Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 595

Problem Books in Mathematics

Vladimir V. Tkachuk

A Cp -Theory Problem Book

Special Features of Function Spaces

Problem Books in Mathematics Vladimir V. Tkachuk A Cp -Theory Problem Book Special Features of Function

Problem Books in Mathematics

Series Editors:

Peter Winkler Department of Mathematics Dartmouth College Hanover, NH 03755 USA

For further volumes:

Vladimir V. Tkachuk

A Cp-Theory Problem Book

Special Features of Function Spaces

Vladimir V. Tkachuk Departamento de Matematicas Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa San Rafael Atlixco, Mexico City, Mexico

ISSN 0941-3502 ISBN 978-3-319-04746-1

DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-04747-8 Springer Cham Heidelberg New York Dordrecht London

ISBN 978-3-319-04747-8 (eBook)

Library of Congress Control Number: 2014933677

Mathematics Subject Classification (2010): 54C35

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014 This work is subject to copyright. All rights are reserved by the Publisher, whether the whole or part of the material is concerned, specifically the rights of translation, reprinting, reuse of illustrations, recitation, broadcasting, reproduction on microfilms or in any other physical way, and transmission or information storage and retrieval, electronic adaptation, computer software, or by similar or dissimilar methodology now known or hereafter developed. Exempted from this legal reservation are brief excerpts in connection with reviews or scholarly analysis or material supplied specifically for the purpose of being entered and executed on a computer system, for exclusive use by the purchaser of the work. Duplication of this publication or parts thereof is permitted only under the provisions of the Copyright Law of the Publisher’s location, in its current version, and permission for use must always be obtained from Springer. Permissions for use may be obtained through RightsLink at the Copyright Clearance Center. Violations are liable to prosecution under the respective Copyright Law. The use of general descriptive names, registered names, trademarks, service marks, etc. in this publication does not imply, even in the absence of a specific statement, that such names are exempt from the relevant protective laws and regulations and therefore free for general use. While the advice and information in this book are believed to be true and accurate at the date of publication, neither the authors nor the editors nor the publisher can accept any legal responsibility for any errors or omissions that may be made. The publisher makes no warranty, express or implied, with respect to the material contained herein.

Printed on acid-free paper

Springer is part of Springer Science+Business Media (www.springer.com)

Preface

This is the second volume of the series of books of problems in C p -theory entitled A C p -Theory Problem Book, i.e., this book is a continuation of the first volume subtitled Topological and Function Spaces. The series was conceived as an introduction to C p -theory with the hope that each volume will also be used as a reference guide for specialists. The first volume provides a self-contained introduction to general topology and C p -theory and contains some highly nontrivial state-of-the-art results. For example, Sect. 1.4 presents Shapirovsky’s theorem on the existence of a point-countable - base in any compact space of countable tightness and Sect. 1.5 brings the reader to the frontier of the modern knowledge about realcompactness in the context of function spaces. This present volume introduces quite a few topics from scratch but dealing with topology and C p -theory is already a professional endeavour. The objective is to study the behaviour of general topological properties in function spaces and establish the results on duality of cardinal functions and classes with respect to the C p -functor. The respective background includes a considerable amount of top- notch results both in topology and set theory; the author’s obsession with keeping this work self-contained implied that an introduction to advanced set theory had to be provided in Sect. 1.1. The methods developed in this section made it possible to present a very difficult example of Todorceviˇ cˇ of a compact strong S -space. Of course, it was impossible to omit the famous Baturov’s theorem on coinci- dence of the Lindelöf number and extent in subspaces of C p .X / for any Lindelöf ˙-space X and the result of Christensen on -compactness of X provided that C p .X / is analytic. The self-containment policy of the author made it obligatory for him to give a thorough introduction to Lindelöf ˙-spaces in Sect. 1.3 and to the descriptive set theory in Sect. 1.4. We use all topological methods developed in the first volume, so we refer to its problems and solutions when necessary. Of course, the author did his best to keep every solution as independent as possible, so a short argument could be repeated several times in different places.

vi

Preface

The author wants to emphasize that if a postgraduate student mastered the material of the first volume, it will be more than sufficient to understand every problem and solution of this book. However, for a concrete topic, much less might be needed. Finally, let me outline some points which show the potential usefulness of the present work:

The only background needed is some knowledge of set theory and real numbers; any reasonable course in calculus covers everything needed to understand this book.

The student can learn all of general topology required without recurring to any textbook or papers; the amount of general topology is strictly minimal and is presented in such a way that the student works with the spaces C p .X / from the very beginning.

What is said in the previous paragraph is true as well if a mathematician working outside of topology (e.g., in functional analysis) wants to use results or methods of C p -theory; he (or she) will find them easily in a concentrated form or with full proofs if there is such a need.

The material we present here is up to date and brings the reader to the frontier of knowledge in a reasonable number of important areas of C p -theory.

This book seems to be the first self-contained introduction to C p -theory. Although there is an excellent textbook written by Arhangel’skii (1992a), it heavily depends on the reader’s good knowledge of general topology.

Mexico City, Mexico

Vladimir V. Tkachuk

Contents

1 Duality Theorems and Properties of Function Spaces

1

1.1 Some Additional Axioms and Hereditary Properties

2

1.2 Monolithity, Stability and Their Generalizations

11

1.3 Whyburn Spaces, Calibers and Lindelöf ˙-Property

19

1.4 A Glimpse of Descriptive Set Theory

27

1.5 Additivity of Properties: Mappings Between Function Spaces

35

1.6 Bibliographic Notes

 

42

2 Solutions of Problems 001–500

45

3 Bonus Results: Some Hidden Statements

527

3.1 Standard Spaces

 

528

3.2 Metrizable Spaces

529

3.3 Compact Spaces and Their Generalizations

530

3.4 Properties of Continuous Maps

531

3.5 Completeness and Convergence Properties

532

3.6 Product Spaces

 

533

3.7 Cardinal Invariants and Set Theory

535

3.8 Raznoie (Unclassified Results)

536

4 Open Problems

539

4.1 Analyticity and Similar Properties

540

4.2 Whyburn Property in Function Spaces

541

4.3 Uniformly Dense Subspaces

 

542

4.4 Countable Spread and Similar Properties

544

4.5 Metacompactness and Its Derivatives

547

4.6 Mappings

Which Involve

C p -Spaces

551

4.7 Additivity of Topological Properties

552

4.8 Raznoie (Unclassified Questions)

554

viii

Contents

Bibliography

 

557

List of Special Symbols

 

573

Index

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

5 7 7

Detailed Summary of Exercises

1.1. Tampering with Additional Axioms: Some Hereditary Properties

. Characterizing hereditarily/perfectly normal spaces

Equivalent conditions for hl.X /

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

001.

Problems 002–003.

Problem

Right-separated and left-separated spaces

 

Problems 004–009.

Invariants s; hl; hd in finite and countable powers

 

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

Problems 010–013.

Spread of X X is an upper bound for minfhd.X /; hl.X /g

 

Problem 014.

A bound on cardinality of X

using hl.X /

Hedgehogs and duality theorems for s ; hl ; hd

 

.Problem

015.

.X X / '.C p .X // if '

2 fs; hl; hd g and is its dual

.Problems 016–018. Problems 019–035.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

Properties s ! and hl ! can be multiplicative in C p .X /

 

Problem 036.

Non-separable spaces

.

CH constructions for distinguishing s; hl and hd

The Delta-lemma

of countable spread .

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

 

.

.

 

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

Problem 037. Problem 038.

Problems 039–040.

Compact spaces and their points of

! under CH

 

Problem 041.

There are P -points in ˇ!n! under CH

Problem 042.

Some

results on Luzin spaces

Problems 043–046.

Martin’s axiom and

its applications

Problems 047–063.

Stationary and club subsets

of ! 1

Problems 064–067.

Trees and Jensen’s axiom Souslin tree and Souslin continuum Condensing onto hereditarily separable spaces Around perfect normality in function spaces Metrizability and perfect normality of compact spaces Preparing ground for example of a compact strong S -space Todorcevic’s example and its applications

 

Problems 068–071. .Problems 072–076. Problems 077–079. Problems 080–089. Problems 090–096. .Problem 097. Problems 098–100.

1.2.

Monolithity, Stability and Their Generalizations

 

Monolithity and stability in metrizable spaces

Problems 101–106.

. Scattered spaces, P -spaces and -simple spaces

Monolithity and

. Versions of !-stability and to pseudocompactness

.

stability

in

general spaces

.

.

.

.

 

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

Problems 107–126.

Problems 127–130.

Problem 131.

x

Detailed Summary of Exercises

Versions of !-monolithity in C p .X / implying that X is finite

.Problem 132.

Scattered spaces and Fréchet–Urysohn property in C p .X /

Problems 133–136.

 

ˇ

On !-relativization of Cech-completeness in C p .X /

Problems 137–138.

On

!-relativization of

normality in C p .X /

Problems 139–142.

Stability and monolithity in C p .X / vs those in C p .X; I/

Problems 143–144.

.!/-stability in X and X

Problem 145.

Some

generic duality theorems

Problems 146–151.

Some applications of generic duality theorems

Duality for relativizations of tightness and similar properties

Problems 152–177.

'.!/-monolithity in C p .X / for ' 2 fi w; ;

Problems 178–180.

Problems 181–184.

Relativizations of tightness and Fréchet–Urysohn property

Problems 185–186.

A dual property for being -scattered

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

Problem 187.

A property of C p .X / for Hurewicz d.!/-stable spaces X

Problem 188.

Some monolithity properties and countable spread

Problems 189–197.

Free sequences in C p .X / under MAC:CH

.Problem 198.

!-monolithity and countable spread in X under MAC:CH

Problem 199.

Hereditary stability of C p .X / can imply nw.X / D !

Problem 200.

1.3. Whyburn Spaces, Calibers and Lindelöf ˙-Property

Two statements about hereditarily normal compact spaces

If X is compact and X 2 n is paracompact, then X is metrizable

Problems 201–202.

Problem 203.

Whyburn spaces and weakly Whyburn spaces

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

 

Problems 204–213.

Hereditarily k-spaces are Fréchet–Urysohn

Problem 214.

More of Whyburn spaces and weakly Whyburn spaces

Problems 215–220.

p-spaces vs ˙-spaces

Problems 221–232.

Some characterizations of Lindelöf ˙-property by extensions ˙-property in C p .X /

.

.

Problem 233.

Problems 234–239.

. Compact-valued maps and Lindelöf ˙-property

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

Problems 240–242.

Categorical properties of Lindelöf ˙-spaces

 

Problems 243–259.

Lindelöf ˙-spaces and with small compact subsets

Problems 260–262.

Baire property together with Lindelöf (˙-)property of C p .X / . Problems 263–265.

Stability in Lindelöf ˙-spaces and their products Baturov’s theorem Hereditary Lindelöf ˙-property implies countable netweight

.

Problems 266–268. .Problem 269. .Problems 270–274.

Basic properties of calibers and precalibers The Souslin property and caliber ! 1 under additional axioms Duality results for small diagonals and calibers Compact spaces and Lindelöf ˙-spaces with small diagonal

.

Problems 275–287. .Problems 288–289. Problems 290–293. Problems 294–300.

1.4. A Glimpse of Descriptive Set Theory

Zero-dimensional spaces and their properties

A

Universal Borel sets

Borel complexity of subsets of uncountable Polish spaces

A

theorem on continuous selections and its applications

of given class

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

countable space not embeddable into any C p .Borel set/

.

.

.

.

.

Problems 301–314.

Problems 315–317.

. .Problems 319–321. .Problem 322.

318.

.

.

.

.

.

Problem

Detailed Summary of Exercises

xi

Absolute F - and absolute G ı -spaces

Problems 323–324.

Open, closed and perfect maps on Polish spaces

Problems 325–329.

Capturing all Borel sets

Problem 330.

Categorical properties of Borel

sets

Problems 331–333.

Some trivial properties of analytic

spaces

Problems 334–337.

Inverse images of analytic sets

.Problem 338.

Separation theorem and Borel sets as analyticCcoanalytic

Problems 339–340.

Condensations of Borel

sets

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

Problem

341.

A

Some properties of K-analytic spaces

non-analytic subspace of the

reals

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

. .Problems 343–346.

Problem 342.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

Problem 395.

Axiomatic characterizations for the Cantor set, Q and R nQ Q is a universal space for countable metrizable spaces

Closed

.

embeddings of

Q in non-Polish spaces

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.Problems 347–349. Problem 350. Problem 351.

Closed

embeddings in analytic spaces

Problems 352–353.

Pytkeev’s theorem on condensations of Borel sets Condensations and continuous maps onto nice spaces -compactness of X and analyticity of C p .X /

 

Problem 354. Problems 355–359. Problems 360–370.

A

countable space X with C p .X / non-analytic

Problem 371.

Countable spaces X with C p .X / of any Borel complexity Some results on absolute F ı -property Embedding second countable spaces into C p .compactum/

 

Problem 372. Problem 373–375. Problems 376–378.

The functions of first Baire class and Rosenthal compacta K-analytic spaces and P -directed compact covers

K-analytic spaces

.

with small compact subsets

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.Problems 379–387. Problems 388–394.

. P -directed sets and metrization of a compact space

 

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

Problem 396.

K-analyticity in general and in spaces C p .X /

 

Problems 397–400.

1.5. Additivity of Properties: Mappings Between Function Spaces

Some properties are not finitely/countably

Additivity in squares and countable powers

A metric which generates the uniform topology on C .X /

Finite additivity in C p .X /: reduction to dense summands Some properties are finitely additive in C p .X Decompositions of C p .X / into countable unions Closed countable additivity of hereditary properties

Some properties are countably additive in arbitrary C p .X /.

Some properties are countably additive in “nice” C p .X Some results on uniformly dense subspaces of C p .X Extent of X and tightness of compact subspaces of C p .X Around the theorem of Gerlits–Pytkeev Extending continuous maps from X to C p .C p .X //

When C p .X / maps continuously onto C p .Y /? Mapping between products of metric spaces and C p .X /

If C p .X / is a retract of a G ı -subset of R , then X is discrete

Problems 401–407. .Problems 408–418. Problem 419. Problems 420–421. Problems 422–430. .Problems 431–432. Problem 433. Problems 434–450. Problems 451–455. Problems 456–461. Problem 462. Problems 463–466. Problems 467–469. .Problems 470–491. Problems 493–499. Problem 500.

Introduction

The term “C p -theory” was invented to abbreviate the phrase “The theory of function spaces endowed with the topology of pointwise convergence”. The credit for the creation of C p -theory must undoubtedly be given to Alexander Vladimirovich Arhangel’skii. The author is proud to say that Arhangel’skii also was the person who taught him general topology and directed his Ph.D. thesis. Arhangel’skii was the first to understand the need to unify and classify a bulk of heterogeneous results from topological algebra, functional analysis and general topology. He was the first to obtain crucial results that made this unification possible. He was also the first to formulate a critical mass of open problems which showed this theory’s huge potential for development. Later, many mathematicians worked hard to give C p -theory the elegance and beauty it boasts nowadays. The author hopes that the work he presents for the reader’s judgement will help to attract more people to this area of mathematics. The main text of this volume consists of 500 statements formulated as problems;

it constitutes Chap. 1. These statements provide a gradual development of many

popular topics of C p -theory to bring the reader to the frontier of the present-day knowledge. A complete solution is given to every problem of the main text. The material of Chap. 1 is divided into five sections with 100 problems in each one. The sections start with an introductory part where the definitions and concepts

to be used are given. The introductory part of any section never exceeds two pages

and covers everything that was not defined previously. Whenever possible, we try to save the reader the effort of ploughing through various sections, chapters and volumes, so we give the relevant definitions in the current section not caring much about possible repetitions. Chapter 1 ends with some bibliographical notes to give the most important

references related to its results. The selection of references is made according to the author’s preferences and by no means can be considered complete. However,

a complete list of contributors to the material of Chap. 1 can be found in our

bibliography of 300 items. It is my pleasant duty to acknowledge that I consulted the paper of Arhangel’skii (1998a) to include quite a few of its 375 references in my bibliography.

xiv

Introduction

Sometimes, as we formulate a problem, we use without reference definitions and constructions introduced in other problems. The general rule is to try to find the relevant definition not more than ten problems before. The first section of Chap. 1 deals with hereditary properties in C p .X /. To under- stand the respective results, the reader needs a topological background including the ability to manage additional axioms of ZFC and apply strong and difficult methods of set theory. The pursuit of self-containment obliged the author to give an introduction to advanced set theory. In this section the reader can find the applications of continuum hypothesis, Martin’s axiom, Jensen’s axiom, Souslin trees and Luzin spaces. The non-C p material presented in Chap. 1 also includes an introduction to descriptive set theory and Lindelöf ˙-spaces. This helped to keep this work self- contained when we gave the proofs of Baturov’s theorem on C p .X / for a Lindelöf ˙-space X and Christensen’s theorem on -compactness of X provided that C p .X / is analytic. There are many topics in Chap. 1 which are developed up to the frontier of the present-day knowledge. In particular, Sect. 1.5 includes the famous Gerlits–Pytkeev theorem about coincidence of the Fréchet–Urysohn property and k-property in any space C p .X /. The complete solutions of all problems of Chap. 1 are given in Chap. 2. Chapter 3 begins with a selection of 100 statements which were proved as auxiliary facts in the solutions of the problems of the main text. This material is split into six sections to classify the respective results and make them easier to find. Chapter 4 consists of 100 open problems presented in ten sections with the same idea: to classify this bulk of problems and make the reader’s work easier. Chapter 4 also witnesses an essential difference between the organization of our text and the book of Arhangel’skii and Ponomarev (1974): we never put unsolved problems in the main text as is done in their book. All problems formulated in Chap. 1 are given complete solutions in Chap. 2 and the unsolved ones are presented in Chap. 4. There is little to explain about how to use this book as a reference guide. In this case the methodology is not that important and the only thing the reader wants is to find the results he (or she) needs as fast as possible. To help with this, the titles of chapters and sections give the first approximation. To better see the material of a chapter, one can consult the second part of the Contents section where a detailed summary is given; it is supposed to cover all topics presented in each section. Besides, the index can also be used to find necessary material. To sum up the main text, I believe that the coverage of C p -theory will be reasonably complete and many of the topics can be used by postgraduate students who want to specialize in C p -theory. Formally, this book can also be used as an introduction to general topology. However, it would be a somewhat biased introduction, because the emphasis is always given to C p -spaces and the topics are only developed when they have some applications in C p -theory. To conclude, let me quote an old saying which states that the best way for one to learn a theorem is to prove it oneself. This text provides a possibility to do this. If the reader’s wish is to read the proofs, then they are concentrated immediately after the main text.

Chapter 1

Duality Theorems and Properties of Function Spaces

This chapter presents some fundamental aspects of set theory, descriptive set theory,

general topology and

Section 1.1 introduces some advanced concepts of set theory. We give the state- ments and applications of the continuum hypothesis, Martin’s axiom and Jensen’s axiom. The next thing under the study is the behavior of spread, hereditary Lindelöf number and hereditary density in function spaces. The most important results of this section are the duality theorems for s ; hd and hl (Problems 025–030) and Todorcevic’s example of a strong S -space (Problem 098). In Sect. 1.2 we deal with monolithity, stability and their generalizations. The principal results are presented as several generic theorems on duality between . /-monolithity and . /-stability, formulated in Problems 146–151. Section 1.3 starts with Whyburn spaces and their properties. Next, we introduce Lindelöf ˙-spaces and their most important characterizations. The rest of the section is devoted to calibers, precalibers and small diagonals. The most important results include Baturov’s theorem on extent in subspaces of C p .X / for a Lindelöf ˙-space X (Problem 269) and Gruenhage’s theorem on Lindelöf ˙-spaces with a small diagonal (Problem 300). In Sect. 1.4 we introduce the basic notions of descriptive set theory and give their applications to C p -theory. This section features three main results: Christensen’s theorem on analyticity of C p .X / (Problem 366), Fremlin’s theorem on K-analytic spaces whose compact subspaces are metrizable (Problem 395) and Pytkeev’s theorem on condensations of Borel sets (Problem 354). The first part of Sect. 1.5 comprises some results on decompositions of C p .X / into a finite or countable union of subspaces with “nice” properties. The second part is devoted to the study of the existence of good mappings between C p .X / and C p .Y / and the simplest implications this has for the spaces X and Y . We also have two main results in this section: Gerlits–Pytkeev theorem on k-property in C p .X / (Problem 465) and Tkachuk’s theorem on discreteness of X if C p .X / is homeomorphic to a retract of a G ı -subspace of R X (Problem 500).

C p -theory.

V.V. Tkachuk, A Cp-Theory Problem Book: Special Features of Function Spaces,

1

2

1

Duality Theorems and Properties of Function Spaces

1.1 Some Additional Axioms and Hereditary Properties

A space X is left-separated (right-separated) if there exists a well-order < on

X such that the set fy 2 X W y<xg is closed (open) in X for any x 2 X .

A space X is scattered if any subspace Y X has an isolated point. Recall that

2 N g and h'.X / D supf'.Y / W Y X g for any cardinal

' .X / D supf'.X n / W n

invariant '. All results of this book are proved assuming that ZFC axioms hold. The

abbreviation ZFC stands for Zermelo–Fraenkel–Choice. This axiomatic system is

the most accepted one at the present moment. We won’t need to have the knowledge

of

what the axioms of ZFC exactly say. It is sufficient to know that all they do is

to

postulate some very natural properties of sets. For the reader who wants to learn

more, the book of Kunen (1980) is an excellent introduction to this subject.

In the twentieth century topologists and set-theorists discovered that there were

some very natural problems which could not be solved using ZFC axioms only;

to fix this, quite a few additional axioms have been created. Practically all of

those axioms are proved to be consistent with ZFC which means that if ZFC has no contradiction, then ZFC, together with the axiom in question, does not have one. In this section we formulate the most popular additional axioms and their applications. All results of this book are proved in ZFC if no additional assumptions are formulated explicitly; however, we sometimes emphasize this. The statement CH (called Continuum Hypothesis) says that the first uncountable ordinal is equal to the continuum, i.e., ! 1 D c. The statement “ C D 2 for any

infinite cardinal ” is called Generalized Continuum Hypothesis (GCH).

A partial order on a set P is a relation on P with the following properties:

(PO1)

p

p for any p 2 P ;

(PO2)

p

q

and q

r imply p r;

(PO3)

p

q

and q

p imply p D q.

The pair . P ; / is called a partially ordered set. If the order is clear, we will write

P instead of . P ; /. Let . P ; / be a partially ordered set. The elements p; q 2 P

are called compatible if there is r 2 P

not compatible, they are called incompatible. A set A P is an antichain if the

q. If p and q are

such that r

p and r

elements of A are pairwise incompatible. We say that . P ; / has the property ccc

if any antichain of P is countable. A set D P is called dense in P if, for every

p 2 P , there is q 2 D such that q p.

A

non-empty set F P is a filter if it has the following properties:

(F1)

for any p; q 2 F , there is r 2 F

such that r p and r q;

(F2)

if p 2 F

and p q, then q 2 F .

Given an infinite cardinal , we denote by MA. / the following statement: for

any ccc partial order P and any family D of dense subsets of P with j D j , there

is a filter F P such that F \ D ¤ ; for any D 2 D . Now, Martin’s axiom, MA,

says that MA. / holds for any infinite < c.

A subset C ! 1 is called club ( closed and unbounded) if C is uncountable

and closed in the order topology on ! 1 . A set S ! 1 is stationary if S \ C ¤ ;

1.1

Some Additional Axioms and Hereditary Properties

3

for any club C ! 1 . Jensen’s axiom } is the statement: for each ˛<! 1 , there is a set A ˛ ˛ such that, for any A ! 1 , the set f˛ 2 ! 1 WA\˛DA ˛ g is stationary.

The principle } C is the following statement: for each ˛ 2 ! 1 , there is a countable family A ˛ exp.˛/ such that, for any A ! 1 , there is a club C ! 1 for which A\˛2 A ˛ and C \ ˛ 2 A ˛ for any ˛ 2 C . The sequence f A ˛ W˛<! 1 g is called

a } C -sequence.

A space X is called zero-dimensional if X has a base consisting of clopen sets. A

point x 2 X is called a P -point if any countable intersection of neighborhoods of x

is a neighborhood of x. An uncountable dense-in-itself space X is called Luzin (also

written Lusin) if any nowhere dense subspace of X is countable. Say that X is an L-

space if hl.X / D ! < d.X /; if hd.X / D ! < l.X /, then X is called an S -space.

The axiom SA says that there are no S -spaces, i.e., that every regular hereditarily

separable space

l.X /; if hl .X / D ! < d.X /, then X is called

A tree is a partially ordered set . T ; / such that, for every x 2 T , the set L x D

fy 2 T W y<x g is well ordered by . We will often write T instead of . T ; /.

If T is a tree and x 2 T , then the height of x in T or ht.x; T / is the ordinal

isomorphic to L x . For each ordinal ˛, the ˛-th level of T or Lev ˛ . T / is the set fx 2 T W ht.x; T / D ˛g. The height ht. T / of the tree T is the least ˛ such that Lev ˛ . T / D ;. A subset T 0 T is called a subtree of T if L x T 0 for every

T is called a chain if C is linearly ordered by , i.e.,

x

every two elements of C are comparable. An antichain of T is a set A T such

a strong S -space if hd .X / D ! < strong L-space.

is Lindelöf. Furthermore, X is

2

T 0 . A subset C

2

that x; y 2 A and x ¤ y implies x 6

-Souslin tree is a tree T such that j T j D and every chain and every antichain have

cardinality < . An ! 1 -Souslin tree is called Souslin tree. If is a regular cardinal,

a -tree is a tree of height with levels of cardinality < . A -Aronszajn tree is

a -tree with no chains of cardinality . An ! 1 -Aronszajn tree tree.

is called Aronszajn

x. For every infinite cardinal , a

y and y 6

If f W X ! Y and Z X , we denote the restriction of f to Z by f j Z or f jZ.

If

we have maps f; g

W X ! Y , then f g if the set fx 2 X W f .x/ ¤ g.x/g

is

finite. Given functions f

W

X

! Y

and

g W X 1

!

Y 1 , we say that f

g if

X

X 1 ; Y

Y 1 and gjX

D f . Now, ! ˛

is the set of all maps from ˛ to ! and

! <! 1 D S f! ˛ W ˛<! 1 g. Any ! 1 -sequence fs ˛ W ˛<! 1 g ! <! 1 such that

s ˛ 2! ˛ is an injective map and s ˇ j˛ s ˛ for all ˛<ˇ<! 1 is called Aronszajn coding. Denote by P the set of all monotonically increasing functions from ! ! , i.e.,

P

Dff

2 ! !

W f .i / < f .j / whenever i<j g. Given f; g

2 ! ! ,

we say that

f

< g if there exists m 2 ! such that f .n/ < g.n/ for all n m. A sequence

ff ˛ W˛< g ! ! is called strictly < -increasing if f ˛ < f ˇ for all ˛<ˇ< .

A set S ! ! is < -cofinal in ! ! if, for any f 2 ! ! , we have f < g for some

g2S.

4

1

Duality Theorems and Properties of Function Spaces

001. Given an infinite cardinal prove that the following properties are equivalent for any space X :

(i)

hl.X / ;

 

(ii)

l.X / of X;

and every U

2 .X / is

a

union of -many closed subsets

(iii)

l.X /

and every closed F X is a G -set in X ;

(iv)

l.U

/

for any open U X .

 

In particular, a space X is hereditarily Lindelöf if and only if it is Lindelöf and perfect.

002. Prove that a space X is hereditarily normal if and only if any open subspace of X is normal.

003. Prove that if X is perfectly normal, then any Y X is also perfectly normal.

004. Let X be any space. Prove that hd.X / D supfjAj W A is a left-separated subspace of X g. In particular, the space X is hereditarily separable if and only if every left-separated subspace of X is countable.

005. Let X be any space. Prove that hl.X / D supfjAj W A is a right-separated subspace of X g. In particular, the space X is hereditarily Lindelöf if and only if every right-separated subspace of X is countable.

006. Prove that a space is right-separated if and only if it is scattered.

any

007. Let X be a left-separated space. Prove that hl.X / s.X /. In particular,

left-separated space of countable spread is hereditarily Lindelöf.

008. Let X be a right-separated space. Prove that hd.X / s.X /. In particular, any right-separated space of countable spread is hereditarily separable.

009. Prove that any space has a dense left-separated subspace.

010. Suppose that s.X / D !. Prove that X has a dense hereditarily Lindelöf subspace.

011. Prove that for any space X , we have hl .X / D hl.X ! /. In particular, if all finite powers of X are hereditarily Lindelöf, then X ! is hereditarily Lindelöf.

012. Prove that for any

finite powers of X are hereditarily separable, then X ! is hereditarily separable.

013. Prove that for any space X , we have s .X / D s.X ! /.

014. Suppose that s.X X / . Prove that hl.X / or hd.X / . In particular, if s.X X / D !, then X is hereditarily separable or hereditarily Lindelöf.

015. Prove that jX j 2 hl.X / for any space X . In particular, any hereditarily Lindelöf space has cardinality c.

016. Prove that s.X X / s.C p .X // s .X / for any space X .

hd.X ! /. In particular, if all

space X , we have hd .X / D

017. Prove that hd.X X / hl.C p .X //

hd .X / for any space X .

018. Prove that hl.X X / hd.C p .X //

hl .X / for any space X .

019. For an arbitrary n 2 N , let J n D J.n/ be the hedgehog with n spines. Prove that s.X n / s.C p .X; J n // s.C p .X / C p .X // for any space X .

020. For an arbitrary n 2 N , let J n D J.n/ be the hedgehog with n spines. Prove

1.1

Some Additional Axioms and Hereditary Properties

5

021. For an arbitrary n 2 N , let J n D J.n/ be the hedgehog with n spines. Prove that hl.X n / hd.C p .X; J n // hd.C p .X / C p .X // for any space X .

022. prove that s.C p .X / C p .X // D s .C p .X //.

023. prove that hl.C p .X / C p .X // D hl .C p .X //.

024. prove that hd.C p .X / C p .X // D hd .C p .X //.

025. Prove that s .X / D s .C p .X // for any space X .

For any space X

For any space X

For any space X

026. Prove that hl .X / D hd .C p .X //

for any

space

X .

027. Prove that hd .X / D hl .C p .X //

for any

space

X .

028. For an infinite cardinal , suppose that s.C p .X // D and .X / . Prove

that s .C p .X // and hence s .C p .X // D s.C p .X //. In particular, if X is

a space with a

For an infinite cardinal , suppose that hl.C p .X // D and and hence hl .C p .X // D hl.C p .X //.

that hl .C p .X // is a space with a

030. (Velichko’s theorem) Prove that hd .C p .X // D hd.C p .X // D hl .X / for

029.

.X / . Prove In particular, if X

G ı -diagonal, then s .C p .X // D s.C p .X // D s .X /.

G ı -diagonal, then hl .C p .X // D hl.C p .X // D hd .X /.

any space X .

031. Prove that s.C p .C p .X /// D s .X / for any space X .

032. Prove that hd.C p .C p .X /// D hd .X / for any space X .

033. Prove that hl.C p .C p .X /// D hl .X / for any space X .

034. Prove that for a zero-dimensional space X , we have s .X / D s.C p .X //.

035. Prove that hd .X / D hl.C p .X // for any zero-dimensional space X .

036. Prove that under SA, the following conditions are equivalent:

(i)

s.C p .X // D !;

(ii)

hl C

p .X // ! /D!;

(iii)

hd C

p .X // ! /D!.

In particular, if SA holds, then hl.C p .X // D !

and s.C p .X //

D ! implies s p .X // ! /D!.

C

implies hl p .X // ! /D!

C

037. Prove that the following statements are equivalent (remember that all spaces

are assumed to be Tychonoff):

(i)

there is

a space

X

with

s.X / D ! and d.X / > !;

(ii)

there is

a space

X

with

hl.X / D ! and d.X / > !;

(iii)

there is a left-separated space X with s.X / D ! and jX j D ! 1 .

038. ( -system lemma) Prove that for any regular uncountable cardinal , if U is a family of finite sets with j U j D , then there exists a set F (called the -root for U ) and a family V U (called the -system for U ) such that j V j D and A \ B D F for any distinct A; B 2 V .

039. Prove that under CH, there exists a hereditarily Lindelöf non-separable dense subspace X of the space f0; 1g ! 1 . In particular, L-spaces exist under CH.

040. Prove that under CH, there exists a hereditarily separable non-Lindelöf dense subspace X of the space f0; 1g ! 1 . Thus, S -spaces exist under CH.

041. Prove that under CH, any sequential compact space has points of countable character.

6

1

Duality Theorems and Properties of Function Spaces

043.

044. Prove that if a Luzin space X is separable, then all closed subsets of X are separable.

045. Prove that no Luzin space can be condensed onto a compact space.

046. Prove that under CH, there is a Luzin second countable space as well as a Luzin non-separable space.

047. Prove that MA(!) holds in ZFC (and hence CH implies MA), while MA( c) is false in ZFC.

048. Prove that MA. / is equivalent to MA. / restricted to ccc partially ordered sets of cardinality , i.e., if MA. / is true for all ccc partial orders of cardinality , then it is true for all ccc partial orders.

049. Let . P ; / be a partially ordered set. Call a subset A P centered if for any

n 2 N and any p 1 ;:::;p n 2 A, there is r 2 P such that r p i for all i n. Assume MAC:CH and take any ccc partially ordered set P . Prove that for any uncountable R P , there exists an uncountable centered Q R. In particular, all elements of Q are pairwise compatible.

050. Assume MAC:CH. Let X t be a space with c.X t / D ! for every t 2 T . Prove that c.X / D !, where X D Q fX t Wt2Tg.

051. Given families A; B exp.!/ such that j Aj ; j B j and < c, suppose

that Bn. S A 0 / is infinite for every B 2 B and any finite family A 0 A. Prove that MA. / implies that there exists M ! such that BnM is infinite for any B 2 B while AnM is finite for any A 2 A.

Let X be a Luzin space. Prove that hl.X / D ! and hd.X / ! 1 .

052. lemma) Let C exp.!/ be a family such

(Booth

that j C j D < c and

T C 0 is

infinite

for every finite C 0 C . Prove that MA. / implies that there exists an

infinite L ! such that LnC is finite for any C