Talat Lecture 2403 Applied Fracture Mechanics

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Talat Lecture 2403 Applied Fracture Mechanics

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Advanced Level

Objectives:

recommendations for practical applications

Provide necessary information for fatigue life estimations on the basis of fracture

mechanics as a complementary method to the S-N concept

Prerequisites:

EAA - European Aluminium Association

2403 Applied Fracture Mechanics

Contents

Fracture and Fatigue in Structures ...........................................................................3

2403.02 Notch Toughness and Brittle Fracture ................................................... 5

Notch-Toughness Performance Level as a Function of Temperature and Loading

Rates.........................................................................................................................5

Brittle Fracture .........................................................................................................8

2403.03 Principles of Fracture Mechanics............................................................ 9

Basic Parameters ......................................................................................................9

Material Toughness ............................................................................................ 9

Crack Size ........................................................................................................... 9

Stress Level ......................................................................................................... 9

Fracture Criteria .....................................................................................................13

Members with Cracks ............................................................................................14

Stress Intensity Factors ..........................................................................................16

Deformation at the Crack Tip ................................................................................21

Superposition of Stress Intensity Factors...............................................................22

2403.04 Experimental Determination of Limit Values according to Various

Recommendations ................................................................................................... 23

Linear-Elastic Fracture Mechanics ........................................................................24

Experimental Determination of KIc - ASTM-E399........................................... 24

Test procedure: ................................................................................................. 25

Elastic-Plastic Fracture Mechanics ........................................................................27

Crack opening displacement (COD) - BS 5762 ................................................ 27

Determination of R-Curves - ASTM-E561........................................................ 28

Determination of JIc - ASTM-E813 .................................................................. 30

Determination of J-R Curves - ASTM-E1152 .................................................. 33

Crack Opening Displacement (COD) Measurements - BS 5762 ...................... 34

2403.05 Fracture Mechanics Instruments for Structural Detail Evaluation... 36

Free Surface Correction Fs ....................................................................................37

Crack Shape Correction Fe ....................................................................................37

Finite Plate Dimension Correction Fw ..................................................................38

Correction Factors for Stress Gradient Fg .............................................................38

Remarks on Crack Geometry.................................................................................39

2403.06 Calculation of a Practical Example: Evaluation of Cracks Forming at a

Welded Coverplate and a Web Stiffener .............................................................. 41

Coverplate ..............................................................................................................42

Web Stiffener .........................................................................................................43

2403.07 Literature/References ............................................................................... 47

2403.08 List of Figures.......................................................................................... 48

TALAT 2403 2

2403.01 Historical Context

In his first treatise on "Mathematical Theory of Elasticity" Love, 100 years ago, discus-

sed several topics of engineering importance for which linear elastic treatment appeared

inadequate. One of these was rupture. Nowadays structural materials have been im-

proved with a corresponding decrease in the size of safety factors and the principles of

modern fracture mechanics have been developed, mainly in the 1946 to 1966 period.

Fracture mechanics is the science studying the behaviour of progressive crack extension

in structures. This goes along with the recognition that real structures contain disconti-

nuities.

Fracture mechanics is the primary tool (characteristic material values, test procedures,

failure analysis procedures) in controlling brittle fracture and fatigue failures in struc-

tures. The desire for increased safety and reliability of structures, after some spectacular

failures, has led to the development of various fracture criteria. Fracture criteria and

fracture control are a function of engineering contemplation taking into account econo-

mical and practical aspects as well.

Brittle fracture is a type of catastrophic failure that usually occurs without prior plastic

deformation and at extremely high speeds. Brittle fractures are not so common as fatigue

(the latter characterised by progressive crack development), yielding, or buckling

failures, but when they occur they may be more costly in terms of human life and prop-

erty damage. Fatigue failures according to statistics is responsible for approx. 7% of

failures.

Aristotle talked about hooks on molecules, breaking them meant fracture. Da Vinci and

Gallileo talked about fracture, too. The big break in fracture mechanics came in 1920

with the Griffith theory, applicable mostly to brittle materials, as well as Orowan and

Irwing and Williams in the 1940's.

Catastrophic brittle failures were recorded in the 19th and early 20th century. There

were several failures in welded Vierendeel-truss bridges in Europe shortly after being

put into service before World War II. However, it was not until the large number of

World War II ship failures that the problem of brittle fracture was fully appreciated by

engineers. 1962 the Kings Bridge in Melbourne failed by brittle fracture at low tempera-

tures due to poor details and fabrication resulting in cracks which were nearly through

the flange prior to any service loading. Although this failure was studied extensively,

bridge-builders did not pay particular attention until the failure of the Point Pleasent

Bridge in West Virginia, USA on December 15, 1965. This was the turning point initia-

ting the possibilities of fracture mechanics in civil engineering.

This failure was unique in several ways, it was investigated extensively and its results

were characteristic for the procedures and possibilities of fracture mechanics analysis.

Therefore they are mentioned briefly here:

TALAT 2403 3

(a) fracture appeared in the eye of an eyebar caused by the growth of a flaw to a criti-

cal size under normal working stresses,

(b) the initial flaw was caused through stress-corrosion cracking from the surface of

the hole, hydrogen sulphide was probably the reagent responsible,

(c) the chemical composition and heat treatment of the eyebar produced a steel with

very low fracture toughness at the failure temperature, and

(d) fracture resulted from a combination of factors and it would not have occurred in

the absence of anyone of these

- the high hardness of the material made it susceptible to stress corrosion

cracking

- close spacing of joint components made it impossible to apply paint to high

stressed regions yet provided a crevice where water could collect

- the high design load of the eyebar resulted in high local stresses at the inside

of the eye greater than the yield strength of the steel.

- the low fracture toughness of the steel led to complete fracture from the

slowly propagating stress corrosion crack when it had reached a depth of

only 3.0 mm

It has been shown that an interrelation exists between material, design, fabrication and

loading as well as maintenance. Fractures cannot be eliminated in structures by merely

using materials with improved notch toughness. The designer still has the fundamental

responsibility for the overall safety and reliability of the structure.

TALAT 2403 4

2403.02 Notch Toughness and Brittle Fracture

and loading rates

Brittle fracture

In the following chapters it will be shown how fracture mechanics can be used to de-

scribe quantitatively the trade-offs among stress, material toughness, and flaw size so

that the designer can determine the relative importance of each of them during design

rather than during failure analysis.

and Loading Rates

The traditional mechanical property tests measure strength, ductility, modulus of elasti-

city etc. There are also tests available to measure some form of notch toughness. Notch

toughness is defined as the ability of a material to absorb energy (usually when loaded

dynamically) in the presence of a flaw. Toughness is defined as the ability of a smooth,

unnotched member to absorb energy (usually when loaded slowly).

impact specimen, dynamic tear test specimen KIc, pre-cracked Charpy, etc. Toughness

is usually characterised by the area under a stress-strain curve in a slow tension test.

Notches or other forms of stress raisers make structural materials susceptible to brittle

fracture under certain conditions.

The ductile or brittle behaviour of some structural materials like steels is well known,

depending on several conditions such as temperature, loading rate, and constraint (the

latter arising often in welded components among other reasons due to residual stresses

and the complexity of welds). Ductile fractures are generally preceded by large amount

of plastic deformation occurring usually at 45 to the direction of the applied stress.

Brittle or cleavage fractures generally occur with little plastic deformation and are

usually normal to the direction of principal stresses. Figure 2403.02.01 shows the var-

ious fracture states and the transition from one to another depending on environmental

conditions.

Plane-strain behaviour refers to fracture under elastic stresses and is essentially brittle.

Plastic behaviour refers to ductile failure under general yielding conditions accompanied

usually, but not necessarily, with large shear lips. The transition between these two is

the elastic-plastic region or the mixed-mode region. Higher loading rates move the

characteristic transition curve to higher temperatures. A particular notch toughness value

called the nil-ductility transition (NDT) temperature generally defines the upper limits

of plane-strain behaviour under conditions of impact loading. In practice the question

has to be answered regarding the level of material performance which should be re-

quired for satisfactory performance in a particular structure at a specific service tem-

perature, see Figure 2403.02.02. In this example and for impact loading the three

different steels exhibit either plane-strain behaviour (steel 1) or elastic-plastic behaviour

(steel 2), or fully plastic behaviour (steel 3) at the indicated service temperature.

TALAT 2403 5

Although fully plastic behaviour would be a very desirable level of performance, it may

not be necessary or even economically feasible for many structures.

vs. Temperature

Impact loading

Plastic

Static loading

Levels of performance as measured

Elastic - Intermediate

Plastic loading rate

Plane

Strain

(Macro linear)

Elastic

Temperature

D. Kosteas, TUM

2403.02.01

Training in Aluminium Application Technologies vs. Temperature

Service Temperature

Plastic

Steel 3 Steel 2 Steel 1

Levels of Performance

Elastic-

Plastic

NDT NDT

Plane NDT

(Steel 2)

(Steel 3) (Steel 1)

Strain

Temperature

D. Kosteas, TUM

alu

Relation between Performance and

Training in Aluminium Application Technologies Transition Temperature for three different Steel Qualities 2403.02.02

Not all structural materials exhibit a ductile-brittle transition. For example, aluminium

as well as very high strength structural steels or titanium do not undergo a ductile-brittle

transition. For these materials temperature has a rather small effect on toughness, see

Figure 2403.02.03.

TALAT 2403 6

Notch-Toughness vs. Temperature

6

Alloy 5083-H113

+

+

+

+ +

+

4

x

x x

x x

2 x ISO - Probe

x

longitudinal

}

transverse parent metal

+ HAZ

x filler

0

-200 -100 0 20

D. Kosteas, TUM Temperature in C

alu Notch-Toughness of Welded Aluminium Alloy 5083

Training in Aluminium Application Technologies vs. Temperature 2403.02.03

Notch toughness measurements express the behaviour and respective laboratory test re-

sults can be used to predict service performance. Many different tests have been used to

measure the notch toughness of structural materials. These include

drop weight NDT

dynamic tear (DT)

wide plate

Battelle drop weight tear test (DWTT)

pre-cracked Charpy, etc.

Notch toughness tests produce fracture under carefully controlled laboratory conditions.

Hopefully, test results can be correlated with service performance to establish curves

like in Figure 2403.02.01 for various materials and specific applications. However,

even if correlations are developed for existing structures, they do not necessarily hold

for certain designs or new operating conditions or new materials. Test results are

expressed in terms of energy, fracture appearance, or deformation, and cannot always be

translated to engineering parameters.

A much better way to measure notch toughness is with the principles of fracture mech-

anics, a method characterising the fracture behaviour in structural parameters readily

recognised and utilised by the engineer, namely stress and flaw size. Fracture mechanics

is based on a stress analysis as described in the next chapters and can account for the ef-

fect of temperature and loading rate on the behaviour of structural members that have

sharp cracks.

Large and complex structures always have discontinuities of some kind. Dolan has made

the flat statement that "every structure contains small flaws" whose size and distribution

are dependent upon the material and its processing. These may range from non-metallic

inclusions and microvoids to weld defects, grinding cracks, quench cracks, surface laps,

etc. Fisher and Yen have shown that discontinuities exist in practically all structural

members, ranging from below 0.02 mm to several cm long. The significant point is that

TALAT 2403 7

discontinuities are present in fabricated structures even though the structure may have

been inspected. The problem of establishing acceptable discontinuities, for instance in

welded structures, is becoming an economic problem since techniques that minimize the

size and distribution of discontinuities are available if the engineer chooses to use them.

Whether a given defect is permissible or not depends on the extent to which the defect

increases the risk of failure of the structure. It is quite clear that this will vary with the

type of structure, its service conditions, and the material from which it is constructed.

service temperature, and loading rate) will establish the combinations of stress level and

flaw size that would be required to cause fracture. The engineer can then quantitatively

establish allowable stress levels and inspection requirements so that fracture cannot

occur. Fracture mechanics can also be used to analyse the growth of small cracks, as for

example by fatigue loading, to critical size.

tests. The latter are still useful though, as there are many empirical correlations between

fracture-mechanics values and existing toughness test results. In many cases, because of

the current limitations on test requirements for measuring fracture toughness KIc exist-

ing notch-toughness tests must be used to help the designer estimate KIc values.

Brittle Fracture

The number of catastrophic brittle fractures have been very small generally. Especially

for aluminium, exhibiting rather high fracture toughness values over the whole

temperature regime, probability of failure is low. Nonetheless, when

the design becomes complex,

thick welded plates from high strength materials are used

cost minimisation for the structure becomes more significant

the magnitude of loading increases, and

actual factors of safety decrease because of more precise computer designs,

the possibility of brittle fracture in large complex structures must be considered.

TALAT 2403 8

2403.03 Principles of Fracture Mechanics

Basic parameters

Fracture criteria

Members with cracks

Stress intensity factors

Deformation at the crack tip

Superposition of stress intensity factors

Basic Parameters

Numerous factors like service temperature, material toughness, design, welding, residual

stresses, fatigue, constraint, etc., can contribute to brittle fractures in large structures.

However, there are three primary factors in fracture mechanics that control the

susceptibility of a structure to brittle fracture:

1) Material toughness Kc, KIc, KId

2) Crack size a

3) Stress level

Material Toughness

is the ability to carry load or deform plastically in the presence of a notch and can be

described in terms of the critical stress-intensity factor under conditions of plane stress

Kc or plane strain KIc for slow loading and linear elastic behaviour or KId under con-

ditions of plane strain and impact or dynamic loading, also for linear elastic behaviour.

For elastic-plastic behaviour, i.e. materials with higher levels of notch toughness than

linear elastic behaviour, the material toughness is measured in terms of parameters such

as R-curve resistance, JIc, and COD as described later on.

Crack Size

Fracture initiates from discontinuities or flaws. These can vary from extremely small

cracks within a weld arc strike to much larger or fatigue cracks, or imperfections of

welded structures like porosity, lack of fusion, lack of penetration, toe or root cracks,

mismatch, overfill angle, etc. Such discontinuities, though even small initially, can grow

by fatigue or stress corrosion to a critical size.

Stress Level

Tensile stresses (nominal, residual, or both) are necessary for brittle fractures to occur.

They are determined by conventional stress analysis techniques for particular structures.

Further factors such as temperature, loading rate, stress concentrations, residual stresses,

etc., merely affect the above three primary factors. Engineers have known these facts for

many years and controlled the above factors qualitatively through good design (adequate

sections, minimum stress concentrations) and fabrication practices (decreased

imperfection or discontinuity size through proper welding and inspection), as well as the

use of materials with sufficient notch toughness levels.

TALAT 2403 9

A linear elastic fracture mechanics technology is based upon an analytical procedure

that relates the stress field magnitude and distribution in the vicinity of a crack tip to the

nominal stress applied to the structure, to the size, shape, and orientation of the crack,

and to the material properties. In Figure 2403.03.01 are the equations that describe the

elastic stress field in the vicinity of a crack tip for tensile stresses normal to the plane of

the crack (Mode I deformation).

Magnitude of stress

along x axis, y

y

x x

Crack y ( = 0)

r

tip y

Nominal

stress x

KI 3

x = cos (1 - sin sin )

(2 r)1/2 2 2 2

KI 3

y = cos (1 + sin sin )

(2 r)1/2 2 2 2

alu

Elastic Stress Field Distribution near a Crack 2403.03.01

The equations describing the crack tip stress field distribution were formulated by Irwin

and Williams (1957) as follows:

KI 3

x = cos 1 sin sin

2r 2 2 2

KI 3

y = cos 1 + sin sin

2r 2 2 2

KI 3

xy = sin cos cos

2 r 2 2 2

xz = yz = 0

z =0 Plane Stress (thin sheet)

z = ( x + y ) Plane Strain (thick sheet)

The distribution of the elastic stress field in the vicinity of the crack tip is invariant in all

structural components subjected to this type of deformation. The magnitude of the

elastic stress field can be described by a single parameter, KI, designated the stress in-

tensity factor. The applied stress, the crack shape, size, and orientation, and the struc-

tural configuration of structural components subjected to this type of deformation affect

the value of the stress intensity factor but do not alter the stress field distribution. This

allows to translate laboratory results directly into practical design information. Stress in-

tensity values for some typical cases are given in Figure 2403.03.02.

TALAT 2403 10

KI values for various crack geometries

a

2a 2c a

KI = a a KI = 112 a

KI = 112

Q

where Q = f(a/2c, )

alu

KI Values for Various Crack Geometries 2403.03.02

It is a principle of fracture mechanics that unstable fracture occurs when the stress in-

tensity factor at the crack tip reaches a critical value Kc. For mode I deformation and for

small crack tip plastic deformation, i.e. plane strain conditions, the critical stress in-

tensity factor for fracture for fracture instability is KIc. The value KIc represents the

fracture toughness of the material (the resistance to progressive tensile crack extension

under plane strain conditions) and has units of MN/m3/2 (or MPa/mm1/2 or ksiin).

This material toughness property depends on the particular material, loading rate, and

constraint:

Kc critical stress intensity factor for static loading and plane stress conditions of

variable constraint. This value depends on specimen thickness and

geometry, as well as on crack size.

KIc critical stress intensity factor for static loading and plane strain conditions of

maximum constraint. This value is a minimum value for thick plates.

KId critical stress intensity factor for dynamic (impact) loading and plane strain

conditions of maximum constraint.

TALAT 2403 11

where

K c , K Ic , K Id = C a

= nominal stress

a = flaw size

Through knowledge of the critical value at failure for a given material of a particular

thickness and at a specific temperature and loading rate, tolerable flaw sizes for a given

design stress level can be determined. Or design stress levels may be determined that

can be safely used for an existing crack that may be present in a structure, see Figure

2403.03.03.

size and stress

2a

Increasing material

toughness

(COD, JIc, R)

Increasing stress,

(Fracture zone)

KC KC of

!f tough

er ste

el

!0 KI = f(! , a)

KC = critical value of KI

a0 af

Increasing flaw size, 2a

Training in Aluminium Application Technologies Size and Stress 2403.03.03

In an unflawed structural member, as the load is increased the nominal stress increases

until an instability (yielding at ys) occurs. Similarly in a structural member with a flaw

as the load is increased ( or as the size of the flaw grows by fatigue or stress corrosion)

the stress intensity KI increases until an instability, fracture at KIc, occurs. Another ana-

logy that helps to understand the fundamental aspects of fracture mechanics is the com-

parison with the Euler column instability, Figure 2403.03.04. To prevent buckling the

actual stress and L/r values must be below the Euler curve. To prevent fracture the act-

ual stress and flaw size must be below the Kc level.

TALAT 2403 12

COLUMN RESEARCH COUNCIL

COLUMN STRENGTH CURVE

P

L

! YS EULER CURVE

P

2 E

c =

( L / r) 2

!

YIELDING

! = ! YS

!

! YS

L/r

(a) COLUMN INSTABILITY KC

c = 2a

C a

! !

YIELDING

! = ! YS

a

(b) CRACK INSTABILITY

alu

Analogy: Column Instability and Crack Instability 2403.03.04

Training in Aluminium Application Technologies

The critical stress intensity factor KIc represents the terminal conditions in the life of a

structural component. The total useful life NT of the component is determined by the

time necessary to initiate a crack NI and by the time to propagate the crack NP from

subcritical dimensions a0 to the critical size ac. Crack initiation and subcritical crack

propagation are localised phenomena that depend on the boundary conditions at the

crack tip. Subsequently it is logical to expect that the rate of subcritical crack propaga-

tion depends on the stress intensity factor KI which serves as a single term parameter re-

presentative of the stress conditions in the vicinity of the crack tip. Fracture mechanics

theory can be used to analyse the behaviour of a structure throughout its entire life.

For materials that are susceptible to crack growth in a particular environment the KIscc-

value is used as the failure criterion rather than KIc. This threshold value KIscc is the

value below which subcritical crack propagation does not occur under static loads in

specific environment. In the relationship between material toughness, design stress and

flaw size, Figure 2403.03.03, KIscc replaces Kc as the critical value of KI.

Fracture Criteria

fracture control plan, i.e. the determination of how much toughness is necessary and

adequate. Developing a criterion one should consider

the level of performance (plane strain, elastic-plastic, plastic)

consequences of failure

TALAT 2403 13

Developing a fracture control plan for a complex structure is very difficult. All factors

that may contribute to the fracture of a structural detail or failure of the entire structure

have to be identified. The contribution of each factor and the combination effect of dif-

ferent factors have to be assessed. Methods minimising the probability of fracture have

to be determined. Responsibility has to be assigned for each task that must be underta-

ken to ensure the safety and reliability of a structure.

A fracture control plan can be defined for a given application and cannot be extended

indiscriminately to other applications. Certain general guidelines pertaining to classes of

structures (such as bridges, ships, vehicles, pressure vessels, etc.) can be formulated.

The fact that crack initiation, crack propagation, and fracture toughness are functions of

the stress intensity fluctuation KI and of the critical stress intensity factor KIc (where-

by the stress intensity is related to the applied nominal stress or stress fluctuation) de-

monstrates that a fracture control plan depends on

loading rate of the application. The fracture toughness can be modified by

changing the material.

the applied stress, stress rate, stress concentration, and stress fluctuation.

They can be altered by design changes and fabrication.

the initial size of the discontinuity and the size and shape of the critical

crack. These can be controlled by design changes, fabrication, and

inspection.

gue. Therefore an understanding of the magnitude and distribution of the stress field in

the vicinity of the crack front is essential to determine the safety and reliability of struc-

tures. Because fracture mechanics is based on a stress analysis, a quantitative evaluation

of the safety and reliability of a structure is possible.

Fracture mechanics can be subdivided into two general categories namely linear-elastic

and elastic-plastic. The following relationships and equations for stress intensity factors

are based on linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM).

It is convenient to define three types of relative movements of two crack surfaces. These

displacement modes, Figure 2403.03.05, represent the local deformation in an

infinitesimal element containing a crack form. Figure 2403.03.06 shows the coordinate

system and stress components ahead of a crack tip

TALAT 2403 14

Basic cracking modes

y

x

Mode I

z

y

x

Mode II

z

y

x

Mode III

z

alu

Basic Modes of Cracking 2403.03.05

y

xy

y yz

xz

x z x

r

alu

Training in Aluminium Application Technologies

each other in opposite directions. Local displacements in the sliding or shear Mode II

and Mode III, the tearing mode, are the other basic types corresponding to respective

stress fields in the vicinity of the crack tips, Figure 2403.03.07. In any problem the

deformations can be treated as one or combination of these local displacement modes.

Respectively the stress field at the crack tip can be treated as one or a combination of the

three basic types of stress fields. For practical applications Mode I is the most important

since according to Jaccard even if a crack starts as a combination of different modes it

is soon transformed and continues its propagation to a critical crack under Mode I.

TALAT 2403 15

Stress Field Equations in the Vicinity of Crack Tips

Mode I Mode II Mode III

KI 3 K II 3 KIII

x = cos 1 sin sin x = sin 2 + cos cos xz = sin

2 r 2 2 2 2 r 2 2 2 2 r 2

KI 3 KII 3 KIII

y = cos 1 + sin sin y = sin cos cos yz = cos

2 r 2 2 2 2 r 2 2 2 2 r 2

KI 3 KII 3

xy = sin cos cos xy = cos 1 sin sin

2 r 2 2 2 2 r 2 2 2

z = ( x + y ) z = ( x + y ) x = y = z = xy = 0

xz = yz = 0 xz = yz = 0

1 2 1 2 1 2

KI r K II r K III r

u= cos 1 2 + sin 2 u= sin 2 2 + cos2 w= sin

G 2 2 2 G 2 2 2 G 2 2

1 2 1 2

KI r K II r

v= sin 2 2 cos2 v= cos 1 + 2 sin 2

G 2 2 2 G 2 2 2

alu

Stress Field Equations in the Vicinity of Crack Tips 2403.03.07

Dimensional analysis of the equations shows that the stress intensity factor must be

linearly related to stress and directly related to the square root of a characteristic length,

the crack length in a structural member. In all cases the general form the stress intensity

factor is given by

K = f ( g) a

where f(g) is a parameter that depends on the specimen and crack geometry.

Various relationships between the stress intensity factor and structural component confi-

gurations, crack sizes, orientations, and shapes, and loading conditions can be taken out

of respective literature

[1] C.P. Paris and G.C. Sih, "Stress analysis of cracks" in "Fracture toughness testing

and its applications", ASTM STP No381, ASTM, Philadelphia 1965

[2] H. Tada, P.C. Paris and G.R. Irwing, ed., "Stress analysis of cracks handbook",

Del Research corporation, Hellertown, Pa. 1973

[3] G.C. Sih, "Handbook of stress intensity factors for researchers and engi-neers",

Institute of fracture and solid mechanics, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, Pa. 1973

Stress intensity factor for a through-thickness crack:Figure 2403.03.08

TALAT 2403 16

Through-Thickness Crack

Finite Width Plate Infinite Width Plate

Tangent correction for finite width

a

b [sec(( a) / (2 b))] 1

2

0.074 1.00

0.207 1.03

0.275 1.05

2a 0.337 1.08 2a

0.410 1.12

2b

0.466 1.16

0.535 1.22

0.592 1.29

Nominal Stress

[

KI = a sec( ( a) / ( 2 b)) ] 1

2 K = a

alu

SIF for Through-Thickness Crack 2403.03.08

Training in Aluminium Application Technologies

Double-Edge Crack

a

b [sec(( a) / (2 b))] 1

2

0.074 1.00

0.207 1.03

a a 0.275 1.05

0.337 1.08

0.410 1.12

2b 0.466 1.16

0.535 1.22

0.592 1.29

K I = 112 [

. a sec( ( a ) / ( 2 b)) ] 1

2

alu

SIF for Double-Edge Crack 2403.03.09

Training in Aluminium Application Technologies

TALAT 2403 17

Stress intensity factor for a single-edge crack: Figure 2403.03.10

Single-Edge Crack

For a semi-finite edge-cracked specimen:

KI =1.12 (a)1/2

For a finite width edge-cracked specimen:

KI = (a) f(a/b)

Correction factor for a single-edge crack

in a finite width plate

a/b f(a/b)

a

0.10 1.15

0.20 1.20

2b 0.30 1.29

0.40 1.37

0.50 1.51

0.60 1.68

0.70 1.89

0.80 2.14

0.90 2.46

1.00 2.86

alu

SIF for Single-Edge Crack 2403.03.10

Training in Aluminium Application Technologies

Stress intensity factor for cracks emanating from circular or elliptical holes: Figure

2403.03.11

1.1

Cracks Emanating from

1.0

Circular or Elliptical Holes

0.9

0.8

!

0.7

The stress intensity factor

0.6 in the case of a finite plate is

F( , ) 0.5

bN

K I = F( , ) a

0.4

aN aF a b

0.3 a where = and = N

aN aN

0.2

0

1.00 1.20 1.40 1.60 1.80 2.00 2.20 2.40

a

=

aN

alu

SIF for Cracks Emanating from Circular or Elliptical Holes 2403.03.11

TALAT 2403 18

Stress intensity factor for a single-edge crack in beam in bending: Figure 2403.03.12

M M

w

KI = f

3

W

(W a ) 2

a/W f(a/W)

0.05 0.36

0.10 0.49

0.20 0.60

0.30 0.66

0.40 0.69

0.50 0.72

W: Depth of the Beam

>0.60 0.73

alu

SIF for Single-Edge Crack in Beam in Bending 2403.03.12

Training in Aluminium Application Technologies

Stress intensity factor for an elliptical or circular crack in an infinite plate: Figure

2403.03.13

The stress intensity factor at any point along the perimeter of elliptical or

circular cracks in an infinite body subjected to uniform tensile stress is

!

3 1

(a ) 2 a

2

4

KI = sin2 + cos2

0 b

The point on the perimeter of the crack

a

is defined by the angle

a and the elliptic integral #o

3

c

"

2

c2 a 2 2

c 0 = 1 sin 2 d

0

c2

12

! to a through - thickness crack.

alu

SIF: Elliptical or Circular Crack in an Infinite Plate 2403.03.13

TALAT 2403 19

Stress intensity factor for a surface crack: Figure 2403.03.14

Surface Crack

! "Thumbnail Crack"

from the equations of elliptical crack using a

free surface correction factor of 1.12

and for the position =/2

a

1

2

.

K I = 112

Q

with Q = 0 and the elliptic integral

a 2

2c 3

2

2

c2 a 2

0 = 1 sin 2 d

0 c 2

Q is regarded as a shape factor because its values

depend on a and c.

For values of Q see Figure 2402.03.15.

!

alu

SIF: Surface Crack 2403.03.14

0.5 2c a

0.4

ys = 0

Ratio

a/2c 0.3 ys = 0.60

ys = 0.80

ys = 10

.

0.2

0.1

0

0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5

Flaw Shape Parameter, Q

alu

Flaw Shape Parameter, Q 2403.03.15

Training in Aluminium Application Technologies

TALAT 2403 20

Deformation at the Crack Tip

The stress field equations show that the elastic stress at a distance r from the crack tip

(where r<<a) can be very large, see Figure 2403.03.16. In reality the material in this

region deforms plastically. A plastic zone surrounds the crack tip.

! YS Stress Distribution

after Local Yielding

Plastic

Zone

alu

Distribution of Stress in the Crack Tip Region 2403.03.16

The size of the plastic zone ry can be estimated from the stress field equations for plane

stress conditions and setting y = ys

2

1 K

ry =

2 ys

Following a suggestion by Irwin that the increase in tensile stress for plastic yielding

caused by plane strain elastic constraint is of the order of 3, we can estimate the size of

the plastic zone under plane strain conditions as

2

1 K

ry =

6 ys

The plastic zone along the crack front in a thick specimen is subjected to plane strain

conditions in the center portion of the crack front where w = 0 and to plane strain condi-

tion near the surface of the specimen where z = 0. That means that the plastic zone in

the center of a thick specimen is smaller than at the surface of the specimen, Figure

2403.03.17.

TALAT 2403 21

Midsection Plane stress

A - Overall view B - Edge view mode I

Plane

Surface strain

mode I

y

Cracktip

z

Crack tip

x

KI

2 $! y

rIp (plane strain)

Machine notch

Fatigue crack z

Plastic zone rp (Plane stress)

Specimen cross-section

alu

Plastic Zone Dimensions 2403.03.17

Stress components from such loads as uniform tensile loads, concentrated tensile loads,

or bending loads, all belonging to Mode I type loads, have the same stress field distribu-

tions in the vicinity of the crack tip according to the equations given in Figure

2403.03.07. Consequently the total stress intensity factor can be obtained by

algebraically adding the individual stress intensity factors corresponding to each load.

TALAT 2403 22

2403.04 Experimental Determination of Limit Values according to

Various Recommendations

Experimental determination of KIc - ASTM-E399

Elastic-Plastic Fracture Mechanics

Crack opening displacement (COD) - BS 5762

Determination of R-Curves - ASTM-E561

Determination of JIc - ASTM-E813

Determination of J-R Curves - ASTM-E1152

Crack opening displacement (COD) measurements - BS 5762

fracture in brittle materials. The yield strength ys is the limiting value for loading

stresses, the critical stress intensity factors KIc, KId or Kc are the limiting values for the

stress intensity factor KI. The critical stress intensity factor Kc at which unstable crack

growth occurs for conditions of static loading at a particular temperature depends on

specimen thickness or constraint, Figure 2403.04.01.

Effect of Thickness on Kc

240

Plane stress Plane strain

200

in.

160

Kc, ksi

120 K Ic

of plane strain is:

2

K Ic

40 t = 2.5

y

0

0.25 0.30 0.50 0.75 1.0 2.0 3.0 5.0

Thickness, in.

alu

Effect of Thickness on Kc 2403.04.01

The limiting value of Kc for plane strain (maximum constraint) conditions is KIc (slow

loading rate) or KId (dynamic or impact load). The KIc-value is the minimum value for

plane strain conditions. The KIc-value would also be a minimum value for conditions of

maximum structural constraint (for example, stiffeners, intersecting plates, etc.) that

TALAT 2403 23

might lead to plain-strain conditions even though the individual structural members

might be relatively thin.

fracture problem. The following chapter gives information on experimental require-

ments and procedures for the measurement of KIc-values.

For thin section problems further procedures based on a Kc or R-curve analysis for

elastic-plastic behaviour problems an analysis on the basis of JIc- or COD-procedures

will be described in further chapters.

The accuracy with which KIc describes the fracture behaviour of real materials depends

on how well the stress intensity factor represents the conditions of stress and strain in-

side the actual fracture process zone. This is the extremely small region just ahead of the

tip of a crack where crack extension would originate. In this sense KI is exact only in the

case of zero plastic strain as in brittle materials. For most structural materials, a

sufficient degree of accuracy may be obtained if the plastic zone ahead of a crack tip is

small in comparison with the region around the crack in which the stress intensity factor

yields a satisfactory approximation of the exact elastic stress field. The decision of what

is sufficient accuracy depends on the particular application. A standardised test method

must be reproducible, specimen size requirements are chosen so that there is essentially

no question regarding this point. The standardised test method for determining KIc ma-

terial values is the ASTM-E399 test method.

W

a SE(B) Bend

Specimen

2.1W B

2.1W

=W/2

0.6 W

Specimen 0.275 W

0.275 W

0.6 W

a

W B

1.25 W =W/2

after ASTM-E399

alu

SE Bend Specimen and CT Tension Specimen 2403.04.02

Training in Aluminium Application Technologies

TALAT 2403 24

Several different test specimen forms have been proposed in the course of the de-

velopment and standardization. Two of the most common for engineering applications,

the bend specimen or SE(B) specimen and the compact tension or C(T) specimen are

reproduced in Figure 2403.04.02 according to ASTM-E399.

Test procedure:

Determine location and orientation of test specimen in respect to component to be

analysed: Specimen orientation L-S and L-T cover the most common crack cases in

structural engineering components, such as welded structures, see Figure 2403.04.03.

Surface cracks grow initially in the direction of the plate thickness and propagate further

on as through-thickness cracks.

according to ASTM

alu

Specimen Orientation 2403.04.03

Training in Aluminium Application Technologies

constraint and small plastic zone in relation to specimen dimensions the following

relations must be observed.

a = crack depth > 2.5 (KIc/ys)2

B = specimen thickness > 2.5 (KIc/ys)2

W = specimen depth > 5.0 (KIc/ys)2

This leads for instance to a specimen thickness of approximately 50 times the radius of

the plane strain plastic zone.

Even before a KIc test specimen can be machined, the KIc value to be obtained must

already be known or at least estimated. Three general rules may be used

TALAT 2403 25

overestimate the KIc value on the basis of experience with similar materials

and judgement based on other types of notch-toughness tests

use specimens that have as large as thickness as possible, namely a thickness

equal to that of the plates to be used in service

use the following ratio of yield strength to modulus of elasticity to select a

specimen size. These estimates are valid for very high strength structural

materials, steels having yield strength of at least 1000 MPa and aluminium

alloys having yield strength of at least 350 MPa.

thickness and crack length

[mm]

0.0050-0.0057 75,0

0.0057-0.0062 63,0

0.0062-0.0065 50,0

0.0065-0.0068 44,0

0.0068-0.0071 38,0

0.0071-0.0075 32,0

0.0075-0.0080 25,0

0.0080-0.0085 20,0

0.0085-0.0100 12,5

0.0100 or greater 6,5

Many low- to medium-strength structural materials in section sizes of interest for most

large structures (ships, bridges, pressure vessels) are of insufficient thickness to main-

tain plane strain conditions under slow loading and at normal service temperatures.

Thus, the linear elastic analysis to calculate KIc values is invalidated by general yielding

and the formation of large plastic zones. Alternative methods must be used for fracture

analysis as described in further chapters.

The following values are given as an example for common aluminium alloys

MPa MPa

AlMgSi1 50 245 0,0416 104

AlZn4,5Mg1 73 370 0,0389 97

Select and prepare a test specimen: Most probably one of the two standard specimen

shapes will be selected, slow-bend test specimen or compact-tension specimen. The

initial machined crack length 'a' should be 0.45 W so that the crack can be extended by

fatigue to approximately 0.5 W. Usually the selection of the specimen thickness B is

made first.

fatigue cracking of the test specimen. Measure and plot crack opening displacement v

against load P.

TALAT 2403 26

Analyse P-v record, calculate conditional KIc (=KQ) values, perform validation check

for KIc: If the KQ values meet the above stated requirements, like a or B 2.5(KQ/0.2)

and W 5.0(KQ/0.2)2, the KQ=KIc. If not the test is invalid, the results may be used

to estimate the material toughness only.

As already mentioned low- to medium-strength structural materials used in the section

sizes of interest for large complex structures are of insufficient thickness to maintain

plane strain conditions under slow loading conditions at normal service temperatures.

Large plastic zones from ahead of the crack tip, the behaviour is elastic-plastic, invali-

dating the calculation of KIc values. There are three possible approaches into the elastic-

plastic region, through

R-curve analysis

J-integral

Proposed by Wells in 1961 the fracture behaviour in the vicinity of a sharp crack could

be characterized by the opening of the notch faces, namely the crack opening displace-

ment. He also showed that the concept of crack opening displacement was analogous to

the concept of critical crack extension force and thus the COD values could be related to

the plane strain fracture toughness KIc. COD measurements can be made even when

there is considerable plastic flow ahead of a crack. Using a crack tip plasticity model

proposed by Dugdale it is possible to relate the COD to the applied stress and crack

length.

As with the KI analysis the application of the COD approach to engineering structures

requires the measurement of a fracture toughness parameter c, the critical value of the

crack tip displacement, which is a material property as a function of temperature,

loading rate, specimen thickness, and possibly specimen geometry, i.e. notch acuity,

crack length and overall specimen size.

Since the c-test is regarded as an extension of the KIc testing the british standardized

test method after BS 5762 is very similar to the ASTM-E399 test method for KIc.

Similar specimen preparation, fatigue-cracking procedures, instrumentation, and test

procedures are followed. The displacement gage is similar to the one used in KIc testing

(Clip-Gage) and a continous load-displacement record is obtained during the test.

On the basis of the British Standard PD 6493 an analysis results is based on the

comparison of the critical COD value c to the actual crack tip opening displacement of

the component analyzed and characterized by geometrical dimensions of the component

TALAT 2403 27

and the existing flaw and its location, as well as the material used - for a specific service

temperature and loading rate.

KIc is governed by conditions of plane strain (z=0) with small scale crack tip plasticity.

Kc is governed by conditions of plane stress (z=0) with large scale crack tip plasticity.

Kc values are generally 2-10 times larger than KIc. KIc values depend on only two

variables, temperature and strain rate. Kc values depend on 4 variables, temperature,

loading rate, plate thickness and initial crack length.

Plane stress conditions rather than plane strain conditions actually exist in service. Plane

stress fracture toughness evaluations using an R-curve or resistance curve analysis as

one of several extensions of linear elastic fracture mechanics into elastic-plastic fracture

mechanics is envisaged. An R-curve characterizes the resistance to fracture of a material

during incremental slow stable crack extension. An R-curve is a plot of crack growth

resistance as a function of actual or effective crack extension. KR, also in MPam units

is the crack growth resistance at a particular instability condition during the R-curve

test, i.e. the limit prior to unstable crack growth. In Figure 2403.04.04 the solid lines

represent the R-curves for different initial crack lengths. The dashed lines represent the

variation in KI with crack length for different constant loads P1<P2<P3. Each line is a

function of the crack length, KI = f(P,a).

R-Curves

KR = Kc P1<P2<P3

P3

for a0 = a1

KR

Applied

K I = f (P, a ) KI Levels

P2

KR = Kc

for a0 = a2

KR < Kc

for a0 = a1

aactual aactual

a1 a2

a

Training in Aluminium Application Technologies for Different Initial Cracks a0

The two points of tangency represent points of instability, or the critical plane stress

intensity factor Kc = KR, at the particular crack length and, of course, for the given

conditions of temperature and loading rate. The KR value is always calculated by using

the effective crack length aeff and is plotted against the actual crack extension aact, that

takes place physically in the material during the test.

TALAT 2403 28

R-curves can be determined either by load control or displacement control tests. The

load control technique can be used to obtain only that portion of the R-curve up to the

Kc value where complete unstable fracture occurs. The displacement control technique

can be used to obtain the entire R-curve. The evaluation of R-curves for relatively low-

strength, high-toughness alloys exhibiting large scale crack tip plasticity y at fracture,

relative to the test specimen in plane dimensions W and a, requires an elastic-plastic

approach. Here the crack-opening displacement at the physical crack tip is measured

and used in calculating the equivalent elastic K value. This elastic-plastic crack model is

designated the crack-opening-stretch (COS) method, where and COS are equivalent

terms. This method can be used with either a load-control or displacement control test.

of a test specimen is equal to the plate thickness considered for actual service. The other

dimensions are made considerably larger. The advantage of the displacement control

technique is partially offset by the necessity for new or unique loading facilities and

sophisticated instrumentation, whereas the load-control method in conjunction with

relatively simple measuring devices can be used with a conventional tension machine.

The limits of application of this technique are for materials with high strength with low

toughness, small plastic zone ahead of the crack tip. For materials with high levels of

toughness this analysis becomes increasingly less accurate.

The R-curve is determined by graphical means. A series of secant lines are constructed

on the load displacement record from a test sample. The compliance values /P from

these second lines are used to determine the associated aeff/W-values that reflect the

effective crack length aeff = a0 + a + ry using also an appropriate relationship for the

given specimen between crack opening and effective crack length. Each aeff/W-value is

then used to determine a respective Keff-value, the latter is plotted against aeff

producing the R-curve for the given material.

The significance of the critical fracture toughness values obtained from an R-curve ana-

lysis is in the calculation of the critical flaw size acr required to cause fracture

instability. A normalised plot showing the general relationship of acr to such design

parameters, nominal design stress and yield stress, for a large center-cracked tension

specimen subjected to uniform tension is given in Figure 2403.04.05.

The plot can be used for any material for which valid fracture mechanics results (KIc,

KId, Kc, KIscc) are available under a given loading rate, temperature and state of stress.

TALAT 2403 29

Normalized Plot for Critical Flaw Size

100

D

10.0

40

8.0

20 5.0

10 acr

3.0

4 2acr

acr, critical flaw size, inches

2.0

2

D

1.0

1.0

0.4 0.80

0.2

0.50

0.10

0.30 KI = D a

0.04

2

1 KC

0.02

0.010

( )

KC

YS

0.20

= 0.10

acr = ( )D

0.004

0.002

0.001

0 0.10 0.20 0.30 0.40 0.50 0.60 0.70 0.80 0.90 1.00 ( )

D

YS

alu

Normalized Plot for Critical Flaw Size 2403.04.05

Another means of directly extending fracture mechanics concepts from the linear-elastic

behaviour to the elastic-plastic behaviour is the path independent J-integral proposed by

Rice as a method of characterizing the stress strain field at the tip of a crack by an

integration path taken sufficiently far from the crack tip to be substituted for a path close

to the crack tip region.

For linear elastic behaviour the J-interal is identical to the energy release rate G per unit

crack extension. Therefore a J-failure criterion for the linear elastic case is identical to

the KIc-failure criterion, under linear-elastic plane strain conditions.

J Ic = G Ic =

(1 2 ) K Ic2

E

The energy line integral J is defined for either elastic or elastic-plastic behaviour

U

J = W dy T dx

R

x

where R=any contour around the crack tip. Figure 2403.04.06 shows the crack-tip

coordinate system and arbitrary line integral contour. Note the counterclockwise

evaluation starting from the lower flat notch surface.

TALAT 2403 30

J - Integral

The energy line integral J is defined for an

arbitrary contour R around the crack tip for U

either elastic or elastic-plastic behaviour. J = W dy T dx

R

x

n

y W = the strain energy density

T = the traction vector according to

the outward normal n along R,

r U = displacement vector

s = arc length along R

x Ti = ij nij

R

starting from the lower flat notch surface.

alu

J - Integral 2403.04.06

Training in Aluminium Application Technologies

T = the traction vector according to the outward normal n along R, Ti = ij nj

U = displacement vector

s = arc length along R

The actual testing procedure is standardized in ASTM-E813 and either a family of load

displacement records for different initial crack sizes or a single specimen (i.e. same

initial crack size) may be used.

Using a compliance method several specimens of varying crack length are used to

obtain P vs. curves. Values of energy per unit thickness (area under the P- curve) are

obtained for different initial crack lengths at various values of deflection . The slopes

of these curves are the changes in potential energy per unit thickness per unit change in

crack length and thus are equal to values of

1 U

J=

B a

Specimen forms and dimensions (bend, bar, C(T) or WOL specimen), testing equipment

and procedure are given in ASTM-E813.

TALAT 2403 31

Interpretation of the J - Integral

P

P a

B

a+da

JBda

a da

1 U

J=

B a

Using a compliance method several specimens of varying crack length are used to

obtain P vs. curves.

Values of energy per unit thickness (area under the P- curve) are obtained for different

initial crack lengths at various values of deflection .

The slopes of these curves are the changes in potential energy per unit thickness

per unit change in crack length and thus are equal to values of J.

alu

Interpretation of the J - Integral 2403.04.07

For the data analysis, Figure 2403.04.08, calculate J values from the P vs. using

J=A/(B (W-a0)) f(a0/W), where f(a0/W) is a correction factor for the given

specimen form, for a three-point bending specimen f(a0/W) = 2. Plot J vs. a. Construct

the 'blunting' line J=2r' a, with '=(ys+ult). Draw the best fit line to the J vs.

cack-extension points. Include only the points where actual crack extension has occured,

see Figure 2403.04.09. Where crack extension appears only as a stretch zone the point

should fall along the blunting line.

Load

Precrack

End a

Displacement,

(Step 1) (Step 2)

J = 2 flow a

J J

JIc

Fit of Data Points

a a

(Step 3) (Step 4)

alu

Procedure of J Measurement 2403.04.08

Training in Aluminium Application Technologies

TALAT 2403 32

Evaluation Procedure and Limits of J Measurement

Blunting Line

J - Integral kJoules/m

( eliminated data)

ap (min) ap (max)

ap [mm]

alu

Evaluation Procedure and Limits of J Measurement 2403.04.09

Eliminate all data points which lie above Jmax=b0 '/15. Final verification of valid

results is performed by comparing specimen dimensions a, B, b0 = W-a0 as follows

=

(a , B or b0 ) 25

JQ

'

The J-R curve characterizes the resistance of metallic materials to slow stable crack

growth after initiation from a preexisting fatigue crack or other sharp flaw. The J-R can

be used as an index of material toughness for alloy design, material selection, and qual-

ity assurance. The J-R curve from bend type specimens defines the lower bound esti-

mates of J-capacity as a function of crack extension, and has been observed to be

conservative in comparison with those obtained with tensile loading specimen

configurations. The J-R curve can be used to assess the stability of cracks in structural

details in the presence of ductile tearing.

measured and the J integral is estimated in a way analogous to ASTM-E813.

Jmax = b0 '/20 or

Jmax = B '/20

TALAT 2403 33

Data points with J values exceeding Jmax should be eliminated. The maximum crack

extension capacity is given by

amax = 0.1 b0

is measured on three-point bend specimens, see Figure 2403.04.10, and transformed

to a crack tip opening displacement . The crack extension values are measured on the

specimen fracture surface. A plot of COD values vs. these crack extension values a

allows the estimation of a critical value.

Measurements of COD

W

B= W

2 a

S = 4W

4.5W

r(W-a) W

a

z

after BS 5762

vp

alu

Hinge Model for a Standard Bending Specimen 2403.04.10

K 2 (1 2 ) 0, 4( W a )

c = u = m = i = + vp

2 E y 0, 4W + 0, 6a + z

where

PS a

K= f

B W 3/ 2 W

TALAT 2403 34

Depending on the form of the respective load-displaced curve 4 different critical values

are interpreted:

c COD without stable crack extension, instable crack leading to fracture, partial

brittle fracture or pop-in in the P-v curve

u COD with stable crack extension, instable crack leading to fracture fracture,

partial brittle fracture or pop-in in the P-v curve

i COD at initiation of stable crack extension

m COD at maximum load for P-v curves with an extended region of stable crack ex-

tension

TALAT 2403 35

2403.05 Fracture Mechanics Instruments for Structural Detail

Evaluation

Crack shape correction Fe

Finite plate dimension correction Fw

Correction factors for stress gradient Fg

Remarks on crack geometry

assumed dimensions is postulated. The stress field at the location of the flaw has to be

considered. Information on flaw size and orientation and loading have to be considered

through a fracture mechanics parameter, a, K, J, or value. For the material and its

service conditions, like temperature, environment, static or dynamic loading, the respec-

tive characteristic material value has to be estimated.

Failures in metal structures are most of the times due to the formation of one or more

cracks as a result of the repeated application of loads, i.e. fatigue. Under certain

environmental conditions, like corrosion, or due to fabrication conditions a flaw may be

present which will act as an initiating crack for a fatigue failure.

If a large crack exists in a structure because of fabrication or some other event, the de-

sign fatigue resistance curves are no longer applicable. The residual fatigue resistance in

these cases must be assessed by fracture mechanics models.

Complex details such as those in common use in most structural engineering structures,

especially but not only in welded structures, the stress intensity factor for a surface crack

of depth 'a', can be conveniently related to the well known expression for a central

through crack in an infinite plate by use of correction factors.

The correction factors modify a to account for effects of free surface Fs, finite

width Fw, non uniform stresses acting on the crack Fg, and the crack shape Fe. The re-

sulting stress intensity factor is expressed as

K = Fe Fs Fw Fg a

To evaluate fracture instability, the total sum of stresses due to residual welding or roll-

ing stresses, dead load, and live loads must be considered. For cyclic fatigue loading,

is the live load variation in stress which results in a K stress intensity value range.

For the correction factors, solutions both empirical and exact can be found in the

literature. For common cases in engineering practice the following expressions are

stated.

TALAT 2403 36

Free Surface Correction Fs

Fs = 1211

. 0186

. a c

The accuracy is 1.5% for 0.2 < (a/c) < 0.4. The ratio (a/c)0.3 has been observed with

the welded aluminium beams of the TUM fatigue program. This value has been reported

as a lower limit for steel weldments as well.

elliptical crack shape correction factor,

Fe = 1/E(k)

( ) d

2

E (k ) = 1 k 2 sin 2

o

with

c2 a 2

k2 =

c2

i.e. dependent only upon the ratio of the minor to the major axis semi-diameter ratio a/c.

Values of Fe for respective values of k2 can be taken from the curve in Figure

2403.05.01.

1

Fe

0.95

0.9

0.85

0.8

0.75

0.7

0.65

( )

2

c2 a 2

Fe = 1 E ( k ) where E ( k ) = 1 k 2 sin2 d with k2 =

o c2

alu

Crack Shape Correction Factor Fe 2403.05.01

Training in Aluminium Application Technologies

TALAT 2403 37

Relationships for a/c have been empirically determined for different structural geome-

tries and are given in Figure 2403.05.02. The lower boundary for stiffeners is given

with c = 1.403 a 0.951 mm. The lower boundary for coverplates is given with

c = 5.451 a 1.133 mm. For the above mentioned mean value a/c = 0.3 the respective Fe

value is Fe = 0.912.

1.0

C = 1.088 a0.946 (in.)

C = 1.296 a0.946 (mm)

a/c C = 1.403 a0.951 (mm)

C = 3.355 + 1.29a (mm)

0.4

C = 3.247 a1.241 (in.)

0.2

Stiffeners C = 5.451 a1.133 (mm)

Coverplates

0 2 4 6 8

Crack Depth, a (mm)

Source: Fisher, steel structures

alu

Crack Shape Measurements 2403.05.02

Training in Aluminium Application Technologies

For a central crack in a plate of finite width the correction factor is (see also under

Lecture 2403.03):

[

Fw = sec( ( a ) / (2 b)) ]

12

12

Fw =

Expressions for the stress gradient correction factor Fg can be very complex and often

require a procedure involving first determining the stress field with finite elements in

the uncracked structure and then removing these stresses from the crack surface by inte-

TALAT 2403 38

gration. An outline for this procedure is given in "Albrecht/Yamada: Rapid Calculation

of SIF, Journal Struct. Division ASCE, Vol 103, No ST2, Feb 1977". Approximate

equations for the factor Fg have been derived for several details.

One approximate method which appears applicable to a number of details such as stiffe-

ners, attachments, coverplates and gussets states that

K tm

Fg =

1 + G

with = a/t and Ktm = maximum SIF at weld toe. Characteristic values for G and and

expressions for Ktm can be taken from Figure 2403.05.03.

Stiffener and Z

2.776 0.2487 for web stiffeners:

Short Attachment

tf Ktm = 1.621*log(z/tf) + 3.963

Beam Ktm = -3.539*log(z/tf)

tcp + 1.981*log(tcp/tf) + 5.798

R > 25 mm

tg Wg

Gusset Plates

with Radius W 0.862 0.60 for gussets with R>25mm:

Transition Ktm = -1.115*log(R/W)

tf L + 0.537*log(L/W)

tf + 0.138*log(Wg/W)

Wf + 0.285*log(tg/tf)+0.68

Web Gusset 0.88 0.576

tw

L

Source: Albrecht/Yamada

alu

Representative Values for G, "and Ktm 2403.05.03

Training in Aluminium Application Technologies

For groove welds (butt welds) with the reinforcement in place (Gurney)

Fg = (2.5 a )

b

where b = (1 2.3) log(1 + 0.06 h) and a = 2a/t, h is the acute angle between the plate

surface and the tangent to the weld profile.

shape. Even very irregularly shaped discontinuities (pores, inclusions) may be modelled

as either an ellipse growing into a circular shaped crack or the initial discontinuity may

be considered as a circumscribed circle.

TALAT 2403 39

Cracks forming and growing at the weld toe will be generally modelled as semi-ellipti-

cal surface cracks. Multiple cracks will occur along the weld toe of a transverse weld,

such as weld toes of coverplates and stiffeners welded to the flange of a girder. These

small single cracks are usually located closely to each other and initially tend to grow

into a semi-circular shape, but eventually the cracks begin to coalesce. Coalescence of

single cracks into a merged crack has been observed to occur at crack depths as small as

1.27 mm. Typical initial discontinuities will be approximately 0.38 mm to 1.52 mm long

and up to 0.76 mm deep, see Figure 2403.05.02. The following expression for the crack

length 'c' may be used an approximate lower boundary of measured coverplated beams

c = 5.462 a 1.133

Finally Figure 2403.05.04 shows a plot of the correction factors as a function of crack

size for a coverplated beam. It can be seen that small cracks are significantly affected by

the stress gradient correction factor Fg. This also contributes to the spread in the crack

width and the early coalescence of the individual flaws. Fg tends to decay rapidly and is

not a significant factor for larger cracks.

7.0

6.0

Correction Factors

5.0

Fg

4.0

3.0

Fw

2.0 Fs

1.0

Fe

0 0.5 1.0

= a/tf

alu

Correction Factors vs. Crack Size for Coverplates 2403.05.04

Training in Aluminium Application Technologies

TALAT 2403 40

2403.06 Calculation of a Practical Example: Evaluation of Cracks

Forming at a Welded Coverplate and a Web Stiffener

Coverplate

Web stiffener

For an existing crack in a structural component the residual fatigue resistance may be

assessed by fracture mechanics. The crack is modelled as above and the stress intensity

range estimated as

K = Fe Fs Fw Fg e a

where e is the equivalent constant stress range calculated from random or spectrum

stress amplitudes through a damage accumulation assumption.

The cycles and time required to propagate a crack ai to some larger crack af can be esti-

mated as

Nf af

da

N p = N = dN = C K

Ni ai

m

It is also necessary to check the fracture resistance of the large crack. This is given by

K max = Fe Fs Fw Fg max a K c

Two different details of a welded aluminium beam are investigated, a coverplate and a

web stiffener, shown in Figure 2403.06.01.

alu

Influence of Cover Plates and Web Stiffeners 2403.06.01

Training in Aluminium Application Technologies

In both cases the crack extends into the heat affected zone. The crack propagation beha-

viour in this zone is assumed to be similar to the upper limit of the typical experimental

TALAT 2403 41

values for base material given in Figure 2404.06.03. Crack propagation da/dN in the

region of Kmax = Kc above 10-5 m/cycle is not taken into account, it corresponds to a

life portion in the low cycle fatigue region and may be neglected. The limiting value is

Kc = KIc = 60 MPam in the case of base metal of 10 mm thickness. Actually a reduc-

tion of 10% must be taken into account for values in the HAZ in 30 mm plate thickness.

Respective values for 15 mm flange thickness as in the above example are not available.

The ultimate strength limit for the material is 360 MPa. The size of initial flaws may be

taken as 0.1 mm, such as observed oxide inclusions in the fusion zone.

Coverplate

With the approximation c = 5.462 a 1.133 and a = 0.1 mm at the beginning of crack

propagation we get c = 0.402 and a/c = 0.250 and k2 = 0.938 and consequently with Fe =

0.933. With a = 15 mm and c = 117.5 mm at the approximate end of crack propagation

a/c = 0.128 and Fe = 0.976. The surface correction Fs = 1211

. 0186

. a c = 1.118 or

1.144 for a/c = 0.25 and a/c = 0.128.

The finite plate width results in the following correction. The flange width is 300 mm

and the flange thickness is 15 mm. We assume an initial crack at the coverplate weld toe

with a depth a = 0.1 mm into the flange thickness and a width of 2c. In the beginning of

crack extension with the average a/c = 0.3, c results in c = 0.33 mm. On the other hand

the approximation for coverplates of c = 5.462 a 1.133 gives c = 0.40 mm. Such cracks

always develop in the middle of a flange above the web. So we have the configuration

of a crack in the middle of a plate of finite width. Since this is not a through crack, the

geometric influence is covered already by Fs as above and Fw = 1.

15 mm and a respective c = 5.462 a 1.133 = 117.45 mm. Therefore the correction factor

for finite width is given as

The stress gradient correction factor Fg depends on the actual crack length a. We

assume at the beginning of crack propagation a = 0.1 mm. Hereafter, we have the

following values for the constants a = a/tf = 0.1/15 = 0.00667 and G = 6.789 and b =

0.4348.

Ktm = 3539

. ( )

log Z t f + 1981

. ( )

log t cp t f + 5.798

In the geometrical assumptions for the above constants the width of coverplate and

flange was identical. In the case of our example we have bf = 300 mm > 250 mm = bcp

as well as a further stress concentration because of the beam shape and the web-to

TALAT 2403 42

flange weldments. Strain gage measurements have indicated a stress concentration of

approximately 30 %, so a further global stress concentration factor of 1.3 is assumed.

Web Stiffener

In a similar way as above the free surface correction factor is calculated. For the

beginning of the crack propagation a = 0.1 mm and at the approximate end of crack

propagation, with a through thickness crack established a = 15 mm. From the

relationship of Figure 2403.05.02 c = 1.403a0.951 for stiffeners we get for the half

crack-width c = 0.157 mm or c = 18.43 mm and accordingly a/c = 0.64 or a/c = 0.81; we

assume an average value of a/c = 0.8.

Fs = 1211

. 0186

. a c = 1211

. 0186

. 0.8 = 1045

.

the accuracy could be lower though, since a/c > 0.4.

effects are covered by the free surface correction. At the end of crack propagation with a

through-flange-thickness crack of a = 15 mm and with a/c = 0.8 as assumed c =

18.75mm. So the correction factor for finite width plate with an edge crack (as the

[((2 b) / ( c)) tan(( c) / (2 b))]

12

worst case for the component) is Fw = and with

2b = 300 mm, Fw = 1.013.

The shape correction factor Fe is calculated for the beginning of crack propagation with

a = 0.1 mm and a/c = 0.64, Fe = 0.767. For the end of the elliptical crack shape, when

the crack is through the flange thickness with a = 15 mm and c = 18.75 mm we get Fe =

0.706.

The stress gradient correction factor Fg depends on the actual crack length a. We

assume at the beginning of crack propagation a = 0.1. Hereafter we have the following

values for the constants a = a/tf = 0.1/15 = 0.00667 and G = 2.776 and b = 0.2487.

( )

Finally the stress concentration factor Ktm = 1.621 log Z t f + 3.963 with tf = 15 mm

and z = tf = 15 mm we have Ktm = 3.963. The stress gradient correction factor for the

beginning of crack propagation is calculated as Fg = 1.545 and for the end of crack

propagation Fg = 1.050.

Coverplate Beginning 1,118 3,278 1,000 0,933

End 1,144 0,744 1,730 0,976

Web Stiffener Beginning 1,045 1,545 1,000 0,767

End 1,045 1,050 1,013 0,706

Correction factors can be also estimated through the IIW Recommendation "The Fitness

for Purpose of Welded Structures", SST-1141/89. A solution is provided for surface

cracks at weld toes in the general form of K = M K a .

TALAT 2403 43

Correction Factor Development with Progressing Crack

5

Coverplate Ftot

Web Stiffener MK

4

3

Ftot, MK

0

0 0,2 0,4 0,6 0,8 1

a/B

alu

Correction Factor Development with Progressing Crack 2403.06.02

The full correlation between correction factors Ftot for the coverplate or MK for the web

stiffener vs. the crack development expressed with the parameter a/B (where B = 15 mm

= flange thickness) is given in the diagram of Figure 2403.06.02. These values will be

used together with the appropriate regions of crack propagation diagrams for the

respective material zones, Figure 2403.06.03.

alu

Crack Propagation vs. and eff 2403.06.03

Training in Aluminium Application Technologies

For the estimation of number of cycles to failure the upper portion of the da/dN diagram

above 10-5 m/cycle is not taken into account. The upper boundary da/dN curve actually

used in the calculation is shown in Figure 2403.06.04, where also the limit curve given

by IIW recommendation SST-1141-89 is plotted. These lead to the final estimated S-N

TALAT 2403 44

curve for detail D2 = coverplate, Figure 2403.06.05, and detail B2 = web stiffener,

Figure 2403.06.06, plotted against respective experimental results.

10-3 AlZn4.5Mg1 (7020)

KC = 60 MPa m1/2 Base material

10-4

R = 0.0, Thickness = 8.0 mm

10-5

IIW mV

da/dN [m/cycle]

Boundary curve data for calculation:

mIV x R = -1

10-7

mIII + R= 0

Keff da/dN

10 -8

mII mI =15 0.78 1x10-11

o R = +0.5 mII =2.5 1 4x10-10

10-9

Boundary curve

mIII =0.94 2.8 5.25x10-9

10-10 for calculation mIV =8.0 4.65 8.46x10-9

mI

mV =2.7 6.16 8.08x10-8

10-11 60 3.37.10-5

1 2 4 6 10 20 40 60 100

Keff [MPa m]

Source: D. Kosteas, TUM

alu

Calculation Curves for da/dN Lines 2403.06.04

Training in Aluminium Application Technologies

500

400

300

Detail D2 - TUM

AlZn4,5Mg1

200

Stress range in MPa

x+ + + +

R = -1

100

x x + Test results x

R = 0,1

80

70 x x

60

+ R = +0,6

50 + + ++

40 Calculation result

+ + 29.5

30

21.3

20

19.9

IIW boundary P 50

curve P 50

10

P 50

8

7

6

5

2 4 6 104 2 4 6 105 2 4 6 106 2 4 6 107 2 4 6 108

Cycles to failure N

Source: D. Kosteas, TUM

alu

S-N Curve for Cover Plate 2403.06.05

TALAT 2403 45

S-N Curve for Web Stiffener

500

400

Detail D2 - TUM

300 Test results AlZn4,5Mg1

200 R = -1

Stress range in MPa R = 0,1

100

80

70 Calculation result

60

54.9

50

40

30

IIW boundary

P 50

curve

20

10

8

7

6

5

2 4 6 104 2 4 6 105 2 4 6 106 2 4 6 107 2 4 6 108

Cycles to failure N

Source: D. Kosteas, TUM

alu

S-N Curve for Web Stiffener 2403.06.06

TALAT 2403 46

2403.07 Literature/References

Introductory chapters to fracture mechanics have been taken mainly out of the text book

by

Wiley & Sons, New York, 1976

1980

Meckenheim, 1990

Ermdungsfestigkeit geschweiter Aluminium Bauteile", Berichte aus

dem konstruktiven Ingenieurbau, 3/92, TU Mnchen, 1992

1991

1982

TALAT 2403 47

2403.08 List of Figures

2403.02.01 Notch-Toughness Performance Levels vs. Temperature

2403.02.02 Relation between Performance and Transition Temperature for Three

Different Steel Qualities

2403.02.03 Notch-Toughness of Welded Aluminium Alloy 5083 vs. Temperature

2403.03.02 KI Values for Various Crack Geometries

2403.03.03 Relation between Material Toughness, Flaw Size and Stress

2403.03.04 Analogy: Column Instability and Crack Instability

2403.03.05 Basic Modes of Cracking

2403.03.06 Distribution of Stress in the Crack Tip Region

2403.03.07 Stress Field Equations in the Vicinity of Crack Tips

2403.03.08 SIF for Through-Thickness Crack

2403.03.09 SIF for Double-Edge Crack

2403.03.10 SIF for Single-Edge Crack

2403.03.11 SIF for Cracks Emanating from Circular or Elliptical Holes

2403.03.12 SIF for Single-Edge Crack in Beam in Bending

2403.03.13 SIF: Elliptical or Circular Crack in an Infinite Plate

2403.03.14 SIF: Surface Crack

2403.03.15 Flaw Shape Parameter, Q

2403.03.16 Distribution of Stress in the Crack Tip Region

2403.03.17 Plastic Zone Dimensions

2403.04.02 SE Bend Specimen and CT Tension Specimen

2403.04.03 Specimen Orientation

2403.04.04 R-Curves and Critical Fracture Toughness Values KR for Different Initial

Cracks a0

2403.04.05 Normalized Plot for Critical Flaw Size

2403.04.06 J-Integral

2403.04.07 Interpretation of the J-Integral

2403.04.08 Procedure of J Measurement

2403.04.09 Evaluation Procedure and Limits of J Measurement

2403.04.10 Hinge Model for a Standard Bending Specimen

TALAT 2403 48

Figure Nr. Figure Title (Overhead)

2403.05.01 Crack Shape Correction Factor Fe

2403.05.02 Crack Shape Measurements

2403.05.03 Representative Values for G, and Ktm

2403.05.04 Correction Factors vs. Crack Size for Coverplates

2403.06.02 Correction Factor Development with Progressing Crack

2403.06.03 Crack Propagation vs. K and Keff

2403.06.04 Calculation Curves for da/dN Lines

2403.06.05 S-N Curve for Cover Plate

2403.06.06 S-N Curve for Web Stiffener

TALAT 2403 49

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