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Fluid Structural Analysis of

Centrifugal Compressor with Grooves


on Casing
1st Author B.P.UDAY KUMAR, M.Tech Assistant Professor .
2nd Author C Vikram Rao Assistant Professor.
Swami Vivekananda Institute of Technology.

Abstract : In this thesis, analytical investigations are Casing Grooves


performed on the centrifugal compressor with grooves on
casing and making an optimization of the casing groove The casing treatment is an effective method for
parameters which can enhance the centrifugal compressor increasing the stall margin of compressors and enhancing
performance during stall. The casing grooves parameters the flow distribution at the blades tip.
considered are groove cross section aspect ratio (the
groove height to width ratio), groove location, and the Literature Survey
number of grooves. Five groove aspect ratios are
considered ranging from 0.2 0.6, 1.2, 1.4 and 1.8. 3D
Chi-Yong Park[1], Compressor performance was
models of the compressor with different parameters are
analyzed according to the ring groove location, and the
done in Pro/Engineer. CFD and Structural analysis are
results were compared with the case without a ring groove.
performed by considering all the cases and optimized
The effect of guide
result is evaluated. Analysis is done in Ansys.

Introduction vanes in the ring groove was also investigated. Four


variants of grooves were modeled and simulated using
Centrifugal compressors, sometimes termed radial computational fluid dynamics to optimize the groove
compressors, are a sub-class of dynamic ax symmetric location. Numerical analysis was performed using a
work-absorbing turbo machinery. The idealized commercial code ANSYS-CFX program. The simulation
compressive dynamic turbo-machine achieves a pressure results showed that the ring groove increased the operating
rise by adding kinetic energy/velocity to a continuous flow range of the compressor. The ring groove with guide vanes
of fluid through the rotor or impeller. This kinetic energy is improved both performance of the compressor at low flow
then converted to an increase in potential energy/static rates and the stall margin of the compressor. P. Usha
pressure by slowing the flow through a diffuser. The Sri[2], Three cases are studied at five different flow
pressure rise in impeller is in most cases almost equal to coefficients 0.28, 0.34, 0.42 (design value), 0.48 and 0.52
the rise in the diffuser section. using Ansys-CFX. Pressure ratio improvement with two
grooves on casing is observed. The leakage of flow over
tip of the blade through the grooves from pressure side to
suction side of the blade is interacting with passage wake
near casing and reduction in passage wake region area is
observed with two grooves on casing. Increase in the
velocity of the fluid in passage wake is also observed with
two grooves on casing. Increase in pressure ratio is
observed for the casing with two grooves at all flow
coefficients. For three grooves on casing also, increase of
velocity in passage wake is observed but reduction in
pressure ratio is observed due to more leakage flow.
Reduction in pressure ratio for all flow coefficients is
observed with three grooves on casing.
Modeling Of Centrifugal Compressor With Aspect Ratio - 0.2
Grooves On Casing In Creo 2.0
Cfd Analysis Of Centrifugal Compressor
For modeling of, centrifugal compressor with grooves
on casing the reference is taken from computational With Grooves On Casing
analysis of centrifugal Compressor with grooves on casing
by P. Usha Sri, J. Deepthi Krishna. Pressure
The casing grooves parameters considered will be groove
cross section aspect ratio (the groove height to width ratio),
groove location, and the number of grooves. Five groove
aspect ratios will be considered ranging from 0.2 to 1.8.
Aspect ratio for grooves = Height / width
In this width is kept constant 20mm and height is
changed according to the aspect ratio.

Velocity

Centrifugal compressor with grooves

Structural Analysis Of Centrifugal


Analysis of centrifugal compressor with Compressor With Grooves On Casing
grooves on casing
Boundary conditions The pressure taken for structural analysis is taken from the
results of CFD analysis.
The pressure vessel is analyzed for a mass flow rate
3.34 kg/s and pressure 4.8 Pa. The value is taken from
the journal paper, Numerical study on the range
enhancement of a centrifugal compressor with a ring
groove system by Chi-Yong Park
MATERIAL STAINLESS STEEL RESULTS & DISCUSSIONS

Deformation CFD ANALYSIS RESULTS

Aspect Pressure Velocity Mass Flow rate


Ratio (Pa) (m/s) (kg/s)
0.2 2.23e+03 6.02e+01 0.0004067421

0.6 2.16e+03 6.0.2e+01 0.00097680097

1.2 2.25e+03 6.59+01 0.0017502308

1.4 1.9e+03 6.61e+01 0.0024633792

1.8 1.80e+03 7.22e+01 0.003480196

Strain
Graphs

COMPARISON OF PRESSURE
VALUES FOR DIFFERENT ASPECT
RATIOS
2.50E+03
PRESSURE (N/mm2)

2.00E+03
1.50E+03
1.00E+03
pressure
5.00E+02
Stress 0.00E+00
0.2 0.6 1.2 1.4 1.8
Aspect ratio

COMPARISON OF VELOCITY VALUES


FOR DIFFERENT ASPECT RATIOS
7.50E+01
7.00E+01
Velocity (m/s)

6.50E+01
6.00E+01
Velocity
5.50E+01
5.00E+01
0.2 0.6 1.2 1.4 1.8
Aspect ratio
COMPARISON OF MASS FLOW RATE
VALUES FOR DIFFERENT ASPECT RATIOS Groove aspect ratio -1.4

0.004 Materials Deformation Strain Stress (Pa)


MASS FLOW RATE (Kg/s)

0.0035 (mm)
0.003 Steel 7.7452e-7 1.3114e-6 3.5928e5
0.0025 Titanium 2.2159e-7 3.7964e-6 3.6051e5
0.002
Nickel 9.9247e-7 1.7067e-6 3.6084e5
0.0015 Mass flowrate chromium
0.001
0.0005
0
0.2 0.6 1.2 1.4 1.8 Groove aspect ratio - 1.8
Aspect ratio
Materials Deformation Strain Stress (Pa)
(mm)
Steel 7.3376e-7 1.2424e-6 3.4037e5
Titanium 2.0992e-7 3.5966e-6 3.4153e5
Nickel 9.4024e-7 1.6169e-6 3.4185e5
chromium
STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS

Groove aspect ratio - 0.2

Materials Deformation Strain Stress (Pa) Graphs


(mm)
Steel 9.0497e-7 1.5323e-6 4.1979e5
Titanium 2.5891e-7 4.4358e-6 4.2122e5 COMPARISON OF DEFORMATION
Nickel 1.1596e-7 1.9941e-6 4.2162e5 VALUES FOR DIFFERENT ASPECT
chromium RATIOS AND MATERIALS

2.50E-06
DEFORMATION (mm)

Groove aspect ratio range - 0.6 2.00E-06 Nickel


1.50E-06 chromium
Materials Deformation Strain Stress (Pa)
(mm) 1.00E-06 Titanium
Steel 8.8051e-7 1.4909e-6 4.0845e5 5.00E-07
0.00E+00
Titanium 2.5191e-7 4.3159e-6 4.09684e5 0.2 0.6 1.2 1.4 1.8 Steel
Nickel 1.1283e-7 1.9402e-6 4.1022e5 Aspect ratio
chromium

Groove aspect ratio - 1.2

Materials Deformation Strain Stress (Pa)


(mm)
Steel 9.172e-7 1.553e-6 4.2547e5
Titanium 2.624e-7 4.4958e-6 4.2691e5
Nickel 1.1733e-7 2.0211e-6 4.2731e5
chromium
References
COMPARISON OF STRAIN VALUES
1. P. Usha Sri and N. Sitaram, Computational Investigation
FOR DIFFERENT ASPECT RATIOS of Flow in a Centrifugal Impeller with Chamfered Blade
AND MATERIALS Tips: Effect of Tip Clearance, National Conference on
CFD Applications in Power &b Industry Sectors, organised
1.00E-05 by BHEL R&D, Hyderabad during Nov 17-18, 2006
2. S. Senthil and N. Sitaram, 2002, Performance
8.00E-06
Improvement of a Centrifugal Compressor by
Nickel
STRAIN

means of Squealer Tips, Proc. of the 4th ICPF Beijing,


6.00E-06 chromium China, 26-29.
4.00E-06 Titanium 3. S. Senthil and N. Krishna Mohan, Experimental
Investigation on a centrifugal compressor by
2.00E-06 means of rectangular, elliptical and sloping squeeler tips,
Steel Indian Journal of Science and Technology, Vol.2, No. 7,
0.00E+00 July 2009, pp 30-34.
0.2 0.6 1.2 1.4 1.8 4. Chi-Young Park, Young-Seok Choi, Kyoung-Yong Lee
and Joon-Yong Yoon, Numerical Study on the Range
Aspect ratio Enhancement of a centrifugal compressor with a ring
groove system, Springer, Journal of Mechanical Science
and Technology 26 (5)(2012) 1371-1378.
5. Fayez M. Wassef, Ahmed S. Hassan, Hany A. Mohamed
COMPARISON OF STRESS VALUES and Mohamed A. Zaki, Stability and
FOR DIFFERENT ASPECT RATIOS Performance of a Low Speed Centrifugal Compressor with
Modified Casing, Journal of
AND MATERIALS Engineering Sciences, JES, Assiut University, Vol. 32, No.
5, pp. 2025-2047, 2004
1.40E+06
6. N. Sitaram and S.M. Swamy, Performance Improvement
1.20E+06 of a Centrifugal Compressor by Passive Means,
International Journal of Rotating Machinery, Volume
STRESS (MPa)

1.00E+06 Nickel
2012, Article ID 727259, 9 pages.
8.00E+05 chromium 7. P. Usha Sri and J. Deepti Krishna, Effect of Tip
6.00E+05 Titanium Clearance on A Centrifugal Compressor
4.00E+05 International Journal of Mechanical Engineering &
Technology (IJMET), Volume 5, Issue 9,
2.00E+05 Steel 2014, pp. 379 - 384, ISSN Print: 0976 6340, ISSN
0.00E+00 Online: 0976 6359.
0.2 0.6 1.2 1.4 1.8
Aspect ratio 8. Jyothi P.N, A. Shailesh Rao, M.C. Jagath, and K.
Channakeshavalu, Understanding The Melt
Flow Behaviour of Za Alloys Processed Through
Centrifugal Casting International Journal of
Mechanical Engineering & Technology (IJMET), Volume
4, Issue 1, 2013, pp. 163 - 172, ISSN
Conclusion Print: 0976 6340, ISSN Online: 0976 6359.
9. Shalin Marathe and Rishi Saxena, Numerical Analysis
By observing the CFD analysis results, the
on Effect of Exit Blade Angle on
pressure at outlet is reduced because of more
Cavitation In Centrifugal Pump International Journal of
leakage of flow over the blades from grooves. The
Mechanical Engineering & Technology
pressure is reducing by increasing the aspect ratio.
(IJMET), Volume 4, Issue 3, 2013, pp. 359 - 366, ISSN
The velocity at the section around the grooves is
Print: 0976 6340, Online: 0976 6359.
increased and also at the outlet. The velocity is
increasing by increasing the aspect ratio. Also the
mass flow rate is increasing by increasing the
aspect ratio due to the higher velocities. By
observing the static analysis results, the stresses
and deformations are decreasing by increasing the
aspect ratio due to the decrease of pressure values
from CFD analysis. So it can be concluded that
the optimal aspect ratio value is1.8.