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AN ABSTRACT OF A THESIS

THEORY AND APPLICATION OF TIME REVERSAL TECHNIQUE


TO ULTRA WIDEBAND WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS

Abiodun E. Akogun

Master of Science in Electrical Engineering

Inter symbol interference (ISI) is a major obstacle for achieving low bit error rates
in wireless communications. Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) and
equalization techniques such as zero forcing (ZF) and minimum mean square error
(MMSE) have been employed in combating ISI in typical wireless channels. In this
research, a technique called time reversal was investigated as a possible means for
achieving higher data rate for a given bit error rate (BER) in ultra wideband (UWB)
communications.

In this thesis work, time-reversal (TiR) technique was studied in detail and its
application to UWB was fully evaluated. Different metrics for characterizing the space-
time focusing properties of time reversal in UWB were proposed and evaluated. The
technique employed used a time-domain sounding of the UWB channel to extract the
channel impulse response (CIR). UWB channels are measured by sounding the channel
with a sub-nanosecond pulse. CLEAN algorithm was then used to extract the CIR from
the received waveform. From the observed channel impulse response, the leverages and
applications of TiR in UWB were then demonstrated.

In TiR, a signal is pre-filtered in such a way that it focuses in space and time at a
particular receiver. This can be achieved by using a time-reversed complex conjugate of
the CIR at the receiver as a transmitter pre-filter. This results in space-time focusing in
TiR. Spatial focusing reduces co-channel interference in a multi-user system. Due to
temporal focusing, the effective delay spread of the UWB channel is dramatically
reduced and thus the complexity of the receiver is reduced.

Using defined metrics for characterizing the amount of temporal focusing in


UWB, it was observed that TiR works finer in a non-line-of-sight (NLOS) environment
as compared with line of sight (LOS). In order to illustrate the principle of secured
communications in UWB using TiR, the spatial focusing gain was studied and at a
distance of approximately 6m from an intended receiver, this gain was at least 10dB.
Also, to illustrate the advantage of TiR in UWB, the energy loss as a result of spatial
focusing was studied against the energy loss without TiR and this gave relative
information on the energy gain observed using TiR in UWB environments. Lastly, TiR
was combined with equalization techniques as a means of compensation for the residual
ISI in UWB channels after applying TiR, and a relative improvement was observed.
THEORY AND APPICATION OF TIME REVERSAL TECHNIQUE

TO ULTRA WIDEBAND WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS

A Thesis

Presented to

The Faculty of the Graduate School

Tennessee Technological University

by

Abiodun Emmanuel Akogun

In Partial Fulfillment

Of the Requirements for the Degree

MASTER OF SCIENCE

Electrical Engineering

August 2005
CERTIFICATE OF APPROVAL OF THESIS

THEORY AND APPLICATION OF TIME REVERSAL TECHNIQUE

TO ULTRA WIDEBAND WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS

by

Abiodun Emmanuel Akogun

Graduate Advisory Committee:

R. C. Qiu, Chairperson date

P. K. Rajan date

X. B. He date

N. Ghani date

Approved for the Faculty:

Francis Otuonye
Associate Vice President for Research
and Graduate Studies

Date

ii
STATEMENT OF PERMISSION TO USE

In presenting this thesis in partial fulfillment of the requirements for a Master of

Science degree at Tennessee Technological University, I agree that the University

Library shall make it available to borrowers under rules of the Library. Brief quotations

from this thesis are allowable without special permission, provided that accurate

acknowledgement of the source is made.

Permission for extensive quotation from or reproduction of this thesis may be

granted by my major professor when the proposed use of the material is for scholarly

purposes. Any copying or use of the material in this thesis for financial gain shall not be

allowed without my written permission.

Signature

Date

iii
DEDICATION

This thesis is dedicated to my dad (Johnson) and my mum (Olufunmilayo)

iv
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

I would like to express my sincere appreciation to my advisor, the chairperson of

my committee, Dr. R.C. Qiu, for his excellent guidance and patience throughout my

thesis work. He has been a great mentor, an excellent teacher, and a very senior colleague

and has made a very immense contribution towards the accomplishment of this task. I

would also like to thank Dr. P. K. Rajan, Dr. N. Ghani, and Dr. X. B. He for serving as

my committee members, reviewing my thesis work, and for patiently answering

questions and concerns as regards this work. Also, a very special thanks goes to Dr. Nan

Guo for all the long technical discussions and contributions he has made during the

course of this work. I will also like to thank Mr. J. Zhang of the Wireless Networking

Systems Laboratory for his help with the simulation work in this thesis. I also need to

thank Mr. C. Zhou of the Wireless Networking Systems Laboratory for his contributions

in some measurement work. All members of the Wireless Networking Systems

Laboratory have been very helpful in my accomplishment of this task and I would like to

express my special appreciation to every member of the group.

Again, I would like to thank all my friends, colleagues, and my family members

who have always been a source of encouragement throughout my life. Last but very

important I would like to thank the Graduate School for financial support provided during

my program of study. I would also like to thank the Center for Manufacturing Research

for summer financial support during my program of study. Finally, I would like to

express my profound gratitude to the almighty God who has constantly given me life and

has kept me through up to this moment in life.

v
TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page

LIST OF FIGURES . viii


LIST OF TABLES.............................................................................................................. x
CHAPTER
1. INTRODUCTION .......................................................................................................... 1
1.1 Motivation and Scope of Research ..................................................................... 1
1.2 Literature Survey of Time Reversal Technique................................................ 3
1.3 Research Approach ............................................................................................. 5
1.4 Organization of the Thesis .................................................................................. 6

2. ULTRA WIDEBAND COMMUNICATION (UWB).................................................... 8


2.1 A Brief History of UWB Technology................................................................. 8
2.2 Definition ............................................................................................................ 9
2.3 UWB Signal Sources ........................................................................................ 10
2.4 UWB Modulation Techniques .......................................................................... 13
2.4.1 Pulse Position Modulation (PPM) ............................................................ 14
2.4.2 Pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM)........................................................ 15
2.4.3 On-Off Keying (OOK).............................................................................. 15
2.4.4 Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK) .......................................................... 17
2.5 UWB Demodulation/Detection......................................................................... 17
2.6 UWB Multiple Access Techniques................................................................... 20
2.6.1 Direct Sequence, DS-UWB ...................................................................... 21
2.6.2 UWB DS-CDMA Basic Signal Model ..................................................... 21
2.6.3 Time Hopping UWB................................................................................. 22
2.6.3.1 Basic signal model for TH-WB.23
2.7 Applications ...................................................................................................... 24
2.7.1 Through-wall Penetration ......................................................................... 24
2.7.2 UWB Radar............................................................................................... 25
2.7.3 Precision Location .................................................................................... 25
2.7.4 Sensor Networks (IEEE 802.15.4a) .......................................................... 25
2.8 Summary ........................................................................................................... 26

3. UWB CHANNEL MODELING AND CHARACTERIZATION................................ 27


3.1 Linear Filter-Based Small Scale Channel Modeling ........................................ 27
3.2 UWB Deterministic Channel Modeling............................................................ 30
3.3 UWB Channel Measurement and Modeling..................................................... 32
3.3.1. UWB Channel Measurement and Modeling Background ........................ 32
3.3.2 Measurement Apparatus and Setup .......................................................... 34
3.4 Deconvolution Techniques ............................................................................... 40
3.5 The Clean Algorithm ........................................................................................ 41
3.5.1 Limitations of the CLEAN Algorithm...................................................... 44

vi
CHAPTER Page
3.6 Summary ........................................................................................................... 44

4. TIME-REVERSAL COMMUNICATIONS................................................................. 46
4.1 Introduction....................................................................................................... 46
4.2 An Overview of Time-Reversal in UWB ......................................................... 46
4.3 Time-Reversal Theory ...................................................................................... 47
4.4 Time Reversal and UWB Systems Performance .............................................. 50
4.4.1 Rake Receivers.......................................................................................... 53
4.4.2 ISI Issues in UWB .................................................................................... 54
4.4.3 Equalization Techniques........................................................................... 56
4.4.3.1 Infinite length equalizers56
4.4.3.2 Finite length equalizers..59
4.4.3.2.1 Zero forcing equalizers59
4.4.3.2.2 Minimum mean square error (MMSE) equalizer60
4.4.4 TiR System Structure................................................................................ 62
4.5 Summary ........................................................................................................... 63

5. SIMULATION RESULTS ........................................................................................... 65


5.1 Monte Carlo Simulation.................................................................................... 65
5.2 BER Simulation Results ................................................................................... 68
5.2.1 CM3 Simulation Results ........................................................................... 69
5.2.2 CM4 Simulation Results ........................................................................... 69
5.2.3 Foundry Simulation Result ....................................................................... 71
5.2.4 BER Results for Clement Hall 400 Hallway ............................................ 72
5.3 Results Illustrating Temporal Compression...................................................... 74
5.4 Results For Spatial Focusing Gain.................................................................... 81
5.5 Results for Time Reversal Loss Versus Distance ............................................. 83
5.6 Summary ........................................................................................................... 85

6. CONCLUSIONS AND FUTURE WORK ................................................................... 87


6.1 Conclusions....................................................................................................... 87
6.2 Recommendations for Future Work.................................................................. 88

APPENDICES
A: IEEE CHANNEL MODEL P802.15.3A..99
A. 1 Multipath Channel Model ...100
A. 2 Channel characteristics desired to model101
B: MATLAB CODE LIST .105
B. 1 List of Signal Processing/Simulation files..106

VITA ........................................................................................................................... 107

vii
LIST OF FIGURES

Page

Figure 2.1 Comparison of UWB with traditional wireless technologies ................... 11


Figure 2.2 Spectral Mask for Indoor Applications..................................................... 11
Figure 2.3 Spectral Mask for outdoor Applications ................................................... 12
Figure 2.4 UWB Pulses .............................................................................................. 13
Figure 2.5 Spectrum of UWB pulses.......................................................................... 14
Figure 2.6 UWB Modulation schemes (a) OOK, (b) PAM, (c) PPM ........................ 16
Figure 2.7 BER Plot for UWB modulation schemes [19].......................................... 19
Figure 3.1 Classical ground bounce two-ray model................................................... 33
Figure 3.3 Pulser output with a differentiator ............................................................ 35
Figure 3.4 Time Domain UWB Channel Sounding ................................................... 36
Figure 3.5 UWB channel measurement setup ............................................................ 37
Figure 3.6 Received waveforms at distances 4m (LOS), 7m (NLOS), and 10m
(NLOS) from the transmitter .................................................................... 38
Figure 3.7 Received waveforms for LOS cases ......................................................... 39
Figure 3.8 Received waveform showing two back-to-back multipath profiles ......... 39
Figure 3.9 Clement Hall 400 Hallway........................................................................ 40
Figure 4.1 TiR experiment ......................................................................................... 48
Figure 4.2 Temporal compression illustrated using measured data ........................... 51
Figure 4.3 Temporal compression illustrated using IEEE 803.15.3a CM3 channel .. 51
Figure 4.4 Demonstrating spatial focusing in TiR ..................................................... 52
Figure 4.5 Rake receiver structure ............................................................................. 54
Figure 4.6 UWB Channel with equalizer ................................................................... 57
Figure 4.7 Discrete UWB channel with equalizer...................................................... 60
Figure 4.8 UWB systems with TiR ........................................................................... 63
Figure 5.1 Simulation setup........................................................................................ 67
Figure 5.2 TiR BER simulation result using CM3..................................................... 70
Figure 5.3 TiR BER simulation using CM4............................................................... 71
Figure 5.4 Foundry BER simulation results............................................................... 73
Figure 5.5 CMR Foundry ........................................................................................... 73
Figure 5.6 BER simulation result for Clement Hall 400 Hallway ............................ 74
Figure 5.7 Temporal compression in CM1 channel ................................................... 76
Figure 5.8 Temporal compression in CM3 channel ................................................... 77
Figure 5.9 Temporal compression in CM4 channel ................................................... 77
Figure 5.11 Temporal compression in CMR Foundry LOS........................................ 78
Figure 5.13 Clement Hall 400 Hallway LOS results showing temporal compression. 79
Figure 5.14 Clement Hall 400 Hallway NLOS showing temporal compression ........ 80
Figure 5.15 WNS lab result LOS results showing temporal compression................... 80
Figure 5.16 WNS laboratory NLOS result results showing temporal compression .... 81
Figure 5.17 Demonstrating spatial focusing gain in Clement Hall 400 Hallway......... 82
Figure 5.18 Demonstrating spatial focusing gain in CMR foundry ............................. 83
Figure 5.19 Foundry energy loss (TiR versus No TiR)................................................ 84

viii
Page

Figure 5.20 Hallway energy loss (TiR versus No TiR)................................................ 84


Figure A.1 CM 1: LOS (0-4m).................................................................................. 103
Figure A.2 CM 2: NLOS (0-4m)............................................................................... 103
Figure A.3 CM 3: NLOS (4-10m)............................................................................. 104
Figure A.4 CM 4 : Extreme NLOS ........................................................................... 104

ix
LIST OF TABLES

Page

Table 5.1 Temporal peak to channel energy ratio..................................................... 75


Table A.1 Channel model components and parameters........................................... 101
Table A.2 Typical Channel Characteristics and Model parameters ........................ 102

x
CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Motivation and Scope of Research

Ultra-wideband (UWB) has become a suitable candidate for high data rate, short-

range wireless communications [1]. According to Shannons law, the potential data rate

on a given radio frequency (RF) link is proportional to the channel bandwidth and the

logarithm of the signal-to-noise ratio. Existing narrowband and spread spectrum

technologies are regulated to operate in the unlicensed frequency bands that are provided

at 900MHz, 2.4GHz, and 5.1GHz occupying only a narrow band of frequencies relative

to that allowed for UWB. UWB is a usage of recently legalized spectrum with a

bandwidth of more than 7GHz wide and hence a higher data rate compared to

narrowband and spread spectrum systems. In 2002, the United States Federal

Communication Commission (FCC) allocated the 3.1 GHz to 10.6GHz spectrum for

UWB devices and after this, there has been sparkled interest in UWB research activities

in both academia and the industry.

To allow for such large operation bandwidth, the FCC has put in place strict

power limitations on UWB radios. With strict power limitations, it is therefore possible to

implement cost effective CMOS implementations of UWB radios. UWB radios therefore

have several advantages, which include low power consumption, low cost, and very high

data rate within a short range. Due to the large operation bandwidth, the resolution in

time domain is small for UWB radios. UWB involves transmitting ultra-short pulses. The

1
advantage of using short pulses is fine timing resolution thus more multipath channels

can be resolved [2]. The channel distorts these pulses so that per-path distortion is

encountered in UWB systems. References [3] and [4] address the designing of a reception

scheme as a key issue for UWB systems.

Despite the potential advantages of UWB, several drawbacks have been noted as

regards the application of UWB radios. Inter symbol interference (ISI) is a key

impediment for reliable high data rate transmission in wireless channels. Orthogonal

frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) and equalization techniques have been

employed in wireless systems as a means of compensation for ISI. OFDM uses a large

number of sub-bands chosen in such a way that each sub-band exhibits flat fading and

thus OFDM has the key property of mitigating ISI. Equalization is also an effective

means of combating ISI in frequency selective channels. The device, which equalizes the

dispersive effect of a channel with memory, is called an equalizer [5]. An approach called

time reversal (TiR) has been successfully applied to underwater acoustic channels and

narrowband channels as another means of combating ISI in such frequency dispersive

channels. When TiR is applied to a dispersive channel, a reduction is observed in the

effective channel length. With a reduction in the effective channel length, the effect of ISI

in the channel is reduced. This shows that TiR is an effective technique in reducing ISI in

frequency dispersive channels.

The objective of this project is to study critically the theory behind TiR and to

demonstrate several applications of TiR in a UWB channel using both statistical and

experimental data collected from different UWB environments. TiR has only recently

been applied to UWB [1, 6]. Two key applications that come with this technique are

2
spatial focusing and temporal compression. These two key applications are addressed in

details and metrics to characterize these two applications are defined in relation to UWB.

Spatial focusing is a concept that addresses security concerns in UWB channels. Due to a

focus of power at the intended UWB receiver, the probability of a nearby receiver

decoding the information on an intended receiver is greatly reduced. In TiR channels, the

effective channel impulse response is compressed with a temporal focus of the channel

energy being visible around the center of the compressed channel impulse response.

Metrics to characterize this temporal compression in UWB channels are defined in this

thesis work. Also, the use of TiR technique to compensate for ISI and thus improve UWB

receiver performance is addressed is this research work.

1.2 Literature Survey of Time Reversal Technique

The concept of time reversal is not new in the world of telecommunications.

References [1, 6] show the first application of TiR to UWB. In [1], the concept is

combined with a minimum mean square error (MMSE) equalizer to improve receiver

performance in UWB. The channel data used are collected using a frequency domain

channel sounding technique and the number of taps of the TiR channel is varied to study

receiver performance in UWB. In [6], the space-time focusing properties of TiR in UWB

are demonstrated also using a frequency domain channel sounder with measurement

results from Intel Corporation. In [7], the concept is applied to electromagnetic waves

and the concept of spatial focusing and temporal compression is demonstrated using a 1

s electromagnetic pulse at a central frequency of 2.45GHz. This is the first experimental

3
demonstration of TiR space-time focusing with electromagnetic waves. The spatial and

temporal focusing that comes with this technique has been demonstrated in ultra-sound

by Fink [8, 9].

In underwater acoustics, [10-13] details the application of the technique and the

issues of spatial and temporal compression are also addressed. Reference [14]

demonstrates the first application of TiR to wireless radio and proposes to convert an

available broadband multiple input multiple output (MIMO) channel sounder into a

device that can demonstrate the concept of TiR. In [15], the concept of multiple input

single output (MISO) is applied in conjunction with TiR as a possible means to reduce

the delay spread in a fixed wireless access channel and a delay spread reduction of a

factor of three was observed. In [16] the concept is applied to time reversed random fields

and the space-time focusing issues are addressed in relation to this field. Reference [17]

demonstrates the space-time focusing properties in TiR using a time domain channel

sounding technique and at a distance of 6m from the intended receiver, the spatial

focusing gain observed is at least 10dB. In [18], the basic principles of applying TiR to

underwater acoustic field are explained in details. Reference [19] applies the concept of

time reversal with a transmitted reference system and the new receiver structure called

time reversal and transmitted reference (TiR-TR) shows a relative improvement of about

9dB performance gain at a data rate of 19Mbps for a BER of 10 3 . In [20], the concept of

TiR is applied with MISO in an underwater acoustic channel and a zero forcing pre-

equalization is also applied in the channel to demonstrate the space-time focusing

features of TiR. Reference [20] shows that pre-equalization does not alter significantly

the spatial focusing properties of time reversal.

4
MIMO is a way of exploiting the rich scattering properties in frequency dispersive

narrowband channels. In [21], using outdoor measurements that mimic a typical 3G

WCDMA system, the feasibility of applying TiR with MIMO in single user wireless

systems is studied showing TiR-MIMO as a promising technique for wireless channels. It

also studied the feasibility of applying TiR with multi user MISO systems.

1.3 Research Approach

The methods employed in literature to demonstrate the application of TiR have all

employed a frequency domain channel sounder approach. With this approach, the real

time behavior of UWB channels cannot be observed. From the mathematical knowledge

of Fourier transforms, it is possible to transform a frequency domain signal into its

corresponding time domain equivalent. This shows that a time domain approach is also

possible to demonstrate the concept of TiR in UWB since a frequency domain approach

has already been used.

The received waveform in wireless channels is a convolution of the channel

impulse response with the transmitted waveform. In order to extract the channel impulse

response from the received waveform, deconvolution techniques are employed. UWB

channel data are collected for different UWB environments. From the collected data, a

signal processing algorithm, the CLEAN algorithm, is used to extract the channel impulse

response. The CLEAN algorithm is a deconvolution technique to extract the observed

channel impulse response from the received waveform. From the observed channel

impulse response, the space-time focusing properties of TiR in UWB are demonstrated

5
using defined metrics. Also, using IEEE channel models for 802.13.4a and 802.13.3a, the

concept of TiR is also illustrated. The use of TiR to compensate for ISI is also

demonstrated using IEEE 802.15.3a channel models and results from the collected data

for typical UWB environments. Bit error rate (BER) is used as the performance metric. It

is observed that with the use of TiR, ISI is greatly reduced and the equalization task in the

effective TiR channel is also greatly reduced. Equalization if needed for a TiR channel

has the complexity of the equalizer being tremendously reduced.

1.4 Organization of the Thesis

Chapter 2 details the concept behind UWB communication; a brief history of

UWB, UWB signal sources and the associated spectrum, UWB modulation

techniques, and the applications of UWB are discussed.

Chapter 3 presents the concept involved in time-domain sounding of UWB

channels. The principles involved in the use of the CLEAN algorithm as the signal-

processing algorithm used in this thesis are also addressed in this chapter.

Chapter 4 focuses on the theory and applications of TiR in UWB. This chapter

presents an overview of TiR and the proposed metrics for characterizing TiR in UWB

are discussed here. It also focuses on evaluating the performance of TiR channels in

UWB environments. It gives an overview of receiver types and signal models for

frequency selective channels. It also addresses the use of TiR to improve receiver

performance in UWB.

6
Chapter 5 presents the results on the applications of TiR in UWB channels. It gives

the relative improvement observed using TiR in BER simulation for UWB channels. It

also gives a comparison between the line-of sight (LOS) and non line of sight (NLOS)

UWB TIR channels.

Chapter 6 gives the conclusion from this thesis work. Recommendations for

future work are also presented in this chapter. Appendix A briefly introduces IEEE

802.15.3a and 802.15.4a channels. A Listing of the Matlab code is given in Appendix B.

7
CHAPTER 2

ULTRA WIDEBAND COMMUNICATION (UWB)

Ultra wideband (UWB) technology is well known for its use in ground penetrating

radar. UWB has also been of interest in communications and radar applications requiring

low probability of intercept and detection (LPI/D), high data throughput, precision

ranging and localization, and multipath immunity. In this chapter, the basic concept

behind UWB is presented. After a very brief history of UWB, the shapes and spectra of

UWB pulses are discussed; UWB modulation techniques and applications of UWB are

then discussed.

2.1 A Brief History of UWB Technology

The origin of ultra wideband stems from work in time-domain electromagnetic in

1962 [22]. The idea was to characterize linear, time invariant systems (LTI) using the

impulse response of such systems instead of using the conventional swept frequency

response. The output y (t ) of an LTI system to an input excitation x (t ) can be

determined using the well known convolution integral [23]:


y (t ) = x( )h(t )d

(2.1)

where h (t ) is the impulse response of the system.

However, the impulse response of microwave networks could not be directly

observed and measured until the advent of the sampling oscilloscope by Hewlett Packard

8
in 1962 and the development of techniques for sub-nanosecond (base band) pulse

generation, providing suitable approximations to an impulse excitation. Once these

techniques were applied to the design of wideband, radiating antennae elements (Ross,

1968), it became obvious that they could also be applied to short pulse radar and

communications systems.

Throughout the late 1980s, this technology was alternately called base band,

carrier-free, or impulse. The term ultra-wideband was not applied until 1989 by the U.S

Department of Defense (D.O.D). By that time, UWB had already experienced 30 years in

its development. Although, UWB is old, its application in communications is new.

2.2 Definition

UWB characterizes transmission systems with instantaneous spectral occupancy

in excess of 500MHz or a fractional bandwidth of more than 20%. Fractional bandwidth

( B f ) is defined as

B
Bf= (2.2)
fc

where B = f H f L denotes the 10dB bandwidth and f c= ( f H f L) is the center


2

frequency with f H being the 10dB emission point upper frequency and f L is the

10dB emission point lower frequency.

The huge bandwidth implies that UWB can provide high throughput required to

address the market for wireless personal area networks (WPAN). In order to co-exist with

existing traditional wireless technologies such as spread spectrum and narrowband

9
systems, the United States Federal Communication Commission (FCC) imposes strict

limitations on the power spectral density from UWB systems. Figure 2.1 shows a brief

comparison of UWB with existing wireless technologies in terms of bandwidth and the

emitted power expected from the devices. Figures 2.2 and 2.3 show the spectral density

mask for indoor and outdoor operations. UWB signals may be transmitted between 3.1

GHz and 10.6 GHz at power levels up to 41dBm/MHz. The primary difference between

indoor and outdoor operations is the higher degree of attenuation required for out of band

region for outdoors operation. This further protects GPS receivers, centered at 1.6 GHz.

2.3 UWB Signal Sources

UWB signals can be realized using sub-nanosecond pulses. Narrower pulses in

time domain correspond to an electromagnetic radiation of wide spectrum in frequency

domain. The frequency domain spectral content of a UWB signal depends on the pulse

waveform shape and the pulse width. The most common signals used to drive UWB

antennas include a Gaussian pulse, Gaussian monocycle, Gaussian doublet, Raleigh

monocycle and rectangular waveforms. Rectangular waveforms have large DC

components, which is not a desirable property. A generic Gaussian pulse can be

represented as [24]:

1 1 t 2
p g (t ) = exp (2.3)
2 2

10
Figure 2.1 Comparison of UWB with traditional wireless technologies

Figure 2.2 Spectral Mask for Indoor Applications

11
Figure 2.3 Spectral Mask for outdoor Applications

where

t is the time in seconds

is the parameter that defines the center of the pulse

is the parameter that defines the width of the pulse.

A Raleigh monocycle is obtained by differentiating the Gaussian pulse once [25].

The second derivative of the Gaussian pulse gives a Gaussian monocycle while the

Gaussian doublet consists of two; amplitude reversed Gaussian pulse having a time gap

of T w between the pulses. Figures 2.4 and 2.5 show different UWB pulses and their

associated spectra.

12
2.4 UWB Modulation Techniques

In order to transmit information, it is necessary to modulate the pulse train. For

coherent detection several modulation schemes were initially employed for UWB

communication. The most common modulation schemes found in the literature include

Pulse Position Modulation (PPM), Pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM), On-Off keying

(OOK), and Binary-phase shift keying (BPSK). BPSK has a 3dB performance

improvement over OOK and PPM.

UW B pulses
1

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2
Amplitude

-0.2

-0.4

-0.6 Gaussian monocycle(2nd order differential)


Rayleigh monocycle(1st order differential)
-0.8 Gaussian pulse

-1
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5
Time(ns) -9
x 10

Figure 2.4 UWB Pulses

13
Figure 2.5 Spectrum of UWB pulses

2.4.1 Pulse Position Modulation (PPM)

In PPM, the position of each pulse is varied in relation to the position of a

recurrent reference pulse according to the information data. A digital zero could be coded

by transmitting a pulse some picoseconds earlier than a reference position while a digital

one could be coded by transmitting at the same amount of time later as shown in Figure

2.6. Many positions can be used to increase the number of symbols and hence we can

have an M-ary PPM. PPM has the advantage of requiring constant transmitter power

since the pulses are of constant amplitude and duration. The periodicity of the pulse

repetition period (PRP) makes energy spikes to appear in the spectrum. In order to

14
smoothen the spectrum, pseudorandom sequence of delays could be added to the pulse

train. This is called time hopping. Binary PPM technique is given by


s (t ) = p(t nT f b n ) (2.4)
n =1

where

bn {0,1} data bits

is the time shift

p(t) is the UWB pulse shape

Tf is the frame time.

2.4.2 Pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM)

In PAM, the information data are carried on a train of pulses with the information

being encoded in the amplitude of the pulses. Values are defined by changing the powers

of the pulses. An 8-ary PAM for example uses eight levels of the pulse amplitude to yield

four bits. The classic binary amplitude modulation (PAM) can be represented using for

example two antipodal Gaussian pulses [26] as shown in Figure 2.6.

2.4.3 On-Off Keying (OOK)

In On-Off keying, the presence of a pulse indicates a value of one while the

absence of a pulse indicates a value of zero. The following equation represents OOK

modulated UWB transmitted signal and the waveform is shown in Figure 2.6.

15
Figure 2.6 UWB Modulation schemes (a) OOK, (b) PAM, (c) PPM


s (t ) = b p(t nT
n =
n f ) (2.5)

where

s (t ) is the UWB signal

bn {0,1} data bits

p(t) is the UWB pulse shape

Tf is the frame time.

16
The main advantage of OOK over other modulation schemes is simplicity in its

implementation.

2.4.4 Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK)

In BPSK, a positive pulse is transmitted for a 1 and a negative pulse is

transmitted for a 0 as shown in Figure 2.6. BPSK can be mathematically represented

by


s (t ) = b p(t nT
n =
n f ) (2.6)

where

bn {1,1} data bits.

2.5 UWB Demodulation/Detection

The major criteria to evaluate the efficiency of a particular modulation scheme are

its BER performance, spectral shape, data rate, and transceiver complexity [27]. As seen

previously, modulation transmits the required data information. The main function of a

demodulator is to extract the original data information modulated on the monocycle train

from the distorted waveforms with the highest level of accuracy. A receiver generally

consists of a detection and decision device. The detector in ultra wideband systems is

different from that of existing narrowband systems since ultra wideband operates in a

carrier-less fashion. Typical UWB receiver implementations include autocorrelation

17
receivers and correlation or rake receivers. In the UWB correlator receiver, the first

operation to be carried out is the match filtering of the waveform. In order to do this, the

incoming signal is matched with a waveform template and the result is integrated. This

correlation operation between the received signal and the waveform template has to be

performed for each possible pulse position and the correlation results are then sent to the

base band for further processing.

The UWB correlator (matched) receiver already discussed is an optimum receiver

for the AWGN channel. For such a receiver, the received signal r (t ) in the absence of

multiple access interference can be modeled as follows:

r (t ) = s (t ) + n (t ) (2.7)

where s (t ) is the transmitted monocycle, n (t ) is the zero mean white Gaussian noise

with power spectral density No/2. For binary modulation, the BER can be calculated

using the Euclidean distance d min between the two symbols.

d 2
Pb = Q min (2.8)
2 No

The Euclidean distance between the two symbols can be evaluated for various

modulation options as

d min = 2 E s for orthogonal PPM,

d min = 2 E s for BPSK

d min = a E s for OOK,

d min = (a1 a 2 ) E s for PAM

where

18
Es is the average energy per symbol (Joules)

a is the average transmitted pulse energy

Q is the Q function [28] which is the tail of the standard.

Gaussian density function (mean =0 and variance =1) and is defined by


1 z2 / 2
Q( x) = e dz . (2.9)
x 2

The advantage of BPSK over OOK and PPM is the improvement in BER performance,

since it is 3dB more power efficient for the same probability of error. Figure 2.7 shows

the BER plots for different modulation schemes.

Figure 2.7 BER Plot for UWB modulation schemes [19]

19
2.6 UWB Multiple Access Techniques

Based on spreading, the two common multiple access schemes employed with

UWB are Time-Hopping UWB (TH-UWB) and Direct Sequence UWB (DS-UWB). In

TH-UWB, unique time hopping codes are used to position each of the UWB pulses

within a given time frame of a particular bit. In DS-UWB, no time gapping is left

between transmitted pulses. A multiple access scheme can either be synchronous or

asynchronous depending on whether the bits transmitted are in the same time interval or

not. Construction of asynchronous multi-user orthogonal codes is impossible as different

users arrive the receiver location with random time delays. TH/SS have spike problems

when compared with DS-SS. The co-existence of UWB systems using TH-SS and DS-SS

is important since UWB will co-exist with narrowband/wideband systems in the same

frequency spectrum. Narrowband/wideband systems include Global system for Mobile

Communications (GSM 900) and Universal Mobile for terminal service

(UMTS)/wideband code division multiple access (WCDMA) and the Global Positioning

system (GPS). In the GPS L1 and L2 channels, DS-SS introduces less interference than

TH-SS UWB. Both TH-SS UWB and DS-SS UWB generate similar level of interference

in GSM900 and UMTS/WCDMA bands. In the presence of degradation due to jamming

from narrowband systems, TH-SS UWB outperforms DS-SS UWB at a low interference

level and both TH-SS UWB and DS-SS UWB have similar performance at a high

jamming power level.

20
2.6.1 Direct Sequence, DS-UWB

The DS-UWB is similar to conventional CDMA carrier-based radios. The

spreading sequence is multiplied by an impulse sequence. The modulation technique

employed is the same as that employed in CDMA.

2.6.2 UWB DS-CDMA Basic Signal Model

The transmitted signal for a UWB DS-CDMA using PPM is defined as

N r 1
s k (t ) = b a n k z (t iT r nT c d n )
k
pk i (2.10)
i = n = 0

where

z(t) is the transmitted monocycle waveform,

k is the k th user,

k
bi are the modulated symbols for the k th user,

an k are the spreading chips,

Tr is the bit period,

Tc is the chip period,

Tr
Nr = is the spread spectrum processing gain,
Tc

is the extra delay of monocycle for symbol 0,

dn is the information data sequence, and

pk is the transmitted power.

21
Correspondingly, for PAM the transmitted signal is given as

N r 1
s k (t ) = b a n k z (t iT r nT c )d n .
k
pk i (2.11)
i = n = 0

The information data sequence d n =0 for symbol 1 and =1 for symbol 0in PPM while

d n =1 for symbol 1 in PAM and d n =-1 for symbol 0 in PAM. The received UWB signal

is represented as

r (t ) = s (t ) + m (t ) + I (t ) + n (t ) (2.12)

where

s (t ) is the transmitted signal,

m(t ) is the multiple access interference,

I (t ) is the narrowband interference,

n (t ) is a white Gaussian noise process with two sided power spectral

density No/2, and the receiver is a correlator receiver.

2.6.3 Time Hopping UWB

Time Hopping is part of the original proposal for UWB communications.

Modulation of TH-SS UWB radio is achieved through shifting of pulses. The key

motivations for using TH-SS impulse radio are the ability to highly resolve multipath and

the availability of technology to implement and generate UWB signals with low

complexity [29]. In both TH-SS and DS-SS one information bit is spread over various

monocycles and the required processing gain is achieved in reception.

22
2.6.3.1 Basic signal model for TH-UWB. The transmitted signal from a user in

TH-SS using PPM is given by

s k (t ) = w(t jT f c j ( k )T cd n ) (2.13)
j

where

s k (t ) is the kth transmitted signal,

w (t) is the transmitted monocycle waveform,

Tf is the pulse repetition time or frame time,

j is the jth monocycle that sits at the beginning of each frame,

is the time shift that applies to the monocycle and such operation is

defined when 1 is transmitted,

Tc is the additional time delay that associates with the time hopping code,

c j (k ) are time hopping code (periodic pseudorandom codes), and

dn is the information data sequence.

For TH-PAM, the transmitted signal is represented as

s k (t ) = w(t jT f c j ( k )T c)d n . (2.14)


j

The signal at the receiver is represented as

Nu
r (t ) = Ak s k (t k) + n(t ) (2.15)
k =1

where

Ak models the attenuation at the transmitter signal,

n (t) is the additive white Gaussian noise, and

23
k represents the asynchronisms between the clock of the transmitter and the

receiver.

The correlator template signal is given by

y (t)=w (t)-w(t- ) (2.16)

where y (t) is the pulse shape defined as the difference between the two pulses shifted by

the modulation parameter . This will then be correlated with the received signal for the

required statistical decision test.

2.7 Applications

Typical applications of the UWB technology include through wall penetration,

precise location, UWB radar, and UWB sensor networks (IEEE 802.14.4a). UWB is

applicable in the above scenarios due to its popularity for multipath immunity, high data

throughput, better wall penetration, low power consumption, and low probability of

intercept and detection.

2.7.1 Through-wall Penetration

A high resolution is required to track the motion of persons or objects that are

placed on the other side of a wall. At longer ranges, precision time gating is required to

track multiple targets [30]. An UWB system is a very reliable solution in providing this

kind of through-wall penetration and resolution capabilities.

24
2.7.2 UWB Radar

An advantage of using UWB in radar applications is that due to UWBs inherent

time resolution property, it reduces post detection signal processing required in

narrowband radars [30, 31]. UWB underground penetrating radars can be used to check if

any underground cables or pipes are present before digging. UWB ground penetrating

radars can also be used in numerous applications like target specific application,

geophysical location, and in civil engineering applications.

2.7.3 Precision Location

The use of differential GPS for outdoor applications can be used to improve errors

in modern day GPS and can also be used for precise estimation of location within 1-2

meters. Using UWB in addition with these technologies is a good solution for extending

the location finding capabilities to the indoor.

2.7.4 Sensor Networks (IEEE 802.15.4a)

Sensor networks are applicable for surveillance, automobiles, and medical

situations. The use of a wired network for these kinds of applications is expensive and

cumbersome. In these kinds of applications, UWB is a viable solution as a wireless

communication link. With UWB, the network is invisible and unnoticeable to others.

Sometimes, a UWB signal can even be used as a sensor.

25
2.8 Summary

This chapter focused on the fundamentals of UWB communications. UWB pulse

shapes and their associated spectra were discussed. The different modulation schemes

that can be used for UWB were also discussed. BPSK has a 3dB performance

improvement when compared to OOK and PPM. A discussion of UWB multiple access

techniques were also presented. TH-SS UWB and DS-SS UWB were discussed as two

popular methods of multiple accesses in UWB based on spreading. Finally, some

applications of UWB were also discussed.

26
CHAPTER 3

UWB CHANNEL MODELING AND CHARACTERIZATION

This chapter provides the foundation on which the thesis is based. It describes the

concept behind the modeling and characterization of UWB channels. It presents some of

the results obtained from the small-scale characterization of UWB channels. These results

are based on several measurement efforts conducted in different indoor environments.

The first half of the chapter addresses the issue of UWB channel modeling from a

deterministic and a statistical point of view. The second half of the chapter considers the

overall indoor channel impulse response, based on finite impulse response (FIR)

calculated using the CLEAN algorithm. The results obtained from the first half are

important towards validating some assumptions used in the second half. The observed

channel impulse responses from the second half of this chapter serve as the data on which

the applications of TiR are demonstrated in the later chapters of this thesis.

3.1 Linear Filter-Based Small Scale Channel Modeling

Accurate channel models are important in designing communication systems.

With adequate knowledge of the features that are unique to the channel,

communication engineers are able to predict the system performance for specific

modulation schemes. Propagation channels set fundamental limits on the performance

of UWB communication systems. Due to reflection, refraction, and diffraction, wireless

signals usually experience multipath propagation. In narrowband systems, this leads to

27
multipath fading. Various theoretical and empirical models have been employed in

studying the statistics of multipath fading in indoor environments. Turins point-

scattering model is widely used for amongst these models. In Turins model, the

channel is represented as

L
h(,t) = (t ) [ (t )]
l =1
l l e j l (t ) (3.1)

where

represents the dirac function,

L is the number of resolvable multipaths,

l (t ) are the multipath amplitudes,

is the delay variable,

l(t ) are the multipath arrival times, and

l (t ) are the path phase values.

Distributions used to describe amplitude values are: Rayleigh, Rician, Nakagami

(m-distribution), Weibull, and Suzuki. Distributions used to describe the arrival times

are modified 2-state Poisson model (-K model), modified Poisson (Weibull Intervals),

and double Poisson (Saleh-Valenzuela). The initial phase is a uniformly distributed

random variable [0,2]. Phase distribution can be incremented by a random Gaussian

variable and deterministic values calculated from the environment.

Certain parameters are useful as single number descriptions of the channel to

estimate the performance and the potential for inter symbol interference (ISI). The

parameters include the mean excess delay, RMS delay spread, and maximum excess

delay and they describe the time dispersive properties of the channel. These time

28
dispersive properties of the channel are measured relative to the time of arrival of the

first component.

The mean excess delay (X dB) of a power delay profile is the time required for

the energy to fall X dB below the maximum [32]. The mean excess delay is the first

moment of the power delay profile

a 2
k k
= k
. (3.2)
a k
2
k

The RMS delay spread is the square root of the second central moment of the power

delay profile [32]

= 2 () 2
(3.3)

where

a
2 2
k k
2 = k
. (3.4)
a k
2
k

The ratio of the mean excess delay to the RMS delay spread can be used as a measure

of the time dispersion for UWB signals.

Channel models for UWB can either be physical models taking into account the

exact physics of the propagation environment or statistical models taking empirical

approach, measuring propagation characteristics of the environment and then

developing models based on measured statistics. In order to estimate the parameters

associated with a given channel impulse response, a channel sounder is used. A channel

sounder is a device that allows estimation of the parameters associated with the impulse

29
response of a radio channel namely: the number of multipath components and their

associated amplitudes, phases, and delays.

3.2 UWB Deterministic Channel Modeling

In UWB systems, the transmitted pulses have width much smaller than the

channel propagation delays and hence do not overlap. At the receiver, due to the

wideband nature of UWB signals, conventional models for characterizing narrowband

channels such as the Turins model are inadequate for UWB transmission. The Turins

point scattering models does not take into account the frequency dependency of the

individual path rays and hence it does not take into account the issue of waveform

distortion. In practice, when a waveform propagates through a medium, there are three

propagation mechanisms of interests: line of sight (LOS), reflection, and diffraction

[33]. Diffraction causes the strength of the diffraction field to be frequency dependent

with a term in the diffraction field expression. Including the frequency dependent

parameter to Turins model allows us to represent the wideband channel as

L
h( , t ) = l (t )h l ( ) [ l(t )]e j l( t ) (3.5)
l =1

where

h l ( ) is the per-path impulse response and denotes convolution

operation.

The parameter h l ( ) explains most of the practical diffraction phenomena occurring in

buildings, windows, cylinders, furniture, bottles, etc. In studying channel effects, the

30
effect of propagation phenomena on the received signal can be categorized as large-

scale effects and small-scale effects. Large-scale effects are important for predicting

service availability and coverage while small-scale effects are those that vary over a

short time and are important in designing modulation schemes for UWB systems.

UWB channel modeling with emphasis on pulse waveform distortion or

frequency dependency in frequency domain was first studied in [33]. The physical

foundation of pulse waveform distortion is based on Sommerfields exact solutions of

Maxwells equations. The study of time-domain or transient wave electromagnetics

was initiated by Sommerfield in 1902 on the diffraction of a pulse or a transient wave

by a wedge or half plane [34]. The frequency dependency of the path rays can be used

to trace, detect, and characterize a ray and is also useful in channel modeling. A ray

coming from the line of sight path or a reflected ray has no frequency dependency

while a ray from a diffracted path has frequency dependency. Ray tracing of the

individual path rays can be used in studying the propagation features of a UWB

channel. The concept of pulse waveform distortion or frequency dependency and its

impact on UWB transceiver design are studied extensively in [35-37]. The UWB

propagation mechanisms include the geometric optical (GO) rays and the diffracted

rays. The geometric theory of diffraction (GTD) framework can be used to model the

diffracted rays.

Mathematically,

E t = E GO + E GTD (3.6)

where

Et represents the total electric field,

31
E GO represents the field component of the geometric optic rays, and

E GTD represents the diffracted rays.

In the deterministic modeling of UWB channels, a two-ray model shown in Figure 3.1

is the mostly used model for studying geometric optic (GO) rays

3.3 UWB Channel Measurement and Modeling

3.3.1. UWB Channel Measurement and Modeling Background

A limited number of measurement campaigns have been carried out by UWB

researchers to characterize UWB channels. Most proposed UWB channel models are

extensions of existing wideband channel models. There are many unresolved issues in

literature on the characterization of UWB channels and hence there is still a need for

more measurements to formulate a comprehensive model before designing UWB

simulators. Some proposed UWB channel models are based on empirical UWB results

while some are based on extrapolation from wideband measurement and models. The

characterization of a UWB channel can be carried out using two different approaches:

time domain approach and the frequency domain approach. The major piece of

equipment used in the frequency domain approach is a vector network analyzer (VNA).

The results obtained in frequency domain approach can then be converted into time

domain via inverse Fourier transform. The advantage of frequency domain approach is

that the sensitivity of narrowband measurement equipments such as the VNA is much

larger than that of oscilloscopes used in time domain measurements. However, extra data

processing is required for frequency domain measurements to get the time domain

32
Figure 3.1 Classical ground bounce two-ray model

channel impulse response of the UWB channel. This thesis has employed the time

domain approach for collecting the UWB channel data.

In this approach, a short duration pulse p(t) is transmitted as an excitation signal

for the propagation channel. This pulse approximates a delta function but in reality, it is

not and hence there is a need for a signal-processing algorithm to extract the actual

channel impulse response. Mathematically,

y (t ) = h(t ) p(t ) (3.7)

when p (t ) = (t ), y (t ) = h(t ) p (t ) = h(t ) = CIR .

However, in reality, p(t ) (t ), and hence the need for deconvloution techniques to

extract the CIR from the measured y (t ) .

33
3.3.2 Measurement Apparatus and Setup

The equipment used for collecting the UWB channel data involves a UWB pulser

that generates a Gaussian like pulse with root mean square (rms) pulse width of

approximately 250 ps as shown in Figure 3.2: a power amplifier with a gain of 34 dB, a

noise figure of 4.0dB, and a third order intercept point of 4.0dBm (for pulse

amplification): a Digital Sampling Oscilloscope (DSO) Tektronix TDS 8000E3 (with a

bandwidth of up to 20GHz), serving as the receiver: a wideband low noise amplifier

(LNA) with 23dB gain: a noise figure of 6.00dB: and a third order intercept point of

30dBm. It is possible to obtain other types of UWB pulses from the pulser for use in

sounding the UWB channel. Figure 3.3 shows another possible pulse obtained from the

pulser employing a differentiator to the pulser output to differentiate the Gaussian like

pulse and hence obtained a derivative of the Gaussian like pulse for use in sounding the

UWB channel. The pulser needs a triggering signal for operation. A 2MHz square wave-

clocking signal obtained from an Agilent 33220A function generator is used as the

triggering signal. To maintain synchronization, the same signal is employed in triggering

the DSO. To ensure some safety margin on DSO, some attenuator pads are placed at the

input to the DSO. The block diagram for the UWB channel sounding set up is shown in

Figure 3.4. Figure 3.5 shows a typical setup of the UWB channel sounder in the Wireless

Networking Systems Laboratory of Tennessee Technological University. With the 2

MHz square signal acting as a trigger, pulses are transmitted every 500 ns interval. This

34
Figure 3.2 Output pulse from the pulse generator used in UWB channel sounding

Figure 3.3 Pulser output with a differentiator

35
pulse repetition is slow enough to capture multipaths in the UWB channel. The DSO has

the capability to average received waveforms for noise reduction. About 64 or 32

sequentially measured profiles are averaged during the course of the UWB channel

sounding. The DSO is set in such a way that every 50 ns window measurement contains

4000 samples throughout the experiment. This implies a time of 12.5ps between samples

and a sampling rate of 80 GHz. Hence, according to sampling theorem, waveforms with

bandwidth of up to 40 GHz can be reconstructed from samples collected by the DSO

[39]-[42]. Antennas are omni-directional, linear in polarization, and span a bandwidth of

0.824-2.4GHz with a feed impedance of 50 ohms. The height of both transmit and

receive antenna is about 1.25 m above the floor. The antennas are fixed such that they

make an angle of 0 degrees with the vertical. This is because 0 degrees have been tested

to give the best received signal energy compared with other angles between zero degrees

Figure 3.4 Time Domain UWB Channel Sounding

36
Figure 3.5 UWB channel measurement setup

and 90 degrees. The measurements are actually conducted at three different locations:

Hallway of Clement Hall 400 at Tennessee Technological University Campus, Center for

Manufacturing Research foundry, and the Wireless Networking Systems Laboratory. For

the purpose of illustrating the concept of UWB channel modeling being discussed in this

chapter, some of the results obtained from Clement Hall 400 are being discussed. The

results obtained from other measurement environments are presented in later chapters and

are used for the purpose of demonstrating the applications of TiR in UWB.

The Hallway of Clement Hall measures approximately 37m x 1.84m x 2.68m.

The distance between the transmit antenna and received antenna is varied and the results

are recorded for two different scenarios: line-of-sight (LOS) and non-line-of-sight

(NLOS). Figures 3.6 and 3.7 show the results obtained. In order to verify that the

multipath profiles for the first probing pulse have decayed enough before the response of

37
the next pulse arrives at the receiving antenna, a single multipath profile of 1000ns

duration is made and the result obtained is shown in Figure 3.8. As shown in Figure 3.8,

two back-to-back multipath profiles with 500ns duration each are captured and the first

multipath profile has decayed enough before the response of the second multipath profile.

Figure 3.9 shows the hallway of Clement Hall 400.

received waveform LOS 4m reference received waveform NLOS 7m


0.8 0.25

0.6 0.2

0.4 0.15
Amplitude(V)

Amplitude(V)
0.2 0.1

0 0.05

-0.2 0

-0.4 -0.05

-0.6 -0.1
0 10 20 30 40 50 0 10 20 30 40 50
Time index (ns) Time index (ns)

received waveform NLOS 10m


0.1

0.08
Amplitude(V)

0.06

0.04

0.02

0
0 10 20 30 40 50
Time index (ns)

Figure 3.6 Received waveforms at distances 4m (LOS), 7m (NLOS), and 10m

(NLOS) from the transmitter

38
re c e ive d w a ve fo rm L O S 4 m re fe re n c e re c e ive d w a ve fo rm L O S 7 m
1 0.6

0.4

Amplitude(V)

Amplitude(V)
0.5
0.2

0
0
-0 . 2

-0 . 5 -0 . 4
0 20 40 60 0 20 40 60
T im e in d e x (n s ) T im e in d e x (n s )
re c e ive d w a ve fo rm L O S 1 0 m
0.4

0.2
Amplitude(V)

-0 . 2

-0 . 4
0 20 40 60
T im e in d e x (n s )

Figure 3.7 Received waveforms for LOS cases

received waveform showing two back to back multipath profiles


0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2
Amplitude(volts)

0.1

-0.1

-0.2

-0.3
0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000
Time index (ns)

Figure 3.8 Received waveform showing two back-to-back multipath profiles

39
Figure 3.9 Clement Hall 400 Hallway

3.4 Deconvolution Techniques

Deconvolution is the process of separating two signals that have been combined

by convolution. Several deconvolution techniques exist in literature often for specific

type of signal or for use with specific application. Deconvolution can be performed either

in frequency or time domain. In the frequency domain, the most straightforward

technique used is called inverse filtering. In time domain, the CLEAN algorithm is a

common technique used. The CLEAN algorithm is chosen as the method of determining

the CIR in this work. This is because the frequency domain techniques treat the CIR as

band limited while the indoor propagation channel is not expected to be band limited

40
relative to the bandwidth of the sounding pulse used. Since this work focuses on the time

domain characterization of the channel, the CLEAN algorithm is used as the primary

deconvolution technique in this work. The discrete nature of the CLEAN algorithm

makes the resulting impulse response more reasonable to characterize in time domain.

The CLEAN algorithm is discussed in details in the next section.

3.5 The CLEAN Algorithm

The approach to data analysis uses the CLEAN algorithm to extract the channel

impulse response from the observed data. Initially used in radio astronomy [43], it has

also been applied in the UWB communication channel characterization problems [44],

[45]. The CLEAN algorithm is used here because of its ability to produce discrete CIR in

time domain. The CLEAN algorithm assumes the channel to be a train of pulses, with the

well-known assumed tapped delay line channel model [46]. In order to use the CLEAN

algorithm to estimate the channel impulse response, it is assumed that there is no

significant pulse distortion caused to any of the multipaths1. The received signal at a

given receiver location is expressed as

y (t ) = x(t ) h(t ) (3.8)

where x(t ) and y (t ) are known and h (t) is the signal to be determined. The received

signal from a given measurement location can be represented as

r (t ) = p sig (t ) htxant (t ) h ch (t ) h rxant (t ) (3.9)

1
If pulse distortion does exist, we can use a FIR filter to represent the pulse distortion.

41
where

p sig (t ) is the transmitted signal,

htxant (t ) is the transmit antenna impulse response, and

h rxant (t ) is the receive antenna impulse response.

It is required to extract the channel impulse response h ch (t ) from the received waveform.

To deconvolve the response of the antennas from the channel impulse response, a

reference LOS pulse was used for each measurement data. The reference LOS pulse is

measured at a distance of 1m in free space in an environment with no reflectors and

diffractions. The received LOS pulse is then deconvolved from each measured data to

obtain the desired channel impulse response. The reference LOS pulse used is shown in

Figure 3.10.

In order to perform the CLEAN algorithm, the autocorrelation of x (t) and

cross correlation of x (t) and y (t) in (3.8) are computed.


a xx (t ) = x( ) x(t + )d

(3.10)


a xy (t ) = x( ) y(t + )d

(3.11)

The peaks of the autocorrelation and cross correlation shown in (3.10) and (3.11) are

found, recorded, and subtracted from the cross correlation function using the relations

below

h i (t ) = h i 1 (t ) + A i (t i) (3.12)

h o (t ) = 0

d i (t ) =d i 1(t ) A i a xx (t i) (3.13)

42
2

1.5

Amplitude(V)
0.5

-0 . 5

-1

-1 . 5
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3 .5 4 4 .5 5
T im e (n s )

Figure 3.10 Received waveform at a distance of 1 m from the transmitter

d o (t ) = a xy (t )

where

d i 1( i) = arg max t d i 1(t ) (3.14)

A i = d i 1( i) .

A threshold is usually established to stop the algorithm. A threshold V is defined such

that if A i V max a xy (t ) , the algorithm is ended. Some researchers have suggested

using energy capture ratio as the stopping criteria [47]. The CLEAN algorithm was

stopped after the remaining undetected paths were below 15dB of the peak path

strength. The 15dB threshold is sufficient to illustrate the concept of TiR in UWB

channels. This is because a 15dB threshold is sufficient enough to capture the majority of

the signal power without capturing substantial noise in the CIR.

When building a channel model, the statistics of the received signal are of

importance. The CLEAN algorithm does a good job representing the received signal [48].

43
The CLEAN algorithm is also robust to noise present in measured data where frequency

domain deconvolution techniques fail [49].

3.5.1 Limitations of the CLEAN Algorithm

The CLEAN algorithm has some limitations when employed in determining a

CIR. Below are some of the limitations of the algorithm.

The CLEAN algorithm does not give a good estimate of the CIR when the paths

are very close and unresolveable.

When different pulse shapes are associated with different paths, we only use the

LOS pulse as a template. In this case, The CLEAN algorithm cannot give a good

estimate of the CIR. Multiple taps are needed to represent distortion.

The CLEAN algorithm is only fairly accurate in representing a signal at

moderately low SNR.

3.6 Summary

This chapter served as the foundation for this thesis work and it presented the

whole ideas on which research work is based. The concept of UWB channel modeling

was discussed and the UWB channel sounder employed in extracting the channel impulse

response was explained in details. The measurement setup and the measurement

procedure were discussed and the concept behind the CLEAN algorithm, which will be

used in the later chapters to extract the channel impulse response from the received

44
waveforms, was discussed in this chapter. The extracted UWB channel information will

then be used in the later chapters as the channel data on which the principle and

applications of TiR are demonstrated.

45
CHAPTER 4

TIME-REVERSAL COMMUNICATIONS

4.1 Introduction

In this chapter, the theory and the applications of time reversal in UWB are

discussed. Metrics are defined to characterize two key applications in TiR, namely:

spatial focusing and temporal compression. The concept of ISI in UWB systems is

discussed and the use of TiR to improve receiver performance in UWB ISI channels is

discussed. The chapter also studies some equalization techniques used in compensating

for ISI in UWB channels.

4.2 An Overview of Time-Reversal in UWB

Time-reversal (TiR) also known as phase conjugation in frequency domain is a

simple method of preparing a message such that it appears at a particular time at a

particular location in space and no where else. In TiR, a signal is prefiltered such that it

focuses in space and time at an intended receiver [17]. This can be achieved by using a

time-reversed complex conjugate of the channel impulse response at the receiver as a

transmitter prefilter. Several advantages come with this technique. Spatial focusing

reduces co-channel interference in a multi-user system. Due to temporal focusing, the

effective delay spread of the channel is dramatically reduced and thus ISI is also reduced

dramatically. This leads to a reduction in the equalization task at the receiver. For

46
example, the complexity of a maximum likelihood sequence estimator (MLSE) is
L,
proportional to m where m is the size of the input alphabet and L is the length of the

channel impulse response in units of T with T being the symbol separation [50].

Temporal focusing in TiR reduces the equalization task by reducing the effective channel

length. In a TiR experiment, the intended receiver sends a training sequence to the

intended transmitter(s). The transmitter(s) time-reverses the estimated channel impulse

response (CIR), convolves it with the signal message that is now sent to the receiver. The

emitted time reversed waves propagates through the channel retracing their former paths

and this leads to a focus of power in space and time at the receiver. The concept of TiR

experiment is illustrated in Figure 4.1.

The concept has already been successfully applied in underwater acoustic

channels and in ultrasound applications. It has also been applied to narrowband systems

and has only recently been applied to UWB systems. Being newly applied to UWB

systems, further studies are necessary to demonstrate more feasibilities of applying TiR

to UWB and hence the reason for this research work.

4.3 Time-Reversal Theory

Consider a single user downlink scenario transmit-receive pair in a UWB channel.

In TiR, the transmitter uses the time-reversed complex conjugate of the CIR as a

transmitter prefilter. Let h(r o , ) denote the impulse response at the intended receiver,

where r o is the receiver location and is the delay variable. If the transmitter uses

h (r o , ) as a transmit prefilter, the effective channel at a given location r is given by

47
R hh (r , ) =h (r o , ) h(r , )

(4.1)

where denotes convolution with respect to the delay variable and r and r0 means

the positions. In order to demonstrate the leverages of TiR, the UWB channel is sounded

with a sub-nanosecond pulse and the channel impulse response between the transmitter

and the receiver is measured. The measurement is repeated by holding the transmitter

fixed and varying the receiver position at different distances from the intended receiver,

which is located 4m away from the transmitter. The receiver location is varied for both

LOS and NLOS cases and the concept of spatial focusing in TiR is demonstrated. Using

the channel information from typical LOS and NLOS cases, temporal compression in TiR

is demonstrated. The CIR is compressed and a temporal focus of the energy is visible at

the center of the compressed CIR. To characterize the amount of temporal focusing, a

ratio called the temporal peak to total energy ratio, which characterizes the percentage

energy capture, by the peak of the effective CIR is defined as

differentiated gaussian output


10

8
Amplit
ude(v
olts)

-2
0 200 400 600 800 1000
Time(ps)
1200 1400 1600 1800 2000
Intended
Transmitter receiver

Input Modulation Channel Matched Output


Channel + Detector
data filter pre-filter filter data
h ( )

h( )
Gaussian Noise

Figure 4.1 TiR experiment

48
hh
Ep
TR
= hh
(4.2)
ET

where

E phh is the energy in the main peak of the received impulse response,

EThh is the total energy in the received impulse response for the time-

reversed channel.

This ratio is expected to be as high as possible to illustrate good temporal

compression and is expected to approximate a fixed value. In order to illustrate spatial

focusing in TiR, a ratio called the spatial focusing gain is defined. The energy of

R hh (r , ) at any point r in space at a given time o is given by

hh (r ) = R hh (r , o)
2
(4.3)

where o is defined such that R hh ( r o , o ) = max { R hh ( r o , ) }. The spatial focusing

gain hh (r ) is the ratio of the energy at r o to the energy at a given location away

from r o .

hh (r o )
hh (r ) = hh (r ) (4.4)

This ratio gives relative information about security in TiR. A large value of this ratio

indicates a better spatial focusing gain and hence a low probability of intercept by a

receiver located near the intended receiver. hh (r ) can be computed with respect to time

delays other than o but o is chosen here, because at o , the effective time reversed

channel captures the largest amount of energy in the channel. Figures 4.2 and 4.3

illustrate the concept of temporal compression in TiR using measured data from Clement

49
Hall 400 of Tennessee Technological University campus and IEEE 802.15.3a data

respectively while Figure 4.4 illustrates spatial focusing.

In Figures 4.2 and 4.3, the temporal compression is visible at the center of the

channel impulse response and the amount of temporal compression is defined using

Equation 4.1. In Figure 4.4, Ro is the intended receiver while receivers R1 and R2 are

users intending to steal the information from Ro . From mathematical properties, it is

known that after normalizing the correlation functions with respect to energy,

autocorrelation is always stronger than cross-correlation. This implies that the receiver

power peaks at Ro and is more compared to R1 and R2 . An intruder at R2 who tries to

steal user information at Ro experiences some loss in received power and hence his

inability to decode the message signal. The results obtained by this concept are given in

details in the next chapter.

In order to illustrate the relative gain in UWB channels using TiR, the energy loss

due to prefilter is studied against energy loss without a prefilter. The relative information

obtained gives the amount of channel energy gain observed using TiR in UWB

environments and this is shown in the next chapter.

4.4 Time Reversal and UWB Systems Performance

Due to multipath propagation effects, the transmitted UWB waveform arrives at

the receiver distorted. The distorted waveforms arriving at the receivers are further

corrupted by multiple access interference and background noise. The function of a UWB

50
receiver is to extract the information bit sequence from the distorted and corrupted

received waveforms with a very high level of accuracy. The basic UWB receiver consists

received waveform hallwayLOS 10m HallwayLOS 10m Estimated channel impulse response
0.5 0.15

0.4
0.1
0.3

0.2 0.05

Amplitude

Amplitude
0.1

0 0

-0.1
-0.05
-0.2

-0.3 -0.1
0 10 20 30 40 50 0 10 20 30 40 50
Time index (ns) Excess delay (ns)

Autocorrelation of channel impulse response(NLOS)


0.3

0.25

0.2
Amplitude

0.15

0.1

0.05

-0.05
0 20 40 60 80 100
Excess delay (ns)

Figure 4.2 Temporal compression illustrated using measured data

CM3 Channel impulse response


0.4

0.2
Amplitude

-0.2

-0.4

-0.6
0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600
excess delay(ns)
CM3 TiR channel
4

3
Amplitude

-1
0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500
excess delay(ns)

Figure 4.3 Temporal compression illustrated using IEEE 803.15.3a CM3

channel

51
R2

R hh ( r 2 , ) = h ( r o , ) h ( r 2 , ).

h ( )
Tx R hh ( r o , ) = h ( r o , ) h ( r o , ). Ro

R hh ( r 1 , ) = h ( r o , ) h ( r 1 , ).

R1

Figure 4.4 Demonstrating spatial focusing in TiR

of a detector and a decision device. The detector is different from conventional

narrowband schemes because UWB can be carrier-less.

The most common implementations of UWB receivers are threshold detectors,

autocorrelation receivers, and correlation or rake receivers. Threshold detectors are

simple to implement and are also suitable for UWB radar systems [51]. In threshold

detectors, a threshold is usually set for establishing the presence of a radar target. An

autocorrelation receiver correlates the received waveform with a previously received

waveform [52-56]. This receiver can capture the entire received waveform energy for a

slowly varying channel without requiring channel estimation because the transmitter

transmits a pilot (reference waveform) to generate side information about the channel.

Some research on UWB receivers has been on the rake receiver [57-66].

52
4.4.1 Rake Receivers

Rake receivers are used in time-hopping impulse radio systems and direct

sequence spread spectrum systems (DS-SS) for matched filtering of the received signal.

In theory, the receiver structure consists of a matched filter that is matched to the

transmitted waveform that represents one symbol, and a tapped delay line that matches

the channel impulse response. It is also possible to implement this structure as a number

of correlators that are sampled at the delays related to specific number of multipath

components; each of those correlators can be called Rake finger. A Rake receiver

structure is shown in Figure 4.5.

In UWB systems, frequency dependency is taking into consideration [3,34], the

receiver uses several rake fingers for each multipath component (MPC) spaced at the

nyquist sampling distance in order to collect the energy in the MPC. The number of rake

fingers in this case becomes very large [67]. Due to this problem of energy capture,

several simplified Rake structures have been proposed: selective Rake (Srake) and partial

rake (Prake). The Srake receiver collect energy from L strongest MPCs while the Prake

collects energy from the L first MPCs. The Srake structure has been adopted in this

research work. Srake outperforms Prake because Srake collects more channel energy than

the Prake [68].

53
Figure 4.5 Rake receiver structure

In Figure 4.5, the Rake structure consists of a parallel bank of L correlators

followed by a combiner that determines the variable to be used for the decision on the

symbol. Different approaches can be used to determine the rake weights: however,

maximal ratio combiner (MRC) is a traditional approach. Reference [69] proposes an

approach called minimum mean square error (MMSE) Rake combiner and it outperforms

MRC-Rake. As shown in [69], MMSE Rake receiver reduces the error floor observed

when MRC-Rake is receiver is employed in UWB systems.

4.4.2 ISI Issues in UWB

Inter symbol interference occurs when the effects of a transmitted pulse is not

allowed to die away completely before transmitting another pulse. If symbol duration is

given as Tb and the channel delay spread is given as Td, ISI occurs in a UWB channel if

T b < T d . The received signal at the receiver in a frequency selective discrete ISI channel

can be represented as

54
N 1
y l =I l+ I
n =0,n l
x
n l n +wl (4.5)

where

yl represent the lth approximated bit at the receiver,

Il represent the desired information symbol at the lth sampling

time,

N 1

I x
n = 0, n l
n l n represent the ISI term, and

wl represent the additive Gaussian noise variable at the kth

sampling instant.

The ISI term makes it more likely for the decision device to have more decision

errors, as compared to a case without ISI because with ISI it is more likely to mix up

desired symbols with undesired symbols. In order to minimize the probability of error,

the optimum receiver in a mean-square error sense consists of a matched filter, an

equalizer, and a maximum likelihood detector. The maximum likelihood sequence

estimator (MLSE) is the optimum equalizer for use in wireless channel. The MLSE

searches for the information sequence that after convolution is closest in Euclidean

distance to the received signal sequence [70]. However, it has a complexity that grows

exponential with the channel length and it is thus not suitable for use in channels with

large delay spread such as UWB. Two sub-optimum equalization techniques for use in

frequency selective channels are the Zero forcing (ZF) and minimum mean square error

(MMSE) and are discussed in the next section.

55
4.4.3 Equalization Techniques

This section briefly discusses ISI compensation technique in UWB channels using

equalizers. First, the case where the equalizer has infinite number of taps is discussed and

then the case in which the equalizer spans finite time duration is discussed.

4.4.3.1 Infinite length equalizers. A block diagram of a UWB channel with an

equalizer is shown in Figure 4.6. For a given UWB wireless channel of length L, the

output of the channel can be written as

y[m] = ( x h)[m] + w[m] (4.6)

where

x[m] is the input signal m=0,1N-1,

y[m] is the output signal m=0,1,..N+L-2, and

h includes the effects of the pulse-shaping at the transmitter, the

physical channel impulse response and the matched filer

In matrix notation, (4.6) can be rewritten as a Toeplitz-type system [71]:

56
Input data Matched Equalizer
Pulse UWB + Filter
shaper Channel

AWGN Noise

Output data Decision


device

Figure 4.6 UWB Channel with equalizer

y = Hx+ w (4.7)

where

y ( 0) x ( 0) w(0)
. . .

y = . , x = . ,w = . (4.8)

. . .
y ( N + L 2) x( N 1) w( N 1)

h(0) 0 ... 0
. . .

. . .

. ..
h( L 1) . . 0
and H= . (4.9)
0 . h(0 )
. . .

. .
0 . h( L 1)
.

57
The MMSE estimate of x, x in Equation 4.6 gives the desired received information bit at

the output of the detector. In order to compute the bit error rate for the system, x is

compared with x . The basic idea of the MMSE estimator is to choose as the estimate the

function of the data that gives the smallest expected value of the square of the estimation

error [72].

It can be assumed that E (w) = 0 in Equation 4.7 without loss of generality.

Assuming x to be a linear function of y, i.e. x = By, where B is to be determined.

From (4.7):

y = Hx+ w .
Since E (w) = 0,

[ ]
K = E wwT = 2 I (4.10)

where w is zero mean circularly symmetric complex Gaussian (ZMCSCG) noise with

variance N o .

To find x , let S be defined as

S ( y Hx ) T ( y Hx ) (4.11)

S
= 0 = 2[ H T H ]x 2 H T y (4.12)
x

x = ( H T H ) 1 H T y . (4.13)

Equation (4.13) is not optimal [73]. To make it optimal, the covariance of the noise w in

Equation (4.10) is added and hence the MMSE estimate of x is represented as

x = ( H T H ) 1 H T y + N o I (4.14)

where I represent a (1xN) identity matrix.

58
As observed in [74], the difference between an MMSE equalizer and a zero forcing

equalizer is the absence of the noise term in the ZF equalizer. Hence, (4.13) represents

the estimated data sequence for a zero forcing equalizer of infinite length.

4.4.3.2 Finite length equalizers. This section describes the cases in which the

equalizer spans finite time duration.

4.4.3.2.1 Zero forcing equalizer. The output of the equalizer in z-domain is given

by

Y (z) =R (z) B (z) (4.15)

where

Y (z) is the z-transform of the equalizer output,

R (z) is the z-transform of the effective channel output, and

B (z) is the z-transform of the equalizer coefficient.

In the absence of the additive noise introduced by the physical channel, the output of the

effective channel is given by

R (z) =X (z) H (z). (4.16)

Substituting 4.16 in 4.15, the output signal of the equalized system, can be expressed as

Y (z) =X (z) H (z) B (z). (4.17)

Figure 4.7 illustrates the equivalent discrete time representation of the equalized system.

Let C (z) denote the transfer function of the equalized system.

59
Figure 4.7 Discrete UWB channel with equalizer

Then

Y ( z)
C ( z) = = H ( z ) B( z ) . (4.18)
X ( z)

In time-domain, this corresponds to

k=N
c n =b n h n = b
k = N
k h nk . (4.19)

For ISI free transmission,

C (z) =1. (4.20)

In time domain, condition (4.20) means that

1, n=0
cn = . (4.21)
0, n0

With a finite number of taps (2N+1) in the equalizer, (4.21) becomes

1, n = 0
c ( n) = . (4.22)
0, n = 1,2,...... N

Equation (4.22) can be guaranteed by choosing the equalizer coefficients to satisfy the

following equation

60
ho ...... h N +1 h N h N 1 ...... h2 N

. . . . .

. . . . .
h ....... h
N 1 ho h 1

[
h N b N . . .b 1 b o b1 ...b N ] = [0...010...0 ]
T T
(4.23)

. . . . .
. . . . .

h 2 N .........h N +1 hN h N 1 h o

where T denotes the transpose operation.

Equation (4.23) represents a finite length zero forcing equalizer.

4.4.3.2.2 Minimum mean square error (MMSE) equalizer. In reality the

noise component due to the physical channel cannot be ignored. In the presence of

additive Gaussian noise at the receiver input, the output of the equalizer at the nth

sampling instant is given by

N
y n = b
k = N
k r nk . (4.24)

The mean square error (MSE) for the equalizer having 2N+1 taps, denoted by J (N) is

N

2

J ( N ) = E x n y n = E x n b k r n k
2
(4.25)
k = N

minimizing J (N ) with respect to the equalizer coefficients ( b k ) is obtained by the

following differentiation:

J ( N )
=0. (4.26)
b k

Equation 4.26 leads to the necessary condition for the minimum MSE given by

R r b = R xr (4.27)

61
or

1
b = R r R xr (4.28)

where

b denotes the 2N+1 tap coefficient

R xr = (R xr ( N ),.........R xr (0),..........R xr ( N ))
T

R r (0) ...... R r ( N ) r ..... R r (2 N )



. . . . .
Rr = . . . . . .

R r (2 N + 1) ..... R r ( N + 1) R(1)
R (2 N ) ........R ( N ) R r (0)
r 2N r

4.4.4 TiR System Structure

Figure 4.8 gives a typical UWB channel with TiR. The major difference between

a system with TiR and a system with no TiR is the presence of the transmitter prefilter

( h (t ) in Figure 4.8.

The effective TiR channel impulse response is given by

hTR (t ) = (t ) h (t ) h(t ) (t ) (4.29)

where

(t ) is the pulse shaping filter,

h (t ) is the transmitter prefilter,

62
Input Modulation Channel Matched Output
Channel + Detector
data filter pre-filter filter data
h ( )

h( )

Gaussian Noise
Figure 4.8 UWB systems with TiR

h(t ) is the channel impulse response, and

(t ) is the filter matched to the transmitted pulse.

For a system with TiR, the equations for infinite length equalizers (MMSE and ZF) and

finite length equalizers (MMSE and ZF) still hold with the effective channel response

h(t ) in the previous equations being replaced by a new channel impulse response defined

in Equation 4.29.

For an infinite length equalizer, the received signal is therefore given by

y[m] = ( x hTR )[m] + w[m] . (4.30)

In matrix notation, this becomes

y = H TRx + w . (4.31)

And the equation for an infinite length MMSE estimator is given by

x = ( H TR H TR) 1 H TR y + N o I .
T T
(4.32)

4.5 Summary

In this chapter, a detailed study of TiR in UWB is presented. The theory behind

TiR is studied. The various applications of TiR in UWB are presented and ISI issues in

UWB are also presented. The various techniques for compensating ISI in UWB channels

63
are studied and the idea of combining these techniques with TiR to combat ISI in UWB

channels is also presented.

64
CHAPTER 5

SIMULATION RESULTS

The previous chapters provided a detailed study of UWB systems. The

motivations for applying TiR to UWB systems have been discussed in earlier chapters.

The signal-processing algorithm (CLEAN algorithm) used in this thesis to obtain the

channel information has also been discussed in Chapter 3. The extracted channel

information is the data on which the applications of TiR in UWB are demonstrated. In

this chapter, a simulation technique called Monte Carlo simulation is employed to

analyze the performance of UWB systems using the extracted channel impulse response.

MATLAB software package was used for simulating the complete UWB system from the

transmitter to the receiver. BER curves are generated for different cases using TiR and

equalizers as a means of compensation for ISI in the UWB channels. Also, in this

chapter, results for temporal compression, spatial focusing and TiR losses in UWB

channels are presented.

5.1 Monte Carlo Simulation

Monte Carlo (MC) simulation technique [75,76] is the most widely used

simulation technique for evaluating the performance of communication systems and it is

based on a game of chance. In the context of BER estimation for digital communication

systems, the MC simulation technique involves the following steps:

65
(1) Decide on the minimum target BER to be estimated. (In this thesis work, it is

103 .)

(2) Set the number of bits per simulation run to be at least 10 times the inverse of

the minimum target BER to be estimated. (Here, it is 10 4 bits.)

(3) Set up the base band modulators, demodulators, transmit/receive filters, and

channel simulators. (Here, the channel information is known from the CLEAN

algorithm.)

(4) Run the BER simulation until 100 errors are counted and estimate the BER.

(5) Iterate the simulation for some specified number of iterations and compute the

average of the BERs obtained in these iterations (Here, the number of

simulation runs was chosen to be 40.)

The block diagram for the simulation setup is illustrated in Figure 5.1.

A 5th order Gaussian pulse width a pulse width T b of 0.625ns is used as the pulse-

shaping filter and is represented by

t 2
t t3 t 5 2 2
(t ) = k 2 15 + 10 5 5 e (5.1)

where = 5.28 10 11 is a parameter that controls the width of the pulse.

The spread waveform can be obtained from the pulse-shaping filter by

7
p(t ) = s k (t kT b) . (5.2)
k =0

The spreading sequence, {s k } = { 1,+1,+1,1,+1,+1,1,1} . (5.3)

The symbol duration is thus given by

T s = 8T b= 5n sec . (5.4)

66
Figure 5.1 Simulation setup

If b k is a sequence to be transmitted, the modulated signal is given as


s (t ) = b k p(t kT s ) . (5.5)

If the UWB CIR is represented as h(t ) , then the output of the channel is

x(t ) = h(t ) s (t ) + w(t ) . (5.6)

After matched filtering, the output of the matched filter can be expressed as

y (t ) = x(t ) p(t ) . (5.7)

The outputs of the matched filter are then combined using MMSE rake combiner

discussed in Chapter 4. A MMSE equalizer is then employed for further receiver

performance improvement. The choice of modulation used is BPSK, i.e. b k = {+ 1,1}, a

channel data information for several cases is used: IEEE 802.15.3a (CM3 and CM4)

models and the extracted channel data using CLEAN algorithm from the received

waveform for several UWB channel environments. The major aim here is to demonstrate

improvement in receiver performance using TiR in UWB channels.

67
5.2 BER Simulation Results

Performance of TiR systems already discussed is evaluated via simulations in this

section. In order to verify the simulation, the setup is evaluated for an AWGN channel

and the result obtained is compared with the channel situation in which there is no ISI.

These results are expected to be as close as possible. In each BER simulation, different

scenarios of UWB receivers are considered. The following cases are considered in the

simulation:

A Rake receiver with an estimate of the largest 20 channel fingers,

MMSE equalizer (with 5 taps),

MMSE-TiR,

TiR-Rake,

No ISI, and

AWGN channel.

The MMSE-TiR combines MMSE equalization with TiR while TiR-Rake employs TiR

channel with a rake receiver also estimating the largest 20 channel taps. The No-ISI case

is that in which the bit duration (Tb) is chosen such that T b>T rms , where T rms is the rms

delay spread of the channel.

68
5.2.1 CM3 Simulation Results

The BER simulation results obtained using CM3 channel data is shown in Figure

5.2. As expected, using an MMSE equalizer to compensate for ISI, a relative

improvement is observed. The major comparison lies in the TiR channel versus the Rake

receiver. Using the TiR channel information as the channel impulse response and

estimating the 20 largest channel taps, at a BER of 103 , TiR-Rake channel has around

1.8dB performance improvement compared to a channel with rake receivers for CM3

channel. Also employing a 5-tap MMSE equalizer to the TiR channel shows a very slight

performance improvement (around 0.3 dB). After TiR, a very minimum number of taps

for the equalizer is employed. This demonstrates that with TiR, the equalization task if

needed is reduced to a minimum to achieve a reasonable BER. This is better illustrated

using the CM4 channel because the CM4 represents an extreme case of NLOS of site and

hence we expect a very intense ISI channel for this case. As a reference, the No-ISI case

is compared with a standard AWGN curve and a close result shown in Figure 5.2 is

obtained as expected.

5.2.2 CM4 Simulation Results

Using CM4 channel data, the simulation results obtained are shown in Figure 5.3.

Using a 5-tap MMSE equalizer as a means of compensation for the ISI, a 1 dB

improvement in BER is observed at around 103 . With 31 channel taps, a performance

improvement of about 2.2 dB is observed. Using TiR-Rake, i.e. TiR and a rake receiver

69
0
CM3 channel
10
5-taps MMSE
Rake
MMSE-TiR
-1
10 TiR-Rake
AW GN
No ISI

-2
10
BER

-3
10

-4
10

-5
10
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16
Eb/No(dB)

Figure 5.2 TiR BER simulation result using CM3

with no equalization, a gain of around 4dB is observed. This shows that a relative

improvement in terms of cost for the equalization task. A TiR channel with no

equalization outperforms a channel with 31 taps equalizer. To further improve the

performance of the UWB channel, an equalizer is combined with the TiR channel and a

gain of 0.5 dB is observed compared to the TiR-Rake channel. As a reference, the No-

ISI case is compared with a standard AWGN curve and a close result shown in Figure 5.3

is obtained as expected.

70
0
CM4 Channel
10
MMSETiR-Rake
TiR-Rake
31taps-MMSE
-1
10 Rake
5tap-MMSE
AW GN
No ISI
-2
10
BER

-3
10

-4
10

-5
10
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16
Eb/No(dB)

Figure 5.3 TiR BER simulation using CM4

5.2.3 Foundry Simulation Result

The CM3 and CM4 channel information used above are statistical data obtained

from IEEE. The trends in results observed using statistical data are demonstrated here

using measured data from UWB channel environments. The results discussed here are

those obtained from the Foundry of the Center for Manufacturing Research at Tennessee

Technological University Campus. This environment mimics a typical industrial

environment with a lot of metals and hence the ISI is expected to be severe especially in

the NLOS situations, a situation similar to IEEE 802.15.4a CM4 channel model. The

method used in collecting the UWB channel information is as discussed in the previous

71
chapters. The BER simulation results obtained using the measured data from the foundry

is shown in Figure 5.4 while Figure 5.5 shows a pictorial view of the foundry.

As expected, the results show a similar trend as those obtained using statistical

channel information from IEEE 802.15.3a CM3 and CM4 channels. At a BER of 103 ,

the TiR-Rake outperforms the equalizer with 31 taps by a 2.7 dB gain. This shows a

reduction in the receiver complexity due to time reversal. The receiver performance after

TiR could further be improved by using additional channel equalizer and hence the use of

MMSE-TiR receiver. A 5-tap MMSE TiR receiver outperforms the TiR-Rake by around

.33dB in this case. This shows that after TiR, a minimal amount of equalization will be

needed for further improvement in receiver performance.

5.2.4 BER Results for Clement Hall 400 Hallway

Simulation is also carried out using the channel data information obtained from

the Hallway of Clement Hall 400 of Tennessee Technological University Campus. The

hallway environment is the first environment studied for the various applications of TiR

in UWB. The results obtained from the hallway gave further insight for demonstrating

TiR in UWB using other channel environments. The hallway mimics a typical indoor

environment where ISI is present but not as severe as industrial environments. The BER

simulation result obtained here is shown in Figure 5.6.

72
0
Foundry Channel
10
MMSE-TiR
TiR-Rake
5taps-MMSE
-1
10 Rake
31taps-MMSE
AW GN
No ISI
-2
10
BER

-3
10

-4
10

-5
10
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20
Eb/No(dB)

Figure 5.4 Foundry BER simulation results

Figure 5.5 CMR Foundry

73
0
Hallway
10
MMSE-TIR
TIR-Rake
5taps-MMSE
-1
10 Rake
AW GN
No ISI

-2
10
BER

-3
10

-4
10

-5
10
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18
Eb/No(dB)

Figure 5.6 BER simulation result for Clement Hall 400 Hallway

As shown in Figure 5.6, the ISI condition here is not that severe. This is seen by an

energy bit per noise (Eb/No) of around 13.7dB at a BER of 103 . However, the TiR

Rake receiver still outperforms the Rake receiver by a 1 dB gain in Eb/No for a BER of

103 . The trend in receiver performance previously obtained is also shown in here as the

MMSE-TiR shows the best performance as expected.

5.3 Results Illustrating Temporal Compression

In this section, temporal compression is demonstrated using both statistical and

measured channel data in order to study the performance trend in UWB channels. CM1,

CM3, and CM4 channel information are used where CM1 is a typical LOS situation;

CM3 and CM4 are NLOS situations. Also, measured data for Clement Hall 400 Hallway,

74
Wireless Networking Systems (WNS) Laboratory at Tennessee Technological

University, and the Center for Manufacturing Research foundry are used. After TiR, the

effective channel impulse response shows temporal compression that is visible at the

center of the observed channel impulse response. The amount of temporal compression is

characterized using defined metrics already discussed in Chapter 4. Table 5.1 shows the

percentage energy captured by the peak for the effective TiR channel impulse response

for the various situations studied here. The results here show that NLOS cases capture

more energy at the peak compared to LOS cases. The results here also do not show any

trend in the peak energy captured for extreme NLOS situations

Table 5.1 Temporal peak to channel energy ratio

Environment TR

Hallway LOS 59.96%

Hallway NLOS 65.73%

Foundry LOS 52.26

Foundry NLOS 56.84

CM1 40.21%

CM3 49.38%

CM4 51.02%

Lab LOS 43.53%

Lab NLOS 48.8%

75
with more discrete channel taps when compared with NLOS cases with less discrete

channel taps (e.g. foundry data compared with hallway). For the Foundry and Hallway

data, the transmitter and receive antennas are separated by a distance of 10m while in the

WNS laboratory, they are separated by a distance of 6m. Other details about the

measurement set up are as discussed in Chapter 3. Figures 5.7 to 5.16 show the results

obtained using temporal compression in all channel cases shown in Table 5.1.

CM1 Channel impulse response


1

0.5
Amplitude

-0.5
0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900
excess delay(ns)
CM1 TiR channel
4

3
Amplitude

-1
0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800
excess delay(ns)

Figure 5.7 Temporal compression in CM1 channel

76
CM3 Channel impulse response
0.4

0.2

Amplitude
0

-0.2

-0.4

-0.6
0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600
excess delay(ns)
CM3 TiR channel
4

3
Amplitude

-1
0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500
excess delay(ns)

Figure 5.8 Temporal compression in CM3 channel

CM4 Channel impulse response


0.2

0.1
Amplitude

-0.1

-0.2

-0.3
0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000
excess delay(ns)
CM4 TiR channel
0.8

0.6
Amplitude

0.4

0.2

-0.2
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000
excess delay(ns)

Figure 5.9 Temporal compression in CM4 channel

77
Impulse response realizations
0.18

0.16

0.14

0.12

0.1

0.08

0.06

0.04

0.02

0
0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000
Time (nS)

Autocorrelation of Impulse response


1.4

1.2

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0
0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000 14000 16000
Time(ns)

Figure 5.10 Temporal compression in IEEE 802.15.4a Outdoor channel

received waveform foundryLOS 10m Estimated channel impulse response foundryLOS10m


0.5 0.15

0.4
0.1
0.3

0.05
Amplitude

Amplitude

0.2

0.1
0

0
-0.05
-0.1

-0.2 -0.1
0 10 20 30 40 50 0 10 20 30 40 50
Time index (ns) excess delay (ns)

Autocorrelation of channel impulse response foundryLOS10m


0.35

0.3

0.25

0.2
Amplitude

0.15

0.1

0.05

-0.05
0 20 40 60 80 100
Excess delay (ns)

Figure 5.11 Temporal compression in CMR Foundry LOS

78
received waveform foundryNLOS 10m Estimated channel impulse response foundry NLOS10m
0.16 0.1

0.14 0.08
0.12
0.06
0.1

Amplitude

Amplitude
0.04
0.08
0.02
0.06
0
0.04

0.02 -0.02

0 -0.04
0 10 20 30 40 50 0 10 20 30 40 50
Time index (ns) Excess delay (ns)

Autocorrelation of channel impulse response foundyNLOS 10m


0.3

0.25

0.2
Amplitude

0.15

0.1

0.05

-0.05
0 20 40 60 80 100
Excess delay (ns)

Figure 5.12 CMR Foundry NLOS result showing temporal compression

received waveform hallwayLOS 10m HallwayLOS 10m Estimated channel impulse response
0.5 0.15

0.4
0.1
0.3

0.2 0.05
Amplitude

Amplitude

0.1

0 0

-0.1
-0.05
-0.2

-0.3 -0.1
0 10 20 30 40 50 0 10 20 30 40 50
Time index (ns) Excess delay (ns)

Autocorrelation of channel impulse response(LOS)


0.3

0.25

0.2
Amplitude

0.15

0.1

0.05

-0.05
0 20 40 60 80 100
Excess delay (ns)

Figure 5.13 Clement Hall 400 Hallway LOS results showing temporal

compression

79
received waveform hallwayNLOS 10m Estimated channel impulse response hallway NLOS10m
0.25 0.08

0.2
0.06
0.15

0.04

Amplitude

Amplitude
0.1

0.05
0.02

0
0
-0.05

-0.1 -0.02
0 10 20 30 40 50 0 10 20 30 40 50
Time index (ns) Excess delay (ns)

Autocorrelation of channel impulse response NLOS10m


0.12

0.1

0.08
Amplitude

0.06

0.04

0.02

-0.02
0 20 40 60 80 100
Excess delay (ns)

Figure 5.14 Clement Hall 400 Hallway NLOS showing temporal compression

LOS received waveform WNS lab WNS lab LOS Estimated channel impulse response
0.5 0.25

0.4 0.2
0.3
0.15
0.2
Amplitude

Amplitude

0.1
0.1
0.05
0
0
-0.1

-0.2 -0.05

-0.3 -0.1
0 10 20 30 40 50 0 10 20 30 40 50
Time index (ns) Excess delay (ns)

Autocorrelation of channel impulse response(WNS lab LOS)


0.6

0.5

0.4
Amplitude

0.3

0.2

0.1

-0.1
0 20 40 60 80 100
Excess delay (ns)

Figure 5.15 WNS lab result LOS results showing temporal compression

80
received waveform WNS lab NLOS Estimated channel impulse response WNS lab NLOS
0.3 0.1

0.25 0.08

0.2 0.06

Amplitude

Amplitude
0.15 0.04

0.1 0.02

0.05 0

0 -0.02

-0.05 -0.04
0 10 20 30 40 50 0 10 20 30 40 50
Time index (ns) Excess delay (ns)

Autocorrelation of channel impulse response WNS lab NLOS


0.3

0.25

0.2
Amplitude

0.15

0.1

0.05

-0.05
0 20 40 60 80 100
Excess delay (ns)

Figure 5.16 WNS laboratory NLOS result results showing temporal

compression

5.4 Results For Spatial Focusing Gain

One of the key advantages and applications of TiR is the concept of security in

UWB systems. Secured communications means the inability of a nearby receiver to

successfully decode the information in the TiR channel and this is of particular interest to

DoD applications. To demonstrate this concept in UWB using TiR, the channel impulse

response is measured and obtained between the transmit antenna and the intended

receiver. The receiver antenna is then moved to various locations and the channel impulse

response is also obtained using CLEAN algorithm. The aim of this demonstration is to

observe the approximate distance at which the spatial focusing gain hh (r ) discussed in

the previous chapter is at least 10dB for typical UWB environments. The Foundry

channel data and the Hallway channel data are used for the purpose of this demonstration.

81
Both LOS and NLOS cases are studied in both environments and the results here show

that at a transmitter-receiver antenna separation of 6m is sufficient to obtain a spatial

focusing gain hh (r ) of at least 10dB. Figures 5.17 and 5.18 show the results obtained for

both the Hallway and Foundry channels.

LOS and NLOS gain vs distance


14
LOS
NLOS
12
space-time focusing gain(dB)

10

0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6
distance from intended receiver(m)

Figure 5.17 Demonstrating spatial focusing gain in Clement Hall 400 Hallway

82
Spatial focusing gain in foundry
14
LOS
NLOS
12

10

spatial focusing gain(dB)


8

0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6
distance from intended receiver(m)

Figure 5.18 Demonstrating spatial focusing gain in CMR foundry

5.5 Results for Time Reversal Loss Versus Distance

Lastly, as suggested by Dr. Nan Guo of the Wireless Networking Systems

Laboratory [77], in order to have information about the gain or loss in channel energy due

to TiR, the energy loss due to TiR can be studied against the channel energy loss for each

distance without TiR. A distance of 7m from the intended receiver is chosen as a

reference distance for studying the energy loss due to TiR. Two cases were studied:

NLOS channel scenario in the Foundry and NLOS channel scenario in the Hallway of

Clement Hall 400. Figures 5.19 and 5.20 show the results obtained. A similar study is

carried out via simulation by Mr. Chenming (Jim) Zhou [78] also of the Wireless

Networking System Laboratory. His simulation models a typical Hallway and the results

83
foundry energyLOSS
5
energyloss with prefilter
energyloss without prefilter
0

energyloss(dB) -5

-10

-15

-20

-25
4 5 6 7 8 9 10
distance(m)

Figure 5.19 Foundry energy loss (TiR versus No TiR)

Hallway energyLOSS
5
energyloss with prefilter
energyloss without prefilter
0

-5
energyloss(dB)

-10

-15

-20

-25
4 5 6 7 8 9 10
distance(m)

Figure 5.20 Hallway energy loss (TiR versus No TiR)

84
obtained is shown to have a similar trend as the experimental result. The experiments

result however shows a slightly better performance.

For the Foundry environment, the energy loss at a distance of 4m from the

transmitter, taking the 7m distance as a reference is shown to be around 3dB. Also, at a

distance of 4m, the energy loss by the TiR channel is shown to be around -19dB. The

channel energy gain due to TiR is approximately 22dB in this case. This shows that a

channel with TiR at this distance will have a 22dB gain in channel energy when

compared to that with no TiR. This also demonstrates that TiR energy has more channel

gain compared to non-TiR channel and hence the reason for a better receiver performance

also illustrated in the BER studies previously discussed. The results for other distances

are as shown in Figure 5.19. At a distance of about 1m from the reference location (7m),

the TiR channel shows a loss of around 19-20 dB.

For the Hallway, a gain of around 21dB is observed at a distance of 4m and other

gains due to TiR in the channel are as shown in Figure 5.20.

5.6 Summary

In this chapter, the performance analysis of UWB systems with TiR has been

analyzed and performance improvement was achieved using TiR for UWB channels

when compared to channels without TiR. Also, the concept of temporal compression was

discussed. Using defined metrics, temporal compression was characterized and the results

shown here show temporal compression to work finer for NLOS channels in UWB.

85
To demonstrate the concept of secured communications in UWB using TiR, the

spatial focusing gain was studied for UWB channels and at a distance of at least 6m,a

gain of 10dB was observed. This shows TiR to be a valuable concept in UWB systems

and this is of particular interest to the D.O.D.

Lastly, knowledge of the amount of channel energy gain using TiR was

demonstrated by studying the channel energy loss due to TiR with the channel energy

loss by distance. Using a 4m distance from the transmitter as an example, a gain of at

least 19dB was observed for both UWB channels studied here.

These results show TiR to be a promising technique in UWB. The results also

show that TiR, which has successfully been demonstrated in narrowband systems and

underwater acoustic channels could be applied to UWB systems.

86
CHAPTER 6

CONCLUSIONS AND FUTURE WORK

The objective of this thesis was to study and investigate the theory and

applications of time reversal in UWB using measurement and statistical data. Various

applications of TiR to UWB have been studied and analyzed using different UWB

channel data. BER performance using TiR was studied and evaluated and results show

TiR to be a promising technique for improving the performance of UWB systems when

ISI is present. TiR was also combined with conventional equalization techniques.

Temporal compression and spatial focusing in TiR were also studied in details and

knowledge of the amount of channel gain observed using TiR in UWB channels was

studied.

6.1 Conclusions

Performance results showed that the application of a transmitter prefilter

(h (t )) in a UWB channel with impulse response h(t ) results in performance

improvement and this technique shows a promising technique for reducing the effect of

ISI in UWB channels. Different UWB channel situations were studied and different

scenarios at the receiver were used. All channel cases studied here show that TiR reduces

the cost of equalization in UWB channels and hence one of the basic aims in any system

designs: cost versus performance has been met using TiR.

87
Two key applications of time reversal are temporal compression and spatial

focusing. These two concepts have been studied in details and results here obtained show

that TiR should work fine in NLOS UWB channels when compared with LOS channels.

This is because in the presence of ISI, there are more multipath and hence temporal

compression works finer because the more the number of multipaths, the better the

concept of TiR.

For spatial focusing, the aim of the study was to get a minimum distance at which

the spatial focusing gain is at least 10dB. A distance of 6m was sufficient for the cases

studied in this thesis.

Lastly, it is essential to have knowledge of the gain in channel energy by TiR.

This was studied comparing the energy losses due to TiR to that with no TiR and plots

showing this information were given. Using a typical 4m distance here, it was observed

that TiR results in a gain of at least 19dB for all channel situations studied here. This

gives an insight why TiR results in better performance in UWB system performance.

6.2 Recommendations for Future Work

This thesis gives a study of the applications of TiR in UWB systems and has

opened a lot of areas for future work, which could be done to better understand the theory

and applications of TiR in UWB systems. Some of the areas are as follows:

1. TiR uses a prefilter at the transmitter which is a time reversed complex

conjugate the of the channel impulse response. Other possible prefilter techniques need to

be studied and see if possible improvement in performance could be observed e.g. [77].

88
2. Performance of TiR in outdoor channels could also be evaluated (IEEE channel

model IEEE 802.15.4a).

3. Single user case has been addressed in work. The performance of UWB

systems with TiR for multi-user scenario should be studied when the receiver is not only

corrupted by ISI but also multi-user interference (MUI).

4. Hardware implementations issues related to the prefilter in TiR UWB systems

should be addressed in future work.

89
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97
APPENDICES

98
APPENDIX A: IEEE CHANNEL MODEL P802.15.3A

99
A.1 Multipath Channel Model

Clustering phenomenon was observed in several channel measurements.Based on this

clustering, IEEE proposed a UWB multipath channel model called IEEE P802.15.3a [45] derived

from the model by Saleh-Valenzuela with some slight modifications. Instead of a Rayleigh

distribution for the multipath gain magnitude, a log-normal distribution is employed . Log-normal

means that the logarithm of the random variable has a normal distribution. Additionally, for each

cluster as well as each ray within the cluster independent fading is assumed. Taking these

modifications into considerations, the multipath channel model can be represented by the

following discrete time channel response:

L k =K
hi (t ) = X i i k ,l (t T i l i k ,l ) (A.1)
l =0 k =0

where :

Xi represent the log normal fading

i k ,l are the multipath gain coefficients

T il is the decay of the lth cluster

i k ,l is the delay of the kth multipath component relative to the l th

cluster arrival time Tl

i refers to the i th c realization

The proposed IEEE model uses the parameters in table A.1:

100
Table A.1 Channel model components and parameters

A.2 Channel characteristics desired to model

The parameters discussed in Table A.1 are calculated by matching important

characteristics of the channel. Channel characteristics that were used to derive the model

parameters were chosen to be the following:

Mean excess delay

RMS delay spread

Number of multipath components (defined as the number of multipath arrivals that are within 10

dB of the peak multipath arrival)

Power decay profile

The first three characteristics above were used to match the parameters as it was found that it was

difficult to match to power decay profile. Channel parameters were found using measurement

data based on couple of channel characteristics for different channel models and are shown in

Table A.2.

101
Table A.2 Typical Channel Characteristics and Model parameters

1 Based on LOS (0-4 m) channel measurements reported by Pandegrass.

2 Based on NLOS (0-4 m) channel measurements reported by Pandegrass.

3 Based on NLOS (4-10 m) channel measurements reported by Pandegrass and Forester.

4 Represents an extreme NLOS multipath channel to fit a 25 ns RMS delay spread.

5 Sampling time for these characteristic is 167 ps.

One hundred actual realizations for each channel model were derived from the model above and

the channel that was obtained is as shown in Figure A.1-A.4.

Channel shown in Figure A.1 is one realization of channel CM 1. This channel model is of a line

of sight (LOS) case with the transmitter and the receiver antenna being separated by a distance in

the range (0-4 m).

Figure A.2 shows single realization of the channel model CM 2. This channel is a model for a non

line of sight (NLOS) case with antenna separation being in the range (0-4 m). FigureA.3 and A.4

represent channel models CM 3 and CM 4 for NLOS case with antenna separation being in the

range (4-10 m) and an extreme case respectively.

102
Figure A.1 CM 1: LOS (0-4m)

Figure A.2 CM 2: NLOS (0-4m)

103
Figure A.3 CM 3: NLOS (4-10m)

Figure A.4 CM 4 : Extreme NLOS

104
APPENDIX B: MATLAB CODE LIST

105
B1 List of Signal Processing/Simulation files

The following is a list of m files used for the signal processing and simulation in this thesis. The

files beranalysis and bertranalysis are modified files from those written by Mr. John Zhang of the

Wireless Networking Systems Laboratory. These files can be found on the CD attached to this

thesis.

Uwb_sv_cnvrt_ct.m

Uwb_sv_eval_ct.m

Uwb_sv_model_ct.m

Uwb_sv_params.m

Channelmodel.m

Cleanalgorithm.m

beranalysis.m

bertranalysis.m

uwbpulses.m

Comparetr.m

106
VITA

Abiodun Emmanuel Akogun graduated with a First Class Honors degree in

Electronic/Electrical Engineering from Obafemi Awolowo Universty, Ile-Ife, Nigeria, in

February 2000. From August 2000 to August 2003, he worked with GS Telecom/Spar

Aerospace, Nigeria Limited as Field Service Engineer. GS Telecom/Spar Aerospace is

the leading integrator of satellite and wireless systems in West Africa.

While at GS Telecom/Spar Aerospace, his key responsibilities include

designing/planning, installation, maintenance, and testing of radio frequency

(RF)/microwave and satellite systems and frame relay/ATM multiplexers for conveying

voice, data, and video over these RF systems. From August 2000 untill date, he served as

an active member of the Wireless Networking Systems Laboratory at Tennessee

Technological University.

Part of the results of his thesis work has been presented at the Instrumentation,

Systems and Automation Society (ISA) 51st International Instrumentation Symposium in

Knoxville, Tennessee. He is a member of the Eta Kappa Nu academic honor society and

also a recipient of the 2005 National Society of Black Engineers (NSBE) board of

corporate affiliates (BCA) award and the 2005 NSBE Torchbearer awards.

107