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n i

Present continuous

 

Form

Affirmativ e

I

a

m

he/ she/ it

is

workirig

'

 

we/ you/ the\

are

 

Present simple

Form

Affirmativ e

 

vvork

he/ she/ it

works

we/ you/ thev

wor k

Negativ e

he/ she/

it

doir t

doesn't doesn't

work

we¡

you / the y

don' t

Question s

do

!

does

he/ she/ it

work ?

do

we/ you/ they

Uses

The

present

simple is used:

 

1

to talk about a habi t or somethin g that happens regularly. How often do you see your grandparents?

2

to talk about a state. She doesn't like coffee.

3

to talk about somethin g whic h is always tru c Babies cry when they're hungry.

4

to talk about a future, timetable d event. The train leaves at 930 tonight.

Adverbs

of

frequency

 

1

Adverbs of frequency are ofte n used wit h the.present simple to talk about habitua l or repeated actions. Commo n adverbs of frequency include:

always usually.often sometimes occasionally seldom rarely never

2

The y normall y comer

 

• after th e ver b be.

He's

always

late.

• after an auxiliary verb. They've often talked about you. IWt y >* M OJTÍ¿/ nUKfci?.

• before other

 

verbs.

She

never

wears

Jeans.

3

Th e adverbs always, never, rarely, seldom, hardly ever don' t

normall y come

He always drives to work. (NO T Alway s he drivo s t o work. )

at the beginnin g or end of a sentence.

Negativ e

1

he/ she/ it we/ vou/ they

a m

is

are

Question s

am

is

are

-

!

lie/ she/ it we/ you/ they

.

Uses

The present continuou s

notjV')ikin>j

workiiTg?

is used:

1

to talk about wha t is

happenin g now, at this moment .

James, what are you dolng?

2

to talk about a

temporar y

situation, or activity happenin g

around now . He's learning English.

3 to talk about future plans or arrangements. I'm seeing her tonight.

4 to talk about change i n progress. My father's becoming very bad-tempered.

Verbs not normally used in the continuous form

Some groups of verbs are no t normall y used i n the continuou s form. They include:

Verbs o f thinkin g an d opinión : believe. doubt, feel,

forget,

guess, imagine, know, mean, realise, recognise, remember, understand), suppose, think, understand

see

1=

Verb s

Verb s o f possessio n an d being : be, belong, consist of, contain,

have (= possess), include, ¡nvolve, need, own, possess Verb s o f th e senses : hear, see, smell, sound, taste

o f emotion : dislike,

hate,

like,

love, prefer,

want,

wish

Forming questions

1

To for m a question , we pu t th e auxiliar y ver b (is, have, can, would, etc.) before th e subject. Is it raining?

Can you remember his

 

ñame?

Would

your

friend

like

a

drink?

2

I

n th e

presen t

does she

simpl e w e use do/

does

t o mak e

questions .

What

want?

 

3

n th e

I

Did

you

past simpl e we

use did

t o mak e

questions .

win?

 

4

Whe n who, what o r which is th e subject o f a question , we

d

o

no t use

do,

does or

 

did.

Who Uves in that hou'se? (NOT Who does Uve m that house?)

5

Note

thcpositio n of prepositions i n questions.

 

What are you listening

 

to?

Crammar

95

Uoit 2

Past

simple

Form

Affirmativ e an d

negativ e

1/ he/ she/

it

vvqi'ked

we/

vou / the y

didn' t

work

Questions

did ,.

,

1/ 1/ 1 lie/ she/ it

we/'

you / the y

work?

Regular verbs for m the past simple affirmative by adding

-ed?live

> lived

visit

>

vísited

Past perfect

Form

Affirmativ e

an d

1/ he,

she/ it

we/

vou / the v

simple

negative

liad

hadn' t

Questions

had

[/ lie/ she/

we/

vou / the v

left

left

Uses

The past perfect is used:

1 for an action that happened before another action i n the past.

When

we got

to the

station,

the

train

had

already

left.

Man y commo n verb s are irregular . See th e lis t o f irregula r

2

for an action that happened before a certain time i n the

verbs o n

page

112.

past.

Use

Bv 4.00

thev liad

waiked

almost

twenty

kilometres.

The

past simple is used:

 

1

t o tal k abou t a finished actio n i n th e past, ofte n wit h a time adverbial.

He leftschool in 1994.

2

to talk about somethin g that happened regularly i n the past. She went out every night.

3

to talk about a past situation

/ went

to Oxford

University.

Past

continuous

Form

Affirmativ e

an d

negativ e

was

1/ he/ she/

it

wasn' t

we/

you / the y

were

 

,.

.

weren't

Questions

 

was

1/ he/ she/

it

working.'

were

we/ you/ they

Uses

The

past continuou s is used:

 

1

to talk about an actio n whic h was i n progress at a

.particular momen t i n the

past.

/

was watching

televisión

at

9.30.

2

to describe a

situatio n pr the background to a scene.

It was raining and he was carrying an umbrella.

3

to describe an interrupted action i n the past. We were watching the news when you rang.

4

Th e past continuou s is ofte n used after while an d as. (NOT during) While we were playing, it started to rain.

Note: the past continuou s is no t used about regular actions or habits i n the past. He rang her every evening. (NOT He was ringing her avery ovening.)

96

Grammar

infinitiv e wit h

Infinitiv e wit h

ftt

to an d

ing

for m

1

Th e infinitiv e wit h to is used after certai n verbs. The y include:

afford, agree, appear, arrange, ask, attempt, choose, decide, demand, deserve, expect, help, hope, intend, learn, manage, need, offer, plan, pretend, promise, refuse, seem, threaten, want, wish, would like, would love, woidd hate, would prefer We decided to leave.

2

Note the negative for m of the infinitive:

He seemed not to care.

3

The construction verb + object + infinitive can bé used wit h the following verbs:

advise, allow, ask, encourqge, expect, forcé, get, help, invite, persuade, rentind, teaCh, tell, wam, would like, would love, would hate, would prefer. He helpedher to pass the exam.

-ing

Th e

for m

-ing

for m

is used:

1

after certain verbs an d expressions.

admit, avoid, be used to, can't help, can't stand, consider, deny,

dislike, don't mind, enjoy, finish, imagine,

to,

He avoided speaking to me.

They include:

keep,

look

forward

miss,

practise,

regret,

suggest

2

after prepositions. He left-without paying.

 

3

as a noun . Smoking is bad for you.

Verb s followe d

b y

to

o r

-ing

1

A

fe w verbs ca n

be followe d b y th e -ing

for m or

th e

infinitiv e wit h to. Th e meanin g is usuail y similar . The y include : begin, continué, hate, like, love, start.

She loves dancing. OR She loves to dance.

 

2

Som e verbs ca n be followe d b y th e infinitiv e wit h to or th e -ing form . Bu t th e meanin g is no t th e same . The y include :

forget, go on, remember, stop, try

He

He

famous actor.)

went

on

wenton

talking.

to become

(= He continue d doin g th e sam e thing. )

a famous

actor.

(= Later he becam e a

Unit 3

Present perfect

simple

Form

Affirmativ e

 

I

have

he/ she/ it

has

piayed

we/ you / the y

have

Negative

i

have

he / she

/ it

has

not

piayed

we/

vou / the v

have

Questions

have

I

has

he; she/ it

piayed?

have

we / vou/ thev

Regular verbs for m th e past participl e b y addin g -ed. play > piayed Uve > lived vislt > visited. Man y commo n verb s are irregular . See th e lis t o f irregula r verbs o n page 112.

Uses

The

present perfect connects

the past and the present.

it is

used:

1

to talk about experiences

Have you ever been to America?

Uve never flown.

i n one's Ufe.

2 to talk about the present result of a past action.

Aun has gone out. (= She's no

t here now. )

3 t o talk about

an actio n whic h

began

i n the past an d

whic h

continúes i n the present. [ h.ave lived in London for ten years.

 

She has had

the

same

car since

1993.

W e use for

wit h

a perio d o f tim e (for

three weeks,

for

two

years,

for a long time, etc.).

W e use since

since 1993, since Christrnas, etc.)

wit h

a poin t

o f tim e i n th e past

(since

August,

To indícat e a recentl y finished action , th e presen t perfect is

ofte n

used wit h

just.

James

lias

just

left.

(= He wen t ou t a few moment s

ago.)

Present perfect

continuous

Affirmativ e

 

1

have

he/ she

/it

 

has

been

plavinc

we/

you / the v

have

Negativ e

 
 

have

he/ she /it

 

has

not

been

plaving

we/

vou / the

v

hav e

Questions

 

have

1

has

he/ she/ it

been

playing?

have

we/ you/ thev

 

Uses

The

present

perfect continuou s is used:

1

like the present perfect simple, to talk about an action whic h began i n the past and whic h continúes i n the present. It is often used for temporar y actions and situations. She's been working here since June.

2

to emphasise that an activity is unfinished. Compare this wit h the present perfect simple whic h often indicates a finished action . l've been readingDon Quijote. (= I haven' t finished it. ) l've read Don Qiiijote. (= l'v e finished it. )

Crammar

97

Unit 4

Future

tenses

There

t h e future . The y includ e will, th e

going

are several verb forms that can be used to talk about

to.

present continuous , an d

Form :

Affirmativ e

will

an d

1/ he/ she

/it

we/

vou / the v

negativ e

will

won' t

T

Questions

wil l

1/ he/ she/

it

we/

vou / the y

Note : sha.ll is sometime s used instea d of will i n th e first person singular an d plural (/ an d we), especially i n questions.- Where shall we ineet? What shall I do?

Form: present

See page 95 fo r th e for m o f th e present continuous .

continuous

Form : going

to

Affirmativ e

an d

negativ e

 

I

am/ am

not

he/ she/ it

 

is/

is

no t

going to play

we/ you / the v

are/ are no t

Questions

 

am

I

is

he/ she/ it

goin g t o play?

are

we/ you/ they

 

Uses

Will

is used :

1

to make a predictio n about the

future.

/

think

it will

rain

tomorrow.

I

won't

see

you

again.

2 to talk about a decisión made at the momen t of speaking.

I'm

tired.

I think

l'll go

3 t o make an offer.

"I'm

hungry."

-

"Vil get

to

you

bed.

something

to

eat."

The present continuou s is used t o talk about plans that have

alread y bee n made . A n adver b expressing th e futur e (this summer, tomorrow, next Friday etc.) is normall y include d i n the sentence or implied. I'm meeting Tom tomorrow.

"What

98

are

you

doing

Crammar

tonight?"

-

"I'm

staying

in."

Going

to is used:

1

to make a prediction where there is some evidence now. Look at those black clouds. It's going to rain.

2

to talk about plans where the decisión has been made before speaking. It normall y expresses a degree of intention. She's going to stady French.

Future

continuous

Form

Affirmativ e

an d

negative

1/ he/ she/

it

we/

you / the y

will

won'

Questions

1/ he/ she/

it

we/

vou / the v

be

be

vvaiting

waitin

The future continuou s is used to indícate that an action will

be i n progress at a particular momen t i n the

/ will be working all day tonwrrow. When yon get home, will your mother be waiting for you?

future.

Futur e perfec t (will have

-f-past

participle )

Form

Affirmativ e

an d

negative

 

1/ he/ she/

it

will-

have ,

,. hmshea . . ,

 

we/

vou / the v

won' t

Questions

 

.,,

1/ he/ she/

it

,

,

.

,

,„

wil l

have

finished?

 

we/

you / the y

 

Uses

The

future perfect is used to say that an action will

be

finished

by

a certai n

tim e i n th e

future .

 

By next

spring

l'll

have

bought

a new

car.

They'll

have

known

each

other

for

twenty

years

in

[une.

Th e definit e articie:

the

1

To talk abou t thing s i n general, we normall y use a plurali or uncountable nou n withou t the definite articie. Potatoes are cheap. (NOT The potatoes are clwap.)

Gold is expensive. (NOT The

gold

is

expansiva.)

2

The definite articie is onl y used before a plural or uncountable nou n whe n we wan t to talk about specific things.

The potatoes we ate last night were delicious.

The

gold

in Fort

Knox

is lieavily

guarded.

Unit 5

Conditional

sentences

Form: first

If + presen t simple , + will

Ifyou

conditional

party,

you'il

go

to the

enjoy

it.

1 A future tense is

If

(NOT

you'il

go

no t used i n the if clause.

to the

party,

you'il

enjoy

it.)

2

Othe r moda l verbs (can,

may,

should,

must,

etc.)

can

replace

will.

Ifyou

go

to the

party,

you

may

enjoy

it.

3

Will

Ifyou

ca n also be

replace d b y a n imperative .

go

to the

party,

take

a taxi

horne.

4 Should

ca n be used t o tal k abou t a futur e possibility . I n

formal English, inversión

of subject

and verb can be

used

wit h should.

 

Whe n inversió n

is used,(¡7)is

omitted .

Ifyou

should

go

to the

party,

don't

forget

to take

a bottle

of

wine.

;

-

,

rin- <

»

I

Vn---

Should

you

go

to the

party,

give

my

regards

to

Peter.

5 Both verbs can be i n the present situations i n general.

if yo u are talking

about

Ifyou

go

to a lot ofparties,

Form: second

If+

Ifyou

conditional

would

you'd

pas t simple , +

went

to the party,

you

meet a lot

enj'oy it.

ofpeople.

1 After If, we normall y use were (no t was) wit h / an d he,

she,

Ifl were you, I'd go to the party

it.

2 Othe r moda l verbs (could,

might,

etc.)

can replace

would.

Ifyou went to the party, you might enjoy it.

Form: third

conditional

 

If+

pas t

perfec t

+ would

have

 

If

you'd

(had)

gone

to the

party,

you'd

(would)

have

enjoyed

it.

1

Would an d had are bot h ofte n contracte d t o 'd, particularl y after pronouns .

2

Othe r moda l verbs (might have, could have, etc.) can replace would have. If you'd gone to the party, you might have enjoyed it.

 

3

Inversión of the subject an d verb can be used in third conditiona l sentences i n formal English. Whe n inversión is used,6/is omitted.

Had

you

gone

to the

party,

you

might

have

enjoyed

it.

Uses

u

1 Th e first conditiona l is used t o tal k abou t a situatio n tha t is true or may becbm e true. It is likely to happen.

Ifthey win the match, l'll buy you a drink. (= It

that they will wi n the match.)

is probabl e

2 The second conditiona l is used to talk about a situation that is unreal or unlikel y to happen. Ifjane went to the party, she'd enjoy it. (= I t is unlikel y tha t Jane wil l go to the party.) If I were you, I'd go to bed. (Thi s is a n unrea l situation . Yo u cannot 'become' another person.)

3 The thir d conditiona l is used to describe an imaginary event or situation i n the past. It didn' t happen or exist. Ifhe'd scored that goal, they'd have won the match. (= He didn' t score the goal an d they didn' t wi n the match .

The

between the three types of conditiona l sentences:

first conditional : Ifthey offer me drugs, I won't take them.

The speaker believes

be offered drugs i n the future.

secon d conditional : Ifthey offered me drugs, I wouldn't take

them.

The speaker believes i t is improbabl e or unlikely that he/ she wil l be offered drugs i n the future. thir d conditional : If they'd offered me drugs, I wouldn't have taken them.

The speaker is talking about an imaginar y situation i n past. It di d no t happen.

following

sentences ¡Ilústrate

the difference in meanin g

will

i t is probable or likely that he/ she

\

the

Note : thes e words / phrases

second

ca n

conditiona l sentences.

also

be used i n

first

an d

1

unless

(=

i f

not )

He'll

die

unless

we get

him

to hospital.

(= He'l l

di e i f w e don' t

get hi m to hospital.)

2

as

long

as,

providing,

on

cafidition

that

(= bu t only-i f

 

)

/'//

win

as

long

as I play

well.

 

I'd lend

you

my

car providing

you

agreed

to look

after

it.

You can

go

out

on

conditíon

that

you

come

lióme

before

 

midnight.

 

Should/

ought

Should

an d ought

to

to are

used:

1

to give advice. You look ill. You should/ ought to go to bed.

 

2

to make suggestions. You should/ ought to see that film.

3

to talk about wha t is a good

or th e correct

thin g to do.

You should/ ought to go to the dentist twice a year. People shouldn't drive so fast.

4

to express a future possibility. They should be here soon.

Should

have/

ought

to

have

Should have an d ought to have are used t o say tha t somethin g in the past was a mistake or wrong . / ought to have told the truth. I shouldn't have lied. You shouldn't have been so rude. You ought to have apologised.

Gramma r

99

Unit 6

Reported

statements

 

p a

i

Direc t

speech

Reported speech

 

I her."

love

f

,ffSf

-

;

f" 1 1 ' "

He

said

tha t he

love d her.

 

i'o¡r

I her at a party."

met

He said that he

had met

her

at

Y :

tlDP.L €

a

party.

'

"

i

l've always loved

 

her.

He said that he had

alwavs

 

l'll

always

love

her."

F L.iuRe

leave

1 can't

her."

I

may marr y ¡Vi

her."

R'in

r

love d

He said that he woul d

love her.

He said

her.

i'Wi

"f*U <

always

i,ri

fOMJrr; (

that he couldn' t leave

her.

íoi

j

H e said that he

>

migh t marry

t«i-fe

l

,«<»".<' <

e

n

1 If th e reportin g ver b is i n th e past (said, told, etc.), th e ver b in the reported statement moves back a tense int o the past. •

2 Th e moda l verbs should, could, would, might an d ought to do no t change.

3 Pronoun s (I, me, mine, etc.) an d possessive adjectives (my, etc.) also change.

"She loves me.

He

said

that

he

loved

her.

"We want to marry."

He

said

that

they wanted

to

marry.

 

"We've

told ¡mi

parents.

He

said

that

they'd

told

their

 

parents.

 

t

>T)i£r«

The followin g words also change:

this > that, these > those, now> then, next week > the next

weekftoday > that day, tomorrow > the next doy, yesterday >

the

day

before,

last

week >~the week

before.

T

h e tw o mos t commo n reportin g verbs are sfly an d

fe//.

Say introduce s a statement ; i t isn' t necessary t o use

th e

ñame of the person being addressed (or an object

pronoun ) wit h say. Th e ñam e o f th e pronoun ) mus t follo w re/i. He said he was sorry.

He told his girlfriend/ her he was

T h e conjunctiorft/w f ca n be omitte d after say an d fe//.

He said (that) he loved her. He told his girlfriend (that) he was sorry. Other reporting verbs can be used. They include:

announce, answer, declare, exclaim, protest, reply, swear "I love you." He declared that he loved her.

person (or a

sorry.

100

Crammar

Reported

questions

1

In direct questions the word order is verb + subject. What is the time? Why are you crying? In reported questions the wor d order is subject + verb. There is n o question mark wit h reported questions. She as.ked what the time was. She asked why they were crying.

 

2

If there

is n o questio n wor d ( What/

Why/

When/How,

etc.)

in

th e direc t question .

ifot

whether

are

used

i n

th e

reported

question.

"Are you

English'.'"

She

asked

if

whether

we

were

English.

Reported

commands

1

In direct commands

the imperative is used.

In reported

command s

the

following construction

is

used:

 

infinitiv e wit h

to

subjec t + ver b + objec t - "Sit dowu."

He

told

her

to sit

down.

 

"Picase

help

me."

Siie asked

them

to help

hei:

2

The rollowing construction is used to report negative commands:

subjec t + ver b + objec t + not

+ infinitiv e wit h

to

"Don't'shout

at

me."

She told him not to shout

 

ather.

3

Other reporting verbs can be used. They

include:

 

advise, encourage, invite, persuade, remitid, want

"Don't

buy

these

shoes."

She advised

him

not

to

biiy

 

those shoes.

Unit 7

Passive

'

1

fr

Infinitiv e

to

be repaired

 

Present

simpl e

it.is/

the y

are repaired

Present

continuou s

it

is/

the y

are

bein g repaired

Past

simpl e

it was/ they were

repaired

Past

continuou s

it was/ they were being

repaired

Present

perfect

it

has/ the y have been

repaired

Past

perfect

it

had/ the y

had been

repaired

Future

simpl e

it/

they

wil l

be repaired

 

Future

perfect

it/ the-y

wil l have

been

repaired

Secon d conditiona l

it/ the y

woul d be

repaired

Thir d conditiona l

it/they woul d have been repaired

1

2

Th e

The

emphasiS

passive

passive

is

is

forme d used i n

wit h

formal texts.

th e ver b be

+ past participle .

It is used whe n the-

or

is o n the action rather tharí o n the person

people wh o di d the

action.

New

Year is celebrated

throughout

the

world.

In

1996

the

Olympic

Gameswere

held

in

Atlanta.

3 It is

no t necessary t o mentio n wh o di d

the actio n whe n

thi s is understoo d o r no t important . I n th e othe r cases, by > is used to identif y the person or people wh o di d the

action *

A

David

by

man

was

arrested

lastnight.

was

written

(by

the

Citarles

pólice

is understood. ) Dickens.

Copperfield

4 Moda l verbs (can, could, might, etc.) can also be used i n th e passive:

The

passive

may

be

found

in many

Passive wit h reporting

verbs

newspaper

articles.

1

The passive

is used wit h reporting verbs to talk about wha t

is generally

though t or said.»The construction is forme d

wit h th e passive reportin g ver b + to + infinitive / perfect infinitive. Crime is thought to be linked to poverty. Robiñ Hood is said to have robbed onlv the rich.

2

Other reporting verbs include:

believe, claim, consider, expect, know, prove, suppose 1 The escaped prisoners are bfilieved to be Iteading fot the port of Dover.

fiU>-i-«.

Relative clauses

Defining

relative

clauses

 

1

Defining relative-clauses specífy : —or define— wha t isbein g talked about. A woman caused the accident. She went to príson. > The woman who caused the accident went to prison.

2

Th e relativ e pronoun s whó (an d sometime s that) are

"

used

to specif y people ; which an d that are used t o specify things. *

This is the gun which/ that was found. Where ¡s the man who found it?

-

3

Relative pronoun s must be used whe n the person or thin g to whic h they refer is the subject of the verb i n the relative ckpse: •

 

The burglar

who

broke

into

the

bank

was

arrested

later.

(NOT

The burglar broke into the bank was arrested later.l

 

Witnesses saw someone who looked suspicious. iNOT Witncsscs saw sotncone looked suspicious.)

4

Relative pronoun s can be omitte d whe n the person or

 

thin g to whic h they refer relative clause.

is the object

of the verb i n the

This is the weapon (which/ that) the attacker used. (= Thi s is a weapon. The attacker used this weapon.)

5

Th e

relative pronoun s whose an d where canno t be omitted .

It is

possible

t o use in which

insteá d o f where.

"•

This is the man whose arm was broken in the

attack.

 

''

-;

The pólice have closed off the street where the crime was committed. The house in which the body was found has been sealed off.

6

Prepositions-Usually come at the end of the relative clause * rather tha n before the relative pronou n (if there is one>. This is less formal tha n putting the m before the relative pronoun .

 

The

boy

rari

off

with

sweets

(wliich/

thatf

he

Itadn't

paid

for.

Non-defining relative

clauses

 

1

Non-definin g relative clauses contai n additional

 

informatio n whic h

is no t crucial t o the meanin g of

the

sentence. Comma s are used t o sepárate non-definin g relative clauses fro m the rest of the sentence. Lord Lucan, who disappeared in 1974, is said to have killed his wife. He is also thought to have killed the nanny, who lived with the

family.

 

2

Relative pronoun s must always be used i n non-definin g relative clauses. They cannot be

3

Th e relativ e pronou n whom ca n

be

used instea d vi

who

whe n the person to whic h it refers is the object of the relative clause. Th e use of whom is rather formal .

The accuséa, whom the judge treated harshly, had spent ntost

ofhis Ufe in prison. (=

Th e

judg e

treate d th e accused

harshly. Th e accused

ha d

spent

mos t o f his Ufe behin d

bars.) The man, who the pólice were watching, managed to get away. (= The pólice were watchin g the man . He managed to get away.)

4

What can be used as a pronoun , bu t no t as a relative pronoun . I t is used t o mea n 'th e thing(s ) that' . Which o r that must'alway s be used i n non-defining-clauses':' Witnesses saw what happened. What is needed is a reduction in poverty. (NOT Unümployment is rising, what is vcry worrying.)

 

Gramma r

101

Unit 8

/ wish/

Present

if oniy

situations

/

wish/

Ifonly

+

pas t simpl e

T

h e past simpl e

is used wit h

/ wish/

Ifonly

t o talk abou

t

a

desire for somethin g t o change

i n the

present.

/ wish I lived

in Hollywood.

(=

1 don' t

Uve i n

Hollywood. )

Ifonly

I was

better-looking.

(= 1 a m no t ver y good-looking. )

I wish/

If

only

+

could

Could

ca n also be used wit h

/ wish/Ifonly

a

desire for somethin g to change

i n the

t o tal k abou t present.

/ wish

we

could

get

some

tickets.

evening.

(= We can' t get an y

tickets.)

Ifonly

he

could

come

this

(= He can' t com e

thi s

evening.)

 

/ wish/

Ifonly

+

would

Woidd is used wit h I wish/ If only t o complai n people i n present situations. It is not possible about yourself i n this way!

abou t

to complai n

othe r

/ wish

you

would

stop

doing

that.

(NOT

I wish

l would

stop

doing

Ifonly

the

film

would

end.

Note : wish is no t normall y used t o talk abou t th e future . T o

express

f hope

Saturday.)

a wish for th e future, the verb hope

my

team

wins

on

Saturday.

(NOT

I wish

is used.

my team

wins

on

Past

situations

 

/

wish/

Ifonly

+ past perfec t

 

T

h e past perfec t is used wit h / wish/Ifonly

t o tal k

abou t a

regret about the

past.

 

/ wish

I had

seen

the

film.

(= I didn' t

see th e

film.)

Ifonly

we

hadn't

broken

the

CD player.

(= We brok e m y

C D

player.)

102

Crammar

verb + object + infinitive

1 This constructio n is used wit h

the following verbs:

ask, beg, enable, expect, forcé, get, help, invite,

mean,(=

intend), order, persuade,

remind,

teach,

tell,

train,

want,

warn,

would hate, would like, would love

l want

photo.) They would like us to stay here.

She asked the children to be quiet.

\,

you

to take

my photo.

(NOT

I want

*vAft/">*

,,.,,„, H,^,

that

;

you

take

t>.,„

.,

my

< <.

2 Th e negativ e is forme d wit h not + infinitive . She told me not to say anything.

3 Make an d let ca n be used i n th e sam e constructio n bu t wit h th e infinitiv e withou t to. He made them wait. (NOT He made them to wait.)

She'll

let

us stay

here.

(NOTShe'll

let us to stay

here.)

have

(something)

+ pas t

participl e

This constructio n is used to say tha t somebody else is

employed to do somethin g for

someone.

I

have

my

hair

cut once

a week.

(= I emplo y somebod y t o cu t

my

hair once

a week.)

She

had

the

house

cteaned

last

week.

(= She

emplove d

somebody to clean

the

house.)

Unit 9

Modal verbs

Form

1 Medal.verbs . o r moda l auxiliarle s (can, must, should, may, etc.) are always used wit h th e base for m of anothe r verb

withou t

Imustgo. (NOT l must to go.)

to.

2 The y d o no t ad d -s i n th e 3r d perso n singular. She can drive. (NOT She cans drive)

must

is used t o tal k about :

1

obligation / prohibition : You must pay for the damage. You mustn't drive so fast.

2

necessity: / mustgo now. We must get up early tomorrow.

3

certainty / predictions : Look at their house - they must be rich. She's crying - she must be unhappy.

have

to is used t o tal k about :

1

obligation / duty : She has to wear a uniform. I have to write three essays a week.

2

past/ futur e necessity: We had to walk home. You'il have to buy some new clothes.

may/

might

is use d t o tal k about :

3 Questions are forme d by inverting the

wor d

order.

1

futur e possibility : It might/ may break.

He may/

might

not

 

May I come in?

pass

the

exam.

4

Negative s are forme d b y addin g not or n't.

 

2

polit e requests: May

I come

in? May

we go

now?

I can't understand.

3

permission : You may smoke ifyou

want

to.

You may

not

leave

You shouldn't swear.

 

without

permission.

Uses

 

The

following

modal

auxiliary verbs have different meanings.

can

is use d t o tal k about :

1

ability : / can drive. She can't swím. Can you ski?

2

possibility/ impossibility : I can't come. When can you start

work?

I can

meet you

at

nine.

3 permission : You can come in now. Can I use your phone? You

can't smoke here.

4 requests: Can you help me? Can you carry this suítcase?

could

is used t o tal k about :

1

genera l abilit y i n th e past: I could read when I was three. My parents couldn't speak English.

2

possibility/ impossibility : It could

be

true.

3

requests: Coidd you post this letter for me? Could you shut the door, please?

4

suggestions/ advice : You could go to bed early. We could go for a walk.

will/

shall

is use d to

:

1

mak e

predictions :

You'il be famous.

There

will

be a new

ice

age.

2

mak e

offers: l'll carry

that

for you.

Shall

I pay

for

it?

3

mak e

requests : Will

you pass

the

salt please?

Will

you

shut

the

window,

please?

 

would

is

use d to :

 

1

mak e offers: Would you like a drink?

Would

you

like

to

come

to a party?

2

mak e requests : Would you give me a lift? Would this for me?

you

carry

3

tal k abou t past habits : When I was every night.

young,

I would

go

out

should/

ought

to is used to :

1

tal k abou t obligation / duty : You should/ ought to tell the pólice. You shouldn't smoke in here.

2

give advice : You should/ ought to go to bed. You shouldn't/ oughtn't to worry so much.

3

mak e predictions : They should be here soon. He should win the match easily.

need

shout.

is used t o talk abou t a lack o f necessity.

I can

hear

you.

You

needn't

Moda! verbs with perfect infinitives

Form

Moda l verbs usually refer to the present or the future. Most

moda l verbs can be used wit h

the past. The construction is:

subject + moda l verb + have + past participle

They must have left.

perfect infinitives to talk about

Use

Moda l verbs wit h perfect infinitives are used to talk about

how

following moda l auxiliary verbs have different_meanings.

things i n the past could have been different.

The

might/

may/

could

have

fo r past possibility :

 

Tve

lost

my cheque

book.

Somebody

could

have

stolen

it.

It's

not

very

late.

They

may

not

have

gone

to

bed.

must have fo r past deductions / certainty :

They're late. They must have missed the bus. He's not here. He must have gone.

can't

have

fo r past impossibility :

 

It's

early.

They

can't

have gone

to

bed.

 

The exam was

easy. She can't

have

failed

it.

should

have/shouldn't

have

fo r past mistakes :

 

We should

have

left

eariier.

I shouldn't

have

driven

so

fast.

needn't have fo r lac k o f necessity i n th e past:

He's OK. We needn't have worried. You needn't have run. You're not late. Not e th e differenc e i n meanin g betwee n needn't have an d didn't need to:

He needn't have done it. ( = I t wasn' t necessar y fo r hi m t o d o it , but he did.)

He didn't need to do it. ( = I t wasn' t necessar y fo r hi m t o

d o it .

Perhaps he di d it , perhaps he didn't.) She needn't have arrived at 8.00. The meeting didn't start

till

8.30.

(= I t wasn' t necessary fo r he r t o arrive at 8.00

bu t she

did.)

He didn't

need to stop

forpetrol.

There

was

plenty

left

in the

tank.

(= It is no t clear whether he stopped or not.)

Crammar

103

Used

Form

Affirmativ e

to

1/you/he/she/it/we/they

Negative

used to

work

1/ vou/ he/ she/ it/ we/ they

didn't

use to

work

Questions

 

Did

1/ vou/ he/ she/ we/ they

use

to

work .

Use

Used to is used t o tal k abou t abou t a habit , regular activit y o r situation i n th e past.