, a family kit, and a
adults between 16 and 24, primarily
in a residential setting. Participants
SOCIO-
Description: Positive Action is an
integrated and comprehensive pro- community kit. All the components receive vocational training, academ- ECONOMICS
gram that is designed to improve and their parts can be used separate- ic education, and other services such
participants life in multiple areas ly or in any combination and are de- as social skills training, counseling,
including but not limited to aca- signed to reinforce and support one health care and health education.
demic achievement, social behavior, another. For six months after participants
physical health, and family relation- leave the program, placement agen-
ships and bonding. The program is Evidence of success: Based on find- cies help participants find jobs or
intended for a variety of age groups ings of rigorous research, Positive pursue additional training.
ranging from children to adults. Posi- Action has been identified as an ef-
tive Action has materials for schools, fective program by The National In- Evidence of success: Job Corps was
homes, and community agencies stitute of Justice and SAMHSAs Na- evaluated using an experimental de-
and has been implemented in school tional Registry of Evidence Based sign in which some youth were as-
settings, before- and after-school Programs and Practices. Research signed to a control group and tracked
programs, social service agencies, using experimental and quasi exper- in order to see whether program par-
detention centers, home schooling, imental designs has found that com- ticipants fared better. The evalua-
youth programs, family and juvenile pared to control groups, participants tion found that Job Corps increased
justice agencies, correctional institu- of the Positive Action program have the receipt of GED and vocational
tions, probation and parole settings, significantly 1) higher levels of math certificates by more than 20 per-
mental health and welfare agencies, and reading proficiency and achieve- centage points, produced measur-
faith-based organizations, public ment, 2) higher academic standard- able improvements in literacy skills,
housing developments, and other ized tests scores, 3) increased school and reduced involvement with crime.
programs specifically for high-risk, attendance, 4) lower levels of sub- The evaluation also found that after
at-risk, special-needs, and disadvan- stance use, 5) lower levels of violent four years, the average gain in earn-
taged individuals, families, schools, behavior, and 6) higher levels of fami- ings per participant was $1,150 (or
and communities. ly cohesion and functioning. 12% higher). Earnings gains persist-
ed only for the 20 to 24 year old age
All materials are based on the same See sources below for more details group and the program was found
unifying broad concept (one feels on research studies and findings to be cost effective only for this age
good about oneself when taking pos- Source: http://www.positiveaction.net group.
itive actions) with six explanatory See also: http://www.nrepp.samhsa.
subconcepts (positive actions for Source: Program evaluation report
gov/ViewIntervention.aspx?id=78 from Mathematica is online at: http://
the physical, intellectual, social, and
And http://www.crimesolutions. wdr.doleta.gov/research/FullText_
emotional areas) that elaborate on
gov/ProgramDetails.aspx?ID=113 Documents/National%20Job%20
the overall theme. The program com-
ponents include grade-specific cur- Corps%20Study%20and%20Lon-
riculum kits for kindergarten through Households are economical- ger%20Term%20Follow-Up%20
12th grade, drug education kits, a ly stable and self-sufficient Study%20-%20Final%20Report.pdf
conflict resolution kit, sitewide cli- Program: Job Corps See also this study, which cites
mate development kits for elemen- Description: Job Corps serves young evaluations of Job Corps but also

105 RESILIENT BRIDGEPORT CLAIM THE EDGE, CONNECT THE CENTER WB unabridged w/ Yale ARCADIS
provides a broad overview of the
effectiveness of employment and
shots fired calls (reduction) Home Visiting Evidence of Effective-
ness, http://homvee.acf.hhs.gov/
SOCIO-
training programs in the US: http:// Recovery of traceable hand guns
Office of Planning Research
ECONOMICS
www.nber.org/chapters/c10261.pdf (increase)
and Evaluation (Administra-
Source: http://www.crimesolutions. tion for Children and Families)
Public safety strategies gov/ProgramDetails.aspx?ID=207 http://www.acf.hhs.gov/programs/opre
Program: Operation Ceasefire Child Trends, http://www.
Description: Operation Ceasefire childtrends.org/what-works/
Appendix of Helpful Websites
is a comprehensive problem-solving The Guide to Community Pre-
police strategy that seeks to reduce Early childhood Best Practic-
es:, http://www.bestevidence.org/ ventative Services, http://www.
gang violence, illegal gun possession, thecommunityguide.org/
and gun violence in communities by early/early_child_ed/top.htm
implementing 1) aggressive law en- RAND Corporation Promis- Manpower Research Demonstration
forcement and prosecution efforts to ing Practices Network:, http:// Corporation, http://www.mdrc.org
recover illegal handguns, prosecute www.promisingpractices.net/
dangerous felons, and 2) deter vio- program.asp?programid=275
lence by increasing public awareness Office of Juvenile justice and
and promoting public safety and an- Prevention, http://www.ojj-
tiviolence. As a deterrence strategy, dp.gov/mpg/Program
the intervention is based on the as-
National Network for Safe Com-
sumption that crimes can be prevent-
munities, http://www.nnscom-
ed when the costs of committing the
munities.org/pages/group_vio-
crime are perceived by the offender
lence_tools_for_practitioners.php
to outweigh the benefits of com-
mitting a crime. It targets high-risk Institute of Education Scienc-
youths as well as serious and violent es What Works Clearinghouse ,
juvenile offenders. In Providence, http://ies.ed.gov/ncee/wwc/
the Institute for the Study and Prac- NREPP SAMHSAs National Regis-
tice of Nonviolence offers similar try of Evidence Based Programs and
programming. Practices, http://nrepp.samhsa.gov/
Evidence: Several studies evaluated Find Youth Info, http://
by the National Institute of Justice findyouthinfo.gov/
found Operation Ceasefire to have National Dropout Preven-
had a positive impact on: tion Network, http://www.
dropoutprevention.org/
Percentage of youth homicides
American Youth Policy Forum, http://
(reduction)
www.dropoutprevention.org/
Citywide gun assaults (reduction) Coalition for Evidence Based Poli-
cy, http://coalition4evidence.org/
106 RESILIENT BRIDGEPORT CLAIM THE EDGE, CONNECT THE CENTER WB unabridged w/ Yale ARCADIS
Housing Planning in Bridgeport, Connecticut
1
Primarily single-family residenti
Bridgeport 2020 some pockets of higher-density
residential uses in western port
commercial strip along Main Str
Between 1990 and 2000 some

HOUSING
neighborhoods, such as
Brooklawn, North Bridgeport

PLANNING
and the North End, experienced
significant population gains,
2 and others such as the South
End, East Side and East End
1 This summary of housing plan-
experienced significant losses.
Characterized by

Primarily single-family residential with


single-family homes
with 10%
ning isrates
Vacancy a tool
within thefor future
city varied by housing
Bridgeport 2020 some pockets of higher-density
residential uses in western portion and a
institutional uses
planning and a reminder
housing type and tended to be greatest
of
commercial strip along Main Street. 3 in buildings with at least five units

Between 1990 and 2000 some the(particularly


importance of utilizing
those with 50 units or more)
and in housing constructed either in the
all Predominan
residential, b
neighborhoods, such as
Brooklawn, North Bridgeport of the
1940s orprevious analysis
1970s. This trend is particularly
notable in neighborhoods such as the
and renter-occup
out, but well
Predominantly
and the North End, experienced
significant population gains,
single-family residential planning
Hollow and thework ashave
East End, which new a designs experience i
values.
with a significant high concentration of high-density and
and others such as the South
End, East Side and East End
amount of park/open
space
andolderstrategies
housing units. are developed.
experienced significant losses. Also of importance, though
7 Currently Transforming many Bridgeport
Vacancy rates within the city varied by industrial/ notneighborhoods
specifically noted
into communities of on this
commercial, 4 choice will require increasing local
housing type and tended to be greatest
in buildings with at least five units
but potential
for
map,demand by rehabilitating existing housing
is the thorough
5 needs assessment
back to single-familyconducted
(particularly those with 50 units or more) Predominantly single-family higher-value Multifamily homes properties, deconverting multi-unit
and in housing constructed either in the residential, but more than 50% mixed-use with about 50% properties
1940s or 1970s. This trend is particularly
notable in neighborhoods such as the
renter-occupied. Largely built
out, but well postitioned to
Majority of housing is
multifamily and
owner-occupied
as homes,
part of the development of
and providing incentives for
households at a range of income
Hollow and the East End, which have a
experience increases in home
values.
6 renter-occupied. Nearly 1
thelevels
Citys housing
to purchase homes. policy in 12
high concentration of high-density and in 5housing units in the
older housing units.
8
neighborhood is
considered overcrowded. 2006 and 2007.
Promote a variety of housing
The results Largely medium-

Multifamily
In addition, 40% of East
Side households do not of options
this inassessment
Downtown have not family homes), b
industrial uses in
Transforming many Bridgeport
neighborhoods into communities of
residential with
77%
have access to an
automobile. beenPromote
includedhousing on in
Pequonnock site.
the this summa- the community. R
towards lower-de
choice will require increasing local
demand by rehabilitating existing
renter-occupied.
Goal: Develop ry because projections
Support existing and potential
were senior housing
homeownership
properties, deconverting multi-unit
properties back to single-family
strategies aimed at
not increasing
onlyresidential
madedevelopment
out until in 2011. It
Downtown, Steel Point and
homes, and providing incentives for
households at a range of income
density
9 10 would be End.
the South potentially valuable
levels to purchase homes. 12 Niche markets to see ifthethese
Target youth projections have
include lofts, infill Characterized by 2-4 family flats
population being
Promote a variety of housing Largely medium-density residential (2-4
housing, and luxury
housing
and mostly renter-occupied with
a 12% vacancy rate come lostto fruition and toPredominantly
by Fairfield develop
County due to single-family homes,
options in Downtown family homes), but also contains
industrial uses in the western portion of
another housing
high housing needs butassess-
less than 40 %
owner-occupied
Promote housing on the
Pequonnock site.
the community. Resident preference
towards lower-density development and
mentcosts.based on current data.
senior housing 13
Support existing and potential
residential development in 11 Legend
Downtown, Steel Point and Residential uses are located in the
the South End. northern portion of the
1 NORTH END
neighborhood and are predominantly 2 RESERVOIR / WHISKEY HILL
Target the youth medium- and high-density. Potential
population being for mixed-use and adaptive reuse 3 NORTH BRIDGEPORT
lost by Fairfield Predominantly
County due to single-family homes, 4 BOSTON AVENUE / MILL HILL
high housing but less than 40 %
owner-occupied
5 EAST SIDE
costs.
6 ENTERPRISE ZONE
13 7 BROOKLAWN / ST VINCENT
8 THE HOLLOW
Bridgeport Neighborhoods
9 DOWNTOWN
101 North EAST
End END 5 East Side
2 Reservoir/Whiskey Hill 6 Enterprise Zone
11 SOUTH END
3 North Bridgeport 7 Brooklawn/St Vincen
124 BostonWEST END /
Ave/Mill Hill WEST SIDE 8 The Hollow
13 BLACK ROCK
BARNUM STATION FEASIBILITY
Barnum Station Feasibility Study Area (1/4 and 1/2 mile
STUDY AREA
The Barnum Station Feasibility Study indicated that the market could supp
Bridgeport Neighborhoods (<$1,300/month rent) and 350 market rate units through 2020 within the s
107 RESILIENT BRIDGEPORT CLAIM THE EDGE, CONNECT THE CENTER WBReviewed
Plans unabridged w/ Yale ARCADIS support an aditional 750 below market residential units and 1,250 market r
1 North End 5 East Side 9 Downtown Barnum Station Feasibility Study (2013)
Black Rock Neighborhood Revitalization Zone
2 Reservoir/Whiskey Hill 6 Enterprise Zone 10 East End Strategic plan (2008)
3 North Bridgeport 7 Brooklawn/St Vincent 11 South End Bridgeport 2020 (2008)
In the City of Bridgeport there are
51,255 households with 29,433 rent-
The 2007 City of Bridgeports Hous-
ing Report confirmed that 53% of
stantial in low-income census tracts
resulting in the Citys most vulnera-
HOUSING
al properties with an average rent of Bridgeports households are renters ble populations find themselves with PLANNING
$1,485 as of September 2012 Bridge- and 47% are homeowners in compar- even fewer affordable housing op-
port had 878 properties listed for ison to the county (Fairfield), which tions.
sale. The Warren Group, Commercial has a two thirds homeownership rate.
Record, June 2012, reports that the Additional findings in the City 2007 In 2007 czbLLC prepared a Housing
median home price in Bridgeport is Housing Report underscore the fact Policy Report on behalf of the City of
$131,375, which is a 16.26% increase the City has suffered from highest Bridgeport, which confirmed the fol-
from 2011. foreclosures in the State and is affect- lowing:
ing approximately 23% of the Citys
Bridgeport is a weak market commu- 62% of Bridgeports households
housing stock. Circumstances in
nity where poverty is concentrated earn less than $50,000 per year;
Bridgeport are among the very worst
within a region of high incomes. The in the country in terms of magnitude, 53% of Bridgeports house-
median value of a home in Fairfield rate and concentration. Also, few cit- holds are renters and 47% are
County is $403,400 compared to ies share the confluence of high per- homeowners in comparison to
$171,800 in the US. Almost half of centages of housing stocks older than the county, which is two-thirds
the apartments rent for over $1250 1939 (31%) with high rate of recently homeowner.
per month with many of those below foreclosed properties or properties in
this rent being located in Bridgeport. foreclosure, or otherwise affected by 40% of Bridgeports households
subprime lending activities. pay more than 30% of their in-
Foreclosure Crisis
come for housing;
The City of Bridgeport has been los-
Per the Connecticut Housing Finance
ing housing with greatest loss in low Housing price increased and rent
Authority, Bridgeport has suffered
income housing at a time when pov- increases are going up faster than
from the highest foreclosures rates in
erty has been on the rise. While the income; and
CT. In fact, Bridgeport is among the
population in Bridgeport decreased
very worst in the country in terms of Rental housing has little vacancy.
by only 1.5% from 1990 2000 the
magnitude, rate and concentration.
Citys housing stock decreased by
In 2013, 1321 foreclosure filings were Affordable Housing Gap
5% City side. Bridgeport lost nearly
reported, 1240 lis pendens are cur-
3,000 housing units during this time. The average cost of a two-bedroom
rently pending and 137 properties are
The reduction of units was most sub- apartment in Bridgeport is approx-
bank owned.

108 RESILIENT BRIDGEPORT CLAIM THE EDGE, CONNECT THE CENTER WB unabridged w/ Yale ARCADIS
imately $1,200/monthly. To afford
an apartment, a family must earn
housing options for families in the
City of Bridgeport. The Bridgeport
Endnotes HOUSING
$24.56 per hour, or $50,000/year. Housing Authority reports an aver- Bridgeport Child Advocacy Coalition, State
of the Child in Bridgeport 2013
PLANNING
However, the median family income age vacancy rate of 3.9% for their
in Bridgeport is $39,000 year, re- 2,523 units. As of December 2013, czbLLC, Housing Policy Report, City of
sulting in a housing budget deficit of there were 2,270 people on the wait- Bridgeport, 2007.
$11,000. The effects of this huge dis- ing list. In addition to 1,281 on the Partnership for Strong Communities, Hous-
parity are such that the affordability waiting list for Project Base Section ing Data Profile, Bridgeport 2013.
gap is not being met. 8. Data was provided by BCAC 2013
State of the Child Report. Partnership for Strong Communities, Hous-
United Way 2-1-1 Top 5 Housing-Re- ing Data Profile, Connecticut 2013.
lated Requests for Service for Bridge- Resilient Homes
Partnership for Strong Communities, Hous-
port
Ideally, more people will be able to ing Data Profile, Fairfield County 2013.
Type of Request 2012/2011 safely shelter at home during storms.

That is the rationale behind the De-
1. Homeless Shelter 1,963/1,838 sign Center and Green Collar Insti-
tute and the training programs for
2. Rent Payment Assistance
floodproofing, elevating, remediat-
1,290/1,515
ing, and mitigating - to make exist-
3. Housing Search and Informa- ing and new construction ready to
tion 1,153/1,030 handle the challenges of the climate
everyday and in emergencies. Shelter
4. Rental Deposit Assistance in Place works when livable spaces
947/659 are elevated above flood hazards and
protected from storm surge, when
5. Section 8 Housing Choice the ground is permeable enough to
Vouchers 343/363 resist flooding or to channel it away
quickly, and when utilities contin-
Housing Authority of the
ue operating throughout municipal
City of Bridgeport
shutdowns.
There are limited affordable rental

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SURFACE
ELEVATION

Legend

110 RESILIENT BRIDGEPORT CLAIM THE EDGE, CONNECT THE CENTER WB unabridged w/ Yale ARCADIS
PRE-
INTERSTATE
1951

111 RESILIENT BRIDGEPORT CLAIM THE EDGE, CONNECT THE CENTER WB unabridged w/ Yale ARCADIS
EXISTING CITY
2014

112 RESILIENT BRIDGEPORT CLAIM THE EDGE, CONNECT THE CENTER WB unabridged w/ Yale ARCADIS
While the link of transportation
needs to flood events is clear (evac-
while the raised roadbed has stood
well for over 100 years, there is no
spines as major transportation routes
migrate away from the coast.
MOBILITY AND
uation, emergency response, crucial ability to warrant it as a flood barrier. RESILIENCY
supply deliveries, and recovery), The introduction of Bridgeport as an
there is also a more insidious con- In several instances, power grid and express stop would not only increase
nection through carbon use and glob- communications grids utilize the train traffic through the city, but by
al warming, through population and same railroad right of way. reducing the trip to New York City to
industry relocation limitations, and a more manageable time could begin
The State of Connecticut directly to attract New York City commuters
through recreation (health) opportu-
subsidizes the operation of the Met- to live in Bridgeport. The addition of
nities.
ro North, and financing is not only a second (local) station would again
We looked at the various Bridgeport at variance with most rail line oper- attract commuters from outside
transportation networks in relation ations, but also requires complex Bridgeport, but would also begin to
to resiliency strategies (namely Bar- financial politics to fund other than make transit oriented design com-
riers, Elevation, Absorption, and Re- general maintenance. munities within close distance of the
location). station a real possibility.
Freight rail is extremely limited by
Rail available track time, by restrictions A northern high speed rail would
on weight and by lack of off loading open up some track time and rid-
Existing issues ports. ership space for new commuter ef-
While the Metro North line is raised ficiencies. While on the face of it,
to an adequate flood level for the Assumptions
freight and high speed are not gen-
near future. The need to cross under Given track and construction con- erally compatible it would be wise to
the line at several major arteries has straints, it seems unlikely that true at least maintain a single right of way
lead to low lying roads that frequent- high speed rail can be retrofit to the for both.
ly flood and block the same roads Metro North line. One of the likely
that would be used for evacuation. possible paths for high speed train The City of Bridgeport has investi-
Flooding at the riverfront station from New York City to Boston would gated both adding an additional stop
makes access to and from the elevat- run north of Bridgeport and towards to the city (Barnum Station) and tun-
ed station impossible as well. Hartford. neling a new right of way and express
station through the city.
There is a low radius turn through Metro North continues to predict
Bridgeport that slows rail traffic and steady increases in ridership as a Recommendations
precludes any high speed rail traf- commuter rails system, though con- The existing raised rail line divides
fic. Constraints on elevated road- straints include parking limitations the city, limiting growth and develop-
bed widths preclude the addition of for suburban commuters, platform ment. It creates several flood related
a central platform which is required length, and operational frequency hazards and it limits the ability to de-
to access the inner two rail lines limits. velop express stops. Running the rail
and utilize Bridgeport as an express underground along State Street to a
Multi-modal traffic is likely to in-
stop. Any new construction or main- new station (near the existing) and
crease along the Route 8 corridor,
tenance must recognize the need continuing under the Pequonnock to
and along commercial north/south
for continuous rail operations. And a new Barnum station before surfac-
113 RESILIENT BRIDGEPORT CLAIM THE EDGE, CONNECT THE CENTER WB unabridged w/ Yale ARCADIS
ing in the existing rail yards allows
the introduction of Bridgeport as an
route for local industry and a major
commuter track. It does run through
north, and its current corridor will be
turned over to local modes of traffic.
MOBILITY AND
express stop and removes several several low lying areas along the Con- RESILIENCY
flood hazards. The recommendation necticut coast. As transit oriented design communi-
would then be to develop (on half of ties take hold, as fuel prices rise, and
the existing rail bed) a local light rail In Bridgeport, while the highway is as roads are choked, commuter car
or trolley system with at-grade cross- built to a very high elevation, many traffic will decrease.
ing and the other half as a new green of the on/off ramps terminate in low
lying areas that make it impassable Recommendation
way development running continu-
ously from one side of the city to the in predicted flood events. While the A highway bypass around Bridgeport
other. Cross streets would be raised highway berms effectively restrict would remove the physical impedi-
gently to the new safer elevations. flooding, there is no way to warrant ment of the I-95 structure and reunite
Transit oriented design communities their performance even as flood con- neighborhoods. It would free up over
would develop along the new green- ditions are worsened at underpasses, 80 acres of dry land in three different
way trolley. The rail bed and accom- and low lying ramps. neighborhoods for relocation efforts,
panying railroad avenue would utilize and for new development at scales
The great height and imposing width appropriate to each neighborhood.
new water absorption techniques and
exactly bisects the city and has had
accommodate water management This bypass would follow existing
devastating affect on property val-
runoff as well as septic systems. road rights of way through Connecti-
ues, development potential and local
The Metro North and Greenway lines health. It has effectively decimated cut, running up the Route 8 corridor,
would intersect with each other, with the East Side neighborhood, truncat- to the Merritt Parkway corridor and
the bus terminal and bus lines, and ed east end neighborhoods and sty- then down the Milford connector
with new bikeways and pedestrian mied downtown growth in its sixty back to I-95.
paths developed. All of this would years.
Light Rail
then encourage development with-
The DOT is in a constant mainte-
in the modal system, cutting down Green Line as discussed above
nance mode without any serious
commute time, eliminating much car
plans for regional improvements or Bus Lines
traffic and generally decreasing the
multi-modal use of the existing aging
carbon footprint of the city.
structures. Financing bonds require Existing Issues
Interstate Highway continued funding sometimes be- The main bus terminal as well as its
yond the useful life of structures. access to the train station is located
Existing issues in a flood plain. The city maintains
I-95 is one of the heaviest trafficked Assumptions
a fairly robust level of bus service
corridors in North America. Fore- As industries phase to green solu- throughout the city. The lack of den-
casts are for traffic to increase and tions, and local sourcing (of food, sity of areas along the route however
traffic speeds will continue to drop of goods, even of raw materials) in- can make for sparse ridership.
until a point of equilibrium is reached crease, truck delivery will lessen. As
where its inconvenience outweighs industries in low lying areas migrate Assumptions
its convenience. It is a vital trucking north the assumption is that the ma- Bus travel will increase and develop
jor I-95 corridor should also shift
114 RESILIENT BRIDGEPORT CLAIM THE EDGE, CONNECT THE CENTER WB unabridged w/ Yale ARCADIS
in tandem with a new light rail line,
especially as car operation and eco-
Metro North subsidizes parking lots
near stations to attract rail ridership.
at difficult road crossings. MOBILITY AND
logical costs increase. Bridgeport residents bear the brunt Assumptions RESILIENCY
of traffic and pollution from outside Bike and pedestrian traffic will grow
The city is encouraging zoning the community as they serve as park- exactly as conditions allow and en-
changes to create new areas of transit ing stations for commuters who inter- courage. Health concerns will move
oriented design density along major act infrequently with downtown com- more to take advantage of new recre-
commercial arteries. merce (and probably pay their taxes ation areas.
elsewhere).
Recommendation Recommendations
There are several areas of the city Assumptions Incorporate into new Pequonnock
where major commercial arteries Cars will not go away, nor will com- River Park bike lanes and walking
cross waterways that have been cov- muting, but non-car mode from home trails connecting to Trail to Bike
ered, conduited and are susceptible to station and from home to work or way and from Beardsley Park to
to flood. The development could at school or shopping should all be en- Seaside park
once uncover and manage such water- couraged. Bridge traffic of all kinds
ways while at the same time raising across the cities waterways are es- Incorporate bike berms through
perimeter densities. The waterworks sential assets. Ultimately most bridge South End, East End, and eventu-
would be central features of new de- and bridge approaches will need to ally from Black Rock to Pleasure
fined development nodes - nodes be raised to accommodate surge lev- Beach
with sufficient density to support the els.
water works, the transit system, and Include bike storage facilities and
increased land values. Recommendations rentals at transit stations and
park facilities
Redesign parking and green
Cars streets with permeable surfaces Include pedestrian friendly
Existing issues walks, benches and conversation
Encourage mixed use develop-
Bridgeport, like most small cities, areas along green streets, and
ment that includes housing, com-
remains car-centric. Parking garages park paths
mercial and industrial compo-
and hard surface parking lots domi- nents to cut down on travel miles
nate downtown and suburban shop- and to strengthen neighborhoods
ping centers alike. Cars are vulnera-
ble in low lying areas. Car exits are
blocked (particularly from south end) Bikes and Pedestrians
in flood conditions. Road and surface
runoff exacerbate pluvial flooding. Existing Issues
New bike lanes are just developing in
In fact many in poorer communities Bridgeport and remain largely spo-
do not own cars and are victims of radic and traffic bound. Some neigh-
the car based travel system that lim- borhoods lack suitable pedestrian
its shopping, working and recreation sidewalks. Traffic safety is a concern
opportunities for the carless.
115 RESILIENT BRIDGEPORT CLAIM THE EDGE, CONNECT THE CENTER WB unabridged w/ Yale ARCADIS
TECHNICAL SECTIONS
SUPPORTING MATERIALS
T.1 PRELIMINARY COST ESTIMATES

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T.1 TECHNICAL SECTION: PRELIMINARY COST ESTIMATES
Estimate of Probable Cost

City of Bridgeport
Construction Multi-Functional South End Berm (~7ft)

Item Description Quantity Unit Unit Price PROBABLE (Cost)

Feasibility Studies
Impact Assessment $50,000
Civil Engineering Study $50,000
Structural Engineering Study $100,000
Geotechincal Engineering Study $100,000
Neighborhood Planning and Stratgy Assessment $50,000
Environmental Analysis $25,000
Architectural and Landscape Design $100,000

Studies Subtotal $475,000

Construction and Materials


Levee 8500 LF $2,500.00 $21,250,000
Topsoil Placement 450000 TON $12.00 $5,400,000
Landscape Buffer (Construction and Materials) 5000 LB $2.00 $10,000
Bioswale (Construction and Materials) 5000 LB $2,000.00 $10,000,000

Construction and Materials Subtotal $36,660,000

Contingency - 30% 30% $10,998,000

Opinion of Probable Cost $48,133,000

1. Unit prices based off of recent cost estimates for other projects
2. Topsoil costs assume given dimensions and 100 pcf

S.1.1
117 RESILIENT BRIDGEPORT CLAIM THE EDGE, CONNECT THE CENTER WB unabridged w/ Yale ARCADIS
T.1 TECHNICAL SECTION: PRELIMINARY COST ESTIMATES

City of Bridgeport
Elevated Singer Street with Integrated Multif-functional wall (South End - 1 mile)

Item Description Quantity Unit Unit Price PROBABLE (Cost)

Feasibility Studies
Impact Assessment $50,000
Civil Engineering Study $100,000
Structural Engineering Study $100,000
Geotechincal Engineering Study $100,000
Neighborhood Planning and Stratgy Assessment $75,000
Environmental Analysis $50,000
Architectural and Landscape Design $150,000

Studies Subtotal $625,000

Construction and Materials


Roadway Construction 1 MILE $1,360,000.00 $1,360,000
Earthwork Embankment 33244 CY $50.00 $1,662,217
Storm Drainage Construction 1 MILE $930,000.00 $930,000
Street Lighting 1 MILE $280,000.00 $280,000
Driveway Connections to Existing Properties 50 EACH $100,000.00 $5,000,000
Storm Drainage Connections to Existing Properties 25 EACH $100,000.00 $2,500,000
Temporary Construction Easements 3 ACRE $50,000.00 $150,000
Utility Relocation 1 MILE $1,000,000.00 $1,000,000

Construction and Materials Subtotal $12,882,217

Contingency - 30% 30% $3,864,665

Opinion of Probable Cost $17,371,882

S.1.2
118 RESILIENT BRIDGEPORT CLAIM THE EDGE, CONNECT THE CENTER WB unabridged w/ Yale ARCADIS
T.1 TECHNICAL SECTION: PRELIMINARY COST ESTIMATES

Item Description Quantity Unit Unit Price PROBABLE (Cost)

Sewer System Interpretation


Review Existing Data $25,000
CSO Outfall - Sewershed Hydrodynamic Modeling $45,000

Treatment Park Study Assessments


Assessment of Technologies and Ccology $70,000
Site Analyses $55,000
Numerical Analyses Treatment Park $45,000
Architectural and Landscape Design $55,000
Environmental and Permitting Analyses $65,000
Resident and Neighbor Engagement $40,000
Reporting $55,000
Project Implementation Plan - Next Steps, Design and Construction Requirements $30,000

Studies Subtotal $485,000

Opinion of Probable Cost $485,000

S.1.3
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T.1 TECHNICAL SECTION: PRELIMINARY COST ESTIMATES
Estimate of Probable Cost

City of Bridgeport
Construction Living Shoreline: Offshore Constructed Breakwaters with Wetland

Item Description Quantity Unit Unit Price PROBABLE (Cost)

Feasibility Studies
Impact Assessment $50,000
Hydraulic and Hydrological Assessment $50,000
Civil Engineering Study $50,000
Neighborhood Planning and Stratgy Assessment $50,000
Environmental Analysis $50,000
Architectural and Landscape Design $50,000

Studies Subtotal $300,000

Phase A
Geotextile Material (Geotextile Bags) 300000 SF $0.50 $150,000
Dredge Material and Delivery Costs 11250 TON $13.00 $146,000
Delivery of Geotextile Bags 15000 LF $5.00 $75,000
Filling of Geotextile Bags 8300 CY $12.00 $100,000
Placement of Geotextile Bags 1500 EACH $50.00 $75,000

Topsoil Placement 20000 TON $12.00 $240,000


Wetland Vegetation (Construction and Materials) 2100 LB $2.00 $4,000

Mattress for Off-Shore Island (Waterfront Side) 561100 SF $0.50 $281,000


Dredge Material and Delivery Costs 5500 TON $13.00 $71,000
Delivery of Geotextile Matresses 500 LF $5.00 $3,000
Filling of Geotextile Mattreesses 1020 CY $12.00 $12,000
Placement of Geotextile Mattresses 10 EACH $50.00 $1,000
Rip Rap for Off-shore Island (Assuming to Cover Mattress) 30560 TON $24.00 $733,000

Phase A Subtotal $1,891,000

Phase B
Geotextile Material (Geotextile Bags) 180000 SF $0.50 $90,000
Dredge Material and Delivery Costs 6750 TON $13.00 $88,000
Delivery of Geotextile Bags 9000 LF $5.00 $45,000
Filling of Geotextile Bags 4980 CY $12.00 $60,000
Placement of Geotextile Bags 900 EACH $50.00 $45,000

Topsoil Placement 12000 TON $12.00 $144,000


Wetland Vegetation (Construction and Materials) 1260 LB $2.00 $3,000

Phase B Subtotal $475,000

Contingency - 30%

Opinion of Probable Cost


30% $709,800

$3,375,800
S.2
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T.1 TECHNICAL SECTION: PRELIMINARY COST ESTIMATES

S.3SouthEndNeighborhoodTransformationandResilienceCenter
Uses
ReplacementofMarinaVillageJHM $75,000,000
ReplacementofMarinaVillagePOKOPartners $75,000,000
Homeownerrehabilitaion $30,000,000
CommercialRevitalization $5,000,000
InstitutionalImprovements 1,500,00
GreenStreets $5,000,000
ResilienceCenter $6,000,000
CommunityServices $8,000,000
Wayfinding $10,000
Total $204,010,000

Sources
NetLIHTCEquityblended4%and9% $102,005,000
FEMA $40,000,000
CHFALoans $3,000,000
DOHGrants $5,000,000
CEFIALoans $1,400,000
UtilityGrants $6,400,000
FHLBGrants $1,200,000
OtherGrants $1,505,000
HomeownerSweatEquity $2,000,000
Foundations $1,500,000
RBD $40,000,000
Total $204,010,000

S.3
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T.1 TECHNICAL SECTION: PRELIMINARY COST ESTIMATES

City of Bridgeport
Offshore CSO Outfall Treatment Park with Neighborhood Implementation Study

Item Description Item Total


Sewer System Interpretation
Review existing data $ 25,000
CSO outfall - sewershed hydrodynamic modeling $ 45,000

Treatment Park Study Assessments


Assessment of technologies $ 65,000
Site Analyses and waterfront typology assessment $ 50,000
Numerical Analyses, hydrodynamic modeling $ 45,000
Landscaping and Architecture $ 45,000
Reporting and project plan $ 45,000
Permitting Analyses $ 65,000
Resident and Neighbor Engagement $ 40,000

Treatment Park Construction, 9 acres (following Living Shoreline conept)


Offshore Breakwaters with re-use of drege materials $ 325,000
Wetland creation - backfill and topsoil placement $ 500,000
Wetland vegetation $ 25,000
Waterfront reshaping (Rip Rap - Geotextile mattrasses) $ 125,000

Community Implementation & Revitalization Plan with Onshore Mitigation


Community surveys and needs interviews $ 90,000
Household data analyses $ 20,000
Resident and Neighbor Engagement $ 20,000
Site Planning, financing plan and water connectivity $ 80,000
Black Rock Transition Design - Neighborhood to Treatment Park $ 120,000
Neighborhood Plan with adaptation goals and eduction program $ 65,000

Subtotal $ 1,795,000

Subtotal - Non-Construction Items $ 820,000

Subtotal - Construction Items $ 975,000

Contingency 30.00% $ 538,500

Opinion of Probable Planning and Construction Cost $ 2,333,500

Notes and Assumptions:


1. Public R/W construction pricing information used herein is based on generic costs
2. Earthwork Embankment, Offshore study and construction pricing information is obtained from ARCADIS reference projects
3.
4.
Storm Drainage unit prices are assumed values based on engineering judgement and have not been verified.
A budget Contingency of 30% is included due to the conceptual nature of the current pre-planning stage of the project development. B.1.1
B.1.2
122 RESILIENT BRIDGEPORT CLAIM THE EDGE, CONNECT THE CENTER WB unabridged w/ Yale ARCADIS
T.1 TECHNICAL SECTION: PRELIMINARY COST ESTIMATES

Estimate of Probable Cost

City of Bridgeport
Bostwick Avenue Elevated Section

Item Description Quantity Unit Unit Price PROBABLE (Cost)

Feasibility Studies
Impact Assessment $50,000
Civil Engineering Study $100,000
Structural Engineering Study $100,000
Geotechincal Engineering Study $100,000
Neighborhood Planning and Stratgy Assessment $75,000
Environmental Analysis $50,000
Architectural and Landscape Design $150,000

Studies Subtotal $625,000

Construction and Materials


Roadway Construction 1 MILE $1,180,000.00 $1,062,000
Earthwork Embankment (New Fill) 29000 CY $30.00 $870,000
Concrete Retaining Walls 23100 SF $120.00 $2,772,000
Storm Drainage System 1 MILE $930,000.00 $837,000
Erosion Control 1 MILE $20,000.00 $18,000
Pavement Marking and Signage 1 MILE $30,000.00 $27,000
Street Lighting 1 MILE $280,000.00 $252,000
Utility Relocations 1 MILE $1,000,000.00 $900,000
Driveway Connections to Existing Properties 26 EACH $100,000.00 $2,600,000
Drainage Connections to Existing Properties 13 EACH $100,000.00 $1,300,000

Construction and Materials Subtotal $10,638,000

Contingency - 30% 30% $3,191,400

B.2
Opinion of Probable Cost $14,454,400

123 RESILIENT BRIDGEPORT CLAIM THE EDGE, CONNECT THE CENTER WB unabridged w/ Yale ARCADIS
T.1 TECHNICAL SECTION: PRELIMINARY COST ESTIMATES

Estimate of Probable Cost

City of Bridgeport
Black Rock Harbor - Comprehensive Feasibility Study for Bridge with Integrated Surge Protection

Item Description Quantity Unit Unit Price PROBABLE (Cost)

Feasibility Studies
Impact Assesment $50,000
Data Collection
Environmental Impact Statement
Public Outreach
Hydraulic & Hydrological Study $100,000
Flood Elevation Determination
Flow Characteristics Study
Sediment Transport Study
Civil Engineering Study $120,000
Survey Data Collection
Excavation
Scourt Analysis
Geotechnical Engineering Study $100,000
Study of Boring Logs
Slope Stability
Structural Engineering Study $140,000
Preliminary Gate Design
Foundation Design
Quantity Analysis
Mechanical/Electrical Engineering Study $60,000
Preliminary Sizing of Machinery
Cost Estimation
Operation and Maintenance Cost Analysis
Cost Benefit Analysis $30,000
Environmental Impact Study - Focus Area Black Rock Harbor $50,000
Strategy Assessment - Focus Area Black Rock & South End Landfill $55,000
Community Outreach and Participation Program $55,000
Architectural and Landscape Design $125,000

B.3
Studies Subtotal $885,000

Opinion of Probable Cost $885,000

124 RESILIENT BRIDGEPORT CLAIM THE EDGE, CONNECT THE CENTER WB unabridged w/ Yale ARCADIS
T.1 TECHNICAL SECTION: PRELIMINARY COST ESTIMATES

Estimate of Probable Cost

City of Bridgeport
Downtown Protection Floodwall

Item Description Quantity Unit Unit Price PROBABLE (Cost)

Feasibility Studies
Impact Assessment $50,000
Hydraulic and Hydrological Assessment $50,000
Civil Engineering Study $50,000
Neighborhood Planning and Stratgy Assessment $50,000
Environmental Analysis $50,000
Architectural and Landscape Design $50,000

Studies Subtotal $300,000

Construction and Materials


Floodwall - 20 ft 529 LF $8,000.00 $4,232,617
Pedestrian Bulkhead - Epoxy Coated Sheet Pile with Aesthetic Concrete Cap (Formliner and Incl. Pedestrian Sidewalk) 1096 LF $3,500.00 $3,837,128
Floodwall - 20 ft with High and Low Platform 1233 LF $9,000.00 $11,094,783
Floodwall - 20 ft with High and Low Platform 430 LF $10,500.00 $4,510,758

Construction and Materials Subtotal $23,675,286

Contingency - 30% 30% $7,102,586

Opinion of Probable Cost $31,077,871

D.1
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T.1 TECHNICAL SECTION: PRELIMINARY COST ESTIMATES

Estimate of Probable Cost

City of Bridgeport
Downtown Protection Floodwall

Item Description Quantity Unit Unit Price PROBABLE (Cost)

Feasibility Studies
Impact Assessment $50,000
Hydraulic and Hydrological Assessment $50,000
Civil Engineering Study $50,000
Neighborhood Planning and Stratgy Assessment $50,000
Environmental Analysis $50,000
Architectural and Landscape Design $50,000

Studies Subtotal $300,000

Construction and Materials


Floodwall - 20 ft 774 LF $8,000.00 $6,191,383
Pedestrian Bulkhead - Epoxy Coated Sheet Pile with Aesthetic Concrete Cap (Formliner and Incl. Pedestrian Sidewalk) 1604 LF $3,500.00 $5,612,872
Floodwall - 20 ft with High and Low Platform 1803 LF $9,000.00 $16,229,217
Floodwall - 20 ft with High and Low Platform 628 LF $10,500.00 $6,598,242

Construction and Materials Subtotal $34,631,714

Contingency - 30% 30% $10,389,514

Opinion of Probable Cost $45,321,229

D.2
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T.1 TECHNICAL SECTION: PRELIMINARY COST ESTIMATES

Estimate of Probable Cost

City of Bridgeport
New Congress Street Bridge - Low Level Steel Bascule with Concrete Arch Approach Spans

Item Description Quantity Unit Unit Price PROBABLE (Cost)

Feasibility Studies
Impact Assessment $50,000
Civil Engineering Study $50,000
Structural Engineering Study $100,000
Geotechincal Engineering Study $100,000
Neighborhood Planning and Stratgy Assessment $50,000
Environmental Analysis $25,000
Architectural and Landscape Design $100,000

Studies Subtotal $475,000

Construction and Materials


Approach Spans - Concrete Slab Span (East and West) 14800 SF $200.00 $2,960,000
Concrete Arch Approach Spans (67 ft Long) 19832 SF $450.00 $8,924,400
Steel Bascule Foundations and Pier Substructure (90 ft Opening) 1 EA $20,000,000.00 $20,000,000
Steel Bascule Superstructure 1 EA $8,500,000.00 $8,500,000
Steel Bascule Mechanical and Electrical Equipment 1 EA $10,000,000.00 $10,000,000

Construction and Materials Subtotal $50,384,400

Contingency - 30% 30% $15,115,320

Opinion of Probable Cost $65,974,720

D.3
OPTION 1
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T.1 TECHNICAL SECTION: PRELIMINARY COST ESTIMATES

Estimate of Probable Cost

City of Bridgeport
New Congress Street Bridge - Exotic Steel Arch with Intermediate Piers

Item Description Quantity Unit Unit Price PROBABLE (Cost)

Feasibility Studies
Impact Assessment $50,000
Civil Engineering Study $50,000
Structural Engineering Study $100,000
Geotechincal Engineering Study $100,000
Neighborhood Planning and Stratgy Assessment $50,000
Environmental Analysis $25,000
Architectural and Landscape Design $100,000

Studies Subtotal $475,000

Construction and Materials


Approach Spans - Concrete Slab Spans (East and West) 12800 SF $200.00 $2,560,000
Exotic Steel Arch Main Span (Including Intermediate Piers) 41280 SF $750.00 $30,960,000

Construction and Materials Subtotal $33,520,000

Contingency - 30% 30% $10,056,000

Opinion of Probable Cost $44,051,000

D.3
OPTION 2
128 RESILIENT BRIDGEPORT CLAIM THE EDGE, CONNECT THE CENTER WB unabridged w/ Yale ARCADIS
T.1 TECHNICAL SECTION: PRELIMINARY COST ESTIMATES

DOWNTOWN DESIGN CENTER AND COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT


$10.4 MILLION
Budget

Renovation of Design Center Building - $5,000,000

Program start-up funds - $1,800,000

Loan and grant funds for property improvements

RBD Funds: $3,000,000


Home Funds: $5,000,000
CEFIA Funds: $1.050,000
CHFA First Time Homebuyer Funds: $6,000,000
CHAMP Funds: $500,000
Shoreline Recovery Fund: $2,000,000
Private Mortgages: $18,000,000
Utility rebates: $900,000
Value of self-help: $6,000,000
Additional grant funding and private donations: $1,000,000 (Surdna, NEA,

Small Resiliency Grants 120 @ $5000 ea. = $600,000


D.4
129 RESILIENT BRIDGEPORT CLAIM THE EDGE, CONNECT THE CENTER WB unabridged w/ Yale ARCADIS
T.1 TECHNICAL SECTION: PRELIMINARY COST ESTIMATES

Estimate of Probable Cost

BRIDGEPORT TRANSPORTATION AND INVESTMENT PLAN

Item Description PROBABLE (Cost)

Work Plan
Review and catalog current and projected regional transportation system alternatives $75,000

Focus and remap as relevant current and projected transportation system


including identify long-term opportunities for redevelopment with rail
and highway alternatives and the impact these would have on Bridgeport $100,000

Develop and assess alternatives for multi-modal transportation hub/station $125,000

Design development plans for the station area, with connections to and through
new infrastructure, Downtown, East Side and South End. $250,000

Identify priority properties for development $50,000

Identify network and locations for future utilities' infrastructure $50,000

Identify long term alternatives for property redevelopment with rail and highway realignments $150,000

Develop near, mid-and long term scenario plans to guide resiliency planning
and development strategies $100,000

Community Outreach and Participation Program $75,000

Administration, Report and Production $25,000

Total $1,000,000
D.5
130 RESILIENT BRIDGEPORT CLAIM THE EDGE, CONNECT THE CENTER WB unabridged w/ Yale ARCADIS
T.1 TECHNICAL SECTION: PRELIMINARY COST ESTIMATES

City of Bridgeport
Green Streets

Item Description Quantity Unit Unit Price PROBABLE (Cost)

Feasibility Studies
Impact Assessment $50,000
Civil Engineering Study $100,000
Structural Engineering Study $100,000
Geotechincal Engineering Study $100,000
Neighborhood Planning and Stratgy Assessment $75,000
Environmental Analysis $50,000
Architectural and Landscape Design $150,000

Studies Subtotal $625,000

Construction and Materials


Roadway Construction 3 MILE $1,330,000.00 $4,522,000
Storm Drainage Construction 3 MILE $930,000.00 $3,162,000
Corner Basins / Retention Facilities (i.e. Bioswales) 1 LS $2,900,000.00 $2,900,000
Street Lighting 3 MILE $280,000.00 $952,000
Traffic Signalization 17 EACH $80,000.00 $1,360,000
Driveway Connections to Connections to Existing Properties - Residential 57 EACH $5,000.00 $285,000
Driveway Connections to Connections to Existing Properties - Commercial 60 EACH $15,000.00 $900,000
Storm Drainage Connections to Existing Properties - Residential 81 EACH $7,500.00 $607,500
Storm Drainage Connections to Existing Properties - Commercial 163 EACH $25,000.00 $4,075,000
Temporary Construction Easements 8 ACRE $50,000.00 $410,000
Utility Relocation 3 MILE $1,000,000.00 $3,400,000

Construction and Materials Subtotal $22,573,500

Contingency - 30% 30% $6,772,050

Opinion of Probable Cost $29,970,550 P.1


131 RESILIENT BRIDGEPORT CLAIM THE EDGE, CONNECT THE CENTER WB unabridged w/ Yale ARCADIS
T.1 TECHNICAL SECTION: PRELIMINARY COST ESTIMATES
Estimate of Probable Cost

LOWER PEQUONNOCK DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION PLAN

Item Description PROBABLE (Cost)

Work Plan
Model watershed including interacations of coastal surge, urban stormwater, and river flows,
including interatction with creeks and tributaries $150,000

Develop connection water and park systems from Beardsley Park


down Pequonock to Sound $75,000

Catalogue property ownership and explore opportunities to reorganize and


redevelop commercial and industrial zone around US Highway 1,
converting property owners to shareholders $100,000

Daylight Pequonnock and Island Brook and develop park at confluence.


Explore dry feet and wet feet development types. $200,000

Create development plan for commercial zone along US Highway 1 / Boston Avenue to Route 8 $100,000

Develop castcade for enhanced fish ladder from dam to US Highway 1 bridge $200,000

Develop area for oyster beds and related aquaculture along river's edge, including hatchery $100,000

Explore opportunities along waterfront and up peninsula for transfers,


using sending and receiving zones $50,000

Investigate and design daylighting program of covered streams


in inland waterways west of the Pequonnock to improve
hydrolic function and to explore engergy generation and capture from stream $125,000

Develop enhanced transportation connection of the Pequonnock Rail to Trail


project from downtown to Beardsley Park connection $50,000

Construct an ecological assessment of the larger urban riparian system


to establish a baseline of the current species and related health of the river $100,000

Create ecological design and adaptive management design


guidelines to monitor and evalute iterations of larger plan $50,000

Establish a Watershed Overlay District in each town along the river


from Monroe to Trumbull to Bridgeport $75,000

Identify brownfield reclaimations $75,000

Cost Benefit Analysis $75,000

Economic Development Analysis $75,000

Community Outreach and Participation $150,000

P.2
Administration and Report Production $50,000

Total $1,800,000

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LETTERS OF SUPPORT
THE RESILIENT BRIDGEPORT COALITION

133 RESILIENT BRIDGEPORT CLAIM THE EDGE, CONNECT THE CENTER WB unabridged w/ Yale ARCADIS
BRIDGEPORT
MAYOR BILL FINCH

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BRIDGEPORT
MAYOR BILL FINCH

135 RESILIENT BRIDGEPORT CLAIM THE EDGE, CONNECT THE CENTER WB unabridged w/ Yale ARCADIS
HOUSING
AUTHORITY OF
THE CITY OF
BRIDGEPORT

136 RESILIENT BRIDGEPORT CLAIM THE EDGE, CONNECT THE CENTER WB unabridged w/ Yale ARCADIS
HOUSING
AUTHORITY OF
THE CITY OF
BRIDGEPORT

137 RESILIENT BRIDGEPORT CLAIM THE EDGE, CONNECT THE CENTER WB unabridged w/ Yale ARCADIS
BRIDGEPORT
NEIGHBORHOOD
TRUST

138 RESILIENT BRIDGEPORT CLAIM THE EDGE, CONNECT THE CENTER WB unabridged w/ Yale ARCADIS
BRIDGEPORT
NEIGHBORHOOD
TRUST

139 RESILIENT BRIDGEPORT CLAIM THE EDGE, CONNECT THE CENTER WB unabridged w/ Yale ARCADIS
GREATER
March 19, 2014
BRIDGEPORT
Secretary Shaun Donovan and the RBD Jury
U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development REGIONAL COUNCIL
451 7th Street S.W., Washington, DC 20410

Dear Secretary Donovan and the RBD Jury,

The Greater Bridgeport Regional Council (GBRC) and task group, Conservation Technical Advisory
Committee (CTAC) enthusiastically endorse and support the fine efforts of your team on behalf of
Hurricane Sandy Recovery. The design concepts and innovations presented by stakeholders at the
recent Bridgeport workshops held to develop and facilitate the Rebuild By Design program are
indicative of the innovations necessary to facilitate creative solutions to the challenges we face with
climate change and sea level rise. We are especially gratified that the Waggoner/Ball team,
consultants, and stakeholders have emphasized the importance of whole community and regional
watershed planning.

The GBRC CTAC has as one of its specific missions to coordinate Natural Hazard Mitigation Planning
with other planning strategies for the City of Bridgeport, together with the towns of Easton, Fairfield,
Monroe, Stratford and Trumbull as a comprehensive region. These six municipalities comprise two of
the major watersheds that impact Bridgeport and also the shoreline communities most severely
impacted by Hurricane Sandy. The CTAC serves as the manager for the Pequonnock River Watershed
Master Plan. The GBRC and CTAC have also completed the composition and subsequent submission to
the Connecticut Department of Energy and Environmental Protection and to FEMA of the Natural
Hazard Mitigation Plan for the six municipalities of the region. GBRC is also providing technical
assistance as the municipalities of the Greater Bridgeport Region prepare applications to the
Community Rating System (CRS).

CTAC is supported by GBRC professional staff and consultants to provide comprehensive planning for
the region, including transportation, GIS mapping, emergency preparedness, hazard mitigation and
conservation planning and policies. You may count on our full organizational support and cooperation
in bringing the elected officials, town staff and community volunteers to the table in support of the
programs you are proposing as Post-Sandy recovery and resilience is realized though community
outreach and stakeholder participation at the Rebuild By Design events and meetings.

Sincerely,

Brian Bidolli
Executive Director, Greater Bridgeport Regional Council

140 RESILIENT BRIDGEPORT CLAIM THE EDGE, CONNECT THE CENTER WB unabridged w/ Yale ARCADIS
BRIDGEPORT
REGIONAL
BUSINESS COUNCIL

141 RESILIENT BRIDGEPORT CLAIM THE EDGE, CONNECT THE CENTER WB unabridged w/ Yale ARCADIS
The Mary & Eliza Freeman Center
FOR HISTORY AND COMMUNITY, INC.
THE MARY AND
ELIZA FREEMAN
March 24, 2014
CENTER
Dear Secretary Donovan:

Resilient Bridgeport stands out as an integrative planning and design process in which regional and local stakeholders
including residents, business owners, nonprofits, and government officials have joined together to develop a
vision for the transformation of Bridgeport. This vision is built on existing plans and initiatives that mark Bridgeport as
a place with highly engaged citizenry, proactive government, and many underutilized assets ranging from its
waterfronts and waterways to its historic urban fabric and proud history as an industrial center.

The proposals assertion that continued inhabitation of Connecticuts coastline is necessary, and that is possible to do
so in a way that restores the environment, strengthens the regional economy, reduces long-term risk, and allows
Bridgeport to thrive as a place to live and work makes it a model for other cities along the Long Island Sound and
throughout New England. The design teams watershed-based planning and extensive community engagement
process have brought innovations and best practices to bear upon Bridgeport, while initiating the conversations and
educational process that will be the basis for successful implementation. The innovative strategies and projects that
comprise the proposal will have an immediate and positive impact on the city and its residents, while laying the
foundations for a healthy and prosperous future that can only be built with the concerted and cumulative actions of
our coalition.

The Mary & Eliza Freeman Center for History and Community, a CT nonprofit, owns the historic Mary & Eliza
Freeman Houses. We are creating a national African American historic site consisting of a museum and education
center, a research/digital humanities center, and a unit of housing in Bridgeports South End. The Centers
preservation and restoration plans are designed to act as catalysts to neighborhood revitalization.

Built in 1848, the year slavery ended in Connecticut, the Freeman Houses are the only surviving buildings of
Ethiope/Liberia - a seafaring community of free people of color that thrived from the 1820s to the 1850s. The
houses are located at 354 and 360 Main Street, just blocks from Seaside Park and the Long Island Sound.

The Freeman Houses are rare and irreplaceable evidence of African American life prior to Emancipation, and should
be considered a site of national significance worthy of careful stewardship and protection. Listed on the State and
National Register of Historic Places, the circa 1848 Freeman Houses should be considered some of Bridgeports most
significant architectural resources.

As (we) work to advance African American preservation across the Northeast region and to identify sites worthy of
our assistance, this example presents a rare and unique opportunity. With the loss of most African American
architectural histories due to urban renewal, it is even more critical that extant sites of importance to African
Americans are preservedthey are the last extant examples remaining from a community, Little Liberia, circa 1822,
and are the oldest houses built by African Americans in the State of Connecticut. These buildings must be considered
irreplaceable. - National Trust for Historic Preservation (2008 Letter to Mayor Bill Finch)

1 c/o Action for Bridgeport Community Development; 1070 Park Avenue; Bridgeport, CT 06604
www.freemancenterbpt.com

142 RESILIENT BRIDGEPORT CLAIM THE EDGE, CONNECT THE CENTER WB unabridged w/ Yale ARCADIS
The story of the Little Liberia is an iconic American story of a peoples struggle for freedom, self-determination,
prosperity and democracy against overwhelming odds in shameful, inhumane times. Its history rivals the script of the
most compelling Hollywood saga. Ethiopes narrative has proven inspiring to people of diverse backgrounds. In the THE MARY AND
last two years, one thousand people from the US and abroad found their way to the doors of these boarded
structures. ELIZA FREEMAN
The Freeman Center is committed to using the preservation and restoration of these cultural resources as catalysts CENTER
for change, civic participation, and racial healing. The Freeman Center partnered with Greater Bridgeport Community
Enterprises/The Green Team to teach displaced workers preservation deconstruction and other green contracting
skills. History and archaeology were taught along with topics like lead abatement and asbestos removal. Museum
quality artifacts from the 1800s were recovered. Endangered properties were shored upAnd then came Sandy!
Ironically the two old ladies weathered the storm quite well - one perched atop an English basement; the other
clearly raised not long after construction in 1848.

The rest of the neighborhood didnt fare as well. I made my way south very early the morning after, through the
flooded railroad viaduct - before the National Guard arrived with machine guns blockading our neighborhood at its
one point of entry from the north. Families wandered the streets in their nightgowns, just walking aimlessly,
disoriented like lost souls. Front doors were wide open, forced open by the water. Cars, signs, dumpsters (even the
port-a-potty on our worksite) had been lifted, shoved, moved. Contents in the South End Barbershop were afloat in
four feet of water. The Spanish restaurants owner still shaken after riding out the storm started clean up early. Senior
citizens and shop owners lamented over ruined food and medicine - sewage, fecal matter, no power, no cell service.
The park had vanished and the Sound swallowed up the streets south of Whiting.

Our neighbors had nowhere to go. Our neighbors had nowhere to pray. The sanctuary of the oldest Black church in
Fairfield County, Walters Memorial AME Zion, just across the way, is still closed due to storm damage. Superstorm
Sandy did not discriminate. And if we are to translate the creation of a resilient, safe and healthy built environment
into educational, employment, and civic opportunities; plans for the future must respect the aspirations and visions,
well-being and stability of the rich and poor alike - those who can afford to contribute to political campaigns and
move when the water rises; and those who cant.

Based on my participation in Rebuild-By-Design workshops in late February, I believe RBD is Bridgeports best hope
for equitable and respectful public investment and land use in the face of climate change. The Mary & Eliza Freeman
Center for History and Community will incorporate information and strategies generated by Rebuild-By-Design into
lessons, public humanities programs, job training workshops, site preservation and design. The principles and
objectives of Resilient Bridgeport will be an integral part and defining characteristic of our work. The Freeman Center
supports the WB unabridged w/ Yale ARCADIS submission. We applaud its effort to reconnect the City with the
waterways that once brought historic Ethiope/Liberia economic prosperity, freedom, and beauty.

Maisa L. Tisdale

President/CEO

The Mary & Eliza Freeman Center for History and Community, Inc.

2 c/o Action for Bridgeport Community Development; 1070 Park Avenue; Bridgeport, CT 06604
www.freemancenterbpt.com

143 RESILIENT BRIDGEPORT CLAIM THE EDGE, CONNECT THE CENTER WB unabridged w/ Yale ARCADIS
O&G INDUSTRIES

144 RESILIENT BRIDGEPORT CLAIM THE EDGE, CONNECT THE CENTER WB unabridged w/ Yale ARCADIS
WHEELABRATOR
BRIDGEPORT, LP

145 RESILIENT BRIDGEPORT CLAIM THE EDGE, CONNECT THE CENTER WB unabridged w/ Yale ARCADIS
CONNECTICUT
DEPARTMENT
OF ENERGY &
ENVIRONMENTAL
PROTECTION

146 RESILIENT BRIDGEPORT CLAIM THE EDGE, CONNECT THE CENTER WB unabridged w/ Yale ARCADIS
CONNECTICUT
DEPARTMENT OF
HOUSING

147 RESILIENT BRIDGEPORT CLAIM THE EDGE, CONNECT THE CENTER WB unabridged w/ Yale ARCADIS
CONNECTICUT
DEPARTMENT OF
HOUSING

148 RESILIENT BRIDGEPORT CLAIM THE EDGE, CONNECT THE CENTER WB unabridged w/ Yale ARCADIS
CONNECTICUT
DEPARTMENT
OF EMERGENCY
MANAGEMENT
AND HOMELAND
SECURITY

149 RESILIENT BRIDGEPORT CLAIM THE EDGE, CONNECT THE CENTER WB unabridged w/ Yale ARCADIS
CONNECTICUT
DEPARTMENT
OF EMERGENCY
MANAGEMENT
AND HOMELAND
SECURITY

150 RESILIENT BRIDGEPORT CLAIM THE EDGE, CONNECT THE CENTER WB unabridged w/ Yale ARCADIS
CONNECTICUT
March 19, 2014 DEPARTMENT OF
Secretary Shaun Donovan LABOR
U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development
451 7th Street SW
Washington, D.C. 20410

Re: Rebuild by Design

Dear Secretary Donovan:

On behalf of the Connecticut Department of Labor, I strongly support the City of Bridgeport and
coalition partners in their Rebuild by Design proposal. The efforts of Mayor Bill Finch and his
team have brought our fair city national attention from the business sector, non-profit community
and individuals dedicated to supporting and encouraging eco-friendly practices. Limited
resources are an on-going concern but the Mayor has made it his priority to focus on
conservation. Protecting the Connecticut shoreline is of critical importance to the economic
viability and quality of life for all Connecticuts citizens, especially those residing in and around
Long Island Sound.

Bridgeports history as an industrial powerhouse is well established. Middle income jobs have
attracted a diverse, hard-working population to the area for many decades. Those traditional jobs
have steadily evaporated since the 1980s resulting in increased crime and poverty. In recent
years, through the collective efforts of community stakeholders and government, the situation has
begun to improve. However, there remains a critical need for safe and affordable housing for
seniors, the unemployed, veterans, disabled and other residents struggling to make ends meet. As
Connecticuts largest city, Bridgeport struggles with homelessness, poverty and blight. Since
1918, the International Institute of Connecticut has been located in the west end, bringing
immigrants from all parts of the globe to our fair city. This contributes to the incredible diversity
of the community but at the same time adds unique challenges to public education and workforce
readiness. The overall unemployment rate for Connecticut decreased to 7.2% last month while
Bridgeports rate remained stubbornly high at 11.8%.

The dynamics of the job market are changing. From a labor perspective, the need for technical
skills training is rapidly increasing. Advanced manufacturing is replacing heavy industry, and
infrastructure in aging. Preparing workers for the growing demand will be an important aspect of
the overall plan. DOL researchers project high growth occupations that provide a family-
sustaining income and require one year or less of training include: Hazardous Material Removal
Workers, Construction Laborers, Equipment Operators, Roofers, Road Maintenance Workers,
and related construction occupations. Bridgeports Green Business Zone has created new and
expanding businesses to a previously blighted neighborhood filled with abandoned factories.
Recent training efforts, short-term in nature, have provided entry-level jobs for ex-offenders and
homeless veterans but much more needs to be done. The economy is improving and weve seen a
large increase in job postings at the Department of Labor. Employers are holding out for the most
skilled candidate, leaving the long-term unemployed and youth at a disadvantage.

151 RESILIENT BRIDGEPORT CLAIM THE EDGE, CONNECT THE CENTER WB unabridged w/ Yale ARCADIS
There is a tremendous need for community involvement and this proposal will serve to address
many areas of concern. The Connecticut Labor Department will support the collation efforts to
make this Rebuild by Design initiative a success. This support may include: CONNECTICUT
Compiling and sharing local and statewide labor market information. DEPARTMENT OF
Identifying industry/businesses for jobs, internships and Program Advisory Committees.
Host Career Days/Job Fairs/Trade Shows relevant to adult and displaced workers. LABOR
Support public education efforts.
Provide expertise in the implementation of Apprenticeship and related training.
Refer veterans, displaced workers, youth and other local residents from the local one-stop
American Job Center, located in Bridgeport.

In addition to the above, we will provide research data; assist in community outreach efforts, help
to engage businesses, trade associations and community services agencies. We can offer our
formal Speakers Bureau, career development workshops, and informational sessions for
students.

It is clear that in order to jump-start Connecticuts economy we need to support each others
efforts. Our Department looks forward to supporting this coalition and I personally look forward
to seeing this comprehensive vision become reality. Thank you for your consideration.

Sincerely,

Lori-lynn Chatlos, Business Services Specialist


Connecticut Department of Labor
2 Lafayette Square
Bridgeport, CT 06604
(203) 455-2601
Lorilynn.chatlos@ct.gov
www.ct.gov

152 RESILIENT BRIDGEPORT CLAIM THE EDGE, CONNECT THE CENTER WB unabridged w/ Yale ARCADIS
U. S.
ENVIRONMENTAL
PROTECTION
AGENCY

153 RESILIENT BRIDGEPORT CLAIM THE EDGE, CONNECT THE CENTER WB unabridged w/ Yale ARCADIS
NATIONAL OCEANIC
AND ATMOSPHERIC
ADMINISTRATION

154 RESILIENT BRIDGEPORT CLAIM THE EDGE, CONNECT THE CENTER WB unabridged w/ Yale ARCADIS
CONNECTICUT
DEPARTMENT
OF ECONOMIC
AND COMMUNITY
DEVELOPMENT

155 RESILIENT BRIDGEPORT CLAIM THE EDGE, CONNECT THE CENTER WB unabridged w/ Yale ARCADIS
Stantec Consulting Services Inc.
2321 Whitney Avenue
Hamden, CT 06518
Tel: (203) 281-1350
Fax: (203) 281-1470

March 24, 2014


STANTEC
Dear Secretary Donovan,

Reference: Rebuild by Design, Bridgeport, Connecticut

Resilient Bridgeport stands out as an integrative planning and design process in which regional and local stakeholders
including residents, business owners, nonprofits, and government officials have joined together to develop a vision for
the transformation of Bridgeport. This vision is built on existing plans and initiatives that mark Bridgeport as a place
with highly engaged citizenry, proactive government, and many underutilized assets ranging from its waterfronts and
waterways to its historic urban fabric and proud history as an industrial center for precision instrumentation.

The proposals assertion that continued inhabitation of Connecticuts coastline is necessary, and that it is possible to do
so in a way that restores the coastline communitys ecological function and environment, strengthens the regional
economy, reduces long-term risk, and allows Bridgeport to thrive as a place to live and work. It also propels the City as
a much needed model for other cities along the Long Island Sound and throughout New England. The design teams
watershed-based planning and extensive community engagement process have brought innovations and best practices
to bear upon Bridgeport, while initiating the conversations and educational process that will be the basis for successful
implementation. The innovative strategies and projects that comprise the proposal will have an immediate and positive
impact on the city and its residents, while laying the foundations for a healthy and prosperous future that can only be
built with the concerted and cumulative actions of our coalition.

The City of Bridgeport was once a hub of industry in Fairfield County and a critical job center that supported the region.
Now, as surrounding communities prosper, Bridgeport bears the heavy burden in energy production, interstate
transport and non-taxable regional services such as healthcare. The proposal identifies initiatives that will benefit the
City by increasing tourism, aquaculture and recreation all measures that may lead to long-term economic
sustainability and counter overwhelming constraints.

As a professional landscape architect and planner in the State of Connecticut, I recognize the staff and financial
commitments that the City of Bridgeport has made to its waterfront. From the recent master plan for Pleasure Beach
Park to re-open the prized shoreline destination for public visitation to the repeated improvements to historic Seaside
Park following Storms Irene and Sandy, the City contributes greatly to the extremely limited publicly accessible
shoreline in the State. Rebuild by Design is an opportunity to recognize this commitment and advance great vision for
far-reaching public benefit.

Thank you for this opportunity to participate in this important initiative for the State of Connecticut and the City of
Bridgeport.

Sincerely,

Gary T. Sorge, FASLA, AICP


Senior Principal
gary.sorge@stantec.com

156 RESILIENT BRIDGEPORT CLAIM THE EDGE, CONNECT THE CENTER WB unabridged w/ Yale ARCADIS
March 24, 2014

Dear Secretary Donovan:

On behalf of The Trust for Public Land, I am pleased to provide this letter of support THE TRUST FOR
for Resilient Bridgeport. Resilient Bridgeport stands out as an integrative planning
and design process in which regional and local stakeholders including residents, PUBLIC LAND
business owners, nonprofits, and government officials have joined together to
develop a vision for the transformation of Bridgeport. This vision is built on existing
plans and initiatives that mark Bridgeport as a place with highly engaged citizenry,
Connecticut Office
101 Whitney Ave proactive government, and many underutilized assets ranging from its waterfronts and
Second Floor waterways to its historic urban fabric and proud history as an industrial center.
New Haven, CT
06510
T. 203.777.7367 The proposals assertion that continued inhabitation of Connecticuts coastline is
F. 203.777.7488 necessary, and that is possible to do so in a way that restores the environment,
strengthens the regional economy, reduces long-term risk, and allows Bridgeport to
www.tpl.org
thrive as a place to live and work makes it a model for other cities along the Long
Island Sound and throughout New England. The design teams watershed-based
planning and extensive community engagement process have brought innovations and
best practices to bear upon Bridgeport, while initiating the conversations and
educational process that will be the basis for successful implementation. The
innovative strategies and projects that comprise the proposal will have an immediate
and positive impact on the city and its residents, while laying the foundations for a
healthy and prosperous future that can only be built with the concerted and
cumulative actions of our coalition.

The Trust for Public Land is actively engaged in the City of Bridgeports parks
system. At present, we are in the early stages of creating a Parks for People
Bridgeport program, through which we will work with the City of Bridgeport to
renovate existing parks and create new parks and green spaces in the City. Our goal is
to ensure that all Bridgeport residents have access to a park within a 10-minute walk
of their home. Our participatory design process for parks leads stakeholders through a
visioning process to imagine, agree upon, and design the park area that the
community wants, needs, and will care for in the years to come. When applied to
parks and greenways within Bridgeports coastal, riparian, and low-lying areas, this
design process builds community awareness of sensitive environments, climate
resiliency, and green infrastructure techniques. As such, Resilient Bridgeports focus
on park-to-riparian corridor connections, coastal park expansion, and green drainage
improvements are very much in line with The Trust for Public Lands work in
Bridgeport.

We enthusiastically offer our support for Resilient Bridgeport.

Sincerely,

Walker Holmes
Urban Program Manager
The Trust for Public Land

157 RESILIENT BRIDGEPORT CLAIM THE EDGE, CONNECT THE CENTER WB unabridged w/ Yale ARCADIS
Strengthening Businesses. Strengthening Communities.

THE BUSINESS
COUNCIL OF
March 13, 2014

FAIRFIELD COUNTY
Mr. Shaun Donovan, Secretary
U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development
451 7th Street S.W.
Washington, DC 20410

Re: Rebuild By Design, Bridgeport Team - WB unabridged w/ Yale ARCADIS

Dear Secretary Donovan:

The Business Council of Fairfield County supports the Bridgeport Rebuild By Design teams
proposal to receive CDBG-DR funding for resiliency design. The WB unabridged w/ Yale
ARCADIS proposed projects will make Bridgeport and its citizens more resilient from
economic, environmental and climactic disasters and will create a national model for
municipalities throughout New England and the nation. Seaside Park designed by Frederick Law
Olmsted, one of Americas premier landscape architects, provides a major case study for
adaptive reuse of a major urban park threatened by the effects of climate change.

The Business Council views the WB unabridged w/ Yale ARCADIS design teams proposal to
create a berm in Seaside Park while at the same time preserving Olmsteads vision for an urban
park as a very important and challenging effort that warrants federal support. In addition, the
business community strongly supports the development of a resiliency center in Bridgeport as a
regional asset where the business community and the regions elected leaders can jointly educate
themselves about the risks and challenges of climate change but also as a center where
collaborative solutions can be vetted and implemented. The resilience center would provide the
additional benefit of serving as a refuge during disasters.
.

The Business Council of Fairfield County and the Bridgeport Rebuild By Design team of WB
unabridged w/ Yale ARCADIS have a strong partnership and, over the past several months, have
discussed many critical projects together. Funding from HUD for these projects will help to
make Bridgeport a model for resiliency design and building.

We are excited about the project and look forward to this partnership.

Sincerely,

_____________________________________

Joseph McGee
Vice President, Public Policy and Programs
The Business Council of Fairfield County\

One Landmark Square, Suite 300 Stamford, CT 06901-2696 P: 203-359-3220 F: 203-967-8294 www.businessfairfield.com

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PLAN DEPARTMENT

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AMSTERDAM

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AMSTERDAM

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