Problem Books in Mathematics
Vladimir V. Tkachuk
A Cp Theory Problem Book
Special Features of Function Spaces
Problem Books in Mathematics
Series Editors:
Peter Winkler Department of Mathematics Dartmouth College Hanover, NH 03755 USA
For further volumes:
Vladimir V. Tkachuk
A CpTheory Problem Book
Special Features of Function Spaces
123
Vladimir V. Tkachuk Departamento de Matematicas Universidad Autonoma MetropolitanaIztapalapa San Rafael Atlixco, Mexico City, Mexico
ISSN 09413502 ISBN 9783319047461
DOI 10.1007/9783319047478 Springer Cham Heidelberg New York Dordrecht London
ISBN 9783319047478 (eBook)
Library of Congress Control Number: 2014933677
Mathematics Subject Classiﬁcation (2010): 54C35
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Preface
This is the second volume of the series of books of problems in C _{p} theory entitled A C _{p} Theory Problem Book, i.e., this book is a continuation of the ﬁrst volume subtitled Topological and Function Spaces. The series was conceived as an introduction to C _{p} theory with the hope that each volume will also be used as a reference guide for specialists. The ﬁrst volume provides a selfcontained introduction to general topology and C _{p} theory and contains some highly nontrivial stateoftheart results. For example, Sect. 1.4 presents Shapirovsky’s theorem on the existence of a pointcountable  base in any compact space of countable tightness and Sect. 1.5 brings the reader to the frontier of the modern knowledge about realcompactness in the context of function spaces. This present volume introduces quite a few topics from scratch but dealing with topology and C _{p} theory is already a professional endeavour. The objective is to study the behaviour of general topological properties in function spaces and establish the results on duality of cardinal functions and classes with respect to the C _{p} functor. The respective background includes a considerable amount of top notch results both in topology and set theory; the author’s obsession with keeping this work selfcontained implied that an introduction to advanced set theory had to be provided in Sect. 1.1. The methods developed in this section made it possible to present a very difﬁcult example of Todorceviˇ cˇ of a compact strong S space. Of course, it was impossible to omit the famous Baturov’s theorem on coinci dence of the Lindelöf number and extent in subspaces of C _{p} .X / for any Lindelöf ˙space X and the result of Christensen on compactness of X provided that C _{p} .X / is analytic. The selfcontainment policy of the author made it obligatory for him to give a thorough introduction to Lindelöf ˙spaces in Sect. 1.3 and to the descriptive set theory in Sect. 1.4. We use all topological methods developed in the ﬁrst volume, so we refer to its problems and solutions when necessary. Of course, the author did his best to keep every solution as independent as possible, so a short argument could be repeated several times in different places.
v
vi
Preface
The author wants to emphasize that if a postgraduate student mastered the material of the ﬁrst volume, it will be more than sufﬁcient to understand every problem and solution of this book. However, for a concrete topic, much less might be needed. Finally, let me outline some points which show the potential usefulness of the present work:
• The only background needed is some knowledge of set theory and real numbers; any reasonable course in calculus covers everything needed to understand this book.
• The student can learn all of general topology required without recurring to any textbook or papers; the amount of general topology is strictly minimal and is presented in such a way that the student works with the spaces C _{p} .X / from the very beginning.
• What is said in the previous paragraph is true as well if a mathematician working outside of topology (e.g., in functional analysis) wants to use results or methods of C _{p} theory; he (or she) will ﬁnd them easily in a concentrated form or with full proofs if there is such a need.
• The material we present here is up to date and brings the reader to the frontier of knowledge in a reasonable number of important areas of C _{p} theory.
• This book seems to be the ﬁrst selfcontained introduction to C _{p} theory. Although there is an excellent textbook written by Arhangel’skii (1992a), it heavily depends on the reader’s good knowledge of general topology.
Mexico City, Mexico
Vladimir V. Tkachuk
Contents
1 Duality Theorems and Properties of Function Spaces 
1 

1.1 Some Additional Axioms and Hereditary Properties 
2 

1.2 Monolithity, Stability and Their Generalizations 
11 

1.3 Whyburn Spaces, Calibers and Lindelöf ˙Property 
19 

1.4 A Glimpse of Descriptive Set Theory 
27 

1.5 Additivity of Properties: Mappings Between Function Spaces 
35 

1.6 Bibliographic Notes 
42 

2 Solutions of Problems 001–500 
45 

3 Bonus Results: Some Hidden Statements 
527 

3.1 Standard Spaces 
528 

3.2 Metrizable Spaces 
529 

3.3 Compact Spaces and Their Generalizations 
530 

3.4 Properties of Continuous Maps 
531 

3.5 Completeness and Convergence Properties 
532 

3.6 Product Spaces 
533 

3.7 Cardinal Invariants and Set Theory 
535 

3.8 Raznoie (Unclassiﬁed Results) 
536 

4 Open Problems 
539 

4.1 Analyticity and Similar Properties 
540 

4.2 Whyburn Property in Function Spaces 
541 

4.3 Uniformly Dense Subspaces 
542 

4.4 Countable Spread and Similar Properties 
544 

4.5 Metacompactness and Its Derivatives 
547 

4.6 Mappings 
Which Involve 
C _{p} Spaces 
551 
4.7 Additivity of Topological Properties 
552 

4.8 Raznoie (Unclassiﬁed Questions) 
554 
vii
viii
Contents
Bibliography 
557 

List of Special Symbols 
573 

Index 
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5 7 7 
Detailed Summary of Exercises
1.1. Tampering with Additional Axioms: Some Hereditary Properties
. Characterizing hereditarily/perfectly normal spaces Equivalent conditions for hl.X / . . . . . . . . . . . 
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. 001. Problems 002–003. Problem 

Rightseparated and leftseparated spaces 
Problems 004–009. 

Invariants s; hl; hd in ﬁnite and countable powers 
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. Problems 010–013. 

Spread of X X is an upper bound for minfhd.X /; hl.X /g 
Problem 014. 

A bound on cardinality of X using hl.X / Hedgehogs and duality theorems for s ^{} ; hl ^{} ; hd ^{} 
.Problem 015. 

.X X / '.C _{p} .X // if ' 2 fs; hl; hd g and is its dual 
.Problems 016–018. Problems 019–035. . . . . . . . . . . . . 

Properties s ! and hl ! can be multiplicative in C _{p} .X / 
Problem 036. 

Nonseparable spaces . CH constructions for distinguishing s; hl and hd The Deltalemma of countable spread . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
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Problem 037. Problem 038. Problems 039–040. 

Compact spaces and their points of ! under CH 
Problem 041. 

There are P points in ˇ!n! under CH 
Problem 042. 

Some results on Luzin spaces 
Problems 043–046. 

Martin’s axiom and its applications 
Problems 047–063. 

Stationary and club subsets of ! _{1} 
Problems 064–067. 

Trees and Jensen’s axiom Souslin tree and Souslin continuum Condensing onto hereditarily separable spaces Around perfect normality in function spaces Metrizability and perfect normality of compact spaces Preparing ground for example of a compact strong S space Todorcevic’s example and its applications 
Problems 068–071. .Problems 072–076. Problems 077–079. Problems 080–089. Problems 090–096. .Problem 097. Problems 098–100. 

1.2. Monolithity, Stability and Their Generalizations 

Monolithity and stability in metrizable spaces 
Problems 101–106. 

. Scattered spaces, P spaces and simple spaces Monolithity and . Versions of !stability and to pseudocompactness . stability in general spaces . . . . 
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. . Problems 107–126. Problems 127–130. Problem 131. 
ix
x
Detailed Summary of Exercises
Versions of !monolithity in C _{p} .X / implying that X is ﬁnite 
.Problem 132. 

Scattered spaces and Fréchet–Urysohn property in C _{p} .X / 
Problems 133–136. 

ˇ 

On !relativization of Cechcompleteness in C _{p} .X / 
Problems 137–138. 

On !relativization of 
normality in C _{p} .X / 
Problems 139–142. 
Stability and monolithity in C _{p} .X / vs those in C _{p} .X; I/ 
Problems 143–144. 

.!/stability in X and X 
Problem 145. 

Some generic duality theorems 
Problems 146–151. 

Some applications of generic duality theorems Duality for relativizations of tightness and similar properties 
Problems 152–177. 

'.!/monolithity in C _{p} .X / for ' 2 fi w; ; 
Problems 178–180. 

Problems 181–184. 

Relativizations of tightness and Fréchet–Urysohn property 
Problems 185–186. 
A dual property for being scattered
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Problem 187.
A property of C _{p} .X / for Hurewicz ^{} d.!/stable spaces X 
Problem 188. 
Some monolithity properties and countable spread 
Problems 189–197. 
Free sequences in C _{p} .X / under MAC:CH 
.Problem 198. 
!monolithity and countable spread in X under MAC:CH 
Problem 199. 
Hereditary stability of C _{p} .X / can imply nw.X / D ! 
Problem 200. 
1.3. Whyburn Spaces, Calibers and Lindelöf ˙Property
Two statements about hereditarily normal compact spaces
If X is compact and X ^{2} n is paracompact, then X is metrizable
Problems 201–202.
Problem 203.
Whyburn spaces and weakly Whyburn spaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Problems 204–213. 

Hereditarily kspaces are Fréchet–Urysohn 
Problem 214. 

More of Whyburn spaces and weakly Whyburn spaces 
Problems 215–220. 

pspaces vs ˙spaces 
Problems 221–232. 

Some characterizations of Lindelöf ˙property by extensions ˙property in C _{p} .X / 
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Problem 233. Problems 234–239. 

. Compactvalued maps and Lindelöf ˙property 
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Problems 240–242. 
Categorical properties of Lindelöf ˙spaces 
Problems 243–259. 

Lindelöf ˙spaces and with small compact subsets 
Problems 260–262. 
Baire property together with Lindelöf (˙)property of C _{p} .X / . Problems 263–265.
Stability in Lindelöf ˙spaces and their products Baturov’s theorem Hereditary Lindelöf ˙property implies countable netweight 
. 
Problems 266–268. .Problem 269. .Problems 270–274. 
Basic properties of calibers and precalibers The Souslin property and caliber ! _{1} under additional axioms Duality results for small diagonals and calibers Compact spaces and Lindelöf ˙spaces with small diagonal 
. 
Problems 275–287. .Problems 288–289. Problems 290–293. Problems 294–300. 
1.4. A Glimpse of Descriptive Set Theory
Zerodimensional spaces and their properties
A
Universal Borel sets
Borel complexity of subsets of uncountable Polish spaces
A
theorem on continuous selections and its applications
of given class
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countable space not embeddable into any C _{p} .Borel set/
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Problems 301–314.
Problems 315–317.
. .Problems 319–321. .Problem 322.
318.
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Problem
Detailed Summary of Exercises
xi
Absolute F _{}  and absolute G _{ı} spaces 
Problems 323–324. 

Open, closed and perfect maps on Polish spaces 
Problems 325–329. 

Capturing all Borel sets 
Problem 330. 

Categorical properties of Borel sets 
Problems 331–333. 

Some trivial properties of analytic 
spaces 
Problems 334–337. 
Inverse images of analytic sets 
.Problem 338. 

Separation theorem and Borel sets as analyticCcoanalytic 
Problems 339–340. 
Condensations of Borel sets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
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Problem 341. 

A Some properties of Kanalytic spaces nonanalytic subspace of the reals . . . . . . . . . 
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. .Problems 343–346. Problem 342. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Problem 395. 
Axiomatic characterizations for the Cantor set, Q and R nQ Q is a universal space for countable metrizable spaces Closed . embeddings of Q in nonPolish spaces . . . . . . . . . . 
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.Problems 347–349. Problem 350. Problem 351. 

Closed embeddings in analytic spaces 
Problems 352–353. 

Pytkeev’s theorem on condensations of Borel sets Condensations and continuous maps onto nice spaces compactness of X and analyticity of C _{p} .X / 
Problem 354. Problems 355–359. Problems 360–370. 

A countable space X with C _{p} .X / nonanalytic 
Problem 371. 

Countable spaces X with C _{p} .X / of any Borel complexity Some results on absolute F _{} _{ı} property Embedding second countable spaces into C _{p} .compactum/ 
Problem 372. Problem 373–375. Problems 376–378. 

The functions of ﬁrst Baire class and Rosenthal compacta Kanalytic spaces and P directed compact covers Kanalytic spaces . with small compact subsets . . . . . . . . 
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.Problems 379–387. Problems 388–394. 

. P directed sets and metrization of a compact space 
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Kanalyticity in general and in spaces C _{p} .X / 
Problems 397–400. 
1.5. Additivity of Properties: Mappings Between Function Spaces
Some properties are not ﬁnitely/countably
Additivity in squares and countable powers
A metric which generates the uniform topology on C ^{} .X /
Finite additivity in C _{p} .X /: reduction to dense summands Some properties are ﬁnitely additive in C _{p} .X Decompositions of C _{p} .X / into countable unions Closed countable additivity of hereditary properties
Some properties are countably additive in arbitrary C _{p} .X /.
Some properties are countably additive in “nice” C _{p} .X Some results on uniformly dense subspaces of C _{p} .X Extent ^{} of X and tightness of compact subspaces of C _{p} .X Around the theorem of Gerlits–Pytkeev Extending continuous maps from X to C _{p} .C _{p} .X //
When C _{p} .X / maps continuously onto C _{p} .Y /? Mapping between products of metric spaces and C _{p} .X /
If C _{p} .X / is a retract of a G _{ı} _{} subset of R ^{} , then X is discrete
Problems 401–407. .Problems 408–418. Problem 419. Problems 420–421. Problems 422–430. .Problems 431–432. Problem 433. Problems 434–450. Problems 451–455. Problems 456–461. Problem 462. Problems 463–466. Problems 467–469. .Problems 470–491. Problems 493–499. Problem 500.
Introduction
The term “C _{p} theory” was invented to abbreviate the phrase “The theory of function spaces endowed with the topology of pointwise convergence”. The credit for the creation of C _{p} theory must undoubtedly be given to Alexander Vladimirovich Arhangel’skii. The author is proud to say that Arhangel’skii also was the person who taught him general topology and directed his Ph.D. thesis. Arhangel’skii was the ﬁrst to understand the need to unify and classify a bulk of heterogeneous results from topological algebra, functional analysis and general topology. He was the ﬁrst to obtain crucial results that made this uniﬁcation possible. He was also the ﬁrst to formulate a critical mass of open problems which showed this theory’s huge potential for development. Later, many mathematicians worked hard to give C _{p} theory the elegance and beauty it boasts nowadays. The author hopes that the work he presents for the reader’s judgement will help to attract more people to this area of mathematics. The main text of this volume consists of 500 statements formulated as problems;
it constitutes Chap. 1. These statements provide a gradual development of many
popular topics of C _{p} theory to bring the reader to the frontier of the presentday knowledge. A complete solution is given to every problem of the main text. The material of Chap. 1 is divided into ﬁve sections with 100 problems in each one. The sections start with an introductory part where the deﬁnitions and concepts
to be used are given. The introductory part of any section never exceeds two pages
and covers everything that was not deﬁned previously. Whenever possible, we try to save the reader the effort of ploughing through various sections, chapters and volumes, so we give the relevant deﬁnitions in the current section not caring much about possible repetitions. Chapter 1 ends with some bibliographical notes to give the most important
references related to its results. The selection of references is made according to the author’s preferences and by no means can be considered complete. However,
a complete list of contributors to the material of Chap. 1 can be found in our
bibliography of 300 items. It is my pleasant duty to acknowledge that I consulted the paper of Arhangel’skii (1998a) to include quite a few of its 375 references in my bibliography.
xiii
xiv
Introduction
Sometimes, as we formulate a problem, we use without reference deﬁnitions and constructions introduced in other problems. The general rule is to try to ﬁnd the relevant deﬁnition not more than ten problems before. The ﬁrst section of Chap. 1 deals with hereditary properties in C _{p} .X /. To under stand the respective results, the reader needs a topological background including the ability to manage additional axioms of ZFC and apply strong and difﬁcult methods of set theory. The pursuit of selfcontainment obliged the author to give an introduction to advanced set theory. In this section the reader can ﬁnd the applications of continuum hypothesis, Martin’s axiom, Jensen’s axiom, Souslin trees and Luzin spaces. The nonC _{p} material presented in Chap. 1 also includes an introduction to descriptive set theory and Lindelöf ˙spaces. This helped to keep this work self contained when we gave the proofs of Baturov’s theorem on C _{p} .X / for a Lindelöf ˙space X and Christensen’s theorem on compactness of X provided that C _{p} .X / is analytic. There are many topics in Chap. 1 which are developed up to the frontier of the presentday knowledge. In particular, Sect. 1.5 includes the famous Gerlits–Pytkeev theorem about coincidence of the Fréchet–Urysohn property and kproperty in any space C _{p} .X /. The complete solutions of all problems of Chap. 1 are given in Chap. 2. Chapter 3 begins with a selection of 100 statements which were proved as auxiliary facts in the solutions of the problems of the main text. This material is split into six sections to classify the respective results and make them easier to ﬁnd. Chapter 4 consists of 100 open problems presented in ten sections with the same idea: to classify this bulk of problems and make the reader’s work easier. Chapter 4 also witnesses an essential difference between the organization of our text and the book of Arhangel’skii and Ponomarev (1974): we never put unsolved problems in the main text as is done in their book. All problems formulated in Chap. 1 are given complete solutions in Chap. 2 and the unsolved ones are presented in Chap. 4. There is little to explain about how to use this book as a reference guide. In this case the methodology is not that important and the only thing the reader wants is to ﬁnd the results he (or she) needs as fast as possible. To help with this, the titles of chapters and sections give the ﬁrst approximation. To better see the material of a chapter, one can consult the second part of the Contents section where a detailed summary is given; it is supposed to cover all topics presented in each section. Besides, the index can also be used to ﬁnd necessary material. To sum up the main text, I believe that the coverage of C _{p} theory will be reasonably complete and many of the topics can be used by postgraduate students who want to specialize in C _{p} theory. Formally, this book can also be used as an introduction to general topology. However, it would be a somewhat biased introduction, because the emphasis is always given to C _{p} spaces and the topics are only developed when they have some applications in C _{p} theory. To conclude, let me quote an old saying which states that the best way for one to learn a theorem is to prove it oneself. This text provides a possibility to do this. If the reader’s wish is to read the proofs, then they are concentrated immediately after the main text.
Chapter 1
Duality Theorems and Properties of Function Spaces
This chapter presents some fundamental aspects of set theory, descriptive set theory,
general topology and
Section 1.1 introduces some advanced concepts of set theory. We give the state ments and applications of the continuum hypothesis, Martin’s axiom and Jensen’s axiom. The next thing under the study is the behavior of spread, hereditary Lindelöf number and hereditary density in function spaces. The most important results of this section are the duality theorems for s ^{} ; hd ^{} and hl ^{} (Problems 025–030) and Todorcevic’s example of a strong S space (Problem 098). In Sect. 1.2 we deal with monolithity, stability and their generalizations. The principal results are presented as several generic theorems on duality between . /monolithity and . /stability, formulated in Problems 146–151. Section 1.3 starts with Whyburn spaces and their properties. Next, we introduce Lindelöf ˙spaces and their most important characterizations. The rest of the section is devoted to calibers, precalibers and small diagonals. The most important results include Baturov’s theorem on extent in subspaces of C _{p} .X / for a Lindelöf ˙space X (Problem 269) and Gruenhage’s theorem on Lindelöf ˙spaces with a small diagonal (Problem 300). In Sect. 1.4 we introduce the basic notions of descriptive set theory and give their applications to C _{p} theory. This section features three main results: Christensen’s theorem on analyticity of C _{p} .X / (Problem 366), Fremlin’s theorem on Kanalytic spaces whose compact subspaces are metrizable (Problem 395) and Pytkeev’s theorem on condensations of Borel sets (Problem 354). The ﬁrst part of Sect. 1.5 comprises some results on decompositions of C _{p} .X / into a ﬁnite or countable union of subspaces with “nice” properties. The second part is devoted to the study of the existence of good mappings between C _{p} .X / and C _{p} .Y / and the simplest implications this has for the spaces X and Y . We also have two main results in this section: Gerlits–Pytkeev theorem on kproperty in C _{p} .X / (Problem 465) and Tkachuk’s theorem on discreteness of X if C _{p} .X / is homeomorphic to a retract of a G _{ı} _{} subspace of R ^{X} (Problem 500).
C _{p} theory.
V.V. Tkachuk, A CpTheory Problem Book: Special Features of Function Spaces,
1
Problem Books in Mathematics, DOI 10.1007/9783319047478 © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014
1,
2
1
Duality Theorems and Properties of Function Spaces
1.1 Some Additional Axioms and Hereditary Properties
A space X is leftseparated (rightseparated) if there exists a wellorder < on
X such that the set fy 2 X W y<xg is closed (open) in X for any x 2 X .
A space X is scattered if any subspace Y X has an isolated point. Recall that
2 N g and h'.X / D supf'.Y / W Y X g for any cardinal
' ^{} .X / D supf'.X ^{n} / W n
invariant '. All results of this book are proved assuming that ZFC axioms hold. The
abbreviation ZFC stands for Zermelo–Fraenkel–Choice. This axiomatic system is
the most accepted one at the present moment. We won’t need to have the knowledge
of 
what the axioms of ZFC exactly say. It is sufﬁcient to know that all they do is 
to 
postulate some very natural properties of sets. For the reader who wants to learn 
more, the book of Kunen (1980) is an excellent introduction to this subject.
In the twentieth century topologists and settheorists discovered that there were
some very natural problems which could not be solved using ZFC axioms only;
to ﬁx this, quite a few additional axioms have been created. Practically all of
those axioms are proved to be consistent with ZFC which means that if ZFC has no contradiction, then ZFC, together with the axiom in question, does not have one. In this section we formulate the most popular additional axioms and their applications. All results of this book are proved in ZFC if no additional assumptions are formulated explicitly; however, we sometimes emphasize this. The statement CH (called Continuum Hypothesis) says that the ﬁrst uncountable ordinal is equal to the continuum, i.e., ! _{1} D c. The statement “ ^{C} D 2 ^{} for any
inﬁnite cardinal ” is called Generalized Continuum Hypothesis (GCH).
A partial order on a set P is a relation on P with the following properties:
(PO1) 
p 
p for any p 2 P ; 

(PO2) 
p 
q 
and q 
r imply p r; 
(PO3) 
p 
q 
and q 
p imply p D q. 
The pair . P ; / is called a partially ordered set. If the order is clear, we will write
P instead of . P ; /. Let . P ; / be a partially ordered set. The elements p; q 2 P
are called compatible if there is r 2 P
not compatible, they are called incompatible. A set A P is an antichain if the
q. If p and q are
such that r
p and r
elements of A are pairwise incompatible. We say that . P ; / has the property ccc
if any antichain of P is countable. A set D P is called dense in P if, for every
p 2 P , there is q 2 D such that q p.
A 
nonempty set F P is a ﬁlter if it has the following properties: 

(F1) 
for any p; q 2 F , there is r 2 F 
such that r p and r q; 

(F2) 
if p 2 F 
and p q, then q 2 F . 
Given an inﬁnite cardinal , we denote by MA. / the following statement: for
any ccc partial order P and any family D of dense subsets of P with j D j , there
is a ﬁlter F P such that F \ D ¤ ; for any D 2 D . Now, Martin’s axiom, MA,
says that MA. / holds for any inﬁnite < c.
A subset C ! _{1} is called club ( closed and unbounded) if C is uncountable
and closed in the order topology on ! _{1} . A set S ! _{1} is stationary if S \ C ¤ ;
1.1
Some Additional Axioms and Hereditary Properties
3
for any club C ! _{1} . Jensen’s axiom } is the statement: for each ˛<! _{1} , there is a set A _{˛} ˛ such that, for any A ! _{1} , the set f˛ 2 ! _{1} WA\˛DA _{˛} g is stationary.
The principle } ^{C} is the following statement: for each ˛ 2 ! _{1} , there is a countable family A _{˛} exp.˛/ such that, for any A ! _{1} , there is a club C ! _{1} for which A\˛2 A _{˛} and C \ ˛ 2 A _{˛} for any ˛ 2 C . The sequence f A _{˛} W˛<! _{1} g is called
a } ^{C} sequence.
A space X is called zerodimensional if X has a base consisting of clopen sets. A
point x 2 X is called a P point if any countable intersection of neighborhoods of x
is a neighborhood of x. An uncountable denseinitself space X is called Luzin (also
written Lusin) if any nowhere dense subspace of X is countable. Say that X is an L
space if hl.X / D ! < d.X /; if hd.X / D ! < l.X /, then X is called an S space.
The axiom SA says that there are no S spaces, i.e., that every regular hereditarily
separable space
l.X /; if hl ^{} .X / D ! < d.X /, then X is called
A tree is a partially ordered set . T ; / such that, for every x 2 T , the set L _{x} D
fy 2 T W y<x g is well ordered by . We will often write T instead of . T ; /.
If T is a tree and x 2 T , then the height of x in T or ht.x; T / is the ordinal
isomorphic to L _{x} . For each ordinal ˛, the ˛th level of T or Lev _{˛} . T / is the set fx 2 T W ht.x; T / D ˛g. The height ht. T / of the tree T is the least ˛ such that Lev _{˛} . T / D ;. A subset T ^{0} T is called a subtree of T if L _{x} T ^{0} for every
T is called a chain if C is linearly ordered by , i.e.,
x
every two elements of C are comparable. An antichain of T is a set A T such
a strong S space if hd ^{} .X / D ! < strong Lspace.
is Lindelöf. Furthermore, X is
2
T ^{0} . A subset C
2
that x; y 2 A and x ¤ y implies x 6
Souslin tree is a tree T such that j T j D and every chain and every antichain have
cardinality < . An ! _{1} Souslin tree is called Souslin tree. If is a regular cardinal,
a tree is a tree of height with levels of cardinality < . A Aronszajn tree is
a tree with no chains of cardinality . An ! _{1} Aronszajn tree tree.
is called Aronszajn
x. For every inﬁnite cardinal , a
y and y 6
If f W X ! Y and Z X , we denote the restriction of f to Z by f j _{Z} or f jZ.
If 
we have maps f; g W X ! Y , then f g if the set fx 2 X W f .x/ ¤ g.x/g 

is 
ﬁnite. Given functions f 
W 
X 
! Y 
and 
g W X _{1} 
! 
Y _{1} , we say that f 
g if 
X 
X _{1} ; Y Y _{1} and gjX 
D f . Now, ! ^{˛} 
is the set of all maps from ˛ to ! and 
! ^{<}^{!} ^{1} D ^{S} f! ^{˛} W ˛<! _{1} g. Any ! _{1} sequence fs _{˛} W ˛<! _{1} g ! ^{<}^{!} ^{1} such that
s _{˛} 2! ^{˛} is an injective map and s _{ˇ} j˛ s _{˛} for all ˛<ˇ<! _{1} is called Aronszajn coding. Denote by P the set of all monotonically increasing functions from ! ^{!} , i.e.,
P 
Dff 
2 ! ^{!} 
W f .i / < f .j / whenever i<j g. Given f; g 
2 ! ^{!} , 
we say that 
f 
< ^{} g if there exists m 2 ! such that f .n/ < g.n/ for all n m. A sequence 
ff _{˛} W˛< g ! ^{!} is called strictly < ^{} increasing if f _{˛} < ^{} f _{ˇ} for all ˛<ˇ< .
A set S ! ^{!} is < ^{} coﬁnal in ! ^{!} if, for any f 2 ! ^{!} , we have f < ^{} g for some
g2S.
4
1
Duality Theorems and Properties of Function Spaces
001. Given an inﬁnite cardinal prove that the following properties are equivalent for any space X :
(i) 
hl.X / ; 

(ii) 
l.X / of X; and every U 
2 .X / is 
a 
union of many closed subsets 

(iii) 
l.X / 
and every closed F X is a G _{} set in X ; 

(iv) 
l.U / 
for any open U X . 
In particular, a space X is hereditarily Lindelöf if and only if it is Lindelöf and perfect.
002. Prove that a space X is hereditarily normal if and only if any open subspace of X is normal.
003. Prove that if X is perfectly normal, then any Y X is also perfectly normal.
004. Let X be any space. Prove that hd.X / D supfjAj W A is a leftseparated subspace of X g. In particular, the space X is hereditarily separable if and only if every leftseparated subspace of X is countable.
005. Let X be any space. Prove that hl.X / D supfjAj W A is a rightseparated subspace of X g. In particular, the space X is hereditarily Lindelöf if and only if every rightseparated subspace of X is countable.
006. Prove that a space is rightseparated if and only if it is scattered.
any
007. Let X be a leftseparated space. Prove that hl.X / s.X /. In particular,
leftseparated space of countable spread is hereditarily Lindelöf.
008. Let X be a rightseparated space. Prove that hd.X / s.X /. In particular, any rightseparated space of countable spread is hereditarily separable.
009. Prove that any space has a dense leftseparated subspace.
010. Suppose that s.X / D !. Prove that X has a dense hereditarily Lindelöf subspace.
011. Prove that for any space X , we have hl ^{} .X / D hl.X ^{!} /. In particular, if all ﬁnite powers of X are hereditarily Lindelöf, then X ^{!} is hereditarily Lindelöf.
012. Prove that for any
ﬁnite powers of X are hereditarily separable, then X ^{!} is hereditarily separable.
013. Prove that for any space X , we have s ^{} .X / D s.X ^{!} /.
014. Suppose that s.X X / . Prove that hl.X / or hd.X / . In particular, if s.X X / D !, then X is hereditarily separable or hereditarily Lindelöf.
015. Prove that jX j 2 ^{h}^{l}^{.}^{X} ^{/} for any space X . In particular, any hereditarily Lindelöf space has cardinality c.
016. Prove that s.X X / s.C _{p} .X // s ^{} .X / for any space X .
hd.X ^{!} /. In particular, if all
space X , we have hd ^{} .X / D
017. Prove that hd.X X / hl.C _{p} .X // 

hd ^{} .X / for any space X . 
018. Prove that hl.X X / hd.C _{p} .X // 

hl ^{} .X / for any space X . 
019. For an arbitrary n 2 N , let J _{n} D J.n/ be the hedgehog with n spines. Prove that s.X ^{n} / s.C _{p} .X; J _{n} // s.C _{p} .X / C _{p} .X // for any space X .
020. For an arbitrary n 2 N , let J _{n} D J.n/ be the hedgehog with n spines. Prove
that hd.X ^{n} / hl.C _{p} .X; J _{n} // hl.C _{p} .X / C _{p} .X // for any
space X .
1.1
Some Additional Axioms and Hereditary Properties
5
021. For an arbitrary n 2 N , let J _{n} D J.n/ be the hedgehog with n spines. Prove that hl.X ^{n} / hd.C _{p} .X; J _{n} // hd.C _{p} .X / C _{p} .X // for any space X .
022. prove that s.C _{p} .X / C _{p} .X // D s ^{} .C _{p} .X //.
023. prove that hl.C _{p} .X / C _{p} .X // D hl ^{} .C _{p} .X //.
024. prove that hd.C _{p} .X / C _{p} .X // D hd ^{} .C _{p} .X //.
025. Prove that s ^{} .X / D s ^{} .C _{p} .X // for any space X .
For any space X
For any space X
For any space X
026. Prove that hl ^{} .X / D hd ^{} .C _{p} .X // 
for any 
space 
X . 
027. Prove that hd ^{} .X / D hl ^{} .C _{p} .X // 
for any 
space 
X . 
028. For an inﬁnite cardinal , suppose that s.C _{p} .X // D and .X / . Prove
that s ^{} .C _{p} .X // and hence s ^{} .C _{p} .X // D s.C _{p} .X //. In particular, if X is
a space with a
For an inﬁnite cardinal , suppose that hl.C _{p} .X // D and and hence hl ^{} .C _{p} .X // D hl.C _{p} .X //.
that hl ^{} .C _{p} .X // is a space with a
030. (Velichko’s theorem) Prove that hd ^{} .C _{p} .X // D hd.C _{p} .X // D hl ^{} .X / for
029.
.X / . Prove In particular, if X
G _{ı} diagonal, then s ^{} .C _{p} .X // D s.C _{p} .X // D s ^{} .X /.
G _{ı} diagonal, then hl ^{} .C _{p} .X // D hl.C _{p} .X // D hd ^{} .X /.
any space X .
031. Prove that s.C _{p} .C _{p} .X /// D s ^{} .X / for any space X .
032. Prove that hd.C _{p} .C _{p} .X /// D hd ^{} .X / for any space X .
033. Prove that hl.C _{p} .C _{p} .X /// D hl ^{} .X / for any space X .
034. Prove that for a zerodimensional space X , we have s ^{} .X / D s.C _{p} .X //.
035. Prove that hd ^{} .X / D hl.C _{p} .X // for any zerodimensional space X .
036. Prove that under SA, the following conditions are equivalent:
(i) 
s.C _{p} .X // D !; 

(ii) 
hl C 
_{p} .X // ^{!} /D!; 
(iii) 
hd C 
_{p} .X // ^{!} /D!. 
In particular, if SA holds, then hl.C _{p} .X // D !
and s.C _{p} .X //
D ! implies s _{p} .X // ^{!} /D!.
C
implies hl _{p} .X // ^{!} /D!
C
037. Prove that the following statements are equivalent (remember that all spaces
are assumed to be Tychonoff):
(i) 
there is 
a space 
X 
with 
s.X / D ! and d.X / > !; 
(ii) 
there is 
a space 
X 
with 
hl.X / D ! and d.X / > !; 
(iii) 
there is a leftseparated space X with s.X / D ! and jX j D ! _{1} . 
038. ( system lemma) Prove that for any regular uncountable cardinal , if U is a family of ﬁnite sets with j U j D , then there exists a set F (called the root for U ) and a family V U (called the system for U ) such that j V j D and A \ B D F for any distinct A; B 2 V .
039. Prove that under CH, there exists a hereditarily Lindelöf nonseparable dense subspace X of the space f0; 1g ^{!} ^{1} . In particular, Lspaces exist under CH.
040. Prove that under CH, there exists a hereditarily separable nonLindelöf dense subspace X of the space f0; 1g ^{!} ^{1} . Thus, S spaces exist under CH.
041. Prove that under CH, any sequential compact space has points of countable character.
042.
Prove that under CH, there is a P point in ˇ!n!.
6
1
Duality Theorems and Properties of Function Spaces
043.
044. Prove that if a Luzin space X is separable, then all closed subsets of X are separable.
045. Prove that no Luzin space can be condensed onto a compact space.
046. Prove that under CH, there is a Luzin second countable space as well as a Luzin nonseparable space.
047. Prove that MA(!) holds in ZFC (and hence CH implies MA), while MA( c) is false in ZFC.
048. Prove that MA. / is equivalent to MA. / restricted to ccc partially ordered sets of cardinality , i.e., if MA. / is true for all ccc partial orders of cardinality , then it is true for all ccc partial orders.
049. Let . P ; / be a partially ordered set. Call a subset A P centered if for any
n 2 N and any p _{1} ;:::;p _{n} 2 A, there is r 2 P such that r p _{i} for all i n. Assume MAC:CH and take any ccc partially ordered set P . Prove that for any uncountable R P , there exists an uncountable centered Q R. In particular, all elements of Q are pairwise compatible.
050. Assume MAC:CH. Let X _{t} be a space with c.X _{t} / D ! for every t 2 T . Prove that c.X / D !, where X D ^{Q} fX _{t} Wt2Tg.
051. Given families A; B exp.!/ such that j Aj ; j B j and < c, suppose
that Bn. ^{S} A ^{0} / is inﬁnite for every B 2 B and any ﬁnite family A ^{0} A. Prove that MA. / implies that there exists M ! such that BnM is inﬁnite for any B 2 B while AnM is ﬁnite for any A 2 A.
Let X be a Luzin space. Prove that hl.X / D ! and hd.X / ! _{1} .
052. lemma) Let C exp.!/ be a family such (Booth 
that j C j D < c and 
^{T} C ^{0} is 
inﬁnite for every ﬁnite C ^{0} C . Prove that MA. / implies that there exists an 
inﬁnite L ! such that LnC is ﬁnite for any C
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