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DIVISION 6 - CONCRETE Prestressed Concrete - Section 06300

SECTION 06300 - PRESTRESSED CONCRETE

TABLE OF CONTENTS

1. DESCRIPTION .......................................................................................................................................... 1

2. MATERIAL REQUIREMENTS .................................................................................................................... 1


2.1 REFERENCE STANDARDS ........................................................................................................................ 1
2.2 MATERIAL FOR PRESTRESSED CONCRETE ............................................................................................... 2
2.2.1 GENERAL REQUIREMENT ....................................................................................................................... 2
2.2.2 NON-PRE STRESSING REINFORCEMENT ................................................................................................. 2
2.2.3 PRESTRESSING STEEL .............................................................................................................................. 2
2.2.4 ANCHORAGES ........................................................................................................................................ 2
2.2.5 DUCTS ................................................................................................................................................... 3
2.2.6 GROUT FOR DUCTS ................................................................................................................................ 3
2.2.7 CONCRETE ............................................................................................................................................. 4
2.2.8 SUBMITTALS ........................................................................................................................................... 5
3. CONSTRUCTION REQUIREMENTS ........................................................................................................... 6
3.1 GENERAL ............................................................................................................................................... 6
3.2 TESTING AND SAMPLING ....................................................................................................................... 6
3.2.1 GROUTING TRIALS ................................................................................................................................. 6
3.2.2 SITE FLOW TESTS ................................................................................................................................... 7
3.2.3 TESTING OF PRECAST PRE-STRESSED MEMBERS ...................................................................................... 8
3.3 TOLERANCES ......................................................................................................................................... 8
3.4 PLACING STEEL .................................................................................................................................... 10
3.5 PRE-TENSIONING METHOD .................................................................................................................. 10
3.6 POST-TENSIONING METHOD ................................................................................................................ 11
3.7 GROUTING ........................................................................................................................................... 12
3.7.1 PLANT FOR GROUTING ........................................................................................................................ 12
3.7.2 GROUTING OF DUCTS AND SHEATHING ............................................................................................... 12
3.8 PROTECTION OF PRESTRESSING ANCHORAGES .................................................................................... 13
3.9 SUPERSTRUCTURE CONSTRUCTION ...................................................................................................... 14
3.10 CURING ............................................................................................................................................... 16
3.10.1 GENERAL. ............................................................................................................................................ 16
3.10.2 STEAM CURING .................................................................................................................................... 16
3.11 HANDLING, TRANSPORT AND STORAGE .............................................................................................. 16
3.12 MARKING OF PRECAST PRESTRESSED MEMBERS................................................................................... 17
3.13 ERECTION OF PRECAST BEAMS ............................................................................................................. 17
4. MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT ........................................................................................................... 18
4.1 METHOD OF MEASUREMENT ............................................................................................................... 18
4.2 BASIS OF PAYMENT .............................................................................................................................. 18

TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS - DIVISION 6 12/10/09 06300 - i


DIVISION 06 CONCRETE Prestressed Concrete - Section 06300

SECTION 06300 - PRESTRESSED CONCRETE

1. DESCRIPTION
(a) This work consists of the construction of pre-stressed concrete structures and
pre-stressed concrete portions of composite structures, in close conformity with
the lines, grades, design, and dimensions shown on the Drawings, or
established by the Engineer and in accordance with this and other specification
items involved.

(b) The work shall include the supply and installation of any items necessary for
the particular pre-stressing system to be used, including but not limited to
ducts, anchorage assemblies and grout used for pressure grouting ducts.

(c) It shall include the manufacture, transportation, and storage of beams, slabs,
and other structural members of pre-cast concrete pre-stressed by either pre-
tensioning or post-tensioning methods. It shall also include the installation of
all pre-cast pre-stressed members.

(d) For cast-in-place pre-stressed concrete, the term member as used in this
Section shall be considered to mean the concrete which is to be pre-stressed.

(e) Definitions

Post-tensioning is any method of pre-stressing concrete in which the


reinforcement is tensioned after the concrete is placed.
Pre-tensioning is any method of pre-stressing concrete in which the
reinforcement is tensioned before the concrete is placed.
Pre-stressing reinforcement is any reinforcement to which pre-stress is
applied by post-tensioning or pre-tensioning.
Internal tendons are tendons located in ducts within the flanges or
webs of the structural member.
External tendons are tendons located in ducts but outside the flanges
or webs of the structural member.

2. MATERIAL REQUIREMENTS

2.1 REFERENCE STANDARDS


The following Standards in their latest edition shall be particularly applied to the
works covered by this Specification.
AASHTO M235 Epoxy Resin Adhesives
AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications, Deflection Criteria
for Girders, Section 2.5.2.6.2.

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DIVISION 6 - CONCRETE Prestressed Concrete - Section 06300

ASTM A421-98a Un-coated Stress Relieved Steel Wire for Pre-


stressed Concrete; and
ASTM A416-99 Steel Strand, Un-coated Seven Wire Stress
Relieved Strand for Pre-stressed Concrete.
22 TCN 247-98 Specification for construction and acceptance of
prestressed concrete beam.
22 TCN 267-2000 Technical Requirements Anchorages for Pre-
stressed Concrete

2.2 MATERIAL FOR PRESTRESSED CONCRETE

2.2.1 GENERAL REQUIREMENT


All materials to be furnished and used that are not covered in this Specification
Section shall conform to the requirements stipulated in other applicable Specification
Sections.

2.2.2 NON-PRE STRESSING REINFORCEMENT


Non-prestressing reinforcement shall conform either to Specification Section 06400
Reinforcing Steel or, where pre-stressing quality is called for on the Drawings, to
the requirements for pre-stressing steel.

2.2.3 PRESTRESSING STEEL


(a) High tensile strength steel wire shall be stress relieved and shall conform to the
requirements of ASTM A421-98a or equivalent Un-coated Stress Relieved Steel
Wire for Pre-stressed Concrete.

(b) High tensile steel strand with low-relaxation shall be weld free and stress
relieved after stranding and shall conform to the requirements of ASTM A416-
99 or equivalent Steel Strand, Un-coated Seven Wire Stress Relieved Strand for
Pre-stressed Concrete.

(c) Testing of pre-stressing reinforcement shall be in accordance with the


requirements of the ASTM Specifications for the type of system intended to be
used or as instructed by the Engineer.

(d) Manufacturers test certificate for breaking strength shall be obtained for each
delivered coil or bundle and a stress/strain diagram shall be obtained for every
fifth coil or bundle. Copies of these shall be transmitted to the Engineer.

2.2.4 ANCHORAGES

(a) All anchorage assemblies shall be subject to the approval of the Engineer.
Unless otherwise directed by the Engineer, the anchorages shall conform to the
requirements of 22 TCN 267-2000 or equivalent.

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DIVISION 6 - CONCRETE Prestressed Concrete - Section 06300

(b) All post-tensioned pre-stressing steel shall be secured at the ends by means of
approved permanent type anchoring devices. The Contractor shall submit
information and details, including test certifications to the Engineer for
approval.

(c) End anchorage devices (stress and dead anchors) shall be designed and
manufactured for the types of tendons to be used. They shall have a previous
service record of performance and durability when used on similar type work.

(d) All anchorage devices for post-tensioning shall be capable of holding the pre-
stressing steel at a load producing a stress of not less than 95 percent of the
guaranteed minimum tensile strength of the pre-stressing steel.

(e) Fixed anchorages for tendons in precast beams shall be of a steel bearing plate
type while all remaining anchorages shall be those capable of adjustment by
means of a threaded anchor head and ring nut.

(f) It shall be the responsibility of the Contractor to determine the required


bursting reinforcements in the local zone for the particular shape and design of
the anchorage devices proposed.

(g) All externally exposed steel parts shall be protected from corrosion. All
threaded parts and fittings shall be protected by greased wrappings or plugs
until used. Anchorages shall be kept free from dirt, mortar, loose rust or other
deleterious materials. Damaged anchorage parts shall not be used.

2.2.5 DUCTS
Ducting for internal tendons shall be fully compatible with the proposed prestressing
system. The ducts shall form an airtight and watertight barrier to the tendons and
shall be fabricated from corrugated galvanized sheet steel or semi-rigid conduit. The
duct area shall be at least 2 times the net area of the post-tensioning steel.
Minimum duct thickness shall be as follows:
26 gauge for duct diameter less than or equal to 67 mm
24 gauge for duct diameter greater than 67 mm
31 gauge for bar tendons

Ducts shall have grouting connections at each end and shall have vent/drains at all
intermediate high and low points, subject to the approval of the Engineer.

2.2.6 GROUT FOR DUCTS


Unless otherwise specified in other prevailing sections, or directed or approved by
the Engineer as a result of grouting trials, the grout shall:

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DIVISION 6 - CONCRETE Prestressed Concrete - Section 06300

(a) consist only of ordinary Portland cement, water and expansive admixtures
approved by the Engineer and used in accordance with the manufacturers
instructions;

(b) have a water to cement ratio as low as possible consistent with the necessary
workability, and under no circumstances shall the water/cement ratio exceed
0.40;

(c) not be subject to bleeding in excess of 2 percent after 3 hours, or 4 percent


maximum when measured at 30C in a covered glass cylinder with an
approximately 100 millimeters diameter and a height of grout of approximately
100 millimeters, and the water shall be re-absorbed by the grout during 24
hours after mixing; and

(d) not contain admixtures containing chlorides, nitrates or similar electrolytic


conducting materials.

(e) The minimum compressive strength of a test cylinder shall be the same concrete
strength at age of 28 days.

2.2.7 CONCRETE
(a) Concrete shall be of the class indicated on the Drawings and shall conform to
the requirements of Specification Section 06100 Concrete and Concrete
Structures and the requirements specified below unless otherwise stated on
the Drawings or indicated by the Engineer.

(b) The Contractor shall develop his own mix designs, which shall be submitted to
the Engineer for approval.

(c) The maximum size of aggregate for use in the manufacture of pre-stressed
concrete shall be 20 millimeters.

(d) Futher to requirements of number of sampling to be tested as specified in the


Specification Section 06100 Concrete and Concrete Structures, sub-claused 3.3
Testing and Sampling, at least three (3) samples to verify and monitor the
concrete compressive strength prior to application of tensioning force shall be
taken.

Main properties of concrete such as compressive strength after 28 days, Modulus of


Elasticity (Young Modulus), and others that were used for the detailed design shall
be confirmed by testing of samples of the approved mix design. The Contractor shall
perform the tests in accordance with the standards, or as directed by the Engineer.

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DIVISION 6 - CONCRETE Prestressed Concrete - Section 06300

2.2.8 SUBMITTALS
The Contractor shall prepare, check and submit to the Engineer, for review and
approval, the following:

(a) Complete detailed Shop Drawings, Working Drawings and Schedules together
with calculations as required by the Engineer showing, but not limited to, the
following:

Contractors details of proposed manufacture and construction;


Method and timing of the insertion of pre-stressing cables;
A method statement for grouting of ducting;
Sequence of operation proposed, complete with structural analysis at
each stage of construction, with consideration for deformations due to
effects of prestressing forces, dead loads, temperature range, creep and
shrinkage of concrete and the like, if so required by the Engineer;
Dimensions and complete descriptions of all devices, joints, bearings,
and anchorages not specified or detailed in the Specifications;
Vertical alignment and deflection control measures including
calculations of pre-camber in consideration of prestressing forces,
loads, temperature range and effects of creep and shrinkage of
concrete and the like;
Details and design of traveling forms, suspended false-work or
scaffolding, girder erection gantries and the like which shall be
checked by an Independent Professional Engineer who shall furnish a
Check Certificate certifying the adequacy and safety of the proposed
details. Expenses incurred in connection with this certification shall be
borne by the Contractor; and
Temporary fixing/stabilizing method of the supports at the pier tables
and closures during erection operations;
(b) Geometry Control Plan including detailed procedure and method for
controlling the geometry at every stage of construction.

(c) Detailed Casting Manual describing all the activities for casting and curing,
including details of the step-by-step procedure for concrete placement, stressing
and advancing the form support system and adjusting the system for calculated
deflection.

(d) The Contractors Drawings, geometric control calculations, concrete mixtures,


form-work and false-work, application methods of pre-stressing forces,
methods for placing, curing, protection, handling and erection of members.
Particular statement is made to emphasize that concrete shall not be cast prior
to the Engineers approval of these requirements.

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DIVISION 6 - CONCRETE Prestressed Concrete - Section 06300

(e) Not less than 7 days before the probable date of commencement of manufacture
and the dates when casting of units, tensioning of steel and transfer of stress
will be undertaken for the first time.

3. CONSTRUCTION REQUIREMENTS

3.1 GENERAL
(a) The Contractor shall assign an experienced technician, skilled in the use of pre-
stressing system, who shall supervise the work being performed in duly
compliance with these specifications and following satisfactorily the Engineers
indications.

(b) The Contractor shall provide all equipment necessary for construction and pre-
stressing. The equipment shall be of a currently manufactured model, and shall
be in good working condition. Pre-stressing shall be done with an approved
system and equipment for jacking. If hydraulic jacks are used they shall be
equipped with accurately reading pressure gauges. The combination of jack
and gauge shall be calibrated and a graph or table showing the calibration shall
be furnished to the Engineer. Should other types of jacks be used, calibrated
proving rings or other devices shall be furnished so that the jacking forces may
be accurately known.

(c) All of the applicable requirements for concrete construction of Specification


Section 06100 Concrete and Concrete Structures shall be complied with,
except as may be modified in this Specification Section. Pre-stressed concrete
shall be formed, stressed, placed, cured, and protected at shops, manufacturing
plants, and locations approved by the Engineer, where the fabrication of such
members may be properly inspected and controlled.

(d) Vertical alignment and girder lengths shown on the Drawings represent
dimensions at the time of final creep. Deflection criteria for girders shall be in
accordance with AASHTO, LRFD, Section 2.5.2.6.2, longitudinal deflections
may be rectified by an appropriate approved method. PC I girders with
deflections exceeding 1/500 of the girder length, before erection, will not be
accepted.

3.2 TESTING AND SAMPLING

3.2.1 GROUTING TRIALS


Where full scale trials are to be carried out, or when instructed by the Engineer, these
shall be commenced at least 21 days before the planned commencement of duct fixing
for prestressing for the permanent works unless otherwise specified in the Contract.

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DIVISION 6 - CONCRETE Prestressed Concrete - Section 06300

The trials shall incorporate all relevant details of ducts, vents, duct supports,
prestressing anchorages and couplers, prestressing strands, grout inlets and outlets.
Tendons shall be sufficiently tensioned such that the strands within the sheath take
up a representative alignment. All systems, methods and materials shall be those
proposed for the permanent works and shall have been submitted to the Engineer as
part of the detailed method statement required.

Grouting shall be carried out in accordance with the requirements of Sub-section 3.7.2
of this Specification, and the following information shall be recorded:
fluidity of the grouting using a flow cone;
results of bleeding tests;
compressive strength of the grout;
temperature of the grout at the point of injection;
shade temperature;
grouting pressure close to the point of injection;
type of any admixture and results of control tests carried out by the
manufacturer to demonstrate its properties including those at
appropriate hydration temperatures; and
results of a visual inspection for detection of leakage.
The arrangement of ducting, end plates injection and outlet connections shown on the
Drawings shall be rigidly supported and an actual or simulated bar tendon inserted
but not stressed.
After the grout strength has reached 17 Mpa, at least three samples, each one of 1
meter long, shall be cut from the grouted duct at the locations chosen by the
Engineer. Each of the samples shall be sectioned longitudinally by cutting with a high
speed abrasive cutting wheel, friction saw or similar. The sectioned samples shall be
delivered to the Engineer, who will assess the acceptability of the grouting trials
particularly in respect of the presence and location of voids in the samples.

If the presence and location of voids are deemed to be unacceptable, the Contractor
shall amend the properties of the grout and/or grouting procedures and carry out
further trials, until an acceptable result is obtained.

Before commencing grouting trials the Contractor shall submit to the Engineer details
of the proposed ducting, method of support and calculations substantiating that the
ducting and any surrounding supporting material will withstand the grouting
pressure used during the trials.

3.2.2 SITE FLOW TESTS


Fluidity of the grout shall be tested on site at the time of mixing using the Marsh
Cone Test to ensure practicality of pumping and minimize the risk of blockage
during grouting operation. A target flow time of 10-15 seconds shall be achieved.

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DIVISION 6 - CONCRETE Prestressed Concrete - Section 06300

3.2.3 TESTING OF PRECAST PRE-STRESSED MEMBERS


When directed by the Engineer one or more beams shall be subjected to a loading
test. The Contractor shall obtain the prior approval of the Engineer for the detailed
arrangements for testing:
(a) The tests are to be carried out on units selected by and in the presence of the
Engineer after he has agreed with the method of testing and form of records.

(b) A beam, which is to undergo testing, shall be supported at its design points of
bearing and the upward deflection due to the pre-stressing force measured
relative to a line joining these points. Equal loads shall then be applied at the
third points in ten equal increments, the total being sustained for 5 minutes.
The beam shall then be unloaded.

(c) The midspan deflection relative to the reference line shall be measured for each
increment of load. The load deflection curve plotted from these values must
show no appreciable variation from a straight line. The Drawings shall show, or
the Engineer shall direct, the loads to be applied and the corresponding
deflections, which must not be exceeded.

(d) Any beam which fails to satisfy the Engineer under the prescribed test shall be
rejected and all other beams cast in the same line, as the rejected beam shall also
be rejected unless tested at the Contractors expense and found satisfactory.

(e) The Contractor shall supply to the Engineer record sheets of the tests showing
the date of test, the loads, deflections, and load deflection curves, calculated
values of E (Young Modulus) and the strength of the concrete at release as
indicated by the relevant cylinder test results.

(f) The cost of tests and records shall be included in the unit prices.

3.3 TOLERANCES
Unless otherwise established on the Drawings, other sub-sections of these
Specifications, or by the Engineer, the tolerances listed in Table 1 are the allowable
deviations for prestressed concrete members. These tolerances will be a basis for the
acceptance of work.
Table 1 General Tolerances
Description Tolerance
(1) Precast Girders with Cast-In-Place Deck (1)
Length 10 mm/10 m, 25 mm
max.
Width (overall) +10 mm, -5 mm
Depth (overall) +15 mm, -5 mm
Depth (flanges) -5 mm
Width (web) +10 mm, -5 mm

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DIVISION 6 - CONCRETE Prestressed Concrete - Section 06300

Description Tolerance
Sweep(2) 3 mm/3 m
Variation from end squareness or skew 15 mm/m, 25 mm max.
Camber variation from design camber 3 mm/3 m
15 mm, max. 25 m length
25 mm, max. > 25 m length
Position of strands:
Individual 5 mm - bundled
Bundled 15 mm
Position from design location of deflection 50 mm
points for deflected strands
Position of plates other than bearing plates 25 mm
Position of bearing plates 15 mm
Tipping and flushness of plates 5 mm
Tipping and flushness of bearing plates 5 mm
Position of inserts for structural connections 15 mm
Position of handling devices:
Parallel to length 150 mm
Transverse to length 25 mm
Position of stirrups:
Longitudinal spacing 50 mm
Projection above top 20 mm
Local smoothness (3) 6 mm in 3 m any surface
(2) Precast Girders Used in Multi-Beam Decks
(4)

Length 20 mm
Width (overall) 5 mm
Depth (overall) 5 mm
Depth (top flange) 15 mm
Depth (bottom flange) +15 mm, -5 mm
Width (web) 10 mm
Sweep (5):
Up to 12 m member length 5 mm
12 to 18 m member length 10 mm
Greater than 18 m member length 15 mm
Variation from end squareness or skew: 10 mm/m
Horizontal 15 mm max.
Vertical 15 mm
Camber variation from design camber 3 mm/3 m, 15 mm max.
Differential camber between adjacent 6 mm/3 m, 20 mm max.
members of the same design
Position of Strands:
Individual 5 mm
Bundled 5 mm
Position from design location of deflection 50 mm
points for deflected strands
Position of plates other than bearing plates 25 mm
Tipping and flushness of plates 5 mm
Position of inserts for structural connections 15 mm
Position of handling devices:
Parallel to length 150 mm
Transverse to length 25 mm
Position of stirrups:

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DIVISION 6 - CONCRETE Prestressed Concrete - Section 06300

Description Tolerance
Longitudinal spacing 25 mm
Projection above top +5 mm, -20 mm
Tipping of beam seat bearing area 5 mm
Position of dowel tubes 15 mm
Position of tie rod tubes:
Parallel to length 15 mm
Vertical 10 mm
Position of slab void:
End of void to center of tie hole 15 mm
Adjacent to end block 25 mm
Local smoothness (6) 6 mm in 3 m any surface
(3) Post-Tension Members
Position of post tensioning ducts 5 mm
Position of tendon anchorage bearing plates 5 mm
Notes:
(1) AASHTO I Beams and Bulb Tee Girders
(2) Variation from straight line parallel to centerline of member.
(3) Does not apply to top surface left rough to receive a topping or to visually concealed surfaces.
(4) Box beams, slabs, decked bulb tee, and multi-stem girders.
(5) Variation from straight line parallel to centerline of member.
(6) Does not apply to top surface left rough to receive a topping or to visually concealed surfaces.

3.4 PLACING STEEL


All steel reinforcement shall be accurately placed in the position shown on the
Drawings and rigidly held during placing and setting of the concrete. Distance from
the forms shall be maintained by stays, formwork spacers, ties, hangers, or other
approved support. Formwork spacers for holding units from contact with the forms
shall be of approved material, shape and dimensions. Layers of reinforcement shall
be separated by suitable wire spacers. Wooden blocks shall not be used.

3.5 PRE-TENSIONING METHOD


(a) The pre-stressing elements shall be accurately held in position and stressed by
jacks. Stressing shall be applied to produce the stresses required in the wires,
strands or bars immediately after the anchorage as shown on the Drawings or
as directed by the Engineer. Suitable allowances shall be made for friction in the
jacks and for slip and yield in the grips or anchorages.

(b) A record shall be kept of the jacking forces and the elongations produced
thereby and the minimum age in hours of the concrete in the unit at the time
the tendons were released.

(c) No bond stress shall be transferred to the concrete, nor shall end anchors be
released, until the concrete has attainted a compressive strength of not less than
85% of the specified 28-day strength as shown by standard specimens made
and cured identically with the members. The elements shall be cut or released
in such an order that eccentricity of pre-stress is minimized.

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DIVISION 6 - CONCRETE Prestressed Concrete - Section 06300

3.6 POST-TENSIONING METHOD


(a) Post-tensioning shall be carried out in accordance with an approved method
and in the presence of the Engineer unless permission has been obtained to the
contrary.

(b) Immediately before tensioning, the Contractor shall prove that all tendons are
free to move in the ducts.

(c) Each anchorage device shall be set square to the line of action of the
corresponding post-tensioning tendon and shall be securely fixed in position
and gradient to prevent movement during the placing and compaction of
concrete.

(d) Except where dead-end anchorages are cast in the concrete, tendons shall not be
installed until just prior to stressing. Tendons shall be pulled or pushed
through the duct in such a manner as to avoid damage to either the tendon or
the duct.

(e) Unless approved otherwise, concrete shall not be stressed until it has reached at
least the age at which 2 test cylinders taken from it have attained the specified
transfer strength. The test cylinders shall be cured in conditions similar to the
concrete to which they relate in a manner approved by the Engineer.

(f) Where members consist of jointed elements, the strength of transfer of the
jointing material shall be at least equivalent to the specified transfer strength of
the member.

(g) The Contractor shall establish the datum point for measuring extension and
jack pressure to the satisfaction of the Engineer. Allowance shall be made for
the friction in the jack and anchorage for pull-in of the tendon during
anchorage.

(h) The tendons shall be stressed at a gradual and steady rate until the required
extension and tendon load are reached or are approved by the Engineer. The
sequence of stressing shall be as shown on the Drawings or directed by the
Engineer.

(i) The force in the tendons shall be obtained from readings on a load cell or
pressure gauge incorporated in the equipment and the extension of the tendons
measured. The extension of the tendons under the approved total forces shall
be within the limits given below of the agreed calculated extension.

Transverse Tendons for Segments: 10% average for one tendon


7% for average of one segment
Longitudinal Tendons for Segments 5%

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DIVISION 6 - CONCRETE Prestressed Concrete - Section 06300

All other Tendons 5%


(j) If the measured extensions are not within the specified tolerance then the
Contractor shall submit to the Engineer his method of rectifying the
discrepancy.

(k) When the prestressing force has been applied to the satisfaction of the Engineer,
the tendons shall be anchored. The force exerted by the tensioning apparatus
shall then be decreased gradually and steadily so as to avoid shock to the
tendon or anchorage.

(l) Full records shall be kept of all tensioning operations including measured
extensions, pressure gauge or load cell readings and draw-in at anchorage.
Copies of records shall be supplied to the Engineer within 24 hours of each
tensioning operation.

(m) Unless otherwise agreed by the Engineer, tendons shall not be cut less than 2
days after stressing.

3.7 GROUTING

3.7.1 PLANT FOR GROUTING


(a) The grout mixer shall produce a grout of colloidal consistency. The grout
injector shall be capable of continuous operation with a sensibly constant
pressure up to 0.70 N/mm2 and shall include a system of circulating or
agitating the grout whilst actual grouting is not in progress. All baffles to the
pump shall be fitted with 1.18 mm sieve strainers.

(b) The equipment shall be capable of maintaining pressure on completely grouted


ducts and shall be fitted with a nozzle that can be locked off without loss of
pressure in the duct.

(c) The pressure gauges shall be calibrated before they are first used in the Works,
and thereafter as required by the Engineer. All equipment shall be thoroughly
cleaned and washed with clean water at least once every 3 hours during the
grouting operations and at the end of use for each day.

(d) During the grouting operation, the Contractor shall provide adequate flushing-
out plant to facilitate complete removal of the grout in the event of a
breakdown of the grouting equipment or other disruption before the grouting
operation has been completed.

3.7.2 GROUTING OF DUCTS AND SHEATHING


(a) Grouting trials shall be undertaken when directed by the Engineer. Prior to
using the grout in any trial or in the works covering proposed materials,

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DIVISION 6 - CONCRETE Prestressed Concrete - Section 06300

sheathing, anchorage and vent alignment equipment, the Contractor shall


submit a detailed method statement, grouting procedures and Quality Control
for the approval of the Engineer.

(b) All ducts shall be thoroughly cleaned out by means of flushing with water
and/or water/compressed air.

(c) Grouting of ducts shall be carried out as soon as it is technically practicable,


more than 4 weeks after the tendons inside the ducts have been stressed, and
the Engineers permission to commence grouting has been obtained. If due to
the requirements of the stressing procedure, tendons cannot be grouted within
this period the sheathing shall be sealed to protect the tendons from corrosion.

(d) Injection shall be continuous and slow enough to avoid producing segregation
of the grout. The method of injecting grout shall ensure complete filling of the
ducts and complete surrounding of the steel. Grout shall be allowed to flow
from the free end of the duct until its consistency is equivalent to that of the
grout injected. The opening shall then be firmly closed. Any air vents shall be
closed in a similar manner one after the other in the direction of flow. The
injection tubes shall then be sealed off under pressure until the grout has set.

(e) The filled ducts shall not be subjected to shock or vibration within 1 day of
grouting. Not less than 2 days after grouting the level of grout in the injection
and vent tubes shall be inspected and made good as necessary.

(f) The Contractor shall keep full records of grouting including the date when each
duct was grouted, the proportion of the grout and any admixtures used, the
pressure, details of any interruptions and topping up required. Copies of these
records shall be supplied to the Engineer within 3 days of grouting.

3.8 PROTECTION OF PRESTRESSING ANCHORAGES


(a) As soon as possible after tensioning and grouting are completed, exposed end
anchorages, strands and other metal accessories shall be cleaned of rust,
misplaced mortar, grout and other such materials.

(b) Immediately following the cleaning operation the entire surface of the
anchorage recess and all exposed metal shall be thoroughly dried and
uniformly coated with an epoxy bonding agent conforming to AASHTO M235
Class III in accordance with the manufacturers recommendations.

(c) The anchorage recess shall then be filled with an approved non-shrinkage
mortar. The mortar shall not contain aluminum powder, iron particles,
chlorides, sulfates, fluorides or nitrates.

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DIVISION 6 - CONCRETE Prestressed Concrete - Section 06300

(d) Where the protection will form part of the exposed works, the anchorage recess
shall be filled with concrete of the same quality and color as that of the adjacent
concrete and shall be applied and cured in accordance with these Specifications
or as directed by the Engineer.

(e) Exposed surfaces of anchorages not in an anchorage recess shall be coated for
corrosion protection with a coal tar epoxy or equivalent as approved by the
Engineer. Prior to coating, all surfaces shall be wire brushed to remove all loose
rust, mill scale or other deleterious substances, and the surfaces cleaned with a
suitable solvent to remove oil and grease.

3.9 SUPERSTRUCTURE CONSTRUCTION


This work consists of the setting of temporary bearings if applicable, precast girders
in fabrication yard, post-tensioning at site, and setting of the superstructure on
permanent bearings.
(a) The Contractor shall submit complete details and descriptions of the methods,
arrangements and equipment to the Engineer for approval no later than four
months before superstructure construction is started.

The construction method shall include casting of girders, methods of


tie-down and closure of superstructures during erection, method of
application of all temporary forces to be used for adjusting horizontal
and vertical alignment and to place the structure on permanent
bearings. This shall also include control of deflection methods to
ensure the accuracy of alignment of the completed superstructure and
calculations of pre-camber considering prestressing forces, loads,
temperature ranges and effects of concrete creep and shrinkage.
Work equipment shall include all machinery, devices, labor and
material which are to be used for erection but will not become a
permanent part of the completed superstructure. Equipment must not
be operated from or placed upon any part of erected superstructure at
any stage of construction other than which specifically meets the
requirement of total working load per segment, as allowed by the
Drawings, and/or approved by the Engineer. This includes the post-
tensioning hardware, jointing, jacking, grouting equipment and any
other equipment whatsoever, and men and materials of any kind.
Construction loads assumed in the design are shown on the Drawings
as per reference.
(b) Construction joints will be limited to locations shown on the Drawings. All
construction joints shall be thoroughly cleaned of laitance and foreign material
prior to placing concrete for the abutting section.

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DIVISION 6 - CONCRETE Prestressed Concrete - Section 06300

(c) Surface of the girders joints shall be prepared in accordance with the
requirements of Specification Section 06100 Concrete and Concrete Structures
immediately prior to the placement of concrete for joints construction.

(d) For placement of closure concrete between girders, the girders shall be fixed to
prevent rotation or movement of one girder relative to the other. The system for
locking the girders and forming for the closure and the procedure for placing
the concrete for the closure shall be such that the concrete after the initial set
shall not be subjected to tension which could cause cracking.

(e) The Contractor shall submit a construction schedule showing in chronological


order every phase and stage of erection and construction of the superstructure.

(f) The Contractor shall prepare a table of elevations and alignments required at
each stage of erection, as per Drawings, at the check points listed below, or an
alternate at his option, and submit the same to the Engineer.

One of the lowest corners at the top surface of any temporary bearing
pads to be used as datum during erection and to establish a reference
point with the actual elevations and alignment required of the
permanently positioned superstructure.
All corners and centerline of the top slab of pier to establish grade and
crown.
Two points on the longitudinal centerline of each pier cross section,
one on each edge, to establish alignment.
One point on the longitudinal center line and, at least, one corner of
each girder along every joint between girders to establish elevations
and alignment at every stage of erection.
(g) The temporary bearing pads, if applicable, at the piers shall be very carefully
placed. The top surfaces of these pads shall have the correct elevations,
alignments and slopes as required in the Drawings and so established in item
(a) above. Shims may be used underneath the pads to accomplish accuracy. The
Contractor shall also devise and provide measures to hold temporary bearing
pads in position while the pier segment is being cast.

(h) The Contractor shall check the elevations and alignment of the structure at
every stage of construction in accordance with the approved Geometry Control
Plan and shall maintain a record of all these checks and of all adjustments and
corrections made.

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DIVISION 6 - CONCRETE Prestressed Concrete - Section 06300

3.10 CURING

3.10.1 GENERAL
Except as specified herein or otherwise approved, wet (water) curing shall be
provided in compliance with the requirements in Specification Section 06100
Concrete and Concrete Structures. If the Contractor elects to cure by any other
method, the method and details shall be subject to the approval of the Engineer.

3.10.2 STEAM CURING


A steam curing process complying with the following conditions may be used, if
timely proposed by the Contractor and subsequently approved by the Engineer, as an
alternative of water curing.

(a) The casting bed for any unit cured with steam shall be completely enclosed to
prevent steam from escaping and exclude the outside atmosphere.

(b) Two to four hours after placing concrete and after the concrete has undergone
initial set, the first application of steam shall be made. If retarding admixtures
have been used, the duration before application of the steam shall be increased
to four to six hours.

(c) Water curing methods shall be used from the time the concrete is placed until
steam is first applied.

(d) The steam shall have a relative humidity of 100% to prevent loss of moisture
and to provide moisture for proper hydration of the cement.

(e) Application of the steam shall not be directly on the concrete. During the
application of the steam, the ambient air temperature shall increase at a rate not
exceeding 22C per hour until the maximum temperature is reached and shall
be held until the concrete has reached the desired strength.

(f) In discontinuing the steam application, the ambient air temperature shall not
decrease at a rate exceeding 22C per hour until the temperature has reached
10C above the temperature of the air to which the concrete will be exposed.

(g) The maximum curing temperature shall be 60C.

3.11 HANDLING, TRANSPORT AND STORAGE


(a) Pre-cast pre-stressed concrete shall not be moved from the casting position, or
transported, until the concrete has attained a compressive strength of 80% and
90% of the specified 28-day strength respectively.

(b) Extreme care shall be exercised in handling and moving pre-cast pre-stressed
concrete members.

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DIVISION 6 - CONCRETE Prestressed Concrete - Section 06300

(c) Pre-cast girders and slabs shall be transported in an upright position, shock
shall be avoided and the points of support and directions of the reactions with
respect to the member shall be approximately the same during transport and
storage as when the member is in its final position. If the Contractor deems it
expedient to transport or store pre-cast pre-stressed units in other than this
position, it shall be done at his own risk after notifying the Engineer of his
intention to do so. Any unit considered by the Engineer to have become
substandard shall be rejected and replaced by an acceptable unit at the
Contractors expense.

3.12 MARKING OF PRECAST PRESTRESSED MEMBERS


Each pre-cast pre-stressed member shall be uniquely and permanently marked so as
to show its type and date of casting.

3.13 ERECTION OF PRECAST BEAMS


Prior to the erection of the beams the Contractor shall survey the positions of the
supporting columns and agree with the Engineer on the positions, both horizontal
and vertical, of the supports.
(a) The Contractor shall, at his own expense, make all necessary adjustments to the
bearing seating and beam length to ensure that completed decks are true to line
and level.
(b) Any proposed deviation of beam length from that given in the Contract shall be
agreed by the Engineer before the beam is cast.
(c) Complete details covering the equipment to be used to handle beams and to
incorporate them into the structure together with a step by step erection
procedure shall be submitted to the Engineer for his approval. The details shall
include calculations of the influence of erection loading on the permanent
works.
(d) The order of erection of the beams and the casting of top slabs shall be such that
the eccentricity of loading on the supporting columns and the foundations is
minimized.
(e) Transportation and erection of beams shall be carried out in such a manner that
there is minimal interference to road traffic.

(f) When beams are being placed in position they shall be braced against
overturning before being released by the crane or other lifting devices.
(g) Beams shall be prevented from moving laterally during the placing of in-situ
concrete.

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DIVISION 6 - CONCRETE Prestressed Concrete - Section 06300

4. MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT

4.1 METHOD OF MEASUREMENT

(1) Pre-stressed, Pre-cast Members


The quantity of pre-stressed precast concrete members will be measured for payment
by the actual number of pre-cast pre-stressed concrete structural members fabricated,
hauled, erected and installed in place, completed and accepted. Each member shall
include the concrete, reinforcement and pre-stressing steel, and any other material or
incidental work contained in or attached to the above member.

The Precast RC Plate for PC-I Girder Bridge and Precast RC Plate for PC-Super T
Girder Bridge will be measured for payment by the actual square metre of precast
RC plate members installed in place, completed and accepted in accordance with
Drawings. Each member shall include the concrete, reinforcement and any other
material or incidental work contained in or attached to the member. For concrete,
reference is made to Specification Section 06100 Concrete and Concrete Structures,
and for reinforcing steel reference is made to Specification Section 06400 Reinforcing
Steel. In this regard, the Contractor shall submit clear breakdown for each interim
payment evidencing that the Concrete and Reinforcing Steel used for the precast
plates are not being introduced in the pay items for Specification Sections 06100 and
06400.

(2) Post-Tensioned Members


Post-tensioned concrete members will be measured for payment by the number of
cubic meters of concrete, the weight of reinforcing steel and the weight of pre-
stressing steel (including sheath, anchorages, grouting etc.) respectively. For concrete,
reference is made to Specification Section 06100 Concrete and Concrete Structures,
and for reinforcing steel, reference is made to Specification Section 06400
Reinforcing Steel, and for prestressing steel, reference is made to this Specification
Section.

4.2 BASIS OF PAYMENT


The accepted quantities, measured as provided above, will be paid at the contract
price per unit of measurement for the pay items of the Bill of Quantities listed below,
adjusted by the payment factors determined according to Specification Section 01850
Acceptance of Work for defective work for which rectification is not practical, or
for the work for which, in the Engineers opinion, the adjustment shall be applied.
Payment will be full compensation for the work prescribed in this section, and for
furnishing all labor, materials, tests, tools, equipment and any incidentals to complete
the work as shown on the Drawings, as required by these Specifications, and/or as
directed by the Engineer.
Payment for PC cables shall include the work of tensioning, grouting, anchorages,
ducts and all required testing for materials approval. The unit prices for PC Bridge

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DIVISION 6 - CONCRETE Prestressed Concrete - Section 06300

elements will be deemed including all concrete, reinforcement, PC cables, hauling


and erection.

Pay Item Description Unit


06300-01 Prestressing Tendons - Type 15.2mm Kg
06300-02 Prestressing Tendons - Type 12.7mm Kg
06300-04 Prestressing Bar - Type 36mm (at Pier) Kg

06300-05 PC-I Girder; Length 25 m each


06300-07 PC-Super T Girder; Length 38.3m each
06300-11 Precast RC-Plate for PC-I Girder sq.m
06300-12 Precast RC-Plate for PC-Super T Girder sq.m

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