Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 72


Kinetic architecture: sustainability and

How can Kinetic architecture aid in achieving the sustainable Habitat?


Prof. Manoj Mathur


Prof. Ranjana Mittal

Prof. Jaya Kumar

Submitted by:

Sonam Tobgay


Sec :B
List of plates:

Fig 1:: Diagram of Kinetic Typologies in Architecture, Interactive Architecture

Fox Michael, 2004.

Fig 2: Diagram of Kinetic Typologies in Architecture, Interactive Architecture

Fox Michael, 2004.

Fig3: Rotating Turrets (Randl, Chad, 2007)

Fig4: Arial View of Villa Girisole (Randl, Chad, 2007

Fig5: Circular Base of Villa Girisole (Randl, Chad, 2007)

Fig6: Pineros scissor mechanisms for deployable structures (Robbin, 1996).

Fig7: Hobermans Iris Dome (Architecture, June, 1994, 103).

Fig8: Santiago Calatrava, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Santiago_Calatrava

calatrava's picture, 12-10-10.

Fig9: Turning Torso, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Turning_Torso, 12-10-10.

Fig10: Milwaukee art Museum,

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Milwaukee_Art_Museum, 12-10-10

Fig.11: Alcoy Community hall, Spain

for sketch of Alcoy, 12-10-10.

Fig.12: Milwaukee Art Museum, Milwaukee Art, Museum,ARCH 631: Structural

Systems,Prof. Anne Nichols,2004

Fig.13: Parking level, Milwaukee Art, Museum,ARCH 631: Structural

Systems,Prof. Anne Nichols,2004, Pg5.
Fig.14: Lower Level,, Milwaukee Art, Museum,ARCH 631: Structural
Systems,Prof. Anne Nichols,2004, Pg5.

Fig.15: Main level, Milwaukee Art, Museum,ARCH 631: Structural

Systems,Prof. Anne Nichols,2004, Pg6.

Fig.16: Bridge/Mezzanine Level, Milwaukee Art, Museum,ARCH 631: Structural

Systems,Prof. Anne Nichols,2004, Pg6.

Fig.17: Upper level, Milwaukee Art, Museum,ARCH 631: Structural

Systems,Prof. Anne Nichols,2004, Pg7.

Fig.18: Main level Plan, Milwaukee Art, Museum,ARCH 631: Structural

Systems,Prof. Anne Nichols,2004, Pg7.

Fig.19: Pavilion Ring Beam (perimeter) and A-frames, Milwaukee Art,

Museum,ARCH 631: Structural Systems,Prof. Anne Nichols,2004,

Fig.20: Partial Section, , Milwaukee Art , Museum,ARCH 631: Structural

Systems,Prof. Anne Nichols,2004, Pg10.

Fig.21: Isometric View of Pavilion, Milwaukee Art, Museum,ARCH 631:

Structural Systems,Prof. Anne Nichols,2004, Pg11.

Fig.22: Finite Element Model, Milwaukee Art, Museum,ARCH 631: Structural

Systems,Prof. Anne Nichols,2004, Pg11.

Fig.23: Pavilion Elevation, Milwaukee Art, Museum,ARCH 631: Structural

Systems,Prof. Anne Nichols,2004, Pg12.

Fig.24: l, Milwaukee Art, Museum,ARCH 631: Structural

Brise Soleil,
Systems,Prof. Anne Nichols,2004, Pg13.
Fig.25: Brise -Soleil Mechanism Detail, Milwaukee Art, Museum,ARCH 631:
Structural Systems,Prof. Anne Nichols,2004, Pg14.

Fig.26: Cable-Stayed Pedestrian Bridge, Milwaukee Art, Museum,ARCH 631:

Structural Systems,Prof. Anne Nichols,2004, Pg15.

Fig.27: Load Transfer Diagram, Milwaukee Art, Museum,ARCH 631: Structural

Systems,Prof. Anne Nichols,2004, Pg16.

Fig. 28: Dynamic Tower, www.dynamicarchitecture.org, 25-09-10.

Fig.29: David Fisher, www.dynamicarchitecture.org, 25-09-10.

Fig.30: Schematic Diagram of Construction of Dynamic Tower,

www.dynamicarchitecture.org, 25-09-10.

Fig.31: Schematic Diagram Showing how the individual units are fixed on the
core, www.dynamicarchitecture.org, 25-09-10.

Fig.32: Plan of a floor, www.dynamicarchitecture.org, 25-09-10.

Fig.33: Schematic Diagram Showing the hidden turbines in between the two
floors which will generate electricity, www.dynamicarchitecture.org, 25-

Fig.34: View outisde from the gym cum bathroom,

www.dynamicarchitecture.org, 25-09-10.

Fig.35: Plans showing the movement pattern of the room that slides in and out.

http://kineticarchitecture.org/russelhouse.html, 17-11-10.

Fig.36: The external images, http://kineticarchitecture.org/russelhouse.html, 17-


Fig.37: The model showing how the part of a house slides in and out,
http://kineticarchitecture.org/russelhouse.html, 17-11-10.

Fig.38: Elevations, http://kineticarchitecture.org/russelhouse.html, 17-11-10.

Fig.39: Gary Chang apartment in Hongkong,http://tinyhouseblog.com/apartment-

living/24-rooms-344-square-feet, 08-11-10
Fig. 40: The different form of plan, http://tinyhouseblog.com/tiny-house/box-of-
tricks, 08-11-10.

Fig.41: The sliding of walls changes the form of the space inside,
http://tinyhouseblog.com/tiny-house/box-of-tricks, 08-11-10.

Fig. 42: The sliding of walls changes the form of the space inside,
http://tinyhouseblog.com/tiny-house/box-of-tricks, 08-11-10.

Fig.43: The sliding of walls changes the form of the space inside,
http://tinyhouseblog.com/tiny-house/box-of-tricks, 08-11-10

I would like to express my utmost gratitude to the following people and organization
without whom or which i wont have been able to complete this dissertation

Prof. Manoj Mathur, my dissertation guide who steered me in the right direction.
Despite his busy schedule, he interacted with me and provided me woth fruitful
discussions and further insights.

Prof. Ranjana Mittal and Prof. Jaya Kumar, my dissertation co-ordinators, who
showed the way to research and analytical writing. My thoughts were penned down
rationally owing to the dissertation exercise here. In spite of untimely interruptions,
they have responded and helped in any way possible.

Prof. Promilla Suri, my external guide, who suggested me to restructure the

dissertation and re-organise my study in orderly fashion.

Lastly, I am grateful to all those people who helped me in oneway or the other to
complete this dissertation but I dont remember to mention here. I hope you forgive
me. Your inputs are forever treasured and valued.

And I am thankful to all of you.



Page no.

Chapter 1: Introduction 1

1.1 Introduction 2

1.2 Need Identification 3

1.3 Aims and Objectives 5

1.4 Scope 6

1.5 Limitation, and 6

1.6 Methodologies 7

Chapter 2: Kinetic architecture and evolution 8

2.1 Definition of kinetic architecture 9

2.2 Different types of kinetic structures 10

2.3 Origin and evolution of the kinetic 13


2.4 Santiago Calatrava. 16

Chapter 3: Case Studies 19

3.1 a Case Study I- Milwaukee Art Museum, 20

3.1 b Case Study II-Dynamic Tower, Dubai 34
3.1 c Case Study III--Sliding house in Suffolk, 40


3.1 d Case Study IV-Architect Gary Changs 44

apartment, Hong Kong

Chapter 4: Time , sustainability and Kinetic architecture 49

4.1 Time as a fourth dimension 50

4.2 Adaptive Structures: Building for 51

Performance and Sustainability

Chapter 5: Conclusion 55

4.1 Conclusion and Analysis 56

i. Websites 60
ii. Articles and PDFs 61

iii. Bibliography 62
Chapter one

1.1 Introduction
If architects designed a building like a body, it would have a system of bones and
muscles and tendons and a brain that knows how to respond. If a building could
change its posture, tighten its muscles and brace itself against the wind, its
structural mass could literally be cut in half
Guy Nordenson, Ove Arup and Partner (Fox, M. 2004).

Kinetic architecture, though it is not a newly discovered concept, it has been

scarcely applied until recently. The explosion of technology enabled kinetic
architecture to make a spectacular comeback and attack traditional architecture, due
to the powerful combination of manufacturing and use of technologies, sustained by
kinetic architecture. Increasing needs for time saving and use of technological
inventions of different mobility and automations, which promise to optimize and
provide to the inhabitant a better living, set off a new era in building design. (1) The
use of robotics in a building, either during the construction or for inhabitancy needs,
(2) the smart houses which, with the use of computers and sensors, are designed
to satisfy the inhabitants basic needs (i.e. ventilation, sun protection etc.), and the
(3) transformation of the shape of a construction by mechanisms which allow
adaptation either to environmental conditions or to the will of the user, and many
more constitute expression of kinetic architecture.

On the other hand, there are other issues like green building, sustainability
prospects, and other character of the building on which architects and engineers
have been busy trying to solve it better and better. And the fact that in architecture,
everything gets outdated so fast, nothing remains so fresh. Hence, there is always
the mass revolution towards the attempt of bringing out the sustainable architecture:
one that can sustain energy for the future while it uses for its own as well, one that
can produce energy on its own, and serves the building without depending much on
other active means. There are numerous innovations and evaluations of these ideas
through experimentation and practical practices in constant attempt to push
architecture in new age of hi-tech materials and construction which at the same time
is sustainable and uses the minimum possible energy. If the idea of motion in building
be incorporated at its core part or in one of the major part of the structure, then will
there be a chance whereby we can not only reduce, re-
re-use, and recycle but can also
re-locate the buildings part by which a better sustainable
sustainable habitat be formed.
Research Question: How Kinetic architecture can aid in achieving the sustainable

1.2 Need Identification

....Architecture has always been part design and part science, but, once again, we
are in an era where the two have great potential to help one another. A design-
science marriage will be key, as both scientists and designers strive to push their
respective fields forward. Each can provide insight into the other as designers can
help scientists think outside of the box while scientists bring newfound technologies
and theories to design disciplines including the architecture process. By
incorporating motion into architecture, designers give occupants another dimension
by which to interact with their surroundings. Architects can not only communicate
motion, but can also engage occupants in what it means to have transition and
morphing states of architecture. When done properly, kinetic architecture can
inspire, surprise and even touch the soul. This introduction to kinetic architecture
highlights its purposes and benefits, and provides strategies for designing and
constructing moving building elements that optimize sustainability in architecture. This
study proposes an initial conceptual framework for the exploration of the sustainable
engaging attributes of kinetic architectural structures. It will serve as one of the first
attempts to understand, define and frame kinetic architecture from a complex
adaptive environmental approach......
Zeinab El Razaz, Sustainable vision of kinetic architecture, Journal of Building Appraisal
(2010) 5
The static state of buildings has been rigid and fixed in a place. The restrictions and
the uncompromising character of the building with respect to the view, orientation,
climate, lighting, sustainability also gets stagnate to its limitation. There is no
elasticity in the usage and the function of the building. But with science and
technology no more an unsolved equation, the boon of science could make buildings
able to adjust to the climatic, environmental, orientation, and yet it sustains and
adapts to the time. The flexibility of such character could well be perceived through
kinetic architecture. The incorporation of time in the static building makes it possible
to approach such structures possibility in the new world of green buildings and
sustainable structures.

We know that all living systems exhibit adaptive behavior. That is, they possess an
ability to react to their environments in such a way that is favorable. So why not
architecture? In this digital world, new technologies have been introduced; applying it
in architecture can enhance the living in best fit. It can give a new beginning to
architecture. Buildings will no more be static, it could move, rotate, revolve. it will
be alive.

..architecture responsive to the essential character of our society change. It is

clear that the principles which contributed to the past successes in architecture are
inadequate for the speed, scale, and nature of the change today. A new, adaptable
architecture must be developed.

(Zuk/Clark, Kinetic architecture,1970 edition)

The most architectural work or architectural representations in this twenty first

century has been at the attempt of creating a sustainable structure or sustainable
habitat. Due to the exponential growth in human population in the world, there has
always been the need for more habitation, more human shelter. The resources have
been not in same growth but have definitely been reduced to very low figure. The
needs have always been reverse. It has increased. The horizontal dimensions have
been well reserved with structures, and vertical dimensions now are being put into
the approach. With definite increase in such habitation, theres always a sense of
anxiety and fear that planet is plundered upon its resources. Theres nothing left for
the future generations. Therefore in order that future is saved and the present is
served, architects genuinely are drawn into attempting everything towards making it
sustainable. If theres a chances through a structure that which can change its form
and shape according to the climatic condition outside and inside the building and one
that can sense the color, mood, and yet it produces the energy by its own which
serves the whole structure, of producing the sustainable habitat, then the kinetic
architecture would by no end be one of the best solutions in helping create a
sustainable habitat. We could not only consider in reducing, reusing, and recycling
the materials and energy but also re-locate its static structure into dynamic
structure. The time and space could well be not only perceived through indefinable
expression and feelings but also be felt and experienced.

1.3 Aims and objectives

1. To understand the concept of kinetic architecture as a whole relating to the
design of sustainable habitat.
2. To compare the static buildings and kinetic structures in terms of materials,
adaptability, energy and time (as a fourth dimension of the structure).
3. To examine the possibility of kinetic architecture especially in creating futuristic
architecture whole being perceived as the sustainable habitat.
4. It shall not cover the views inclined more towards the established facts about
architecture. The dissertation could well be hypothesis about the possibility of
relating the kinetic architecture into helping build a sustainable habitat.
1.4 Scope

1. Kinetic architecture is a wide field that can include and refer to many subjects.
The proposed subject of this dissertation focuses on one particular category
of kinetic architecture. This category involves a specific type of kinetic
architecture, related to the physical movement of structural building elements
that can result to the spatial movement of a structure as an entirety or just
part of it.
2. Another field of interest is Sustainability practice coming more into the play to
the principle of kinetic structure and incorporation of motion into the building.
3. The comparative parameters that which would bring the tentative differences
and advantages over each other in terms of material quality, spatial variations
and architectural innovation.

1.4 Limitation

1. The study requires case studies of live examples which are presently not
available in nearby places. As a result my case studies will be limited to books
and internet.

2. The subject as new as when it was initially started to implement. People still
do not use much of its application, so the scope of getting a direct and
detailed study about the topic could well be limited to certain generalized
views on the subject.

3. Since the subject is not so popular and no prominently practiced, the content
will be limited to few examples of kinetic structures.

4. The range the kinetic structures have been put into the existence, it will be
difficult to really come out to the conclusion that architecture sustains and its
the better solution to the need of better sustainable architecture. It will be
highly hypothesis on kinetic architecture being able to help create a
sustainable habitat.
1.5 Methodology

1. Stage one:
one Collecting the data on kinetic architecture, and sustainability.
Explaining the term Kinetic architecture in Architecture. And getting the
understanding of the past and present scenario of the kinetic structures in the
modern architecture of green versus technology.
2. Stage two:
two Explaining the relevance of kinetic in architecture, and how it is
different from static buildings through case studies comparing the two or
more different buildings.

3. Stage three:
three Explaining the term sustainability in contemporary architecture
and future as well. How does kinetic architecture answer the need of
adaptation to climate change, and environment? The Reduce, Reuse, Recycle
and Re-locate (Due to Fourth dimension-time).
4. Stage four:
four Material, Technology, and Energy
Chapter 2


2.1 Definition of kinetic architecture
In architecture, the notion of motion is often represented as an abstract formal
configuration that implies relationships of cause and effect. Deformation,
juxtaposition, superimposition, absence, friction, and exaggeration, are just few of
the techniques used by architects to express virtual motion and change. These
attempts are based on the idea that perpetual succession is not only conceived
directly through physical motion but also indirectly through formal expression.

Physical motion, other than in doors, windows, elevators, or escalators, is not

commonly present in buildings. In fact, the form and structure of the average building
suggests stability, steadiness, sturdiness, and immobility. Yet, while motion may
suggest agility, unpredictability, or uncertainty it may also suggest change,
anticipation, and liveliness.

Challenging past practices, architecture today finds itself in a position to revisit its
traditional kinetic aesthetics with new technological innovations. Through the use of
sensors, actuators, and microcontrollers, actual controlled motion can be designed,
integrated, and implemented in, on, or across buildings. The traditional problematics
of motion, stasis, and order are challenged, redefined, and transformed by new
spatio-temporal possibilities and strategies opened up through technological
innovation, particularly robotic technologies and new approaches to mobility,
portability, and nomadic culture.

Kinetic Architecture: a definition

Concerns in structural engineering will focus explicitly upon kinetic design. Kinetic
architecture is defined generally as buildings and/or building components with variable
mobility, location and/or geometry. Structural solutions must consider in parallel both
the ways and means for kinetic operability. The ways in which a kinetic structural
solution performs may include among others, folding, sliding, expanding, and
transforming in both size and shape. The means by which a kinetic structural solution
performs may be, among others, pneumatic, chemical, magnetic, natural or

2.2 Different types of kinetic structures

Kinetic Typologies
Kinetic structures in architecture are classified here into three general categorical
For example please refer fig 2.2

Embedded Kinetic Structures

Embedded Kinetic structures are systems that exist within a larger architectural
whole in a fixed location. The primary function is to control the larger architectural
system or building, in response to changing factors.
For example please refer fig 2.2

Deployable Kinetic Structures

Deployable Kinetic structures typically exist in a temporary location and are easily
Such systems possess the inherent capability to be constructed and deconstructed
in reverse.
For example please refer fig 2.2

Dynamic Kinetic Structures

Dynamic kinetic structures also exist within a larger architectural whole but act
independently with respect to control of the larger context. Such can be
subcategorized as Mobile, Transformable and Incremental kinetic systems.
Fig 2.1 Diagram of Kinetic Typologies in Architecture (M. Fox, 2004)
Fig2.2-Types examples of kinetic structures classified according to their types.
Controlling Kinetic Function
The ways can be described diagrammatically as mechanical motions. Contemporary
innovators such as Chuck Hoberman and Santiago Calatrava continue to demonstrate
that the last word has not been spoken in novel kinetic implementation at an
architectural scale. Yet, we as designers ought to focus our attention in this area
upon the vast wealth of resources that have been accumulated over numerous
centuries of engineering. There are many great scientists of a thousand years ago
who would have had no difficulty understanding an automobile or an engine or a
helicopter and certainly not the most advanced architectural system. The
craftsmanship would have been astonishing but the principles straightforward with
respect to an understanding of the novel material properties. Materiality will prove to
be the one great promise for advancement in this area primarily as a result of
technology providing both an unprecedented vision into microscopic natural
mechanisms and advanced manufacturing of high quality kinetic parts with new
materials such as ceramics, polymers and gels, fabrics, metal compounds and
composites with unprecedented structural properties. The integrative use of such
materials in kinetic structures facilitates creative solutions in membrane, tensegrity,
thermal, and acoustic systems.

2.3 Origin and evolution of the kinetic architecture

The tent is a kinetic structure since people can fold it up and carry it. This has proven
man its importance. But the original kinetic working machine architectures were water
and wind mills and are still being used. In the modern era Corbusier, Rietveld and
Fuller applied industrial and mechanical principles to the conceptualization, design and
production of single family dwellings. Following WWII massive social changes and
unprecedented technological innovation intersected to inspire visionary theoretical
proposals. Population fears, the nuclear threat and looming energy crisis have since
sobered the modernist progress of the western world.
Theodore Timbys Revolving Gun Tower.

In 1841, Theodore Timby, a nineteen year-old from Syracuse, New York, came up
with his own design for a land-based revolving gun tower. The following year he built
an ironclad model 7 feet in diameter and in January 1843 he patented the idea. The
full scale model was to be a two storey cast-iron
cylinder with an elaborate mechanism for targeting
and firing. (Chad Randl, 2008) It was not so
successful at that period of time due to lack of
experience on the technical part but surely gave a
new field of research in which kinetics could be

Fig 2.3 Rotating Turrets (Randl, Chad, 2007)

Villa Girasole

A summer house set on a hillside of vineyards and

orchards above his home village Marcellise, near

Verona. Girasole was the first well-known, built

rotating house. It was an experiment, a showpiece,
and a unique personal statement that resulted from
the collaborative efforts of several designers. Built
near Marcellise, Italy, built from 1931 to 1935,
Fig 2.4 Arial View of Villa Girisole (Randl, Chad, 2007)
and was designed by Italian engineer Agnelo
Invernizzi with architect Ettore Fagiuoli. Set on a
massive cylindrical plinth, the upper stories can
rotate 360 degrees around a central axis. The two
storied and L shaped house rests on a circular
base, which is over 44 meters in diameter. In the
middle there is a 42 meters tall turret, a sort of
conning tower or lighthouse, which the rotating Fig 2.5 View of the circular Base (Randl, Chad, 2007)
movement hinges on. A diesel engine pushes the house over three circular tracks
where 15 trolleys can slide the 5,000 cubic meters building at a speed of 4
millimetres per second (it takes 9 hours and 20 minutes to rotate
fully). (www.treehugger.com/) Engineer was thinking of the suns path, of a relation
with landscape and the space of humans life. He ventured to hope that the new
construction breakthroughs would free mankind from the heaviness of traditional
techniques and from the burden of history. Revolving house is a challenge to gravity,
weight and statics and to the very idea of contemporary architecture.

Emilio Pinero And Hobberman

In the early 1960s, Emilio Pinero pioneered the use of scissor mechanisms to make
deployable structures. A mechanism can expand in a horizontal direction, in both
horizontal and vertical directions, and with a fabric covering, which unfolds with the
mechanism to complete a deployable roof. Chuck Hoberman who has followed
Pineros way is another inventor. He calls himself the designer of several kinetic
structures and seeks for new spatial organizations based on the idea of motion in
nature. In his structures the idea of mechanism can be clearly seen both in the
structural relations and the way deployments are achieved with successfully. But the
majority of those structures are installations rather than they are part of the
structural design in building scale. There are also several recent examples of other
deployable and retractable systems.

Fig 2.6 Pineros scissor mechanisms for deployable structures (Robbin, 1996).
Fig 2.7 Hobermans Iris Dome (Architecture, June, 1994, 103).

2.4 Santiago Calatrava.

Santiago Calatrava: pioneer of kinetic architecture

Born in Benimmet, an old municipality

now integrated as an urban part of
Valencia, Spain, Calatrava pursued
undergraduate studies at the
Architecture School and Arts and Crafts
School. Following graduation in 1975,
he enrolled in the Swiss Federal Institute
of Technology (ETH) in Zrich,
Switzerland, for graduate work in civil Fig 2.8 Santiago Calatrava

engineering. In 1981, after completing

his doctoral thesis, "On the Foldability of Space Frames", he started his architecture
and engineering practice.

Spanish architect whose soaring work is all about openness, energy and aspiration.
Santiago Calatrava has achieved considerable international acclaim with his
breathtaking feats of architecture and engineering in the service of elegant and
humanistic modern forms. His spectacular cultural and civic projects have secured
Calatrava place in the pantheon of world-class 21st-centuryarchitects. Among these
are the Athens Olympics Sports Complex; the Tenerife Concert Hall in the Spanish
Canary Islands; the Valencia Science Museum, Planetarium, and Opera House, and the
much-anticipated World Trade Center Transportation Hub. This newest edition
introduces Calatrava latest triumphs, including the expressive Turning Torso tower in
Sweden and the Chicago Tower, the tallest skyscraper in the US when built.
He was one of most imminent figure in architectural world who incorporated motion
and kinetics in his designs. His designs like Alcoy Community Hall in Spain, Turning
Torso, and many are all in some ways designed in such a way that the kinetics
becomes more important for the building.

Today he is considered as one of the most innovative architects alive. With his
innovative usage of human body movements in his design concepts, no wonder
Calatrava is able to achieve the poetical movement of structure and architecture. The
blend between structure and architecture has resulted in some of the worlds best
kinetic architecture.

Fig 2.9: Turning torso Fig 2.10: Milwaukee Art Museum Fig 2.11: Alcoy community hall, Spain

Kinetic Architecture, (2008) retrieved on 5th Jan, 2010 from vangaurq word press
Web Site http://vanguarq.wordpress.com
Zuk, W. and Clark,Roger, 1970, Kinetic Architecture, Van Nostrand Reinhold, New
Fox Micheal, 2004 Beyond Kinetics, Kinetic Design Group Massachustts Institute of
Randl Chad,2007, Revolving Architecture :a history of buildings that rotate, swivel,
and pivot, Princeton Architectural Press.
Chapter 3

3.1a Case Study
Study I

Fig.3.1: Milwaukee Art Museum


Architect: Santiago Calatrava
The Milwaukee Art Museum

The Milwaukee Art Museum (MAM) traces its beginnings to two institutions, the
Layton Art Gallery, established in 1888, and the Milwaukee Art Institute, which was
established in 1918. In 1957 the groups joined together, forming the private,
nonprofit Milwaukee Art Center, now known as the Milwaukee Art Museum. At this
time, the Center moved to its present location on the Milwaukee waterfront

Finnish architect Eero Saarinen, known for his St. Louis Arch, designed the Centers
new home.

Saarinen designed a unique structure incorporating floating cruciform sections with

cantilevered portions; the building is now considered a classic in the development of
modern architecture.

The building opened in 1957, at which time the Milwaukee Art Institute and Layton
Art Gallery merged their collections and projects to form the Milwaukee Art Center.
An addition was added to the Milwaukee Art Center in 1975, after the Center had
received a number of donations and contributions to its collection. In addition to
exhibit space, the Center added amenities such as a theater, educational center and
a small restaurant.

In 1980, the Center changed its name to the Milwaukee Art Museum. The Museums
collection continued to grow during the 80s and 90s, leading to consideration of
another major addition. Attendance and membership had increased dramatically, with
nearly 200,000 annual visitors. With higher attendance, record numbers of art
acquisitions, and new programs continually being added, the facilities of the MAM
were becoming inadequate.

Museum officials looking for a style which would complement the existing Saarinen
structure turned to architect Santiago Calatrava in 1994 to design the new addition.
Calatrava was asked to provide a strong architectural statement in an exciting yet
functional buildingto set an architectural standard for the next millennium.
Calatrava's dynamic expansion design was unveiled in March 1996. The Milwaukee
community was elated with the result. Groundbreaking took place on December 10,
1997, and the entire expansion project was complete by October 2001 (after
opening in May of that year).

The Quadracci Pavilion (Fig. 3.1) was the first building designed by Calatrava to be
constructed in the United States. Since its completion, record numbers of visitors
have enjoyed the new exhibition galleries, larger museum store, auditorium in the
Quadracci Pavilion, and the completely renovated and reinstalled permanent
collection galleries. Despite cost overruns and financing setbacks resulting from the
expansion project, the Museum foresees a prosperous future, and the city of
Milwaukee has a new waterfront icon.

Design Concept

The city of Milwaukee was looking for a strong architectural statement in an exciting
yet functional building that would set an architectural standard for the next
millennium. Calatravas response was to design a glowing lantern on the
downtown lakefront, radiating light in all directions. He chose to execute this
concept through a pavilion featuring a vast, glass-enclosed reception hall with a
transparent, boat-like prow of unique design, facing the lake and a huge, wing-like

Building Layout

The five-level Milwaukee Art Museum, including the four-level Calatrava addition, was
diagrammed by David Arbanas of the Milwaukee Journal-Sentinel Online [5,6] as
shown in figures 3.23.6. The Quadracci Pavilion is shown intersecting the main
building at the south end.
Fig. 3.2: Parking level

Fig. 3.2: Lower Level

Fig 3.4: Main Level

Fig. 3.5: Bridge/Mezzanine Level

Fig. 3.6: Upper Level

Closer look at the main level of the new addition in fig.3.7

fig 7 reveals the ship-like
detailing Calatrava envisioned. The Quadracci Pavillion is directly in line with the
pedestrian bridge.
Fig. 3.7: Main Level Plan

Structural Features

A concise description of Calatravas elaborate design was put forth by James Auer of
the Milwaukee Journal-Sentinel Online:

The project's steel-and-glass Quadracci Pavilion, which will serve as the grand entry
into the expanded museum, will be erected over a concrete ring beam immediately
south of the low-lying galleria [see fig.3.8]. Seventeen specially built A-frames,
ranging in length from 98 feet to about 27 feet, have been trucked in from Portland,
Ore., for assembly and placement on the work site. Erection is slated to begin this
week. The A-shaped rafters were computer-designed and custom-fabricated by
Columbia Wire and Iron Works, a specialty steel fabricator in Portland. Together,
they'll give the pavilion its shape, strength and transparency. Components for the A-
frames were cut out of big sheets of steel plate, welded together, ground and
finished. Shapes were determined digitally, from a computerized model of the pavilion
and its underlying structure. Once the A-frames have been placed on the oval-shaped
ring beam, glass panes will be inserted,
followed by a three-piece steel spine. The
fixed 'building spine' will top off the A-
frames. Above it, two rotating spines will
support the movable wings of the Brise-
Soleil, an enormous sunscreen that can be
positioned to admit or keep out sunlight.
Light is crucial in the concept and operation
of the pavilion. By day,it will have natural
light. At night, artificial illumination will be
provided by powerful lights set low around

the concrete ring beam. Thus, said David Fig.3.8: Pavilion Ring Beam (perimeter) and A-frames

Kahler, president of architect-of-record

Kahler Slater, the pavilion will be precisely as architect
Santiago Calatrava originally envisioned it: a glowing 'lantern' on the downtown
lakefront, radiating light in all directions.

Building Components and System

The functional areas of the main building include the parking garage, the gallery
space, the pavilion (ring beam and A-frames) and the south terrace. Except for the A-
frames, which are comprised of plate steel and the Burke Brise-Soleil support, the
structural material is reinforced concrete.

The building sits on a 0.6-m-thick mat foundation spanning 18 m from the foundation
walls to a center foundation beam measuring 2.7 m wide by 1.4 m deep which spans
the length. This beam in turn supports the lower arches every 6 m that form the roof
of the parking garage and floor of the exhibition space wing. The foundation slopes
2.1 m to the mechanical rooms at the north end.
A partial section of the wing connecting the Quadracci Pavilion to the original Eero
Saarinen structure is shown in fig.3.9 [8]. The garage level elements are spaced 2.9
m on centers and alternate between C and D elements. The C element is a semi arch
spanning approximately 18m from a pinned connection with the mat foundation center
beam and a center transfer beam to the foundation walls. The D elements are similar,
but are supported by the center transfer beam and foundation walls without an arch
to the foundation center beam to provide more clear space for parking. This
supporting arch element is regularly reinforced except for the introduction of post-
tensioning to resist the lateral thrust force produced by the arching action of both
the C element and the upper arches. As the mechanical equipment is located in the
interstitial space from garage ceiling to floor, the depth of the horizontal portion of
the C and D elements is dictated by mechanical equipment space requirements rather
than structural requirements.

The 152-mm-thick mildly-reinforced concrete ceiling slab of the parking garage is

supported on the lower portion of the C and D elements, while the 203-mm-thick
concrete/metal composite floor slab for the galleria above is supported on top of
these elements, providing the interstitial space previously mentioned.

Fig.3.9: Partial Section

The gallery space is housed in a low-slung concrete arched structure. The arches are
variable depth hexagons, narrow at the base and deeper at the crown. The galleria
framing is composed of three structural elements the east A1, center B1, and
west A1 elements spaced 2.9 m on centers in the N-S direction. The east A1 and
center B1 elements are visible in figure 9.Together, these three elements form the
complete upper arch, spanning approximately 33 m between pinned connections at
each end. Individually, the A1 elements act as buttresses and support the center B1
element, which itself spans approximately 17.6 m. All of the elements forming the
upper arch are reinforced. The vertical members of element A1 are supported by the
C and D elements. To limit the deflection of the simply supported D elements,
transfer beams are used for lateral stability and stiffening like a grid system provides.

The pavilion, constructed of mildly-reinforced concrete and shown in Fig3.10, is the

support for the A-frames that in turn support the movable Burke Brise-Soleil.
Badreddine describes the pavilion as an oval tabletop that incorporates a
substantial opening for the atrium and is supported on four legs [8]. The four legs
mentioned here refer to an east set of piers (I) and west set of piers (J) at the
foundation walls.

Fig.3.10: Isometric View of Pavilion

Spanning 8.8 m in the N-S direction and 41.6 m in the E-W direction, the pavilion
also supports the back stay beam (shown in purple in fig.3.10) and the east pier for
the cable-stayed pedestrian bridge located at the bridge boomerang cavity. Because
of the shape and depth of this element, and to better predict vertical deflections,
the pavilion was modeled as a truss in the finite element analysis (shown as gray in

Fig.3.11: Finite Element Model

Post-tensioning was incorporated into the top chord of the pavilion to control
deflection and cracking, as well as to resist the pulling force of the pedestrian bridge
boomerang abutment,(shown as red in fig.3.12).

Fig.3.12: Pavilion Elevation

Framing of the glass atrium, consisting of the rigid A-frames and building spine, rests
atop the pavilion and back stay beam. These framing elements support each other.
The building spine is a 635-mm-dia., 13-mm-thick steel pipe. The A-frame is
constructed with a variable-depth channel cross-section, with a network of leaning
members with bracing connected to a second group of vertical members. The vertical
members, standing 1.4 m high from the pavilion, are braced around the perimeter
providing lateral stability of the entire A-frame assembly and transferring it to the ring
beam. On top of these members, 17 leaning A-frames connect to the buildings
spine, which leans 48.36 degrees towards the pavilion (parallel with the cable-stayed
bridge pylon).

Fig.3.13: Brise -Soleil

Burke Brise-Soleil

The movable Burke Brise-Soleil constitutes the signature element of the Calatrava
addition, resting on top of the breathtaking glass and steel atrium above the
Quadracci Pavilion. This element features two very large wings, each composed of 36
steel rectangular tube fins having a constant cross-section width of 330 mm, but
varying in length, depth, and thickness (figure 13) which are rigidly connected by
steel spacers. Each wing is supported by a rotating spine, to which all fins are
connected. The two rotating spines are in turn supported by the building spine, and
11 pairs of hydraulic actuators turn the rotating spines 90 degrees to fully open or
close the wings. This mechanism is described in more detail in fig3.14].

The biggest challenge in the design of the Burke Brise-Soleil was to understand the
behavior with wind load on the structure. A wind tunnel study was conducted using a
1:400 aero-elastic model which included the sunscreen, a portion of the underlying
structure, and surrounding buildings in downtown Milwaukee.

Fig.3.14: Brise -Soleil Mechanism Detail

Pedestrian Bridge

Oriented on the same axis as the pavilion spine, a cable-stayed pedestrian bridge
spans 71 m over Lincoln Memorial Drive and serves as a link from downtown
Milwaukee to the new entrance of the MAM (figure 15). Nine locked-coil cables and
18 back stay cables support the 10 main spans of the bridge. The 15-m back span
is supported by two steel rods anchored to the pavilion, while the nine front cables
are supported by the 60-m-long leaning steel pylon. The pylon is circular in cross-
section and varies in diameter throughout its height.

As show in fig.15, illustrated by Arbanas [10], the main section of the bridge is a
five-sided closed steel cell with a stressed-skin structure, measuring 0.6 m deep
and 5 m wide with a 0.6-m-high parapet. The cell has no internal beams or girders
and acts as a tubular member resisting live, dead and wind loading. The stressing
allows for more transverse load with less deflection. The boomerang bridge
abutment is formed from welded plate steel plate and is anchored at the top to the
west end of the pavilion ring beam and supports the pylon base.

Fig.3.15: Cable-Stayed Pedestrian Bridge

Loading Summary

In his design for the Milwaukee Art Museum expansion, Calatrava employs reinforced
concrete for the vast majority of elements. He carefully balances the forces within
the members using a series of arches and pinned connections. In addition, the
concrete material lends itself well to achieving the smooth, flowing appearance that
the architect found appropriate for this project.

The museum expansion was designed with a strong horizontal emphasis achieved
through elongated arched segments, creating large open galleries. As a result,
compressive forces dominate the building cross-section. For this design, concrete is
clearly the most appropriate material for the flexibility of form and for the structural
efficiency in compression.

Fig.3.16: Load Transfer Diagram

3.1 b Case Study II

Fig.3.17: Dynamic Tower


Architect: David Fisher
Italian architect David Fisher is
building his first skyscraper, the
Dynamic Tower, and it happens to
be one of the most ambitious
construction plans since the
Pyramid of Khufu. Every floor of
the 80-story self-powered
building rotates according to

voice command, and nearly the Fig.3.18: David Fisher, Architect Dynamic Architecture

entire structure of the $700

million building is pre-fabbed.

Fisher was inspired to design the Dynamic Tower during a visit to a friend's top-floor
Midtown Manhattan apartment. "I had a view of the Hudson River and East River at
the same time, it was beautiful and I wanted to make that feeling accessible to more

The Dynamic Tower, is a revolutionary project based on Dynamic Architecture, a

new concept introduced by Florentine architect David Fisher. The project has
generated considerable interest all over the world even before its launch, as a trend-
setting architecture.

The new building will be the first skyscraper produced with industrial systems
process: in fact, 90 per cent of the building will be constructed as modules in an
industrial plant and then assembled on the central core, the only part that will be built
on-site using traditional techniques.
Fig 3.19 Schematic Diagram of Construction of Dynamic Tower.

Fig 3.20 Schematic Diagram Showing how the individual units are fixed on the core.
Fig 3.21 Plan of a floor.

Fig 3.22 Schematic Diagram Showing the hidden turbines in between the two floors which will generate
Each floor of the tower will consist of 12 modules that will arrive at the job site
completely finished and with electrical, plumbing as well as air-conditioning systems
ready for use. The modules will then be mechanically assembled at the rate of one
floor every seven days.

90 per cent of the building will be constructed as modules in an industrial plant. This
provides a series of important advantages: first of all, the application of industrial
quality control techniques to the finished product, the possibility of customizing
individual apartments, reduced production times and costs and, last but not least,
reducing the risks of accidents and injuries on the job site.

In fact, production and installation will require only 90 technicians and workers on the
site, as against over 2,000 for a comparable traditional building.

Endless shapes
Another innovation that distinguishes the tower of endless shapes is its dynamic use
of space, which not only adapts to its surroundings but also to the tenants needs
and caprices. Thanks to a mechanism that allows each floor to rotate autonomously
by virtue of voice activated technology, it will be possible to select the view from the
window at any moment, deciding how to use the daylight or to let it rotate slowly as
viewers enjoy the surroundings.

A 6-star hotel
Built in association with local entrepreneurs, the 68 floor-tower will comprise a 6-
star hotel, offices and apartments of various sizes besides five villas on the top floor.

Each of the villas will have designated parking on the same floor with vehicles brought
up and down in special elevators. The roof of the Penthouse villa will also have a
swimming pool, a garden and an Arabian Majlis.
Fig 3.23 View outisde from the gym cum bathroom.

For a quick return home, the tower will have a retractable heliport, a platform that will
extend from the shell of the building at the 64th floor at the moment of landing, thus
maintaining the ergonomics of the tower. World leading construction companies have
been contracted to work on this project believed to be the future of architecture.
Sales for the skyscraper, the construction of which will involve a total investment of
$350 million (Sh2.52 trillion), will be handled by Go wealthy, leading real estate
company in Dubai.

The apartments, which will take between one and three hours to make a complete
rotation, will cost from $3.7m (Sh266.4 million) to $36m (Sh2.6 billion). Dynamic
Tower is expected to be operational by 2010.
3.1 c Case Study III


(Russel house)
This building shows very clearly that there are many more opportunities for the
Kinetic Architecture as the large number of rotating buildings. The building is located
in England. This is the feature of minimalism, simply by using only the archetype as a
movable shell. This is very simple decision, but calls forth new dimensions in terms of
ambiance and habitat. Looking at the pictures, you can sense this feeling only new,
but it also raises some questions: How does the variety of spatial configurations on
the daily life of residents? A very clear example of the ability to cover over the
swimming pool is to drive to get privacy. And how are these changes made in quite
some time? Also technical aspects have to be redefined, because the protective
shell provides thermal insulation and the glass house in winter, the building cool in
summer enjoyable. The aspects of ecology and sustainability have become included
as solar panels to cover not only the required kinetic energy, but reduce the heating
costs. These new opportunities for me are much more than just a confirmation that
kinetic architecture offers much potential. It requires more than just an inspection; it
requires a closer look, one study, a research and ultimately implementation.

Especially in this building you can see the process of an exemplary kinetic
architecture significantly. It starts with the fact that certain problems occur. Due to
the strict requirements of the urban authorities, it is only allowed to plan the house in
the typical regional style farmhouse. Normally, the narrowing of opportunities for
many architects are lacklustre designs. But of this could be the builder and
architect, not deterred, they countered with a movable shell. The idea is ingenious
because it meets the requirements of the urban authorities and also extends the
range of design possibilities. To translate this idea into reality had some hurdles to
be overcome. The simple problems are solved with alternatives. For example, it is
not possible to schedule a chimney or to mount a TV antenna on the roof. Solution:
Wired. The great problems but requires good planning. The escape routes are one
example. The architect solves this security issue, in that each state of the house is
always a door towards the outer edges remain free. It will also guarantee the
tightness of the building on flexible membranes. If all this is manageable, there is still
a factor that plays a major role in the budget. About The Times the owner learned
that the cost compared to conventionally built homes, only 30% even more. For a
pioneer of this building form, this is remarkable.

Fig 3.24 Plans showing the movement pattern of the room that slides in and out

Fig 3.25 The external images

Fig 3.26 The model showing how the part of a house slides in and out.

Fig 3.27 Elevations

This structure is 16 metres long and 7.5 metres high. Half of that terrace is an
extension of the concrete floor slab on which the house is built and half is just
landscaping i.e. no foundations needed).
3.1 d Case Study IV


Architect: Gary Chang

Architect Gary Changs apartment is located in downtown Hong Kong, and represents a
remarkable example of interior refurbishment. With only 32 sqm, Chang studied the different
distribution possibilities to optimize his space.

Fig 3.28 Gary Chang apartment in Hongkong

It looks like open space, but behind movable walls, this tiny apartment holds surprises.

After years of studying his apartment, Chang has finally achieved through moving walls
and different systems, a 32 sqm apartment with 24 different designs.

In Mr. Changs solution, a kind of human-size briefcase, everything can be folded

away so that the space feels expansive, like a yoga studio.

The wall units, which are suspended from steel tracks bolted into the ceiling, seem to
float an inch above the reflective black granite floor.
One can imagine three, possibly four people living here, using Mr. Changs double
bed and the guest bed that hovers over the bathtub though six or seven, the
number of residents when Mr. Chang was growing up, would be another matter.
Fig 3.29 The different form of plan.
Acoustic privacy is limited. When Mr. Chang is entertaining, anyone who wants to use
the phone must do so in the shower (also known as the phone booth).

Fig 3.30 The sliding of walls changes the form of the space inside.

Using shifting wall units suspended from steel tracks bolted into the ceiling, the apartment
becomes all manner of spaces kitchen, library, laundry room, dressing room, a lounge with
a hammock, an enclosed dining area and a wet bar.

Fig 3.31 The sliding of walls changes the form of the space inside

The walls in the apartment's main room, awash in yellow because of tinted windows, are
pushed against the wall to the left to create an open space, with CDs to the left and the
desk to the right. Beyond the CD wall is a washer-dryer nook and a wall for the TV. A panel
hides the nook, and the TV wall moves to reveal the kitchen.
Fig 3.32 The sliding of walls changes the form of the space inside.

Behind one movable wall of shelving is an extra-large Duravit bathtub. A glass shower stall
doubles as a steam room with colour therapy and massage and a Toto toilet has a heated
seat and remote control bidet. Sound emanates from a six-speaker home entertainment
system. Mr. Chang uses a hydraulic Murphy bed of his own design, hidden behind a sofa
during the day.
Chapter 4


4.1 The Fourth Dimension: Time
The greatest innovation, which characterizes David Fishers tower of endless shapes
is the introduction of the fourth dimension, Time, as an essential part of the building
This concept brings first of all a dynamic use of space: not only does
the Rotating Tower adjust to its surroundings; it can also comply with its tenants
needs and whims.
Thanks to a voice-activated mechanism, each floor can rotate autonomously, allowing
tenants to select their favourite view at any moment, following the sun or letting the
apartment rotate slowly to enjoy the view. This means that the Tower's external
shape and profile change constantly, projecting a new perception of architecture:
what was motionless has become dynamic.
What drove David Fisher towards Dynamic Architecture is the determination to
develop new space solutions, and at the same time better living conditions. In
simple words, it is easy to see that not much has happened since the Egyptians built
the Pyramids: Architecture is still based on the laws of static.
David Fisher describe his buildings as "designed by time, shaped by life"
According to Dr. Fishers new concept of Architecture, buildings should be able to
move following the sun or the wind, and adjust to their tenants life and mood. The
motionless state of todays houses does not reflect peoples actual lives, where
everything is constantly changing and moving very fast

Dynamic Architecture is not related only to style and design, it involves a completely
new approach to construction: Buildings are endowed with movement and are able
to change their shape over time.

For all these reasons, David Fisher thinks and designs his buildings with four
dimensions, not only height, width and depth, but also Time.
4.2 Adaptive Structures: Building for Performance and Sustainability

The technology to support adaptive building systems is both available and

dependable. Adaptive faades are poised to capitalize on technology transfer from
other disciplines, which can allow the building industry to mass produce sustainable
building parts and bring down the cost of these systems to attractive levels.

For most architects and engineers, the idea of optimizing a buildings design in
relation to its location is so ingrained as to be a reflex. Still, most building
professionals have a difficult time making the conceptual and practical leap to the
notion of performance-based or adaptive buildings. We call these adaptive
buildings because they can adapt their shape and function in real time to
environmental changes. This field remains far less developed than other areas of
practice, but the logic of adaptive performance which is time-based, responsive,
and dynamic is compelling. Buildings that continuously attune their configurations
in accordance with changing environmental conditions use less energy, offer more
occupant comfort, and feature better overall space efficiency than static buildings.

The good news is that building operators, owners, and developers are increasingly
concerned with reducing energy use and carbon emissions in order to achieve LEED
(Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) certification or simply to increase
bottom-line performance. In our experience as engineers and architects, we have
seen that city planners are attempting to decrease carbon footprints at the urban
scale by organizing and mandating environmentally efficient building standards.

Developers and elected officials alike are looking beyond attaining low energy use to
net-zero energy and carbon-neutral strategies.

The desire to increase energy efficiency is not limited to the developed world. As
the population of countries in some of the warmest parts of the globe continues to
grow and as more sophisticated approaches to buildings are required to moderate
those climates, the demand for more efficient and adaptive systems increases. Rising
energy demands for Western-style, energy-intensive infrastructures on the part of
developing countries may well be one of the defining problems of our century.
Solutions are needed to curtail demands on the already strained infrastructures of
the Middle East, India, China, and Southeast Asia.

And as climate change is undeniable, the time is ripe for a new breed of energy-
saving products. Adaptive faades are one way to solve these complex problems. It
is not only the environmental argument for sustainability that is driving their
application to large-scale structures. Changes in the building and construction
industries are making such systems less theoretical and more viable than they had
been in the past.

Through experience and temperament, however, we share the conviction that in the
face of global climate change, the way buildings are designed and made must also
change. We believe that performance-based strategies offer a critical contribution to
the broad goal of reversing environmental damage

Given the fact that sustainable strategies such as energy-efficient and passive
systems have been readily adopted by the building industry, adaptive strategies
provide a third alternative. Even with newer passive and energy-efficient systems,
most buildings do not use natural resources effectively, whereas adaptive buildings
can change their form, building surfaces, and interior spaces in response to
intelligent controls that monitor dynamic feedback from the environment. Solar and
wind energy, daylight, water, and weather can be harnessed by buildings and reused
efficiently provided they are modulated by technological inputs.

For this reason, adaptive systems combine the best of existing strategies: low
energy use and control over building environments. For instance, a buildings energy
requirements can be considerably lowered if its design can adapt to diurnal
fluctuations in temperature. An adaptive system that is modulated to control the
volume and direction of heat flow in response to external and internal conditions can
enhance comfort and energy performance.

The development of adaptive forms and faades is both a technical, sustainable

solution and an end product. It is true, however, that the creation and implementation
of adaptive building strategies are not simple matters. Performance-based solutions
require that we devise new methods to design and make buildings and that we place
greater emphasis on multidisciplinary cooperation. Such solutions require that we
take a series of incremental steps as an industry to create buildings that are more
energy efficient, active, and optimized. And we need to take steps to develop these
products quickly, as energy and carbon use are decreasing our potential to restore
the environment.

Tzonis, A. 1999, Santiago Calatrava: the poetics of movement, Thames and Hudson,
Dynamic Tower, (2008) retrieved on 6th Sept, 2009 from Dynamic Architecture by
David Fischer Web Site http://www.dynamicarchitecture.net/home.html
Chapter 5

5.1 Conclusion and Analysis

Sustainable architecture, the present trend of architecture, is moving ahead with

thorough research and experimentation with the idea that sustainable architecture
means it must satisfy the needs of present users and yet it should enhance the
prospects for future generations. Kinetic Architecture with technical aid and dire
need for green architecture, though little energy consuming in executing it in initial
scenario might prove sustainable and energy efficient. It might help creating a
sustainable habitat.

The past decades has seen the revolution in our understanding of nature and
materials. Genetic engineering and perhaps, soon nanotechnology, will give us the
ability to make the materials we want rather than accept the constraints of traditional
science. Majorly there have been following factors due to which these change in
revolution of understanding architecture has been brought to, and these are:


Our ability to use what is around us or to find ways of adapting it to best fit
our needs.


Our ability to come together to gather as a workforce and our ability to define
our own needs in the age of modern architecture where things are designed
to be small, but smart. And of course our ability to communicate ideas.


Our reason of needing a building from a safe shelter to a symbol of power,

uniqueness or something of beauty or something of new or something of
These factors have been influencing our past. It has been dictating the way
architecture has come out to fulfil the needs and reach the shape it carries today.
The architecture can go to new level keeping these determinants in mind. The change
has occurred in everything. Architecture has changed too but only in type of
materials, functionality and beauty. But with the domain of architecture being
transformed by developments in interaction research, wearable computing, mobile
connectivity and contextual awareness, these technologies has changed our concept
of spaces and the way we relate ourselves to the spaces we built. It has proved that
it can no longer be there with buildings being not mobile and staying only static. It
has started to be dynamic, responsive and interactive. The architects dealing in such
technologies have now changed our way of understanding architecture and time. The
technology is in architecture to change it, and perhaps to change it for better.

The architecture here which we are dealing is about a genre when we induce a fourth
dimension i.e. time in the space, it offers users the idea of a speculation that
architecture here actually challenges the flexibility and the adaptability of the spaces.
It allows a speculation that architecture actually interacts with its environment and its

For many years, there has been constant understanding among us that interaction
with architecture was something of real significance. It was interactive but only with
the feelings, perceptions which a dweller gets through the certain character of
design in static architecture around him. It was never the architecture interacting with
mans feelings and mood.

The emphasis and the experimentation which is a revolution today to relate every new
thing in architecture to sustainability has prompted many new innovations. Kinetic
architecture has neither been revolution nor an architectural movement but it
certainly provokes a thought that if architecture could not only be based on Recycle,
Reduce, and Reuse but also Re-locate as per the user-architecture interaction, then
is there a chance whereby we may achieve a sustainable habitat? The question could
no longer be far from being answered. Today there are more projects coming out
around the world where a building not just is sustainable but also changes its shape,
beauty, orientation, and form even to an extent where it actually dictates the exact
function of the space as per the users choice and mood. Architecture then would
stand a chance to witness a major revolution which not just serves the purpose,
which just not only is spectacular with its flexibility to break the monologue of user-
space interaction but also is sustainable. The future is not far. We may soon live in a
movable city, the one that actually is in constant motion not just the activities but
also the mass itself.

The attempts of making kinetic/dynamic architecture as future as it allows time, and

space relate interactively are visibly experimented with few projects like Dynamic
Tower in Dubai. It can produce energy of its own to channel the rotation of the every
floor, thus, proving to be sustainable. If there are so many such projects which could
just shrink its spaces and become kinetic, yet functional and sustainable, there might
be a possible future of kinetic architecture dominating the trend of architecture.
Everything would be mobile and highly interactive.

There are no such examples of project in India though, but there has been a proposal
in Mumbai lately to build Mumbai Tower which would rotate and has 74 storeys, but
whether the tower would be sustainable or not, it is unknown. The idea to mention
this example is that India too is moving towards such architecture. Given the quick
and exponential growth of population of cities like Mumbai and Delhi, and the fact that
these cities are far short at balancing the shelter demand of the city dwellers, kinetic
architecture which innovatively involves in designing structures which uses less
surface area but can be used as multifunctional through its nature of allowing flexible
change in form and shape, and the fact that it can well put into easy and active
interaction, India could actually have a chance in making it more applicable and
sustainable. If the virtue of its rotation actually generates energies to be used in
make it serves the building apart from amount of energy saved through smart building
materials, then the amount spent in actually building a building could prove to be less
than an amount it is achieving. India is not far. The future of architecture could well be
Articles and PDFs

1. The 14th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering

October 12-17, 2008, Beijing, China

Kinetic Structures in Architecture

M.C. Phocas 1 and T. Sophocleous-Lemonari

2. Origamics in architecture: a medium of inquiry for design in architecture,

Arzu Gonencc and Semra Arslan.

3.Intelligent kinetic systems

Michael A Fox, Interactive architecture.

4.1Analysis of Design Support for Kinetic Structures, Angeliki Fotiadou

5. Milwaukee Art, Museum,ARCH 631: Structural Systems,Prof. Anne


1. The work of Frei Otto by Ludwig Glaeser

Published by The Museum of Modern art, New York.

2. Dynamic architecture: time as a fourth dimension

Dissertation by Monish Kumar

3. Seminar on Kinetic Structures

By Chaturvedi A

4. Concepts and Responses

IGNCA, pvt ltd, ahmedabad,1992

5. Santiago calatrava

The complete work, expanded edition

Alexander Tronis

6. Yeh, B. 1996, Kinetic Wall, Thesis M.S., Massachusetts

Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA.

7. Zuk, W. and Clark,Roger, 1970, Kinetic Architecture.

Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York.

8. Zuk, W. 1995, New Technologies: New Architecture.

Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York.

9. Fox Micheal, 2004 Beyond Kinetics, Kinetic Design Group

Massachustts Institute of Technolgy.

10. Angeliki Fotiadou, Analysis of Design Support for Kinetic Structures,

A master's thesis submitted for the degree of Master of Science.

11. FOX, M., YEH, P. 2004 Intelligent kinetic system, iksov.pdf retrieved
August 2008, Web Site http://kdg.mit.edu/Pdf/

12. Randl Chad,2007, Revolving Architecture :

A history of buildings that rotate, swivel, and pivot, Princeton

Architectural Press

13. OTTO, F., RASCH B. 1995 Finding Form, Towards an Architecture of


Minimal, Deutscher Werkbund, Bayern.

14. Tzonis, A. 1999, Santiago Calatrava: the poetics of movement, Thames

and Hudson, London.