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Anupam boro(ELB10028), Uttam chetri(ELB10059), Chunchu kartik(ELB09046)

Guided by: Ms.Priyanka kakoti , Asst.prof.Dept. of ECE,school of engineering,Tezpur University.


In linear integrated circuit design, design of a high gain (open loop) operational amplifier by
using less possible passive component is a important step so that op-amp can be designed in less
area and closed loop gain becomes nearly insensitive to its varying parameters like
temperature, frequency, mass production technique etc.

In our project at first we have designed a multistage BJT operational amplifier having 3
stages namely- Differential stage, Level Shifter and the Output stage with less possible passive
components. We have theoretically calculated the various parameters of an operational amplifier.
.For Simulation of our Circuit we used MULTISIM 12.0(student version).We have also
practically calculated various parameters of an operational amplifier. To increase the gain
further we will be cascading another stage with necessary compensation circuit

Introduction and motivation.

For an ideal op-amp open loop gain is infinity, practically this gain is some large value of few
hundreds of tens. Besides not being infinity open loop voltage gain of the op-amp is not constant.
This voltage gain varies with temperature, power supply, passive components and mass
production technique. This gain needs to be controlled in such a way that the op-amp does not go
into oscillation. This can be done by use of feedback; that is a portion of the output is fed back to
the input. This feedback process is more accurate when the open loop gain tends to infinity.
Closed loop gain of an op-amp can be written as,

For large , ACL

So, if open loop gain becomes infinity then closed loop gain becomes insensitive to the forward
transfer block of the op-amp. being the feedback factor can now be completely designed by
the user or in a sense we can say that gain of the op-amp becomes less sensitive to the
parameters like temperature, power supply, passive components and mass production technique
Here, the input stage is a active load single ended output differential amplifier with current
mirror. This stage generally provides most of the voltage gain of the amplifier and also
establishes the input resistance of the op-amp. The intermediate stage is a PNP common emitter,
which is driven by output of the first stage. Because direct coupling is used, the dc voltage at the
output of the intermediate stage is well above ground potential. Therefore, we have used a level
shifting circuit to shift the output of the intermediate stage down to zero. The final stage is
common collector stage. We have then we have simulated the same by using PNP transistor of
model 2N3906 (VA=140V,=220) and NPN transistor of model 2N2222A in MULTISIM
12.0(student version), result of which are summarized below.

Calculated parameters:

Gain(dB) CMRR i/p o/p DC Power o/p Common o/p

(dB) impedance impedance consumed. offset volt. mode range. swing limit.
149.9 68.5 22k 25 80 mW 0.3V -8.6V to -9.3V to 8.6V
So, a symmetric o/p swing of 8.5V.
Simulated parameters:

observation from frequency response.

Gain(dB) CMRR(dB) gain bandwidth 3dB cut-off Slew

product.(MHz) frequency(kHz) rate.(V/S)
107.85 57.68 120 12 0.95
If we compare the theoretical and practical results it can be seen that there is deviation in
simulation result from the calculated result, this deviation is inevitable because of the mismatch
of the values of the practical NPN and PNP transistor, due to which the transistor bias current
are not exactly same. However, for theoretical calculation we assumed the transistor currents to
be same.

1st stage Gain = gm2r02 , gain = Ic2/rc2 * VA2/Ic2.
2nd stage gain = gm7r07 , gain = Ic7/rc7 * VA7/Ic7.
Total gain AVT = gm2r02 gm7r07.
Gain cant be increased by increasing the bias current.
Also, gain VA
Early voltage VA a device parameter.
If VA= 500V, gain = 113dB, after that no increase in gain with early

Gain must be increased by cascading another stage.

Order of the system increases.
System will definitely oscillate at some frequency.
So it requires design of compensation circuit.

With the given transistor maximum gain obtained is of 110dB.With the same given transistor
and its parameters if we want to increase the gain we must cascade another stage, which will
increase the order of the system. With compensation circuit we will increase the gain by
cascading another stage so as to close approximate the ideal infinite open loop gain.

[1].D. Roy Choudhury Linear integrated circuits.(fourth edition) .

[2].Bruce Carter and Thomas R. Brown Handbook of operational amplifier and its application.
[3].Ron mancini Op-amps for everyone, Texas instruments.
[4].Ramakant A Gayakwad, Op-amps and linear integrated circuits.