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Antologa de poemas de lectura obligatoria

Orientaciones y materiales de ayuda para la lectura de los textos literarios

Como consejo previo, cuya validez depende obviamente del grado de conocimiento de la lengua
inglesa de cada estudiante, debe intentar leerse el texto, o un fragmento sustancial del mismo
una parte, si est dividido en varias para comprender el argumento y el tema o los temas
ms importantes que se tratan. Una vez que se han entendido el argumento y los temas
principales, debe leerse el texto de nuevo ya ms despacio, poniendo atencin en los aspectos
formales y en el modo en que forman parte del sentido, intensificando ideas y sentimientos, o
aportando matices diferentes importantes, como por ejemplo la irona, que introduce un
significado distinto, a veces opuesto, al enunciado literal.

No deben obsesionarse tratando de buscar en el diccionario el significado de todas las palabras


que no conocen porque la lectura se les har tediosa y se aburrirn. El sentido de muchos
trminos se extrae con mucha frecuencia del contexto. Busquen, al principio, solo las palabras
imprescindibles para comprender el significado general del fragmento. En la segunda lectura
busquen los trminos que enriquecen el sentido prestando atencin a las figuras retricas,
particularmente las construcciones metafricas, que son las que pueden plantearles ms
dificultad.

Aunque todos los textos que tienen que leer estn traducidos al ingls moderno, hay muchos
trminos que, por pertenecer a un registro potico, son menos habituales. Conscientes de que
no pueden memorizar todo el vocabulario nuevo que aprendan, estos, como tambin los
arcaicos, en su caso, se los facilitamos en los exmenes, tanto en las pruebas presenciales como
en las de evaluacin continua, proporcionndoles un sinnimo sencillo para que no se agobien
ni pierdan un tiempo valioso en esas circunstancias.

La Antologa est pensada para evitarles gastos adicionales o tiempo de bsqueda en internet y
facilitarles, as, el material de estudio imprescindible. Trabajen sobre ella, anotando los
significados de los trminos que desconocan as como las figuras retricas y los recursos
estilsticos que van descubriendo y su efecto sobre el sentido. De esta manera el repaso les ser
mucho ms sencillo.

Una vez han entendido bien el texto en cuestin, se recomienda leer fragmentos en voz alta
tratando de reproducir la cadencia natural del lenguaje y de identificar, en consonancia con ella,
el ritmo del verso. Es conveniente acostumbrarse, al principio, a marcar las slabas acentuadas.

Cuando no se sepa cmo se pronuncia una palabra o en qu slaba recae el acento, debe
consultarse un diccionario de pronunciacin como, por ejemplo, http://www.howjsay.com.

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Por lo general, los diccionarios monolinges, como el Merriam Webster (http://www.merriam-
webster.com) les ofrecen tanto la pronunciacin, como la divisin silbica y la representacin
fontica. Por ejemplo, si consultamos la palabra comfort, aparece en primer lugar el icono de
un altavoz, pinchando sobre el cual podemos or la pronunciacin. Inmediatamente despus se
nos indica primero la divisin silbica: comfort y a continuacin se nos ofrece la representacin
fontica que nos permite ver la posicin del acento \km(p)-frt\. El apstrofe indica la slaba
sobre la que recae, precedindola; en este caso, la primera: /km(p)-/). Los signos entre
parntesis (p) indican que solo se pronuncia el sonido que representan en determinados y
escasos contextos lingsticos.

Debemos advertirles que no todos los diccionarios se acogen a la misma representacin


fontica. Este nos parece el ms sencillo, en este sentido y, por tanto, til.

La acentuacin ayuda a percibir el tipo de verso que vara de acuerdo con el nmero y la
posicin de los acentos as como la secuencia de la rima. La combinacin de ritmo y rima nos
indica la clase de estrofa, y las alteraciones o cambios en uno y otra nos ayudarn a percibir una
modificacin o intensificacin del sentimiento, o a captar significados que, de otro modo,
podran pasar desapercibidos. Es una buena prctica anotar las irregularidades rtmicas ms
notorias que se observen y su funcin en el significado del fragmento.

Obviamente, para reconocer el ritmo y la rima es imprescindible un conocimiento bsico de la


fontica inglesa que todos deben tener. Sin embargo, como es normal que les surjan muchas
dudas, pueden consultar el siguiente sitio en internet: Phonics on the Web:
http://www.phonicsontheweb.com/theory.php que les proporcionar una ayuda sumamente
til. Consulten detenidamente el men de la izquierda y vern un apartado esencial para dividir
slabas, por ejemplo, sin un buen conocimiento de lo cual difcilmente podrn identificar
patrones rtmicos como el aliterativo de la poesa anglosajona o el del pentmetro ymbico,
base de la poesa medieval y renacentista, respectivamente, que estudiarn en este curso.
Quienes tengan dificultades en este aspecto puede encontrar unas reglas sencillas en un
apartado del mismo sitio en internet: http://www.phonicsontheweb.com/syllables.php

Quienes carezcan de conocimientos bsicos de prosodia inglesa, pueden encontrar muy til las
explicaciones que ofrece la pgina web, BASIC GUIDE TO ENGLISH PROSODY:

http://www.uv.es/~tronch/stu/GuideEnglishProsody.html

Todos los poemas cuya lectura se indica que es preceptiva estn en el manual bsico, Ejes de
la Literatura Inglesa Medieval y Renacentista, o en esta Antologa. En muchos de los sitios web
de donde estn tomados, y cuya referencia se acompaa, encontrarn, adems, explicaciones
tiles que pueden facilitarles el estudio y proporcionarles informacin adicional interesante para
quienes deseen profundizar en la produccin potica de un autor determinado o en poemas
concretos. Esta informacin no es en ningn caso obligatoria ni constituir, por tanto, materia
de examen.

En muchos casos les ofrecemos sinnimos sencillos de algunos trminos para facilitarles su
lectura. Asimismo hemos procedido a actualizar la ortografa de algunas palabras de uso arcaico
y a corregir erratas que aparecan en muchos de los textos digitalizados.

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TEMA 1: La pica anglo-sajona y el romance medieval

Beowulf

(En la siguiente direccin de internet puede escuchar fragmentos


recitados por el propio Seamus Heaney:

http://www.wwnorton.com/college/english/nael/noa/audio.htm)

Fragmentos del poema de lectura obligatoria

Introduction of the Danes

So. The Spear-Danes in days gone by


And the kings who ruled them had courage and greatness.
We have heard of those princes heroic campaigns.

There was Shield Sheafson, scourge of many tribes,


A wrecker of mead-benches*, rampaging among foes.
This terror of the hall-troops had come far.
A foundling* to start with, he would flourish later on *a child without a known parent
As his powers waxed* and his worth was proved. *to grow
In the end each clan on the outlying coasts
Beyond the whale-road had to yield to him 10
And begin to pay tribute. That was one good king.

Afterwards a boy-child was born to Shield,


A cub in the yard, a comfort sent
By God to that nation. He knew what they had tholed*, *to suffer
The long times and troubles theyd come through
Without a leader; so the Lord of Life,
The glorious Almighty, made this man renowned.
Shield had fathered a famous son:
Beows name was known through the north
And a young prince must be prudent like that, 20
Giving freely while his father lives
So that afterwards in age when fighting starts
Steadfast* companions will stand by him *loyal
And hold the line*. Behaviour thats admired * To maintain the state of affairs
Is the path to power among people everywhere.
Shield was still thriving when his time came
And crossed over into the Lords Keeping.
His warrior band did what he bade them
When he laid down the law among the Danes:

4
They shouldered him out to the seas flood, 30
The chief they revered who had long ruled them.
A ring-whorled prow* rode in the harbour, * the front of a ship decorated with interlaced rings
Ice-clad, outbound, a craft for a prince.
They stretched their beloved lord in his boat,
Laid out by the mast, amid ships,
The great ring-giver. Far-fetched treasures
Were piled upon him, and precious gear.
I never heard before of a ship so well furbished
With battle-tackle*, bladed weapons *equipment
And coats of mail. The massed treasure 40
Was loaded on top of him: it would travel far
On out into the oceans sway.
They decked his body no less bountifully* *generously
With offerings than those first ones did
Who cast him away when he was a child
And launched him alone out over the waves.
And they set a gold standard up
High above his head and let him drift
To wind and tide, bewailing him
And mourning their loss. No man can tell, 50
No wise man in hall or weathered veteran
Knows for certain who salvaged that load.
Then it fell to Beow to keep the forts.
He was well regarded and ruled the Danes
For a long time after his father took leave
Of his life on earth. And then his heir,
The great Halfdane, held sway* *power
For as long as he lived, their elder and warlord.
He was four times a father, this fighter prince:
One by one they entered the world, 60
Heorogar, Hrothgar, the good Halga,
And a daughter, I have heard, who was Onelas queen,
A balm in bed to the battle-scarred Swede.

The fortunes of war favoured Hrothgar.


Friends and kinsmen flocked to his ranks,
Young followers, a force that grew
To be a mighty army. So his mind turned
To hall-building: he handed down orders
For men to work on a great mead-hall* *banqueting hall
Meant to be a wonder of the world forever; 70
It would be his throne-room and there he would dispense
His God-given goods to young and old
But not the common land or peoples lives.
Far and wide through the world, I have heard,
Orders for the work to adorn that wallstead* *mead[banqueting]-hall
Were sent to many peoples. And soon it stood there,
Finished and ready, in full view,
The hall of halls. Heorot was the name
He settled on it, whose utterance was law.
Nor did he renege, but doled out* rings *to distribute 80

5
And torques* at the table. The hall towered, *collar, necklace, armband
Its gables wide and high and awaiting
A barbarous burning. That doom abided,
But in time it would come: the killer instinct
Unleashed among in-laws, the blood-lust rampant.

Grendel Attacks Heorot

Then a powerful demon, a prowler through the dark,


Nursed a hard grievance. It harrowed* him *to torment
To hear the din of the loud banquet
Every day in the hall, the harp being struck
And the clear song of a skilled poet 90
Telling with mastery of mans beginnings,
How the Almighty had made the earth
A gleaming plain girdled* with waters; *encircled
In His splendour He set the sun and the moon
To be earths lamplight, lanterns for men,
And filled the broad lap of the world
With branches and leaves; and quickened life
In every other thing that moved.
So times were pleasant for the people there
Until finally one, a fiend out of hell, 100
Began to work his evil in the world.
Grendel was the name of this grim demon
Haunting the marches, marauding* round the heath** *to destroy **deserted field
And the desolate fens; he had dwelt for a time
In misery among the banished monsters,
Cains clan, whom the Creator had outlawed
And condemned as outcasts. For the killing of Abel
The Eternal Lord had exacted a price:
Cain got no good from committing that murder
Because the Almighty made him anathema 110
And out of the curse of this exile there sprang
Ogres and elves and evil phantoms
And the giants too who strove* with God *to struggle/fight
Time and again until He gave them their reward.

So, after nightfall, Grendel set out


For the lofty house, to see how the Ring-Danes
Were settling into it after their drink,
And there he came upon them, a company of the best,
Asleep from their feasting, insensible to pain
And human sorrow. Suddenly then 120
The God-cursed brute was creating havoc*: *chaos
Greedy and grim, he grabbed thirty men
From their resting places and rushed to his lair*,
Flushed up and inflamed from the raid,
Blundering back with the butchered corpses.

Then as dawn brightened and the day broke


Grendels powers of destruction were plain:

6
Their wassail* was over, they wept to heaven *festivity characterized by much drinking.
And mourned under morning. Their mighty prince,
The storied leader, sat stricken and helpless, 130
Humiliated by the loss of his guard,
Bewildered and stunned, staring aghast* *speechless, shocked
At the demons trail, in deep distress.
He was numb with grief, but got no respite
For one night later merciless Grendel
Struck again with more gruesome murders.
Malignant by nature, he never showed remorse.
It was easy then to meet with a man
Shifting himself to a safer distance
To bed in the bothies*, for who could be blind *small huts or cottages 140
To the evidence of his eyes, the obviousness
Of that hall-watchers hate? Whoever escaped
Kept a weather-eye open and moved away.
So Grendel ruled in defiance of right,
One against all, until the greatest house
In the world stood empty, a deserted wallstead.
For twelve winters, seasons of woe,
The lord of the Shieldings suffered under
His load of sorrow; and so, before long,
The news was known over the whole world. 150
Sad lays* were sung about the beset king, *stories about how things are
The vicious raids and ravages of Grendel,
His long and unrelenting feud,
Nothing but war; how he would never
Parley* or make peace with any Dane *to negotiate, discuss
Nor stop his death-dealing nor pay the death-price.
No counsellor could ever expect
Fair reparation from those rabid hands.
All were endangered; young and old
Were hunted down by that dark death-shadow 160
Who lurked and swooped in the long nights
On the misty moors; nobody knows
Where these reavers* from hell roam on their errands. * raiders or pillagers

So Grendel waged his lonely war,


Inflicting constant cruelties on the people,
Atrocious hurt. He took over Heorot,
Haunted the glittering hall after dark,
But the throne itself, the treasure-seat,
He was kept from approaching; he was the Lords outcast.
These were hard times, heart-breaking 170
For the prince of the Shieldings; powerful counsellors,
The highest in the land, would lend advice,
Plotting how best the bold defenders
Might resist and beat off sudden attacks.
Sometimes at pagan shrines they vowed
Offerings to idols, swore oaths
That the killer of souls might come to their aid
And save the people. That was their way,

7
Their heathenish* hope; deep in their hearts *pagan
They remembered hell. The Almighty Judge 180
Of good deeds and bad, the Lord God,
Head of the Heavens and High King of the World,
Was unknown to them. Oh, cursed is he
Who in time of trouble has to thrust his soul
In the fires embrace, forfeiting* help; *to give up
He has nowhere to turn. But blessed is he
Who after death can approach the Lord
And find friendship in the Fathers embrace.

So that troubled time continued, woe


That never stopped, steady affliction 190
For Halfdanes son, too hard an ordeal.
There was panic after dark, people endured
Raids in the night, riven* by the terror. *split or torn apart
When he heard about Grendel, Hygelacs thane
Was on home ground, over in Geatland.
There was no one else like him alive.
In his day, he was the mightiest man on earth,
High-born and powerful. He ordered a boat
That would ply the waves. He announced his plan:
To sail the swans road and search out that king, 200
The famous prince who needed defenders.
Nobody tried to keep him from going,
No elder denied him, dear as he was to them.
Instead, they inspected omens and spurred
His ambition to go, whilst he moved about
Like the leader he was, enlisting men,
The best he could find; with fourteen others
The warrior boarded the boat as captain,
A canny* pilot along coast and currents. *skilled

A hero arrives

(Beowulf and his men travel over a calm sea from Geatland to Denmark, and as they disembark, a Danish coast
guard questions them- especially why they have come dressed for battle. The Geat leader answers )

The leader of the troop unlocked his word-hoard*; *speech


The distinguished one delivered this answer:
We belong by birth to the Geat people 260
And owe allegiance to Lord Hygelac.
In his day, my father was a famous man,
A noble warrior-lord name Ecgtheow.
He outlasted many a long winter
And went on his way. All over the world
Men wise in counsel continue to remember him.
We come in good faith to find your lord
And nations shield, the son of Halfdane.
Give us the right advice and direction.
We have arrived here on a great errand 270

8
To the lord of the Danes, and I believe therefore
There should be nothing hidden or withheld between us.
So tell us if what we have heard is true
About this threat, whatever it is,
This danger abroad in the dark nights,
This corpse-maker mongering* death *to deal in
In the Shieldings country. I come to proffer* *to offer
My wholehearted help and counsel.
I can show the wise Hrothgar a way
To defeat his enemy and find respite 280
If any repose is to reach him, ever.
I can calm the turmoil* and terror in his mind. *unrest
Otherwise, he must endure woes
And live with grief for as long as his hall
Stands at the horizon, on its high ground.

(The coast guard recognises the nobility in the Geat leader, and readily leads them to Heorot. The Geat soldiers
leave their boat and carry their beautiful, ancient, family battle-gear toward the mead-hall. Upon arrival, Wulfgar, a
renowned fighter, similarly questions them about their intentions at Heorot. )

The man whose name was known for courage, 340


The Geat leader, resolute in his helmet,
Answered in return: We are retainers
From Hygelacs band. Beowulfs my name.
If your lord and master, the most renowned
Son of Halfdane, will hear me out
And graciously allow me to greet him in person,
I am ready and willing to report my errand.

(The guard takes this message to Hrothgar with the description of the Geats noble appearance. Hrothgar recounts
hearing of Beowulfs deeds as a hero and how the king once helped save Ecgtheow -Beowulfs father. Hrothgar
quickly agrees to let the Geats come to Heorot. Once there, Beowulf greets the Danish king.)

In webbed links that the smith had woven,


The fine-forged mesh of his gleaming mail-shirt,
Resolute in his helmet, Beowulf spoke:
Greetings to Hrothgar. I am Hygelacs kinsman,
One of his hall-troop. When I was younger,
I had great triumphs. Then news of Grendel,
Hard to ignore, reached me at home: 410
Sailors brought stories of the plight you suffer
In this legendary hall, how it lies deserted,
Empty and useless once the evening light
Hides itself under heavens dome.
So every elder and experienced council man
Among my people supported my resolve
To come here to you, King Hrothgar,
Because all knew of my awesome strength.
They had seen me bolstered in the blood of enemies
When I battled and bound five beasts, 420
Raided a troll*-nest and in the night-sea *A supernatural creature of Scandinavian folklore
Slaughtered sea-brutes. I have suffered extremes
And avenged the Geats (their enemies brought it

9
Upon themselves, I devastated them).
Now I mean to be a match for Grendel,
Settle the outcome in single combat.
And so, my request, O king of the Bright-Danes,
Dear prince of the Shieldings, friend of the people
And their ring of defence, my one request
Is that you wont refuse me, who have come this far, 430
The privilege of purifying Heorot,
With my own men to help me, and nobody else.
I have heard moreover that the monster scorns
In his reckless* way to use weapons; *lack of caution
Therefore, to heighten Hygelacs fame
And gladden his heart, I hereby renounce
Sword and the shelter of the broad shield,
The heavy war-board*: hand-to-hand *board shield
Is how it will be, a life-and-death
Fight with the fiend. Whichever one death fells 440
Must deem it a just judgment by God.
If Grendel wins, it will be a gruesome day;
He will glut* himself on the Geats in the war-hall, *feed with relish
Swoop* without fear on that flower of manhood *to attack suddenly and swiftly
As on others before. Then my face wont be there
To be covered in death: he will carry me away
As he goes to ground, gorged* and bloodied; *full to bursting
He will run gloating* with my raw corpse *mocking in triumph
And feed on it alone, in a cruel frenzy,
Fouling his moor-nest. No need then 450
To lament for long or lay out my body:
If the battle takes me, send back
This breast-webbing* that Weland fashioned *type of breast armour
And Hrethel gave me, to Lord Hygelac.
Fate goes ever as fate must.

(In answer, Hrothgar recounts the help he gave Beowulfs father by supplying him with enough treasure, a weregild,
to avoid war with the Wulfings. Although Hrothgar says that it bothers him to have someone else kill Grendel, he
knows that Beowulf has his fathers debt to pay. A bench is then cleared for Beowulf and his men to enjoy the food
and mead of the great hall.)

Then a bench was cleared in that banquet hall


So the Geats could have room to be together
And at the party sat, proud in their bearing*, *the way they carried themselves
Strong and stalwart*. An attendant stood by *sturdy
With a decorated pitcher*, pouring bright *jug
Helpings of mead*. And the minstrel sang, *an alcoholic drink of fermented honey and water
Filling Heorot with his head-clearing voice,
Gladdening that great rally of Geats and Danes.

Fight with Grendel

Then out of the night

10
Came the shadow-stalker, stealthy and swift;
The hall-guards were slack*, asleep at their posts, *careless
All except one; it was widely understood
That as long as God disallowed it,
The fiend could not bear them to his shadow-bourne*. *somber destination
One man, however, was in a fighting mood,
Awake and on edge, spoiling for action.
In off the moors*, down through the mist bands *open wasteland 710
God-cursed Grendel came greedily loping.
The bane* of the race of men roamed forth, *a person or thing that ruins or spoils
Hunting for a prey in the high hall.
Under the cloud-murk he moved toward it
Until it shone above him, a sheer keep
Of fortified gold. Nor was that the first time
He had scouted the grounds of Hrothgars dwelling
Although never in his life, before or since,
Did he find harder fortune for hall-defenders.
Spurned and joyless, he journeyed on ahead 720
And arrived at the bawn*. The iron-braced door *a fortified house
Turned on its hinge when his hands touched it.
Then his rage boiled over, he ripped open
The mouth of the building, maddening for blood,
Pacing the length of the patterned floor
With his loathsome tread, while a baleful* light, *full of sorrow
Flame more than light, flared from his eyes.
He saw many men in the mansion, sleeping,
A ranked company of kinsmen and warriors
Quartered together. And his glee was demonic, 730
Picturing the mayhem: before morning
He would rip life from limb and devour them,
Feed on their flesh; but his fate that night
Was due to change, his days of ravening* *destroying
Had come to an end.

Mighty and canny,


Hygelacs kinsman was keenly watching
For the first move the monster would make.
Nor did the creature keep him waiting
But struck suddenly and started in;
He grabbed and mauled* a man on his bench, *destroyed 740
Bit into his bone-lappings*, bolted down his blood *ligaments
And gorged on him in lumps, leaving the body
Utterly lifeless, eaten up
Hand and foot. Venturing closer,
His talon was raised to attack Beowulf
Where he lay on the bed; he was bearing in
With open claw when the alert heros
Comeback and arm lock forestalled* him utterly. *anticipate
The captain of evil discovered himself
In a handgrip harder than anything 750
He had ever encountered in any man
On the face of the earth. Every bone in his body

11
Quailed* and recoiled, but he could not escape. *shrink back in fear
He was desperate to flee to his den and hide
With the devils litter, for in all his days
He had never been clamped or cornered like this.
Then Hygelacs trusty retainer recalled
His bedtime speech, sprang to his feet
And got a firm hold. Fingers were bursting,
The monster back-tracking, the man overpowering. 760
The dread of the land was desperate to escape,
To take a roundabout road and flee
To his lair in the fens. The latching power
In his fingers weakened; it was the worst trip
The terror-monger had taken to Heorot.
And now the timbers trembled and sang,
A hall-session that harrowed every Dane
Inside the stockade: stumbling in fury,
The two contenders crashed through the building.
The hall clattered and hammered, but somehow 770
Survived the onslaught and kept standing:
It was handsomely structured, a sturdy frame
Braced with the best of blacksmiths work
Inside and out. The story goes
That as the pair struggled, mead-benches were smashed
And sprung off the floor, gold fittings and all.
Before then, no Shielding elder would believe
There was any power of person upon earth
Capable of wrecking their horn-rigged hall
Unless the burning embrace of a fire 780
Engulf it in flame. Then an extraordinary
Wail arose, and bewildering fear
Came over the Danes. Everyone felt it
Who heard that cry as it echoed off the wall,
A God-cursed scream and strain of catastrophe,
The howl of the loss, the lament of the hell-serf
Keening* his wound. He was overwhelmed, *to cry in lamentation
Manacled tight by the man who of all men
Was foremost and strongest in the days of this life.

But the earl-troops leader was not inclined 790


To allow his caller to depart alive:
He did not consider that life of much account
To anyone anywhere. Time and again,
Beowulfs warriors worked to defend
Their lords life, laying about them
As best they could with their ancestral blades.
Stalwart in action, they kept striking out
On every side, seeking to cut
Straight to the soul. When they joined the struggle
There was something they could not have known at the time, 800
That no blade on earth, no blacksmiths art
Could ever damage their demon opponent.
He had conjured the harm from the cutting edge

12
Of every weapon. But his going away
Out of this world and the days of his life
Would be agony to him, and his alien spirit
Would travel far into fiends keeping.
Then he who had harrowed the hearts of men
With pain and affliction in former times
And had given offence also to God 810
Found that his bodily powers failed him.
Hygelacs kinsman kept him helplessly
Locked in a handgrip. As long as either lived,
He was hateful to the other. The monsters whole
body was in pain, a tremendous wound
Appeared on his shoulder. Sinews* split *tendons
And the bone-lappings burst. Beowulf was granted *ligaments
The glory of winning; Grendel was driven
Under the fen-banks, fatally hurt,
To his desolate lair. His days were numbered, 820
The end of his life was coming over him,
He knew it for certain; and one bloody clash
Had fulfilled the dearest wish of the Danes.

(After the battle, the Danes rejoice. The proof of the victory comes when they follow the trail of blood to Grendels
swamp where he died in the murky waters. The people rejoice throughout Denmark, and many race back and forth
telling the mighty deeds of Beowulf- often comparing him to Sigemund the dragon slayer. Hrothgar returns to the
hall and adopts Beowulf (symbolically) as a son. He praises the mighty hero and blessings of God. Hrothgar finishes
his speech by saying)

But you have made yourself immortal 953


By your glorious action. May the God of Ages
Continues to keep and requite you well.

Beowulf, son of Ecgtheow, spoke:


We have gone through with a glorious endeavour
And been much favoured in this fight we dared
Against the unknown, Nevertheless,
If you could have seen the monster himself 960
Where he lay beaten, I would have been better pleased.
My plan was to pounce, pin him down
In a tight grip and grapple him to death
Have him panting for life, powerless and clasped
In my bare hands, his body in thrall*. *subjected
But I couldnt stop him from slipping my hold.
The Lord allowed it, my lock on him
Wasnt strong enough, he struggled fiercely
And broke and ran. Yet he bought his freedom
At a high price, for he left his hand 970
And arm and shoulder to show he had been here,
A cold comfort for having come among us.
And now he wont be long for this world.
He has done his worst but the wound will end him.
He is hasped and hooped and hirpling* with pain, *limping
Limping and looped in it. Like a man outlawed
For wickedness, he must await

13
The mighty judgment of God in majesty.

There was less tampering and big talk then


From Unferth the boaster, less of his blather* *foolish talk 980
As the hall-thanes eyed the awful proof
Of the heros prowess, the splayed hand
Up under the *eaves. *the edge of a roof that projects beyond the wall

(Hrothgar orders the hall to be restored to its former glory, and soon a victory feast begins. Beowulf and his men
are awarded gold, jewels, swords, and armour for their reward. Then a minstrel sings a tale of Hildeburh, a Danish
princess, who was married off to an ally of her enemies as part of a truce. In this story, the Danes are in exile after a
stalemate battle with the Jutes and Frisians, but they thirst for vengeance. After a year, they attack and kill the king
and bring his widow Hildeburh back home to Denmark. This story foreshadows the feud between the Geats and the
Swedes.)

Grendels Mother

(After the celebration, men once again stay in Heorot. However, Grendels Mother will come, and for one of them
this will be his last night on earth. She is an outcast because of her ancestor Cain who killed his own brother. The
family of Cain has become monsters. Seeking vengeance for her sons death, she attacks Heorot and kills just one
man -Hrothgars closest friend and advisor. In his grief over the loss of his friend, Hrothgar describes where
Grendels Mother lives to Beowulf. The old king will ask for one more favour.)

A few miles from here


A frost-stiffened wood waits and keeps watch
Above a mere; the overhanging bank
Is a maze of tree-roots mirrored in its surface.

At night there, something uncanny happens:


The water burns. And the mere bottom
Has never been sounded by the sons of men.
On its bank, the heather-stepper halts:
The hart in flight from pursuing hounds
Will turn to face them with firm-set horns 1370
And die in the wood rather than dive
Beneath its surface. That is no good place.
When the wind blows up and stormy weather
Makes clouds scud and the skies weep,
Out of its depths a dirty surge
Is pitched towards the heavens. Now help depends
Again on you and on you alone.
The gap of danger where the demon waits
Is still unknown to you. Seek it if you dare.
I will compensate you for settling the feud 1380
As I did the last time with lavish wealth,
Coffers of coiled gold, if you come back.
Beowulf, son of Ecgtheow, spoke:
Wise sir, do not grieve. It is always better
To avenge dear ones than to indulge in mourning.
For every one of us, living in this world
Means waiting for our end. Let whoever can
Win glory before death. When a warrior is gone,
That will be his best and only bulwark.

14
So arise, my lord, and let us immediately 1390
Set forth on the trail of this troll-dam*. female troll
I guarantee you: she will not get away,
Not to dens underground nor upland groves
Nor the ocean floor. Shell have nowhere to flee to.
Endure your trouble today. Bear up
And be the man I expect you to be.

(A war party is quickly formed, and they track Grendels Mother to the fen where she lives. To the astonishment of
the party, it is marked by the head of Hrothgars slain friend; the blood from the severed head stirs up all kinds of
sea monsters near the shore. Beowulf kills one with an arrow and brings it ashore allowing all to see the type of
monsters that await him in the water. Unferth, too afraid to go into the water, gives Beowulf a mighty sword named
Hrunting. Beowulf also dresses for battle with chain-mail, shield, and helmet. Beowulf reminds Hrothgar of his
earlier words about the death of a warrior.)

After these words, the prince of the Weather-Geats 1492


Was impatient to be away and plunged suddenly:
Without more ado, he dived into the heaving
Depths of the lake. It was the best part of a day
Before he could see the solid bottom.
Quickly the one who haunted those waters,
Who had scavenged* and gone her gluttonous rounds *search for food
For a hundred seasons, sensed a human
Observing her outlandish lair from above. 1500
So she lunged and clutched and managed to catch him
In her brutal grip, but his body, for all that,
Remained unscathed: the mesh of the chain-mail
Saved him on the outside. Her savage talons
Failed to rip the web of his war-shirt.
Then once she touched bottom, that wolfish swimmer
Carried the ring-mailed prince to her court
So that for all his courage he could never use
The weapons he carried; and a bewildering horde
Came at him from the depths, droves of sea-beasts 1510
Who attacked with tusks* and tore at his chain-mail *long projecting teeth
In a ghastly onslaught. The gallant* man *brave
Could see he had entered some hellish turn-hole
And yet the water did not work against him
Because the hall-roofing held off
The force of the current; then he saw a fire light,
A gleam and flare-up, a glimmer or brightness.

The hero observed that swamp-thing from hell,


The tarn-hag in all her terrible strength,
Then heaved his war-sword and swung his arm: 1520
The decorated blade came down ringing
And singing on her head. But he soon found
his battle-torch extinguished: the shining blade
Refused to bite. It spared her and failed
The man in his need. It has gone through many
Hand-to-hand fights, had hewed* the armour *To strike or cut; cleave
And helmets of the doomed, but there at last

15
The fabulous powers of that heirloom* failed. *object that has been in a family for generations
Hygelacs kinsman kept thinking about
His name and fame: he never lost heart. 1530
Then, in a fury, he flung his sword away.
The keen, inlaid, worm-loop-patterned steel
Was hurled to the ground: he would have to rely
On the might of his arm. So must a man do
Who intends to gain enduring glory
In a combat. Life doesnt cost him a thought.
Then the prince of War-Geats, warming to this fight
With Grendels mother, gripped her shoulder
And laid about him in a battle frenzy:
He pitched his killer opponent to the floor 1540
But she rose quickly and retaliated,
Grappled him tightly in her grim embrace.
The sure-footed fighter felt daunted,
The strongest of warriors stumbled and fell.
So she pounced upon him and pulled out
A broad, whetted knife: now she would avenge
Her only child. But the mesh of chain-mail
On Beowulfs shoulder shielded his life,
Turned the edge and tip of the blade.
The son of Ecgtheow would have surely perished 1550
And the Geats lost their warrior under the wide earth
Had the strong links and locks of his war-gear
Not helped to save him: holy God
Decided the victory. It was easy for the Lord,
The Ruler of Heaven, to redress the balance
Once Beowulf got back up on his feet.

Then he saw a blade that boded* well, * to be an omen, to predict


A sword in her armoury, and ancient heirloom
From the days of giants, and ideal weapon,
One that any warrior would envy, 1560
But so huge and heavy of itself
Only Beowulf could wield it in a battle.
So the Shieldings hero, hard-pressed and enraged,
Took a firm hold of the hilt and swung
The blade in an arc, a resolute blow
That bit deep into her neck-bone
And severed it entirely, toppling* the doomed** *to knock over; **destined to death
House of her flesh; she fell to the floor.
The sword dripped blood, the swordsman was elated.
A light appeared and the place brightened 1570
The way the sky does when heavens candle
Is shining clearly. He inspected the vault:
With sword held high, its hilt raised
To guard and threaten, Hygelacs thane
Scouted* by the wall in Grendels wake. *explore carefully
Now the weapon was to prove its worth.
The warrior determined to take revenge
For every gross act Grendel had committed

16
And not only for that one occasion
When hed come to slaughter the sleeping troops, 1580
Fifteen of Hrothgars house-guards
Surprised on their benches and ruthlessly devoured,
And as many again carried away,
A brutal plunder. Beowulf in his fury
Now settled that score: he saw the monster
In his resting place, a war-weary and wrecked,
A lifeless corpse, a casualty
Of the battle in Heorot. The body gaped
At the stroke dealt to it after death:
Beowulf cut the corpses head off. 1590

Beowulf becomes King of the Geats

(After the battle, Beowulf brings Grendels head and the giants sword back to Heorot as tribute to Hrothgar.
Beowulf is awarded many more valuables for his bravery, but most importantly Hrothgar teaches Beowulf what it
means to be a good king and to respect life. Before the Geats return home, Hrothgar proclaims Beowulf fit to be
king of the Geats. Once home in Geatland, Beowulf recounts his tales and shares his treasure with Hygelac. King
Hygelac in turn awards Beowulf with the best sword and treasure that the Geats own. Although Beowulf had at
times been poorly regarded, his status as a brave warrior was now set, and he carries himself with valour and
restraint- never harming those who were drunken or brawling- until Hygelac is killed in battle. Then)

The wide kingdom


Reverted to Beowulf. He ruled it well
For fifty winters, grew old and wise
As warden of the land
Until one began 2210
To dominate the dark, a dragon on the prowl* *moving around furtively
From the steep vaults of the stone-roofed barrow
Where he guarded a hoard; there was a hidden passage
Unknown to men, but someone managed
To enter by it and interfere
With the heathen trove*. He had handled and removed *treasure
A gem-studded goblet; it gained him nothing,
Though with a thiefs wiles he had outwitted
The sleeping dragon; that drove him into a rage,
As the people of that country would soon discover. 2220

Beowulf attacks the dragon

(The dragon continues to attack the villages and farms of Geatland; even Beowulfs home, the throne room, is
burned to the ground. Beowulf orders an iron shield to replace his wooden one. In his old age, this is a very
dangerous battle, yet Beowulf is too proud to call up a large army. Instead he recalls the glorious battles of his
youth- including the fight with Grendel- and the many fights he had as King of the Geats.)

And so the son of Ecgtheow had survived


Every extreme, excelling himself
In daring and in danger, until the day arrived
When he had to come face to face with the dragon. 2400
The lord of the Geats took eleven comrades

17
And went in a rage to reconnoitre*. *to inspect

The veteran king sat down on the cliff-top.


He wished good luck to the Geats who had shared
His hearth and his gold. He was sad at heart,
Unsettled yet ready, sensing his death. 2420
His fate hovered near, unknowable but certain:
It would soon claim his coffered soul,
Part life from limb. Before long
The princes spirit would spin free from his body.

(Beowulf recounts his childhood and several battles between the Geats and Swedes. In the most recent skirmish,
the Swedish king is killed by one of Hygelacs thanes- at the time a peer with Beowulf. This foreshadows the
continued strife between the Swedes and the Geats.)

Beowulf spoke, made a formal boast 2510


For the last time: I risked my life
Often when I was young. Now I am old,
But as king of the people I shall pursue this fight
For the glory of winning, if the evil one will only
Abandon his earth-fort and face me in the open.
Then he addressed each dear companion
One final time, those fighters in their helmets,
Resolute and high-born: I would rather not
Use a weapon if I knew another way
To grapple with the dragon and make good my boast 2520
As I did against Grendel in days gone by.
But I shall be meeting molten venom
In the fire he breathes, so I go forth
In mail-shirt and shield. I wont shift a foot
When I meet the cave-guard: what occurs in the war
Between the two of us will turn out as fate,
Overseer of men, decides. I am resolved.
I scorn further words against this sky-borne foe.
Men at arms, remain here on the barrow*, *hill
Safe in your armour, to see which one of us 2530
Is better in the end at bearing wounds
In a deadly fray*. This fight is not yours, *noisy quarrel, brawl
Nor is it up to any man except me
To measure his strength against the monster
Or to prove his worth. I shall win the gold
By my courage, or else mortal combat,
Doom of battle, will bear your lord away.
Then he drew himself up beside his shield.
The fabled warrior in his war-shirt and helmet
Trusted in his own strength entirely 2540
And went under the crag*. No coward path. *a steep, rugged rock
Hard by the rock-face that hale* veteran, *robust, vigorous
A good man who had gone repeatedly
Into combat and danger and come through,
Saw a stone arch and a gushing stream
That burst from the barrow, blazing and wafting

18
A deadly heat. It would be hard to survive
Unscathed* near the hoard, to hold firm *not injured
Against the dragon in those flaming depths.
Then he gave a shout. The lord of the Geats 2550
Unburdened his breast and broke out
In a storm of anger. Under grey stone
his voice challenged and resounded clearly.
Hate was ignited. The hoard-guard recognized
A human voice, the time was over
For peace and parleying. Pouring forth
In a hot battle-fume, the breath of the monster
Burst from the rock. There was a rumble underground.
Down there in the barrow, Beowulf the warrior
Lifted his shield: the outlandish* thing *strange 2560
Writhed and convulsed and viciously
Turned on the king, whose keen-edged sword,
An heirloom inherited by the ancient right,
Was already in his hand. Roused to a fury,
Each antagonist struck terror in the other.
Unyielding, the lord of his people loomed* *to come into view, appear
By his tall shield, sure of his ground,
While the serpent looped and unleashed itself.
Swaddled in flames, it came gliding and flexing
And racing towards its fate. Yet his shield defended 2570
The renowned leaders life and limb
For a shorter time than he meant it to:
That final day was the first time
When Beowulf fought and fate denied him
Glory in battle. So the king of the Geats
Raised his hand and struck hard
At the enamelled scales, but scarcely cut through:
The blade flashed and slashed yet the blow
Was far less powerful than the hard-pressed king
Had need of at that moment. The mound-keeper 2580
Went into a spasm and spouted deadly flames
When he felt the stroke, battle-fire
Billowed and spewed. Beowulf was foiled* *prevented
Of a glorious victory. The glittering sword,
Infallible before that day,
Failed when he unsheathed it, as it never should have.
For the son of Ecgtheow, it was no easy thing
To have to give ground like that and go
Unwillingly to inhabit another home
In a place beyond; so every man must yield 2590
The leasehold of his days.

Before long
The fierce contenders clashed again.
The hoard-guard took heart, inhaled and swelled up
And got a new wind; he who had once ruled
Was furled* in fire and had to face the worst. *rolled up
No help or backing was to be had then

19
From his high-born comrades; that hand-picked troop
Broke ranks and ran for their lives
To the safety of the wood. But within one heart
Sorrow welled up: in a man of worth 2600
The claims of kinship cannot be denied.

His name was Wiglaf, a son of Weohstans,


A well-regarded Shylfing [ Swedish] warrior

And now the youth


Was to enter the line of battle with his lord,
His first time to be tested as a fighter.
His spirit did not break and the ancestral blade
Would keep its edge, as the dragon discovered
As soon as they came together in combat. 2630
Sad at heart, addressing his companions,
Wiglaf spoke wise and fluent words:
I remember that time when mead was flowing,
How we pledged loyalty to our lord in the hall,
Promised our ring-giver we would be worth our price,
Make good the gift of the war-gear,
Those swords and helmets, as and when
His need required it. He picked us out
From the army deliberately, honoured us and judged us
Fit for this action, made me these lavish gifts 2640
And all because he considered us the best
Of his arms-bearing thanes. And now, although
He wanted this challenge to be one hed face
By himself alonethe shepherd of our land,
A man unequalled in the quest for glory
And a name for daringnow the day has come
When this lord we serve needs sound men
To give him their support. Let us go to him,
Help our leader through the hot flame
And dread of the fire. As God is my witness, 2650
I would rather my body were robed in the same
Burning blaze as my gold-givers body
Than go back home bearing arms.
That is unthinkable, unless we have first
Slain the foe and defended the life
Of the prince of the Weather-Geats. I well know
The things he has done for us deserve better.
Should he alone be left exposed
To fall in battle? We must bond together,
Shield and helmet, mail-shirt and sword. 2660

Then he waded the dangerous reek and went


Under arms to his lord, saying only:
Go on, dear Beowulf, do everything
You said you would when you were still young
And vowed you would never let your name and fame
Be dimmed while you lived. Your deeds are famous,

20
So stay resolute, my lord, defend your life now
With the whole of your strength. I shall stand by you.

After those words, a wildness rose


In the dragon again and drove it to attack, 2670
Heaving up fire, hunting for enemies,
The humans it loathed. Flames lapped the shield,
Charred it to the boss, and the body armour
Of the young warrior was useless to him.
But Wiglaf did well under the wide rim
Beowulf shared with him once his own had shattered
In sparks and ashes.

Inspired again
By the thought of glory, the war-king threw
His whole strength behind the sword-stroke
And connected with the skull. And Naegling [the sword] snapped. 2680
Beowulfs ancient iron-grey sword
Let him down* in the fight. It was never his fortune *to fail
To be helped in combat by the cutting edge
Of weapons made of iron. When he wielded a sword,
No matter how blooded and hard-edged the blade
His hand was too strong, the stroke he dealt
(I have heard) would ruin it. He could reap no advantage.
Then the bane* of that people, the fire-breathing dragon,*a person or thing that causes misery or stress
Was mad to attack for a third time.
When a chance came, he caught the hero 2690
In a rush of flame and clamped sharp fangs
Into his neck. Beowulfs body
Ran wet with his life-blood: it came welling out.
Next thing, they say, the noble son of Weohstan
Saw the king in danger at his side
And displayed his inborn bravery and strength.
He left the head alone, but his fighting hand
Was burned when he came to his kinsmans aid.
He lunged at the enemy lower down
So that his decorated sword sank into its belly 2700
And the flames grew weaker.

Once again the king


Gathered his strength and drew a stabbing knife
He carried on his belt, sharpened for battle.
He stuck it deep into the dragons flank.
Beowulf dealt it a deadly wound.
They had killed the enemy, courage quelled* his life; *to put out, extinguish
That pair of kinsmen, partners in nobility,
Had destroyed the foe. So every man should act,
Be at hand when needed; but now, for the king,
This would be the last of his many labours 2710
And triumphs in the world.

Then the wound

21
Dealt by the groundburner earlier began
To scald and swell; Beowulf discovered
Deadly poison suppurating inside him,
Surges of nausea, and so, in his wisdom,
The prince realized his state and struggled
Towards a seat on the rampart. He steadied his gaze
On those gigantic stones, saw how the earthwork
Was braced with arches built over columns.
And now that thane unequalled for goodness 2720
With his own hands washed his lords wounds,
Swabbed the weary prince with water,
Bathed him clean, unbuckled his helmet.
Beowulf spoke: in spite of his wounds,
Mortal wounds, he still spoke
For he well knew his days in the world
Had been lived out to the end: his allotted time
Was drawing to a close, death was very near.

(Beowulf asks Wiglaf to go into the barrow and examine the dragons treasure before bringing some to Beowulf.
The dying king wants to see what he gave his life for, so Wiglaf does as he is commanded. Once Wiglaf returns with
the gold, Beowulf gives thanks to the everlasting Lord of All and asks to be buried in a barrow on the coast to
remind his people and sailors of his brave deeds.)

Then the king in his great-heartedness unclasped


The collar of gold from his neck and gave it 2810
To the young thane, telling him to use
It and the war shirt and the gilded helmet well.

You are the last of us, the only one left


Of the Waegmundings. Fate swept us all away,
Sent my whole brave high-born clan
To their final doom. Now I must follow them.

That was the warriors last word.


He had no more to confide. The furious heat
Of the pyre would assail him. His soul fled from his breast
To its destined place among the steadfast ones.
It was hard then on the young hero,
Having to watch the one he held so dear
There on the ground, going through
His death agony. The dragon from under earth,
His nightmarish destroyer, lay destroyed as well,
Utterly without life.

The treasure had been won,


Been bought and paid for by Beowulfs death.
Both had reached the end of the road
Through the life they had been lent.

(Soon the deserters return, and Wiglaf berates them for the cowards that they are. He recounts the battles and on-
going feud with the Swedes and predicts that with Beowulfs death and the rumours of deserting soldiers, it is only
a matter of time before they are invaded. Wiglaf quickly orders seven men to collect the dragons treasure, and
they quickly set about preparing Beowulfs barrow along the high cliffs of the shore. After building a large pyre,

22
adorned with swords and shields, they burn Beowulfs body. What remains after the fire is placed in the barrow as a
memorial to their great king. Twelve riders circle the barrow lamenting and telling the great deeds of king Beowulf.)

They extolled his heroic nature and exploits 3173


And gave thanks for his greatness; which was the proper thing,
For a man should praise whom he holds dear
And cherish his memory when that moment comes
When he has to be conveyed from his bodily home.
So the Geat people, his hearth companions,
Sorrowed for the lord who had been laid low.
They said that of all the kings upon the earth, 3180
He was the man most gracious and fair-minded,
Kindest to his people and keenest to win fame.

End

23
The Wanderer

Translation by Michael Alexander

http://research.uvu.edu/mcdonald/wanderweb/trans3.htm

(Tengan en cuenta la terminacin arcaica [e/th] de la


tercera persona del singular)

Who liveth alone longeth for mercy,


Maker's mercy. Though he must traverse
Tracts of sea, sick at heart,
- Trouble with oars ice-cold waters,
The ways of exile - Weird is set fast.
Thus spoke such a 'grasshopper', old griefs in his mind,
Cold slaughters, the death of dear kinsmen:

'Alone am I driven each day before daybreak


To give my cares utterance*. *expression
None are there now among the living 10
To whom I dare declare me thoroughly,
Tell my heart's thought. Too truly I know
It is in a man no mean virtue
That he keep close his heart's chest,
Hold his thought-hoard, think as he may.
No weary* mind may stand against Weird *tired or exhausted
Nor may a wrecked* will work new hope; *destroyed
Wherefore*, most often, those eager for fame *the reason why
Bind the dark mood fast in their breasts.
So must I also curb my mind, 20
Cut off from country, from kind far distant,
By cares over worn*, bind it in fetters; *exhausted
This since, long ago, the ground's shroud
Enwrapped my gold-friend. Wretched I went thence,
Winter-wearied, over the waves' bound;
Dreary I sought hall of a gold-giver,
Where far or near I might find
Him who in mead-hall might take heed of me,
Furnish comfort to a man friendless,
Win me with cheer. 30
He knows who makes trial
How harsh and bitter is care for companion
To him who hath few friends to shield him.
Track ever taketh him, never the torqued* gold, *twisted [in armbands or necklaces]
Not earthly glory, but cold heart's cave.
He minds him of hall-men, of treasure-giving,
How in his youth his gold-friend
Gave him to feast. Fallen all this joy.
He knows this who is forced to forgo his lord's,
His friend's counsels, to lack them for long: 40
Oft sorrow and sleep, banded together,
Come to bind the lone outcast;

24
He thinks in his heart then that he his lord
Claspeth and kisseth, and on knee layeth
Hand and head, as he had at other whiles
In days now gone, when he enjoyed the gift-stool.
Awakeneth after this friendless man,
Seeth before him fallow waves,
Seabirds bathing, broading out feathers,
Snow and hail swirl, hoar-frost falling. 50
Then all the heavier his heart's wounds,
Sore for his loved lord. Sorrow freshens.
Remembered kinsmen press through his mind;
He singeth out gladly, scanneth eagerly
Men from the same hearth. They swim away.
Sailors' ghosts bring not many
Known songs there. Care grows fresh
In him who shall send forth too often
Over locked waves his weary spirit.
Therefore I may not think, throughout this world, 60
Why cloud cometh not on my mind
When I think over all the life of earls,
How at a stroke they have given up hall,
Mood-proud thanes. So this middle earth
Each of all days aeth* and falleth. *to age

Wherefore no man grows wise without he have


His share of winters. A wise man holds out;
He is not too hot-hearted, nor too hasty in speech,
Nor too weak a warrior, not wanting* in fore-thought, *lacking
Nor too greedy of goods, nor too glad, nor too mild, 70
Nor ever too eager to boast, ere he knows all.
A man should forbear boast making
Until his fierce mind fully knows
Which way his spleen shall expend itself.
A wise man may grasp how ghastly it shall be
When all this world's wealth standeth waste,
Even as now, in many places, over the earth
Walls stand, wind-beaten,
Hung with hoar-frost; ruined habitations.
The wine-halls crumble; their wielders* lie *those who handle or operate 80
Bereft of bliss, the band all fallen
Proud by the wall. War took off some,
Carried them on their course hence; one a bird bore
Over the high sea; one the hoar wolf
Dealt to death; one his drear-checked
Earl stretched in an earthen trench.
The Maker of men hath so marred this dwelling
That human laughter is not heard about it
And idle stand these old giant-works.
A man who on these walls wisely looked 90
Who sounded deeply this dark life
Would think back to the blood spilt here,
Weigh it in his wit. His word would be this:

25
'Where is that horse now? Where are those men? Where is the hoard-sharer?
Where is the house of the feast? Where is the hall's uproar?
Alas, bright cup! Alas, burnished fighter!
Alas, proud prince! How that time has passed,
Dark under night's helm, as though it never had been!
There stands in the stead of staunch thanes
A towering wall wrought with worm-shapes; 100
The earls are off-taken by the ash-spear's point,
- That thirsty weapon. Their Weird is glorious.
Storms break on the stone hillside,
The ground bound by driving sleet,
Winter's wrath. Then wanness cometh,
Night's shade spreadeth, sendeth from north
The rough hail to harry mankind.
In the earth-realm all is crossed;
Weird's will changeth the world.
Wealth is lent us, friends are lent us, 110
Man is lent, kin is lent;
All this earth's frame shall stand empty.'

So spoke the sage in his heart; he sat apart in thought.


Good is he who keeps faith: nor should care too fast
Be out of a man's breast before he first knows the cure:
A warrior fights on bravely. Well is it for him who seeks forgiveness,
The Heavenly Father's solace, in whom all our fastness stands.

26
The Wifes Lament

En este sitio, adems del texto, puede escuchar el poema recitado por la poeta irlandesa Eavan
Boland:

http://poemsoutloud.net/audio/archive/boland_reads_the_wifes_lament/

I sing this poem full of grief.


Full of sorrow about my life.
Ready to say the cruel state
I have endured, early and late,
And never more I will tell
Than nownow that exile
Has fallen to me with all its pain.
My lord had gone, had fled away
Over the sea. The break of day
Found me grieving for a prince
Who had left his people. Then at once
I set out on my journey,
Little more than a refugee,
Lacking a retinue and friends,
With needy means and needy ends.
They plotted together, his kith and kin.
They met in secret, they made a plan
To keep us as far apart, away
From each other, night and day
As ever they could while making sure
I would feel anguish and desire.
My lord and master made his will
Plain to me: He said, be still:
Stay right here, in this place.
And here I ampenniless, friendless,
Lacking him, my hearts companion
And sad indeed because our union
Suited me so well, so well
And for so long. And yet the real
State of his heart, the actual weakness
Of his mind, the true darkness
Of murderous sin was hidden away.
And yet I well remember the day,
Our singular joy on this earth
When we two vowed that only death
Could separate us. Now I see
Love itself has deserted me:
Love that was so true, so trusted
Is now as if it never existed.
Wherever I go, far or near,
Enmity springs from what is dear.
I was commanded to this grove
Under an oak tree to this cave
An ancient caveand I am filled

27
With longing here where hedges, wild
With briars, valleys, rollings,
Steep hills make a joyless dwelling
Often here, the fact of his leaving
Seizes my heart. There are lovers living
On this earth who keep their beds
While I am walking in the woods
Through these caves alone at dawn.
Here I sit. Here I mourn,
Through the summer hours, all my woes,
My exiled state, I cant compose
My careworn heart nor ease the strife
Of that desire which is my life.
Let a young man be sober, tough
And sunny withal however weighed
Down his soul, however sad.
And if it happens joy is his choice
May his self be its only source.
My lost lord, my lover-felon
Let him be cast from his land alone
By an icy cliff in a cold storm.
Let his own mind bedevil him
With weariness as the water flows
Far below his makeshift house.
Let my weary friend beside the sea
Suffer his cruel anxiety
Let him be reminded of this place
Of another dwelling: all its grace,
And all the affliction, all the cost
Of longing for a love thats lost.

28
Sir Gawain and the Green Knight
Translation by Paul Deane; Copyright Paul Deane, 1999
Sir Gawain and the Green Knight Translation by Paul Deane;

https://docs.google.com/document/d/1gKkQdZ2kjm-
9jhggdfHFZxGWH1Uzyb7ojDzgmhgyBJA/edit?pli=1

Book I: Christmas in Camelot

(3)

One Christmas in Camelot King Arthur sat


at ease with his lords and loyal liegemen
arranged as brothers round the Round Table.
Their reckless jokes rang about that rich hall
till they turned from the table to the tournament field
and jousted like gentlemen with lances and laughs,
then trooped to court in a carolling crowd.
For the feast lasted a full fifteen days
of meals and merriment (as much as could fit.)
Such gay glee must gladden the ear --
by day what a din, and dancing by night!
The halls and chambers were heaped with happy
lords and ladies as high as you like!
There they were gathered with all the world's goodness:
knights as kind as Christ himself,
ladies as lovely as ever have lived,
and the noblest king our nation has known.
They were yet in the pride, in the prime of their youth,
and filled
as full of heaven's blessing
as the king had strength of will.
And mighty men surpassing
all were gathered on that hill.

(4)

While the year was as young as New Years can be


the dais was prepared for a double feast.
The king and his company came in together
when mass had been chanted; and the chapel emptied
as clergy and commons alike cried out,
"Noel! Noel!" again and again.
And the lords ran around loaded with parcels,
palms extended to pass out presents,
or crowded together comparing gifts.
The ladies laughed when they lost at a game

29
(that the winner was willing, you may well believe!)
Round they milled in a merry mob till the meal was ready,
washed themselves well, and walked to their places
(the best for the best on seats raised above.)
Then Guinevere moved gaily among them,
took her place on the dais, which was dearly adorned
with sides of fine silk and a canopied ceiling
of sheer stuff: and behind her shimmering tapestries from far Tarsus,
embroidered, bedecked with bright gems
that the jewelers would pay a pretty price for
any day,
but the finest gem in the field of sight
looked back: her eyes were grey.
That a lovelier's lived to delight
the gaze - is a lie, I'd say!

(5)

But Arthur would not eat till all were served.


He bubbled to the brim with boyish spirits:
liked his life light, and loathed the thought
of lazing for long or sitting still longer.
So his young blood boiled and his brain ran wild,
and in many ways moved him still more
as a point of honor never to eat
on a high holiday till he should have heard
a strange story of stirring adventures,
of mighty marvels to make the mind wonder,
of princes, prowess, or perilous deeds.
Or someone might come, seeking a knight
to join him in jousting, enjoying the risk
of laying their lives on the line like men
leaving to fortune the choice of her favour.
This was the king's custom at court,
the practice he followed at pleasant feasts held
in his hall;
therefore with bold face
he stood there straight and tall.
As New Years proceeded apace
he meant to have mirth with them all.

(6)

So he stood there stock-still, a king standing tall,


talking of courtly trifles before the high table.
By Guinevere sat Gawain the Good,
and Agravaine of the Heavy Hand on the other side:
knights of great worth, and nephews to the king.
Baldwin, the bishop, was above, by the head,
with Ywain, Urien's son, sitting across.
These sat at the dais and were served with due honor;
and many mighty men were seated on either side.

30
Then the first course came with a clamor of trumpets
whose banners billowed bright to the eye,
while kettledrums rolled and the cry of the pipes
wakened a wild, warbling music
whose touch made the heart tremble and skip.
Delicious dishes were rushed in, fine delicacies
fresh and plentiful, piled so high on so many platters
they had problems finding places to set down
their silver bowls of steaming soup: no spot
was clear.
Each lord dug in with pleasure,
and grabbed at what lay near:
twelve platters piled past measure,
bright wine, and foaming beer.

(7)

I need say no more how they served the food,


for what fool would fancy their feast was a famine?
But a new noise announced itself quickly enough
to grant the high lord leave to have dinner.
The music had finished but a moment before,
the first course just served, and set before the court,
when a horrible horseman hurtled through the doors,
his body as brawny as any can be,
so bull-necked, big-thighed, bulky and square,
so long-legged, large-limbed, looming so tall
I can hardly tell if he were half troll*, *A supernatural creature of Scandinavian folklore
or merely as large as living man can be --
a handsome one too; as hearty a hulk as ever rode horse.
His back and chest were broad as a barrel,
but he slimmed at the waist, with a slender stomach,
and his face was well formed, with features sharp
and clean --
Men sat there gaping, gasping
at his strange, unearthly sheen,
as if a ghost were passing,
for every inch was green.

(8)

He was got up in green from head to heel:


a tunic worn tight, tucked to his ribs;
and a rich cloak cast over it, covered inside
with a fine fur lining, fitted and sewn
with ermine trim that stood out in contrast
from his hair where his hood lay folded flat;
and handsome hose of the same green hue
which clung to his calves, with clustered spurs
of bright gold; beneath them striped embroidered silk
above his bare shanks, for he rode shoeless.
His clothes were all kindled with a clear light like emeralds:

31
His belt buckles sparkled, and bright stones were set
in rich rows arranged up and down
himself and his saddle. Worked in the silk
were too many trifles to tell the half of:
embroidered birds, butterflies, and other things
in a gaudy glory of green and inlaid gold.
And the bit and bridle, the breastplate on the horse,
and all its tackle were trimmed with green enamel,
even the saddle straps, the stirrups on which he stood,
and the bows of his saddle with its billowing skirts
which glimmered and glinted with green jewels.
The stallion that bore him was the best of its breed
it was plain,
a green horse great and strong,
that sidled, danced and strained,
but the bridle-braid led it along,
turning as it was trained.

(9)

He was a fine fellow fitted in green --


And the hair on his head and his horse's matched.
It fanned out freely enfolding his shoulders,
and his beard hung below as big as a bush,
all mixed with the marvelous mane on his head,
which was cut off in curls cascading to his elbows,
wrapping round the rest of him
like a king's cape clasped to his neck.
And the mane of his mount was much the same,
but curled up and combed in crisp knots,
in braids of bright gold thread and brilliant green
criss-crossed hair by hair.
And the tossing tail was twin to the mane,
for both were bound with bright green ribbons,
strung to the end with long strands of precious stones,
and turned back tight in a twisted knot
bright with tinkling bells of burnished gold.
No such horse on hoof had been seen in that hall,
nor horseman half so strange as their eyes now held
in sight.
He looked a lightning flash,
they say: he seemed so bright;
and who would dare to clash
in melee* with such might? *from French mle: a noisy riotous fight

(10)

Yet he had on no hauberk, nor a helmet for his head,


neither neck-guard nor breastplate to break heavy blows,
neither shaft nor shield for the shock of combat.
But he held in one hand a sprig of holly
that bursts out greenest when branches are bare;

32
and his other hand hefted a huge and awful ax,
a broad battleax with a bit to tell (take it who can)
with a large head four feet long:
the green steel down the grain etched with gold,
its broad edge burnished and bright,
shaped razor-sharp to sheer through steel,
and held high on a heavy staff
which was bound at the base with iron bands
gracefully engraved in bright green patterns.
A strap was strung through the steel head, running
loop after loop down the length of the handle,
which was tied with tassels in abundance, attaching
by rich braids onto bright green buttons.
This rider reined in as he rode through the doors
direct to the high dais without a word,
giving no greeting, gazing down on them all.
His first word came when he stopped. "Where," he said,
"is the master of these men? I've a mind to see
his face and would fancy a chat with the fellow who wears
the crown."
To each lord he turned
and glancing up and down
he fixed each face to learn
which knight held most renown.

(11)

They stared at the stranger, stunned, a very long time.


For each man wondered what it might mean
that man and mount both shone a shade
as green as the grass, and greener even
than green enamel glows when gold makes it brighter.
All eyes were on him, and some edged closer,
wondering what in the world he would do.
They had seen enough strange sights to know how seldom they are real;
therefore they feared him for a phantom, a sending from the Unseen Realm.
So of all those noble knights, none dared answer
but sat there stupefied by the strength of his voice.
A silence fell filling that rich hall as if they'd all fainted
or suddenly slept: their voices just vanished
at their height.
Some, I suppose, were not floored,
but chose to be polite,
letting their leader and lord
be first to speak to that knight.

(12)

Arthur stood watching adventure advance


and answered quickly as honor bid, neither awed nor afraid,
saying, "Wanderer, know you are welcome here.
dismount, if you may; make merry as you wish,

33
and we may learn in a little while what you would like."
"So help me God who sits on high," he said, "No."
"It is not my purpose to pass any time in this place.
But I have been told that your reputation towers to heaven:
that your court and castle are accounted the finest,
your knights and their steeds as the sturdiest in steel,
the best, the boldest, the bravest on earth,
and as fitting foes in any fine sport.
True knighthood is known here, or so the tale runs,
which is why I have come calling today.
You may be sure by this branch that I bear
that I come in peace, with no plans for battle.
I have a hauberk at home, and a helmet too,
and other weapons I know well how to wield.
Yet as war is not my wish I am wearing soft silk,
but, if you are as bold as men believe you to be,
you will be glad to grant me the game that is mine
by right."
Then Arthur said, "I swear,"
"most courteous, noble knight,
if you'd like to battle bare,
you'll not fail to find a fight."

(13)

"Never fear," he said, "I'm not fishing for a fight


with the beardless children on the benches all about.
If I were strapped on steel on a sturdy horse
no man here has might to match me.
No, I have come to this court for a bit of Christmas fun
fitting for Yuletide and New Years with such a fine crowd.
Who here in this house thinks he has what it takes,
has bold blood and a brash head,
and dares to stand his ground, giving stroke for stroke?
Here! I shall give him this gilded blade as my gift;
this heavy ax shall be his, to handle as he likes.
and I shall stand here bare of armour, and brave the first blow.
If anyone's tough enough to try out my game,
let him come here quickly and claim his weapon!
I give up all rights; he will get it for keeps.
I'll stand like a tree trunk -- he can strike at me once,
if you'll grant me the right to give as good as I get
in play.
But later is soon enough,
a full year and a day.
Get up, if you think you're rough,
let's see what you dare to say!"

(14)

If at first he had stunned them, now they sat stone-still:


the whole hall, both high and low.

34
The mounted man moved in his saddle,
glared a red glance grimly about,
arched his bushy brows, all brilliant and green,
his beard waving as he waited for one man to rise,
to call or came forward. He coughed loudly,
stretched slowly, and straightened to speak.
"Hah! They call this King Arthur's house,
a living legend in land after land?
Where have your pride and your power gone,
your bragging boasts, your big words?
The glories and triumphs of the Round Table
have toppled at the touch of one man's words!
What? Fainting with fear, when no fight is offered?"
He let out a laugh so loud that Arthur winced
with shame; the blood shot to his flushed face
and churned
with rage and raised a storm
until their hearts all burned.
All king in face and form,
he reached that rider, turned,

(15)
and said, "Look here, by heaven! Have you lost your mind?
If you want to be mad, I will make you welcome!
Nobody I know is bowled over by your big words,
so help me God! Hand me that ax --
I will grant you the gift you beg me to give!"
He leaped lightly up and lifted it from his hand.
Then the man dismounted, moving proudly,
while Arthur held the ax, both hands on the haft,
hefted it sternly, considered his stroke.
That burly man bulked big and tall,
a head higher than anyone in the house.
He stood there hard-faced, stroking his beard,
impassively watching as he pulled off his coat,
no more moved or dismayed by his mighty swings
than anybody would be if somebody brought him a bottle
of wine.
Gawain, sitting by the queen,
could tell the king his mind:
"Lord, hear well what I mean,
and let this match be mine."

(16)

"Grant leave, good lord," said Gawain to the king,


"to stir from my seat and stand by your side;
that I might rise without rudeness from this table
without fear of offending your fair queen,
and come before your court as a counselor should.
It is plainly improper, as people know well,
to point this proposal at the prince himself.

35
Though you may be eager to act for yourself,
there are so many bold knights on the benches all about,
none more masterful in mind maybe than move under heaven,
nor many built better for the field of battle.
Of all your men of war I am the weakest and least wise,
and my life little enough to lose, if you look at it clearly.
My only honor is that you are my uncle;
my only boast is that my body carries your blood.
Since this whole matter is such a mockery, it is not meant for you;
and I am first on the field: let this folly be mine.
If my claim is uncalled-for let the court judge; I will bear
the blame."
They huddled hushed around
and all advised the same:
respect the royal crown,
and give Gawain the game.

(17)

Then the king commanded him to rise and come forward,


and he stood quickly, walked with stately steps
to kneel before the king and claim his weapon.
Arthur handed it over and held up his hand
to give him God's blessing. With a glad smile
he charged him to be hardy in heart.
"Cousin, careful," he said, "cut him but once.
and if you teach him truly, I trust you will find
you can bear the blow that he brings you later."
Gawain went to the warrior, weapon in hand,
not the least bit bashful, as bold as can be.
Then the Green Knight said to Gawain,
"We should go over our agreement before we begin.
First, knight, I would know your name,
told truly as one I can trust."
"My name is Gawain," he said, "I give it in good faith,
as I will give you a blow and bear what comes after.
At this time in twelve months I will take a blow back
from what weapon you wish, but from no other knight
alive.
The other answering spoke,
"Sir Gawain: good. I derive
great pleasure from the stroke
your hardy hands will drive."

(18)

"Gad*!" the Green Knight said. "Sir Gawain, I am glad * interj., used to express surprise.
that your fist will fetch me the fun I hoped to find.
You have quickly retold in trustworthy words
a correct account of the contract I asked of the king,
save one stipulation that I must state: let it stand as your oath
that you will seek me yourself, and search anywhere

36
you feel I may be found to fetch back the same wages
I am paid today before this proud court."
"Where should I look?" Gawain asked, "Where do you live?"
"By Him that made me, your house is not known to me,
neither do I know you, knight, nor your court nor your name.
But teach me truly, tell me where to find you
and I shall work my wits out to win my way there.
I give my plain promise; I pledge you my word."
"That is enough for a New Year's pledge; you need say no more,"
-- So the green man answered gracious Gawain --
"If I'm telling the truth, why, when I've taken your tap,
and you've lopped me lovingly, you'll learn at once
of my house and my home and how I am named.
Then you can try my hospitality and be true to our compact.
Or I'll have no words to waste, which would be well for you:
you'd relax in this land, and not look for me further.
But stop!
Take up the grim tool you need,
and show me how you chop."
"Gladly, sir," he said, "Indeed,"
and gave the ax a strop.

(19)

The green knight got ready, feet firm on the ground;


leaned his head a little to let the cheek show,
and raised the rich riot of his hair
so the nape of his neck was naked and exposed.
Gawain held the ax high overhead,
his left foot set before him on the floor,
swung swiftly at the soft flesh
so the bit of the blade broke through the bones,
crashed through the clear fat and cut it in two,
and the brightly burnished edge bit into the earth.
The handsome head fell, hit the ground,
and rolled forward; they fended it off with their feet.
The red blood burst bright from the green body,
yet the fellow neither faltered nor fell
but stepped strongly out on sturdy thighs,
reached roughly right through their legs,
grabbed his graceful head and lifted it from the ground,
ran to his horse, caught hold of the reins,
stepped in the stirrup, strode into the saddle,
the head dangling by the hair from his hand,
and seated himself as firmly in the saddle
as if he were unhurt, though he sat on his horse without
a head.
He swiveled his bulk about;
the ugly stump still bled.
They gaped in fear and doubt
because of the words he said.

37
(20)

For he held the head up evenly in his hand,


turned the face toward the top of the high table,
and the eyelids lifted and looked on them all
while the mouth moved, making these words:
"Gawain, get ready to go as you have promised,
Seek me out, sir; search till you find me
as sworn here in this hall where all these knights heard.
I charge you, come as you chose to the Green Chapel to get
as good as you gave -- you've got it coming
and will be paid promptly when another year has passed.
Many men know me as the Knight of the Green Chapel,
so search faithfully and you'll not fail to find me.
Come, or be called a faithless coward!"
He roared like a raging bull, turned the reins,
and drove for the door, still dangling the head,
while fire flashed from the horse's feet as if its hooves were flints.
Where he went no one knew,
nor could they name the country he came from nor his kin.
What then?
The king and Gawain grinned
and laughed at the Green Knight when
they knew full well it had been
a portent to their men.

(21)

Though High King Arthur's heart was heavy with wonder


he let no sign of it be seen, but said aloud
with a king's courtesy to his lovely queen:
"Beloved lady, never let this dismay you.
It is good to get such games at Christmas,
light interludes, laughter and song,
or the whole court singing carols in chorus.
But truly, I can turn now to my table and feast;
as my word is good, I have witnessed a wonder."
He turned to Sir Gawain and tactfully said,
"Hang up your ax; it has cut all it can."
It was attached to a tapestry above the high table
for all men to marvel on who might see it there,
as a true token of a tale of wonder.
Then they sat in their seats to resume their feast,
Gawain and the king together, while good men served them
the rarest, dearest delicacies in double portions,
with whole batteries of the best foods, and the singing of bards.
The day finished, and their feast was filled with joy
and zest.
Sir Gawain, have a care
to keep your courage for the test,
and do the deed you've dared.
You've begun: now brave the rest.

38
Tema 4: Poesa isabelina

Sir Thomas Wyatt:

Songs CXXIII:

Who list his wealth and ease retain,


Himself let him unknown contain.
Press not too fast in at that gate
Where the return stands by disdain,
For sure, circa Regna tonat (1).

The high mountains are blasted oft


When the low valley is mild and soft.
Fortune with Health stands at debate.
The fall is grievous from aloft.
And sure, circa Regna tonat.

These bloody days have broken my heart.


My lust, my youth did them depart,
And blind desire of estate.
Who hastes to climb seeks to revert.
Of truth, circa Regna tonat.

The bell tower showed me such sight


That in my head sticks day and night.
There did I learn out of a grate,
For all favour, glory, or might,
That yet circa Regna tonat.

By proof, I say, there did I learn:


Wit helpeth not defence too yerne,
Of innocency to plead or prate.
Bear low, therefore, give God the stern,
For sure, circa Regna tonat.

(1.) "It thunders through the realms," Seneca, Phaedra, 1.1140. The first two stanzas
paraphrase lines from that play.

http://forum.quoteland.com/eve/forums/a/tpc/f/5511096101/m/43510894

39
Sir Philip Sidney

Astrophil and Stella: 6, 37, 41, 47, 53.

http://www.shakespeares-sonnets.com/sidney

6
Some lovers speak when they their Muses entertain,
Of hopes begot by fear, of wot not what desires:
Of force of heavnly beams, infusing hellish pain:
Of living deaths, dear wounds, fair storms, and freezing fires.
Some one his song in Jove, and Joves strange tales attires,
Broidered with bulls and swans, powdered with golden rain;
Another humbler wit to shepherds pipe retires,
Yet hiding royal blood full oft in rural vein.
To some a sweetest plaint a sweetest style affords,
While tears pour out his ink, and sighs breathe out his words:
His paper pale despair, and pain his pen doth move.
I can speak what I feel, and feel as much as they,
But think that all the map of my state I display,
When trembling voice brings forth that I do Stella love.

37

My mouth doth water, and my breast doth swell,


My tongue doth itch, my thoughts in labor be:
Listen then, lordings, with good ear to me,
For of my life I must a riddle tell.
Toward Aurora's court a nymph doth dwell,
Rich in all beauties which man's eye can see:
Beauties so far from reach of words, that we
Abase her praise, saying she doth excel:
Rich in the treasure of deserved renown,
Rich in the riches of a royal heart,
Rich in those gifts which give th'eternal crown;
Who though most rich in these and every part,
Which make the patents of true worldly bliss,
Hath no misfortune, but that Rich she is. Penelope Rich

40
41

Having this day my horse, my hand, my lance


Guided so well, that I obtained the prize,
Both by the judgment of the English eyes,
And of some sent from that sweet enemy France;
Horsemen my skill in horsemanship advance,
Town-folks my strength; a daintier judge applies
His praise to sleight, which from good use doth rise;
Some lucky wits impute it but to chance;
Others, because of both sides I do take
My blood from them who did excel in this,
Think Nature me a man of arms did make.
How far they shot awry! The true cause is,
Stella looked on, and from her heav'nly face
Sent forth the beams, which made so fair my race.

47

What, have I thus betrayed my liberty?


Can those black beams such burning marks engrave
In my free side? Or am I born a slave,
Whose neck becomes such yoke of tyranny?
Or want I sense to feel my misery?
Or sprite, disdain of such disdain to have,
Who for long faith, though daily help I crave,
May get no alms but scorn of beggary?
Virtue awake, beauty but beauty is;
I may, I must, I can, I will, I do
Leave following that, which it is gain to miss.
Let her go! Soft, but here she comes. Go to,
Unkind, I love you not. Oh me, that eye
Doth make my heart give to my tongue the lie.

53

In martial sports I had my cunning tried,


And yet to break more staves did me address:
While, with the people's shouts, I must confess,
Youth, luck, and praise, ev'n filled my veins with pride;
When Cupid having me his slave descried,
In Mars's livery, prancing in the press:
"What now, Sir Fool," said he; I would no less.
"Look here, I say." I looked and Stella spied,
Who hard by made a window send forth light.
My heart then quaked, then dazzled were mine eyes;
One hand forgot to rule, th'other to fight.
Nor trumpet's sound I heard, nor friendly cries;
My foe came on, and beat the air for me,
Till that her blush taught me my shame to see.

41
Edmund Spenser

The Faerie Queene

http://www.bartleby.com/153/55.html

Fragmentos del Libro II. The Legend of Sir Guyon, Canto XII, episodio de The Bower of Bliss

XLII

Thence passing forth, they shortly do arrive,


Whereas the Bower of Bliss was situate;
A place picked out by choice of best alive,
That Nature's work by art can imitate:
In which what-ever in this worldly state
Is sweet, and pleasing unto living sense,
Or that may daintiest fantasy aggrate*, *to please
Was poured forth with plentiful dispense,
And made there to abound with lavish affluence.

XLIII
Goodly it was enclosed round about,
As well their entred guests to keep within,
As those unruly beasts to hold without;
Yet was the fence thereof but weak and thin:
Nought feared their force, that fortilage* to win, *a little fort
But wisdom's power, and temperance's might,
By which the mightiest things efforced* bin: * to compel to yield.
And eke* the gate was wrought of substance light, *also [archaic]
Rather for pleasure, than for battery or fight.

XLIV
It framed was of precious ivory,
That seemed a work of admirable wit;
And therein all the famous history
Of Jason and Medaea was ywritt*; *written
Her mighty charms, her furious loving fit,
His goodly conquest of the golden fleece,
His falsed faith, and love too lightly flit,
The wondred Argo, which in venturous peace
First through the Euxine Seas bore all the flower of Greece.
..
LXX
Eftsoons* they heard a most melodious sound, *soon afterward [archaic]
Of all that mote delight a dainty ear,

42
Such as at once might not on living ground,
Save in this paradise, be heard elsewhere:
Right hard it was for wight* which did it hear, *creature
To read what manner music that mote be;
For, all that pleasing is to living ear,
Was there consorted in one harmony,
Birds, voices, instruments, winds, waters, all agree.

LXXI
The joyous birds, shrouded in cheerful shade,
Their notes unto the voice attempred sweet;
Th' angelical soft trembling voices made
To th' instruments divine respondence meet:
The silver sounding Instruments did meet
With the base murmur of the water's fall:
The water's fall with difference discreet,
Now soft, now loud, unto the wind did call:
The gentle warbling wind low answered to all.

LXXII
There, whence that music seemed heard to be,
Was the fair witch, herself now solacing
With a new lover, whom through sorcery
And witchcraft, she from far did thither* bring: *there
There she had him now laid a slumbering,
In secret shade, after long wanton joys;
Whilst round about them pleasantly did sing
Many fair ladies, and lascivious boys,
That ever mixt their song with light licentious toys.

43
LXXIII
And all that while, right over him she hung,
With her false eyes fast fixed in his sight,
As seeking medicine whence she was stung,
Or greedily depasturing* delight: *to eat, to feed on
And oft inclining down, with kisses light,
For fear of waking him, his lips bedewd*, *to wet or cover as if with dew
And through his humid eyes did suck his spright*, *spirit [archaic]
Quite molten into lust and pleasure lewd;
Wherewith she sighed soft, as if his case she rewd* *to feel sorrow

..

LXXVII
Upon a bed of roses she was laid,
As faint through heat, or dight* to pleasant sin, *to dress, adorn [archaic]
And was arrayed, or rather disarrayed,
All in a veil of silk and silver thin,
That hid no whit* her alabaster skin, *the least bit
But rather shewd more white, if more might be:
More subtle web Arachne cannot spin,
Nor the fine nets, which oft we woven see
Of scorched dew, do not in th' air more lightly flee.

LXXVIII
Her snowy breast was bare to ready spoil
Of hungry eyes, which n'ote therewith be filled;
And yet through languour of her late sweet toil,
Few drops, more clear than nectar, forth distilled,
That like pure orient pearls adown* it trilled**: *downward; **to make a tremulous sound
And her fair eyes sweet smiling in delight,
Moistened their fiery beams, with which she thrilled
Frail hearts, yet quenched not; like starry light,
Which sparkling on the silent waves, does seem more bright.

LXXXIII
But all those pleasant bowers, and palace brave,
Guyon broke down, with rigour pitiless;
Ne ought* their goodly workmanship might save *nor anything at all
Them from the tempest of his wrathfulness,
But that their bliss he turn'd to balefulness:
Their groves he felled, their gardens did deface*, *destroy
Their arbors spoil, their cabinets suppress,
Their banket houses burn, their buildings raze,
And of the fairest late*, now made the foulest place. *previous

Escuche un fragmento en: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=o652E3CMX3M

44
YE tradeful Merchants, that, with weary toil,
Do seek most precious things to make your gain;
And both the Indias of their treasure spoil;
What needeth you to seek so far in vain?
For lo, my love doth in her self contain
All this worlds riches that may far be found:
If sapphires, lo, her eyes be sapphires plain;
If rubies, lo, her lips be rubies sound;
If pearls, her teeth be pearls, both pure and round;
If ivory, her forehead ivory ween;
If gold, her locks are finest gold on ground;
If silver, her fair hands are silver sheen:
But that which fairest is, but few behold,
Her mind adorned with virtues manifold.

En http://www.bartleby.com/358/781.html

45
William Shakespeare

Sonnets

Todos los sonetos se encuentran en: http://www.shakespeares-sonnets.com/

18

Shall I compare thee to a summer's day?


Thou art more lovely and more temperate:
Rough winds do shake the darling buds of May,
And summer's lease hath all too short a date:
Sometime too hot the eye of heaven shines,
And often is his gold complexion dimmed,
And every fair from fair sometime declines,
By chance, or nature's changing course untrimmed:
But thy eternal summer shall not fade,
Nor lose possession of that fair thou ow'st,
Nor shall death brag thou wander'st in his shade,
When in eternal lines to time thou grow'st,
So long as men can breathe, or eyes can see,
So long lives this, and this gives life to thee.

87

Farewell! thou art too dear for my possessing,


And like enough thou know'st thy estimate,
The charter of thy worth gives thee releasing;
My bonds in thee are all determinate.
For how do I hold thee but by thy granting?
And for that riches where is my deserving?
The cause of this fair gift in me is wanting,
And so my patent back again is swerving.
Thy self thou gavst, thy own worth then not knowing,
Or me to whom thou gav'st it else mistaking;
So thy great gift, upon misprision growing,
Comes home again, on better judgement making.
Thus have I had thee, as a dream doth flatter,
In sleep a king, but waking no such matter.

106

46
When in the chronicle of wasted time
I see descriptions of the fairest wights*, *creatures
And beauty making beautiful old rhyme,
In praise of ladies dead and lovely knights,
Then, in the blazon of sweet beauty's best,
Of hand, of foot, of lip, of eye, of brow,
I see their antique pen would have expressed
Even such a beauty as you master now.
So all their praises are but prophecies
Of this our time, all you prefiguring;
And for they looked but with divining eyes,
They had not skill enough your worth to sing:
For we, which now behold these present days,
Have eyes to wonder, but lack tongues to praise.

129

The expense of spirit in a waste of shame


Is lust in action: and till action, lust
Is perjured, murderous, bloody, full of blame,
Savage, extreme, rude, cruel, not to trust;
Enjoyed no sooner but despised straight;
Past reason hunted; and no sooner had,
Past reason hated, as a swallowed bait,
On purpose laid to make the taker mad.
Mad in pursuit and in possession so;
Had, having, and in quest to have extreme;
A bliss in proof, and proved, a very woe;
Before, a joy proposed; behind a dream.
All this the world well knows; yet none knows well
To shun the heaven that leads men to this hell.

130

My mistress' eyes are nothing like the sun;


Coral is far more red, than her lips red:
If snow be white, why then her breasts are dun;
If hairs be wires, black wires grow on her head.
I have seen roses damasked, red and white,
But no such roses see I in her cheeks;
And in some perfumes is there more delight
Than in the breath that from my mistress reeks.
I love to hear her speak, yet well I know
That music hath a far more pleasing sound:
I grant I never saw a goddess go,
My mistress, when she walks, treads on the ground:
And yet by heaven, I think my love as rare,
As any she belied with false compare.

135

47
Whoever hath her wish, thou hast thy Will,
And Will to boot, and Will in over-plus;
More than enough am I that vexed thee still,
To thy sweet will making addition thus.
Wilt thou, whose will is large and spacious,
Not once vouchsafe to hide my will in thine?
Shall will in others seem right gracious,
And in my will no fair acceptance shine?
The sea, all water, yet receives rain still,
And in abundance addeth to his store;
So thou, being rich in Will, add to thy Will
One will of mine, to make thy large will more.
Let no unkind, no fair beseechers kill;
Think all but one, and me in that one Will.

48
TEMA 10: La poesa del siglo XVII

Ben Jonson

To John Donne

Donne, the delight of Phoebus and each Muse


Who, to thy one, all other brains refuse;
Whose every work of thy most early wit
Came forth example, and remains so yet;
Longer a-knowing than most wits do live;
And which no affection praise enough can give!
To it, thy language, letters, arts, best life,
Which might with half mankind maintain a strife.
All which I meant to praise, and yet I would;
But leave, because I cannot as I should!

http://www.poetryfoundation.org/poem/173721

Song to Celia

Drink to me only with thine eyes,


And I will pledge with mine;
Or leave a kiss but in the cup,
And Ill not look for wine.
The theirst that from the soul doth rise
Doth ask a drink divine;
But might I of Joves nectar sup,
I would not change for thine.

I sent thee late a rosy wreath,


Not so much honouring thee
As giving it a hope, that there
It could not withered be.
But thou thereon didst only breathe,
And sentst it back to me;
Since when it grows, and smells, I swear,
Not of itself, but thee.

http://www.poetryfoundation.org/poem/173729

Robert Herrick

Delight in Disorder

49
A sweet disorder in the dress
Kindles in clothes a wantonness;
A lawn about the shoulders thrown
Into a fine distraction;
An erring lace, which here and there
Enthrals the crimson stomacher;
A cuff neglectful, and thereby
Ribands to flow confusedly;
A winning wave, deserving note,
In the tempestuous petticoat;
A careless shoe-string, in whose tie
I see a wild civility:
Do more bewitch me, than when art
Is too precise in every part.

http://www.poetryfoundation.org/poem/176697

To the Virgins, to Make Much of Time

Gather ye rose-buds while ye may,


Old Time is still a-flying;
And this same flower that smiles today
Tomorrow will be dying.

The glorious lamp of heaven, the sun,


The higher hes a-getting,
The sooner will his race be run,
And nearer hes to setting.

That age is best which is the first,


When youth and blood are warmer;
But being spent, the worse, and worst
Times still succeed the former.

Then be not coy, but use your time,


And while ye may, go marry;
For having lost but once your prime,
You may forever tarry.

http://www.poetryfoundation.org/poem/175882

The Vine

I dreamed this mortal part of mine


Was metamorphosed to a vine,

50
Which crawling one and every way
Enthralled my dainty Lucia.
Methought her long small legs and thighs
I with my tendrils did surprise;
Her belly, buttocks, and her waist
By my soft nervelets were embraced.
About her head I writhing hung,
And with rich clusters (hid among
The leaves) her temples I behung,
So that my Lucia seemed to me
Young Bacchus ravished by his tree.
My curls about her neck did crawl,
And arms and hands they did enthrall,
So that she could not freely stir
(All parts there made one prisoner).
But when I crept with leaves to hide
Those parts which maids keep unespied,
Such fleeting pleasures there I took
That with the fancy I awoke;
And found (ah me!) this flesh of mine
More like a stock than like a vine.

http://www.poetryfoundation.org/poem/181082

To Bacchus: A canticle

Whither dost thou whorry* me, *to carry rapidly


Bacchus, being full of thee?
This way, that way, that way, this,
Here and there a fresh love is.
That doth like me, this doth please,
Thus a thousand mistresses
I have now; yet I alone,
Having all, enjoy not one.

http://www.luminarium.org/sevenlit/herrick/bacchus2.htm

To Live Merrily, and to Trust to Good Verses

Now is the time for mirth,


Nor cheek or tongue be dumb;

51
For with the flow'ry earth
The golden pomp is come.

The golden pomp is come;


For now each tree does wear,
Made of her pap and gum,
Rich beads of amber here.

Now reigns the rose, and now


Th' Arabian dew besmears
My uncontrolled brow
And my retorted hairs.

Homer, this health to thee,


In sack of such a kind
That it would make thee see
Though thou wert ne'er so blind.

Next, Virgil I'll call forth


To pledge this second health
In wine, whose each cup's worth
An Indian commonwealth.

A goblet next I'll drink


To Ovid, and suppose,
Made he the pledge, he'd think
The world had all one nose.

Then this immensive cup


Of aromatic wine,
Catullus, I quaff up
To that terse muse of thine.

Wild I am now with heat;


O Bacchus! cool thy rays!
Or frantic, I shall eat
Thy thyrse, and bite the bays.

Round, round the roof does run;


And being ravish'd thus,
Come, I will drink a tun
To my Propertius.

Now, to Tibullus, next,


This flood I drink to thee;
But stay, I see a text
That this presents to me.

Behold, Tibullus lies


Here burnt, whose small return
Of ashes scarce suffice
To fill a little urn.

52
Trust to good verses then;
They only will aspire,
When pyramids, as men,
Are lost i' th' funeral fire.

And when all bodies meet,


In Lethe to be drown'd,
Then only numbers sweet
With endless life are crown'd.

http://www.poetryfoundation.org/poem/176775

Andrew Marvell

To His Coy Mistress

Had we but world enough and time,


This coyness, lady, were no crime.
We would sit down, and think which way
To walk, and pass our long loves day.
Thou by the Indian Ganges side
Shouldst rubies find; I by the tide
Of Humber would complain. I would
Love you ten years before the flood,
And you should, if you please, refuse
Till the conversion of the Jews.
My vegetable love should grow
Vaster than empires and more slow;
An hundred years should go to praise
Thine eyes, and on thy forehead gaze;
Two hundred to adore each breast,
But theirty thousand to the rest;
An age at least to every part,
And the last age should show your heart.
For, lady, you deserve this state,
Nor would I love at lower rate.
But at my back I always hear
Times wingd chariot hurrying near;
And yonder all before us lie
Deserts of vast eternity.
Thy beauty shall no more be found;
Nor, in thy marble vault, shall sound
My echoing song; then worms shall try
That long-preserved virginity,
And your quaint honour turn to dust,
And into ashes all my lust;
The graves a fine and private place,
But none, I think, do there embrace.
Now therefore, while the youthful hue

53
Sits on thy skin like morning dew,
And while thy willing soul transpires
At every pore with instant fires,
Now let us sport us while we may,
And now, like amorous birds of prey,
Rather at once our time devour
Than languish in his slow-chapped power.
Let us roll all our strength and all
Our sweetness up into one ball,
And tear our pleasures with rough strife
Thorough the iron gates of life:
Thus, though we cannot make our sun
Stand still, yet we will make him run.

http://www.poetryfoundation.org/poem/173954

John Donne

The Sun Rising.

Busy old fool, unruly Sun,


Why dost thou thus,
Through windows, and through curtains, call on us?
Must to thy motions lovers seasons run?
Saucy pedantic wretch, go chide
Late school-boys and sour prentices,
Go tell court-huntsmen that the king will ride,
Call country ants to harvest offices;
Love, all alike, no season knows nor clime,
Nor hours, days, months, which are the rags of time.

Thy beams so reverend, and strong


Why shouldst thou think?
I could eclipse and cloud them with a wink,
But that I would not lose her sight so long.
If her eyes have not blinded thine,
Look, and to-morrow late tell me,
Whether both th Indias of spice and mine
Be where thou leftst them, or lie here with me.
Ask for those kings whom thou sawst yesterday,
And thou shalt hear, All here in one bed lay.

Shes all states, and all princes I;


Nothing else is;
Princes do but play us; compared to this,
All honours mimic, all wealth alchemy.
Thou, Sun, art half as happy as we,
In that the worlds contracted thus;
Thine age asks ease, and since thy duties be
To warm the world, thats done in warming us.
Shine here to us, and thou art everywhere;
This bed thy centre is, these walls thy sphere.

54
http://www.poetryintranslation.com/PITBR/English/DonneSongsAndSonnets.htm#_Toc258309902

The Flea

Mark but this flea, and mark in this,


How little that which thou deniest me is;
It sucked me first, and now sucks thee,
And in this flea our two bloods mingled be.
Thou knowst that this cannot be said
A sin, nor shame, nor loss of maidenhead;
Yet this enjoys before it woo;
And pampered swells with one blood made of two,
And this, alas, is more than we would do!

O stay, three lives in one flea spare,


Where we almost, yea, more than married are.
This flea is you and I, and this
Our marriage bed, and marriage temple is.
Though parents grudge, and you, were met,
And cloistered in these living walls of jet.
Though use make you apt to kill me,
Let not to that self-murder added be,
And sacrilege, three sins in killing three.

Cruel and sudden, hast thou since


Purpled thy nail in blood of innocence?
Wherein could this flea guilty be,
Except in that drop which it sucked from thee?
Yet thou triumphst, and sayst that thou
Findst not thyself nor me the weaker now.
Tis true; then learn how false fears be;
Just so much honour, when thou yieldst to me,
Will waste, as this fleas death took life from thee.

http://www.poetryintranslation.com/PITBR/English/DonneSongsAndSonnets.htm#_Toc258309897

The Canonization

For Gods sake hold your tongue, and let me love;


Or chide my palsy, or my gout;
My five grey hairs, or ruined fortune flout;
With wealth your state, your mind with arts improve;
Take you a course, get you a place,
Observe his Honour, or his Grace;
Or the kings real, or his stamped face
Contemplate; what you will, approve,
So you will let me love.

55
Alas! Alas! Whos injured by my love?
What merchants ships have my sighs drowned?
Who says my tears have overflowed his ground?
When did my colds a forward spring remove?
When did the heats which my veins fill
Add one more to the plague bill?
Soldiers find wars, and lawyers find out still
Litigious men, which quarrels move,
Though she and I do love.

Calls what you will, we are made such by love;


Call her one, me another fly,
Were tapers too, and at our own cost die,
And we in us find th eagle and the dove.
The phoenix riddle hath more wit
By us; we two being one, are it;
So, to one neutral thing both sexes fit.
We die and rise the same, and prove
Mysterious by this love.

We can die by it, if not live by love,


And if unfit for tomb or hearse
Our legend be, it will be fit for verse;
And if no piece of chronicle we prove,
Well build in sonnets pretty rooms;
As well a well-wrought urn becomes
The greatest ashes, as half-acre tombs,
And by these hymns, all shall approve
Us canonized for love;

And thus invoke us, You, whom reverend love


Made one anothers hermitage;
You, to whom love was peace, that now is rage;
Who did the whole worlds soul contract, and drove
Into the glasses of your eyes;
So made such mirrors, and such spies,
That they did all to you epitomize
Countries, towns, courts beg from above
A pattern of your love.

http://www.poetryintranslation.com/PITBR/English/DonneSongsAndSonnets.htm#_Toc25830
9905

The Good Morrow

I wonder by my troth, what thou and I


Did, till we loved? Were we not weaned till then?
But sucked on country pleasures, childishly?

56
Or snorted we in the Seven Sleepers den?
Twas so; but this, all pleasures fancies be;
If ever any beauty I did see,
Which I desired, and got, twas but a dream of thee.

And now good-morrow to our waking souls,


Which watch not one another out of fear;
For love all love of other sights controls,
And makes one little room an everywhere.
Let sea-discoverers to new worlds have gone;
Let maps to other, worlds on worlds have shown;
Let us possess one world; each hath one, and is one.

My face in thine eye, thine in mine appears,


And true plain hearts do in the faces rest;
Where can we find two better hemispheres
Without sharp north, without declining west?
Whatever dies, was not mixed equally;
If our two loves be one, or thou and I
Love so alike that none can slacken, none can die.

http://www.poetryintranslation.com/PITBR/English/DonneSongsAndSonnets.htm#_Toc258309898

A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning

As virtuous men pass mildly away,


And whisper to their souls to go,
Whilst some of their sad friends do say
The breath goes now, and some say, No:

So let us melt, and make no noise,


No tear-floods, nor sigh-tempests move;
'Twere profanation of our joys
To tell the laity our love.

Moving of th' earth brings harms and fears,


Men reckon what it did, and meant;
But trepidation of the spheres,
Though greater far, is innocent.

Dull sublunary lovers' love


(Whose soul is sense) cannot admit
Absence, because it doth remove
Those things which elemented it.

But we by a love so much refined,


That our selves know not what it is,
Inter-assured of the mind,
Care less, eyes, lips, and hands to miss.

57
Our two souls therefore, which are one,
Though I must go, endure not yet
A breach, but an expansion,
Like gold to airy thinness beat.

If they be two, they are two so


As stiff twin compasses are two;
Thy soul, the fixed foot, makes no show
To move, but doth, if the other do.

And though it in the center sit,


Yet when the other far doth roam,
It leans and hearkens after it,
And grows erect, as that comes home.

Such wilt thou be to me, who must,


Like th' other foot, obliquely run;
Thy firmness makes my circle just,
And makes me end where I begun.

http://www.poetryfoundation.org/poem/173387

A Valediction of Weeping

Let me pour forth


My tears before thy face, whilst I stay here,
For thy face coins them, and thy stamp they bear,
And by this mintage they are something worth,
For thus they be
Pregnant of thee;
Fruits of much grief they are, emblems of more,
When a tear falls, that thou falls which it bore,
So thou and I are nothing then, when on a diverse shore.

On a round ball
A workman that hath copies by, can lay
An Europe, Afric, and an Asia,
And quickly make that, which was nothing, all;
So doth each tear
Which thee doth wear,
A globe, yea world, by that impression grow,
Till thy tears mix'd with mine do overflow
This world; by waters sent from thee, my heaven dissolved so.

O more than moon,


Draw not up seas to drown me in thy sphere,
Weep me not dead, in thine arms, but forbear
To teach the sea what it may do too soon;
Let not the wind
Example find,
To do me more harm than it purposeth;

58
Since thou and I sigh one another's breath,
Whoe'er sighs most is cruellest, and hastes the other's death.

The Relic

When my grave is broke up again


Some second guest to entertain,
(For graves have learn'd that woman head,
To be to more than one a bed)
And he that digs it, spies
A bracelet of bright hair about the bone,
Will he not let'us alone,
And think that there a loving couple lies,
Who thought that this device might be some way
To make their souls, at the last busy day,
Meet at this grave, and make a little stay?

If this fall in a time, or land,


Where mis-devotion doth command,
Then he, that digs us up, will bring
Us to the bishop, and the king,
To make us relics; then
Thou shalt be a Mary Magdalen, and I
A something else thereby;
All women shall adore us, and some men;
And since at such time miracles are sought,
I would have that age by this paper taught
What miracles we harmless lovers wrought.

First, we lov'd well and faithfully,


Yet knew not what we lov'd, nor why;
Difference of sex no more we knew
Than our guardian angels do;
Coming and going, we
Perchance might kiss, but not between those meals;
Our hands ne'er touch'd the seals
Which nature, injur'd by late law, sets free;
These miracles we did, but now alas,
All measure, and all language, I should pass,
Should I tell what a miracle she was.

http://www.poetryfoundation.org/poem/173380

To His Mistress Going to Bed

Come, Madam, come, all rest my powers defy,


Until I labour, I in labour lie.
The foe oft-times having the foe in sight,

59
Is tird with standing though he never fight.
Off with that girdle, like heavens Zone glistering,
But a far fairer world encompassing.
Unpin that spangled breastplate which you wear,
That theyes of busy fools may be stopped there.
Unlace yourself, for that harmonious chime,
Tells me from you, that now it is bed time.
Off with that happy busk, which I envy,
That still can be, and still can stand so nigh.
Your gown going off, such beauteous state reveals,
As when from flowery meads thhills shadow steals.
Off with that wiry Coronet and shew
The hairy Diadem which on you doth grow:
Now off with those shoes, and then safely tread
In this loves hallowd temple, this soft bed.
In such white robes, heavens Angels used to be
Received by men; Thou Angel bringst with thee
A heaven like Mahomets Paradise; and though
Ill spirits walk in white, we easily know,
By this these Angels from an evil sprite,
Those set our hairs, but these our flesh upright.
Licence my roving hands, and let them go,
Before, behind, between, above, below.
O my America! my new-found-land,
My kingdom, safeliest when with one man mannd,
My Mine of precious stones, My Empirie,
How blest am I in this discovering thee!
To enter in these bonds, is to be free;
Then where my hand is set, my seal shall be.
Full nakedness! All joys are due to thee,
As souls unbodied, bodies unclothd must be,
To taste whole joys. Gems which you women use
Are like Atlantas balls, cast in mens views,
That when a fools eye lighteth on a Gem,
His earthly soul may covet theirs, not them.
Like pictures, or like books gay coverings made
For lay-men, are all women thus arrayd;
Themselves are mystic books, which only we
(Whom their imputed grace will dignify)
Must see reveald. Then since that I may know;
As liberally, as to a Midwife, shew
Thy self: cast all, yea, this white linen hence,
There is no penance due to innocence.
To teach thee, I am naked first; why then
What needst thou have more covering than a man.

http://www.poetryfoundation.org/poem/180683

Sonnet 14 Batter my heart, three-persond God

Batter my heart, three-person'd God, for you

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As yet but knock, breathe, shine, and seek to mend;
That I may rise and stand, o'erthrow me, and bend
Your force to break, blow, burn, and make me new.
I, like an usurp'd town to another due,
Labor to admit you, but oh, to no end;
Reason, your viceroy in me, me should defend,
But is captiv'd, and proves weak or untrue.
Yet dearly I love you, and would be lov'd fain,
But am betroth'd unto your enemy;
Divorce me, untie or break that knot again,
Take me to you, imprison me, for I,
Except you enthrall me, never shall be free,
Nor ever chaste, except you ravish me.

http://www.poetryfoundation.org/poem/173362

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John Milton

Paradise Lost, Book I, versos 1-194:

(Se ha actualizado la ortografa en ocasiones para facilitar la comprensin)

De la excelente edicin con notas: Dartmouth College, The John Milton Reading Room, Paradise
Lost: http://www.dartmouth.edu/~milton/reading_room/pl/book_1/text.shtml

(Pulse sobre los trminos subrayados e iluminados para encontrar su explicacin)

BOOK 1

THE ARGUMENT

This first Book proposes, first in brief, the whole


Subject, Mans disobedience, and the loss thereupon of
Paradise wherein he was placed: Then touches the prime
cause of his fall, the Serpent, or rather Satan in the Serpent;
who revolting from God, and drawing to his side many
Legions of Angels, was by the command of God driven out
of Heaven with all his Crew into the great Deep. Which
action past over, the Poem hastes into the midst of
things, presenting Satan with his Angels now fallen into
Hell, describ'd here, not in the Center (for Heaven and Earth
may be suppos'd as yet not made, certainly not
yet accursed) but in a place of utter darkness,
fittest call'd Chaos: Here Satan with his Angels lying on the
burning Lake, thunder-struck and astonished, after a certain space recovers, as from confusion,
calls up him who next in Order and Dignity lay by him; they confer of their miserable
fall. Satan awakens all his Legions, who lay till then in the same manner confounded; They rise
their Numbers, array of Battle, their chief Leaders nam'd, according to the Idols known
afterwards in Canaan and the Countries adjoining. To these Satan directs his Speech, comforts
them with hope yet of regaining Heaven, but tells them lastly of a new World and new kind of
Creature to be created, according to an ancient Prophesy or report in Heaven; for that Angels
were long before this visible Creation, was the opinion of many ancient Fathers. To find out the
truth of this Prophesy, and what to determine thereon he refers to a full Counsel. What his
Associates thence attempt. Pandemonium the Palace of Satan rises, suddenly built out of the
Deep: The infernal Peers there sit in Counsel.

OF Mans First Disobedience, and the Fruit


Of that Forbidden Tree, whose mortal taste
Brought Death into the World, and all our woe,
With loss of Eden, till one greater Man
Restore us, and regain the blissful Seat, [5]
Sing Heav'nly Muse, that on the secret top
Of Oreb, or of Sinai, didst inspire
That Shepherd, who first taught the chosen Seed,

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In the Beginning how the Heav'ns and Earth
Rose out of Chaos: Or if Sion Hill [ 10 ]
Delight thee more, and Siloa's Brook that flow'd
Fast by the Oracle of God; I thence
Invoke thy aid to my adventurous Song,
That with no middle flight intends to soar
Above th' Aonian Mount, while it pursues [ 15 ]
Things unattempted yet in Prose or Rhime.
And chiefly Thou O Spirit, that dost prefer
Before all Temples th' upright heart and pure,
Instruct me, for Thou know'st; Thou from the first
Was present, and with mighty wings outspread [ 20 ]
Dove-like sat brooding on the vast Abyss
And made it pregnant: What in me is dark
Illumine, what is low raise and support;
That to the height of this great Argument
I may assert Eternal Providence, [ 25 ]
And justify the ways of God to men.

Say first, for Heav'n hides nothing from thy view


Nor the deep Tract of Hell, say first what cause
Mov'd our Grand Parents in that happy State,
Favour'd of Heav'n so highly, to fall off [ 30 ]
From their Creator, and transgress his Will
For one restraint, Lords of the World besides?
Who first seduc'd them to that foul revolt?
Th' infernal Serpent; he it was, whose guile
Stirred up with Envy and Revenge, deceiv'd [ 35 ]
The Mother of Mankind, what time his Pride
Had cast him out from Heav'n, with all his Host
Of Rebel Angels, by whose aid aspiring
To set himself in Glory above his Peers,
He trusted to have equal'd the most High, [ 40 ]
If he oppos'd; and with ambitious aim
Against the Throne and Monarchy of God
Rais'd impious War in Heav'n and Battle proud
With vain attempt. Him the Almighty Power
Hurled headlong flaming from th' Ethereal Sky [ 45 ]
With hideous ruin and combustion down
To bottomless perdition, there to dwell
In Adamantine Chains and penal Fire,
Who durst defie th' Omnipotent to Arms.
Nine times the Space that measures Day and Night [ 50 ]
To mortal men, he with his horrid crew
Lay vanquishd, rowling in the fiery Gulf
Confounded though immortal: But his doom
Reserv'd him to more wrath; for now the thought
Both of lost happiness and lasting pain [ 55 ]

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Torments him; round he throws his baleful eyes
That witness'd huge affliction and dismay
Mixt with obdurate pride and steadfast hate:
At once as far as Angels kenn he views
The dismal Situation waste and wild, [ 60 ]
A Dungeon horrible, on all sides round
As one great Furnace flam'd, yet from those flames
No light, but rather darkness visible
Serv'd only to discover sights of woe,
Regions of sorrow, doleful shades, where peace [ 65 ]
And rest can never dwell, hope never comes
That comes to all; but torture without end
Still urges, and a fiery Deluge, fed
With ever-burning Sulphur unconsum'd:
Such place Eternal Justice had prepar'd [ 70 ]
For those rebellious, here their Prison ordain'd
In utter darkness, and their portion set
As far remov'd from God and light of Heav'n
As from the Center thrice to th' utmost Pole.
O how unlike the place from whence they fell! [ 75 ]
There the companions of his fall, o'rewhelm'd* *[overwhelmed]
With Floods and Whirlwinds of tempestuous fire,
He soon discerns, and weltering by his side
One next himself in power, and next in crime,
Long after known in Palestine, and nam'd [ 80 ]
Beelzebub. To whom th' Arch-Enemy,
And thence in Heav'n call'd Satan, with bold words
Breaking the horrid silence thus began.

If thou bee he; But O how fall'n! how chang'd


From him, who in the happy Realms of Light [ 85 ]
Cloth'd with transcendent brightness didst out-shine
Myriads though bright: If he Whom mutual league,
United thoughts and counsels, equal hope
And hazard in the Glorious Enterprise,
Joined with me once, now misery hath joined [ 90 ]
In equal ruin: into what pit thou seest
From what height fall'n, so much the stronger prov'd
He with his Thunder: and till then who knew
The force of those dire Arms? yet not for those,
Nor what the Potent Victor in his rage [ 95 ]
Can else inflict, do I repent or change,
Though chang'd in outward lustre; that fixed mind
And high disdain, from sense of injur'd merit,
That with the mightiest rais'd me to contend,
And to the fierce contention brought along [ 100 ]
Innumerable force of Spirits arm'd
That durst* dislike his reign, and me preferring, *dared to

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His utmost power with adverse power oppos'd
In dubious Battle on the Plains of Heav'n,
And shook his throne. What though the field be lost? [ 105 ]
All is not lost; the unconquerable Will,
And study of revenge, immortal hate,
And courage never to submit or yield:
And what is else not to be overcome?
That Glory never shall his wrath or might [ 110 ]
Extort from me. To bow and sue for grace
With suppliant knee, and deify his power,
Who from the terror of this Arm so late
Doubted his Empire, that were low indeed,
That were an ignominy and shame beneath [ 115 ]
This downfall; since by Fate the strength of Gods
And this Empyreal substance cannot fail,
Since through experience of this great event
In Arms not worse, in foresight much advanc'd,
We may with more successful hope resolve [ 120 ]
To wage by force or guile eternal War
Irreconcilable, to our grand Foe,
Who now triumphs, and in th' excess of joy
Sole reigning holds the Tyranny of Heav'n.

So spoke th' Apostate Angel, though in pain, [ 125 ]


Vaunting aloud, but racked with deep despair:
And him thus answer'd soon his bold Compeer.

O Prince, O Chief of many Throned Powers,


That led th' embattled Seraphim to War
Under thy conduct, and in dreadful deeds [ 130 ]
Fearless, endanger'd Heav'ns perpetual King;
And put to proof his high Supremacy,
Whether upheld by strength, or Chance, or Fate,
Too well I see and rue the dire event,
That with sad overthrow and foul defeat [ 135 ]
Hath lost us Heav'n, and all this mighty Host
In horrible destruction laid thus low,
As far as Gods and Heav'nly Essences
Can perish: for the mind and spirit remains
Invincible, and vigour soon returns, [ 140 ]
Though all our Glory extinct, and happy state
Here swallow'd up in endless misery.
But what if he our Conqueror, (whom I now
Of force believe Almighty, since no less
Then such could have orepow'rd* such force as ours) *overpowered [ 145 ]
Have left us this our spirit and strength entire
Strongly to suffer and support our pains,
That we may so suffice his vengeful ire,

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Or do him mightier service as his thralls
By right of War, what e'er* his business be *ever [ 150 ]
Here in the heart of Hell to work in Fire,
Or do his Errands in the gloomy Deep;
What can it then avail though yet we feel
Strength undiminished, or eternal being
To undergo eternal punishment? [ 155 ]
Whereto with speedy words th' Arch-fiend replied.

Fall'n Cherube, to be weak is miserable


Doing or Suffering: but of this be sure,
To do ought* good never will be our task, *to ought to do
But ever to do ill our sole delight, [ 160 ]
As being the contrary to his high will
Whom we resist. If then his Providence
Out of our evil seek to bring forth good,
Our labour must be to pervert that end,
And out of good still to find means of evil; [ 165 ]
Which oft times may succeed, so as perhaps
Shall grieve him, if I fail not, and disturb
His inmost counsels from their destined aim.
But see the angry Victor hath recall'd
His Ministers of vengeance and pursuit [ 170 ]
Back to the Gates of Heav'n: The Sulphurous Hail
Shot after us in storm, oreblown* hath laid *overblown
The fiery Surge, that from the Precipice
Of Heav'n receiv'd us falling, and the Thunder,
Wing'd with red Lightning and impetuous rage, [ 175 ]
Perhaps hath spent his shafts, and ceases now
To bellow through the vast and boundless Deep.
Let us not slip th' occasion, whether scorn,
Or satiate fury yield it from our Foe.
Seest thou yon dreary Plain, forlorn and wild, [ 180 ]
The seat of desolation, void of light,
Save what the glimmering of these livid flames
Casts pale and dreadful? Thither let us tend
From off the tossing of these fiery waves,
There rest, if any rest can harbour there, [ 185 ]
And reassembling our afflicted Powers,
Consult how we may henceforth most offend
Our Enemy, our own loss how repair,
How overcome this dire Calamity,
What reinforcement we may gain from Hope, [ 190 ]
If not what resolution from despair.

Thus Satan talking to his nearest Mate


With Head up-lift above the wave, and Eyes
That sparkling blaz'd.

66
.....

BOOK 4

THE ARGUMENT

http://www.dartmouth.edu/~milton/reading_room/pl/book_4/text.shtml

Satan now in prospect of Eden, and nigh the place where


he must now attempt the bold enterprise which he
undertook alone against God and Man, falls into many
doubts with himself, and many passions, fear, envy,
and despair; but at length confirms himself in evil,
journeys on to Paradise, whose outward prospect
and situation is described, overleaps the bounds, sits in
the shape of a Cormorant on the Tree of life, as highest
in the Garden to look about him. The
Garden describ'd; Satans first sight of Adam and Eve; his
wonder at their excellent form and happy state, but with
resolution to work their fall; overhears their discourse,
thence gathers that the Tree of knowledge was
forbidden them to eat of, under penalty of death; and
thereon intends to found his Temptation, by seducing them to transgress: then leaves them a
while, to know further of their state by some other means. Meanwhile Uriel descending on a
Sun-beam warns Gabriel, who had in charge the Gate of Paradise, that some evil spirit had
escap'd the Deep, and past at Noon by his Sphere in the shape of a good Angel down to
Paradise, discovered after by his furious gestures in the Mount. Gabriel promises to find him
before morning. Night coming on, Adam and Eve discourse of going
to their rest: their Bower describ'd; their Evening worship. Gabriel drawing forth his Bands of
Night-watch to walk the round of Paradise, appoints two strong Angels to Adams Bower, least
the evil spirit should be there doing some harm to Adam or Eve sleeping; there they find him at
the ear of Eve, tempting her in a dream, and bring him, though unwilling, to Gabriel; by
whom question'd, he scornfully answers, prepares resistance, but hinder'd by a Sign from
Heaven, flies out of Paradise.

O For that warning voice, which he who saw


Th' Apocalypse, heard cry in Heaven aloud,
Then when the Dragon, put to second rout,
Came furious down to be reveng'd on men,
Woe to the inhabitants on Earth! that now, [5]
While time was, our first-Parents had been warned
The coming of their secret foe, and scap'd
Haply so scap'd his mortal snare; for now
Satan, now first inflam'd with rage, came down,

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The Tempter ere th' Accuser of man-kind, [ 10 ]
To wreck on innocent frail man his loss
Of that first Battle, and his flight to Hell:
Yet not rejoicing in his speed, though bold,
Far off and fearless, nor with cause to boast,
Begins his dire attempt, which nigh the birth [ 15 ]
Now rowling, boils in his tumultuous breast,
And like a devillish Engine back recoils
Upon himself; horror and doubt distract
His troubl'd thoughts, and from the bottom stir
The Hell within him, for within him Hell [ 20 ]
He brings, and round about him, nor from Hell
One step no more than from himself can fly
By change of place: Now conscience wakes despair
That slumbered, wakes the bitter memory
Of what he was, what is, and what must be [ 25 ]
Worse; of worse deeds worse sufferings must ensue.
Sometimes towards Eden which now in his view
Lay pleasant, his grieved look he fixes sad,
Sometimes towards Heav'n and the full-blazing Sun,
Which now sat high in his Meridian Tower: [ 30 ]
Then much revolving, thus in sighs began.

O thou that with surpassing Glory crownd,


Look'st from thy sole Dominion like the God
Of this new World; at whose sight all the Stars
Hide their diminished heads; to thee I call, [ 35 ]
But with no friendly voice, and add thy name
O Sun, to tell thee how I hate thy beams
That bring to my remembrance from what state
I fell, how glorious once above thy Spheare;
Till Pride and worse Ambition threw me down [ 40 ]
Warring in Heav'n against Heav'ns matchless King:
Ah wherefore! he deserved no such return
From me, whom he created what I was
In that bright eminence, and with his good
Upbraided none; nor was his service hard. [ 45 ]
What could be less than to afford him praise,
The easiest recompense, and pay him thanks,
How due! yet all his good prov'd ill in me,
And wrought but malice; lifted up so high
I sdaind* subjection, and thought one step higher *disdained [ 50 ]
Would set me highest, and in a moment quit
The debt immense of endless gratitude,
So burdensome, still paying, still to owe;
Forgetful what from him I still receivd,
And understood not that a grateful mind [ 55 ]
By owing owes not, but still pays, at once

68
Indebted and discharged; what burden then?
O had his powerful Destiny ordained
Me some inferior Angel, I had stood
Then happy; no unbounded hope had rais'd [ 60 ]
Ambition. Yet why not? some other Power
As great might have aspir'd, and me though mean
Drawn to his part; but other Powers as great
Fell not, but stand unshak'n, from within
Or from without, to all temptations arm'd. [ 65 ]
Hadst thou the same free Will and Power to stand?
Thou hadst: whom hast thou then or what to accuse,
But Heav'ns free Love dealt equally to all?
Be then his Love accursed, since love or hate,
To me alike, it deals eternal woe. [ 70 ]
Nay curs'd be thou; since against his thy will
Chose freely what it now so justly rues.
Me miserable! which way shall I fly
Infinite wrath, and infinite despair?
Which way I fly is Hell; myself am Hell; [ 75 ]
And in the lowest deep a lower deep
Still threatening to devour me opens wide,
To which the Hell I suffer seems a Heav'n.
O then at last relent: is there no place
Left for Repentance, none for Pardon left? [ 80 ]
None left but by submission; and that word
Disdain forbids me, and my dread of shame
Among the Spirits beneath, whom I seduc'd
With other promises and other vaunts
Then to submit, boasting I could subdue [ 85 ]
Th' Omnipotent. Ay me, they little know
How dearly I abide that boast so vain,
Under what torments inwardly I groan:
While they adore me on the Throne of Hell,
With Diadem and Sceptre high advanc'd [ 90 ]
The lower still I fall, only Supreme
In misery; such joy Ambition finds.
But say I could repent and could obtain
By Act of Grace my former state; how soon
Would height recall high thoughts, how soon unsay [ 95 ]
What feign'd submission swore: ease would recant
Vows made in pain, as violent and void.
For never can true reconcilement grow
Where wounds of deadly hate have pierc'd so deep:
Which would but lead me to a worse relapse [ 100 ]
And heavier fall: so should I purchase dear
Short intermission bought with double smart.
This knows my punisher; therefore as far
From granting he, as I from begging peace:

69
All hope excluded thus, behold instead [ 105 ]
Of us out-cast, exil'd, his new delight,
Mankind created, and for him this World.
So farewell Hope, and with Hope farewell Fear,
Farewell Remorse: all Good to me is lost;
Evil be thou my Good; by thee at least [ 110 ]
Divided Empire with Heav'ns King I hold
By thee, and more than half perhaps will reign;
As Man ere* long, and this new World shall know. *before

Thus while he spoke, each passion dimm'd his face


Thrice chang'd with pale, ire, envy and despair, [ 115 ]
Which marred his borrow'd visage, and betrayed
Him counterfeit, if any eye beheld.
For heav'nly minds from such distempers foul
Are ever clear. Whereof he soon aware,
Each perturbation smooth'd with outward calm, [ 120 ]
Artificer of fraud; and was the first
That practisd falsehood under saintly show,
Deep malice to conceal, couched with revenge:
Yet not enough had practisd to deceive
Uriel once warned; whose eye pursu'd him down [ 125 ]
The way he went, and on th' Assyrian mount
Saw him disfigur'd, more than could befall
Spirit of happy sort: his gestures fierce
He marked and mad demeanour, then alone,
As he suppos'd all unobserv'd, unseen. [ 130 ]
So on he fares, and to the border comes
Of Eden, where delicious Paradise,
Now nearer, Crowns with her enclosure green,
As with a rural mound the champain head
Of a steep wilderness, whose hairy sides [ 135 ]
With thicket overgrown, grotesque and wild,
Access denied; and overhead up grew
Insuperable height of loftiest shade,
Cedar, and Pine, and Fir, and branching Palm
A Silvan Scene, and as the ranks ascend [ 140 ]
Shade above shade, a woody Theatre
Of stateliest view. Yet higher than their tops
The verdurous wall of paradise up sprung:
Which to our general Sire gave prospect large
Into his nether Empire neighbouring round. [ 145 ]
And higher then that Wall a circling row
Of goodliest Trees laden with fairest Fruit,
Blossoms and Fruits at once of golden hue
Appeard, with gay enameled colours mixt:
On which the Sun more glad impress'd his beams [ 150 ]
Then in fair Evening Cloud, or humid Bow,

70
When God hath showerd the earth; so lovely seemed
That landscape: And of pure now purer air
Meets his approach, and to the heart inspires
Vernal delight and joy, able to drive [ 155 ]
All sadness but despair: now gentle gales
Fanning their odoriferous wings dispense
Native perfumes, and whisper whence they stole
Those balmy spoils. As when to them who sail
Beyond the Cape of Hope, and now are past [ 160 ]
Mozambic, off at Sea North-East winds blow
Sabean Odours from the spicy shore
Of Arabie the blest, with such delay
Well pleas'd they slack their course, and many a League
Chear'd with the grateful smell old Ocean smiles.

..

Out of the fertile ground he caus'd to grow


All Trees of noblest kind for sight, smell, taste;
And all amid them stood the Tree of Life,
High eminent, blooming Ambrosial Fruit
Of vegetable Gold; and next to Life [ 220 ]
Our Death the Tree of Knowledge grew fast by,
Knowledge of Good bought dear by knowing ill.

A whole days journey high, but wide remote


From this Assyrian Garden, where the Fiend [ 285 ]
Saw undelighted all delight, all kind
Of living Creatures new to sight and strange:
Two of far nobler shape erect and tall,
Godlike erect, with native Honour clad
In naked Majestie seemed Lords of all, [ 290 ]
And worthy seemed, for in their looks Divine
The image of their glorious Maker shone,
Truth, wisdom, Sanctitude severe and pure,
Severe but in true filial freedom plac'd;
Whence true authority in men; though both [ 295 ]
Not equal, as their sex not equal seemed;
For contemplation he and valour formed,
For softness she and sweet attractive Grace,
He for God only, she for God in him:
His fair large Front and Eye sublime declar'd [ 300 ]
Absolute rule; and Hyacinthin Locks
Round from his parted forelock manly hung
Clustering, but not beneath his shoulders broad:

71
She as a veil down to the slender waste
Her unadorned golden tresses wore [ 305 ]
Disheveled, but in wanton ringlets wav'd
As the Vine curls her tendrils, which impli'd
Subjection, but requir'd with gentle sway,
And by her yielded, by him best receivd,
Yielded with coy submission, modest pride, [ 310 ]
And sweet reluctant amorous delay.
Nor those mysterious parts were then concealed,
Then was not guilty shame, dishonest shame
Of natures works, honour dishonourable,
Sin-bred, how have ye troubl'd all mankind [ 315 ]
With shows instead, mere shows of seeming pure,
And banished from mans life his happiest life,
Simplicity and spotless innocence.
So passed they naked on, nor shunned the sight
Of God or Angel, for they thought no ill: [ 320 ]
So hand in hand they passed, the loveliest pair
That ever since in loves embraces met,
Adam the goodliest man of men since borne
His Sons, the fairest of her Daughters Eve.
Under a tuft of shade that on a green [ 325 ]
Stood whispering soft, by a fresh Fountain side
They sat them down, and after no more toil
Of their sweet Gardning labour then suffic'd
To recommend cool Zephyr, and made ease
More easy, wholesome thirst and appetite [ 330 ]
More grateful, to their Supper Fruits they fell,
Nectarine Fruits which the compliant boughs
Yielded them, side-long as they sat reclined
On the soft downy Bank damasked with flowers:
The savoury pulp they chew, and in the rind [ 335 ]
Still as they thirsty scoop the brimming stream;
Nor gentle purpose, nor endearing smiles
Wanted, nor youthful dalliance as beseems
Fair couple, linked in happy nuptial League,
Alone as they. About them frisking played [ 340 ]
All Beasts of th' Earth, since wild, and of all chase
In Wood or Wilderness, Forrest or Den;
Sporting the Lion ramped, and in his paw
Dandl'd the Kid; Bears, Tigers, Ounces, Pards
Gambold before them, th' unwieldy Elephant [ 345 ]
To make them mirth us'd all his might, and wreathed
His Lithe Proboscis; close the Serpent sly
Insinuating, wove with Gordian twine
His breaded train, and of his fatal guile
Gave proof unheeded; others on the grass [ 350 ]
Couchd, and now filled with pasture gazing sat,

72
Or Bedward ruminating: for the Sun
Declin'd was hasting now with prone career
To th' Ocean Iles, and in th' ascending Scale
Of Heav'n the Stars that usher Evening rose: [ 355 ]
When Satan still in gaze, as first he stood,
Scarce thus at length failed speech recovered sad.

O Hell! what do mine eyes with grief behold,


Into our room of bliss thus high advanc'd
Creatures of other mould, earth-born perhaps, [ 360 ]
Not Spirits, yet to heav'nly Spirits bright
Little inferior; whom my thoughts pursue
With wonder, and could love, so lively shines
In them Divine resemblance, and such grace
The hand that formed them on their shape hath poured. [ 365 ]
Ah gentle pair, you little think how nigh
Your change approaches, when all these delights
Will vanish and deliver ye to woe,
More woe, the more your taste is now of joy;
Happy, but for so happy ill secur'd [ 370 ]
Long to continue, and this high seat your Heav'n
Ill fenc'd for Heav'n to keep out such a foe
As now is entered; yet no purpos'd foe
To you whom I could pity thus forlorn
Though I unpitied: League with you I seek, [ 375 ]
And mutual amity so strait, so close,
That I with you must dwell, or you with me
Henceforth; my dwelling haply may not please
Like this fair Paradise, your sense, yet such
Accept your Makers work; he gave it me, [ 380 ]
Which I as freely give; Hell shall unfold,
To entertain you two, her widest Gates,
And send forth all her Kings; there will be room,
Not like these narrow limits, to receive
Your numerous offspring; if no better place, [ 385 ]
Thank him who puts me loath to this revenge
On you who wrong me not for him who wronged.
And should I at your harmless innocence
Melt, as I do, yet public reason just,
Honour and Empire with revenge enlarg'd, [ 390 ]
By conquering this new World, compels me now
To do what else though damned I should abhor.

So spoke the Fiend, and with necessity,


The Tyrants plea, excus'd his devilish deeds.
Then from his lofty stand on that high Tree [ 395 ]
Down he alights among the sportful Herd
Of those four-footed kinds, himself now one,

73
Now other, as their shape served best his end
Nearer to view his prey, and unespied
To mark what of their state he more might learn [ 400 ]
By word or action marked: about them round
A Lion now he stalks with fiery glare,
Then as a Tiger, who by chance hath spied
In some Purlieu two gentle Fawns at play,
Straight couches close, then rising changes oft [ 405 ]
His couchant watch, as one who chose his ground
Whence rushing he might surest seize them both
Gript in each paw: when Adam first of men
To first of women Eve thus moving speech,
Turned him all ear to hear new utterance flow. [ 410 ]

Sole partner and sole part of all these joys,


Dearer thy self then all; needs must the Power
That made us, and for us this ample World
Be infinitely good, and of his good
As liberal and free as infinite, [ 415 ]
That rais'd us from the dust and plac'd us here
In all this happiness, who at his hand
Have nothing merited, nor can perform
Aught whereof he hath need, he who requires
From us no other service then to keep [ 420 ]
This one, this easy charge, of all the Trees
In Paradise that bear delicious fruit
So various, not to taste that only Tree
Of knowledge, planted by the Tree of Life,
So near grows Death to Life, what ere Death is, [ 425 ]
Some dreadful thing no doubt; for well thou knowst
God hath pronounc'd it death to taste that Tree,
The only sign of our obedience left
Among so many signs of power and rule
Conferred upon us, and Dominion giv'n [ 430 ]
Over all other Creatures that possess
Earth, Air, and Sea. Then let us not think hard
One easy prohibition, who enjoy
Free leave so large to all things else, and choice
Unlimited of manifold delights: [ 435 ]
But let us ever praise him, and extol
His bounty, following our delightful task
To prune these growing Plants, and tend these Flowers,
Which were it toilsome, yet with thee were sweet.

To whom thus Eve replied. O thou for whom [ 440 ]


And from whom I was formed flesh of thy flesh,
And without whom am to no end, my Guide
And Head, what thou hast said is just and right.

74
For we to him indeed all praises owe,
And daily thanks, I chiefly who enjoy [ 445 ]
So far the happier Lot, enjoying thee
Preeminent by so much odds, while thou
Like consort to thy self canst no where find.
That day I oft remember, when from sleep
I first awakd, and found myself repos'd [ 450 ]
Under a shade of flowers, much wondering where
And what I was, whence thither brought, and how.
Not distant far from thence a murmuring sound
Of waters issued from a Cave and spread
Into a liquid Plain, then stood unmov'd [ 455 ]
Pure as th' expanse of Heav'n; I thither went
With unexperienc'd thought, and laid me down
On the green bank, to look into the clear
Smooth Lake, that to me seemed another Sky.
As I bent down to look, just opposite, [ 460 ]
A Shape within the watery gleam appeared
Bending to look on me, I started back,
It started back, but pleas'd I soon returned,
Pleas'd it returned as soon with answering looks
Of sympathy and love; there I had fixed [ 465 ]
Mine eyes till now, and pin'd with vain desire,
Had not a voice thus warned me, What thou seest,
What there thou seest fair Creature is thy self,
With thee it came and goes: but follow me,
And I will bring thee where no shadow staies [ 470 ]
Thy coming, and thy soft embraces, he
Whose image thou art, him thou shall enjoy
Inseparably thine, to him shall bear
Multitudes like thy self, and thence be call'd
Mother of human Race: what could I do, [ 475 ]
But follow straight, invisibly thus led?
Till I espied thee, fair indeed and tall,
Under a Platan, yet methought less fair,
Less winning soft, less amiably mild,
Then that smooth watery image; back I turned, [ 480 ]
Thou following criedst aloud, Return fair Eve,
Whom fly'st thou? whom thou fly'st, of him thou art,
His flesh, his bone; to give thee being I lent
Out of my side to thee, nearest my heart
Substantial Life, to have thee by my side [ 485 ]
Henceforth an individual solace dear;
Part of my Soul I seek thee, and thee claim
My other half: with that thy gentle hand
Seized mine, I yielded, and from that time see
How beauty is excelled by manly grace [ 490 ]
And wisdom, which alone is truly fair.

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So spoke our general Mother, and with eyes
Of conjugal attraction unreprov'd,
And meek surrender, half embracing leaned
On our first Father, half her swelling Breast [ 495 ]
Naked met his under the flowing Gold
Of her loose tresses hid: he in delight
Both of her Beauty and submissive Charms
Smil'd with superior Love, as Jupiter
On Juno smiles, when he impregns the Clouds [ 500 ]
That shed May Flowers; and press'd her Matron lip
With kisses pure: aside the Devil turned
For envy, yet with jealous leer malign
Ey'd them askance, and to himself thus plained.

Sight hateful, sight tormenting! thus these two [ 505 ]


Imparadis'd in one anothers arms
The happier Eden, shall enjoy their fill
Of bliss on bliss, while I to Hell am thrust,
Where neither joy nor love, but fierce desire,
Among our other torments not the least, [ 510 ]
Still unfulfill'd with pain of longing pines;
Yet let me not forget what I have gain'd
From their own mouths; all is not theirs it seems:
One fatal Tree there stands of Knowledge call'd,
Forbidden them to taste: Knowledge forbidd'n? [ 515 ]
Suspicious, reasonless. Why should their Lord
Envy them that? can it be sin to know,
Can it be death? and do they only stand
By Ignorance, is that their happy state,
The proof of their obedience and their faith? [ 520 ]
O fair foundation laid whereon to build
Their ruin! Hence I will excite their minds
With more desire to know, and to reject
Envious commands, invented with design
To keep them low whom knowledge might exalt [ 525 ]
Equal with Gods; aspiring to be such,
They taste and die: what likelier can ensue?
But first with narrow search I must walk round
This Garden, and no corner leave unspi'd;
A chance but chance may lead where I may meet [ 530 ]
Some wandering Spirit of Heav'n, by Fountain side,
Or in thick shade retir'd, from him to draw
What further would be learnt. Live while ye may,
Yet happy pair; enjoy, till I return,
Short pleasures, for long woes are to succeed. [ 535 ]

So saying, his proud step he scornful turn'd,


But with sly circumspection, and began

76
Through wood, through waste, oer* hill, o'er* dale his roam. *over

Now came still Evening on, and Twilight grey


Had in her sober Livery all things clad;
Silence accompanied, for Beast and Bird, [ 600 ]
They to their grassy Couch, these to their Nests
Were slunk, all but the wakeful Nightingale;
She all night long her amorous descant sung;
Silence was pleas'd: now glow'd the Firmament
With living Saphirs: Hesperus that led [ 605 ]
The starry Host, rode brightest, till the Moon
Rising in clouded Majesty, at length
Apparent Queen unveiled her peerless light,
And o'er the dark her Silver Mantle threw.

When Adam thus to Eve: Fair Consort, th' hour [ 610 ]


Of night, and all things now retir'd to rest
Mind us of like repose, since God hath set
Labour and rest, as day and night to men
Successive, and the timely dew of sleep
Now falling with soft slumberous weight inclines [ 615 ]
Our eye-lids; other Creatures all day long
Rove idle unemployed, and less need rest;
Man hath his daily work of body or mind
Appointed, which declares his Dignity,
And the regard of Heav'n on all his ways; [ 620 ]
While other Animals unactive range,
And of their doings God takes no account.
To morrow ere fresh Morning streak the East
With first approach of light, we must be ris'n,
And at our pleasant labour, to reform [ 625 ]
Yon flowery Arbors, yonder Allies green,
Our walk at noon, with branches overgrown,
That mock our scant manuring, and require
More hands than ours to lop their wanton growth:
Those Blossoms also, and those dropping Gums, [ 630 ]
That lie bestrewn unsightly and unsmooth,
Ask riddance, if we mean to tread with ease;
Mean while, as Nature wills, Night bids us rest.

To whom thus Eve with perfect beauty adornd.


My Author and Disposer, what thou bidst [ 635 ]

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Unargu'd I obey; so God ordains,
God is thy Law, thou mine: to know no more
Is womans happiest knowledge and her praise.
With thee conversing I forget all time,
All seasons and their change, all please alike. [ 640 ]
Sweet is the breath of morn, her rising sweet,
With charm of earliest Birds; pleasant the Sun
When first on this delightful Land he spreads
His orient Beams, on herb, tree, fruit, and flour,
Glistering with dew; fragrant the fertile earth [ 645 ]
After soft showers; and sweet the coming on
Of grateful Evening mild, then silent Night
With this her solemn Bird and this fair Moon,
And these the Gems of Heav'n, her starry train:
But neither breath of Morn when she ascends [ 650 ]
With charm of earliest Birds, nor rising Sun
On this delightful land, nor herb, fruit, flower,
Glistering with dew, nor fragrance after showers,
Nor grateful Evening mild, nor silent Night
With this her solemn Bird, nor walk by Moon, [ 655 ]
Or glittering Star-light without thee is sweet.
But wherefore all night long shine these, for whom
This glorious sight, when sleep hath shut all eyes?

To whom our general Ancestor replied.


Daughter of God and Man, accomplished Eve, [ 660 ]
Those have their course to finish, round the Earth,
By morrow Evening, and from Land to Land
In order, though to Nations yet unborn,
Ministering light prepar'd, they set and rise;
Least total darkness should by Night regain [ 665 ]
Her old possession, and extinguish life
In Nature and all things, which these soft fires
Not only enlighten, but with kindly heat
Of various influence foment and warm,
Temper or nourish, or in part shed down [ 670 ]
Their stellar virtue on all kinds that grow
On Earth, made hereby apter to receive
Perfection from the Suns more potent Ray.
These then, though unbeheld in deep of night,
Shine not in vain, nor think, though men were none, [ 675 ]
That heav'n would want spectators, God want praise;
Millions of spiritual Creatures walk the Earth
Unseen, both when we wake, and when we sleep:
All these with ceaseless praise his works behold
Both day and night: how often from the steep [ 680 ]
Of echoing Hill or Thicket have we heard
Celestial voices to the midnight air,

78
Sole, or responsive each to others note
Singing their great Creator: oft in bands
While they keep watch, or nightly rounding walk, [ 685 ]
With Heav'nly touch of instrumental sounds
In full harmonic number joint, their songs
Divide the night, and lift our thoughts to Heaven.

Thus talking hand in hand alone they pass'd


On to their blissful Bower; it was a place [ 690 ]
Chos'n by the soveraign Planter, when he fram'd
All things to mans delightful use; the roof
Of thickest covert was inwoven shade
Laurel and Myrtle, and what higher grew
Of firm and fragrant leaf; on either side [ 695 ]
Acanthus, and each odorous bushy shrub
Fenc'd up the verdant wall; each beauteous flour,
Iris all hues, Roses, and Gessamin
Rear'd high their flourished heads between, and wrought
Mosaic; underfoot the Violet, [ 700 ]
Crocus, and Hyacinth with rich inlay
Broidered the ground, more colour'd than with stone
Of costliest Emblem: other Creature here
Beast, Bird, Insect, or Worm durst enter none;
Such was their awe of Man. In shady Bower [ 705 ]
More sacred and sequestered, though but feigned,
Pan or Silvanus never slept, nor Nymph,
Nor Faunus haunted. Here in close recess
With Flowers, Garlands, and sweet-smelling Herbs
Espoused Eve deckd first her Nuptial Bed, [ 710 ]
And heav'nlyly Quires the Hymenan sung,
What day the genial Angel to our Sire
Brought her in naked beauty more adorn'd
More lovely then Pandora, whom the Gods
Endowd with all their gifts, and O too like [ 715 ]
In sad event, when to th unwiser Son
Of Japhet brought by Hermes, she ensnar'd
Mankind with her fair looks, to be aveng'd
On him who had stole Joves authentic fire.

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