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For the revised Cambridge Examination ; IE co Express Publishing FCE Use of English GONTENTS oe + a a eo © 10 1 12 Tense Forms.. Practice test 1 a . 19. The Infinitive/-ing form/Participles Practice test 2 .. Modal Verbs. Practice test 3... Adjectives / Adverbs / Comparisons .. Practice test 4 Pre-test 1... Clauses / Linking Words... Practice test 5.... Reported Speech... Practice test 6.... Passive Voice / Causative Form Sly, Practice test 7... Conditionals) Wishes/Unreal Past Practice test 8... Pre-test 2... Nouns/Articles 1S Practice test 9... Determiners / Pronouns .. Practice test 10..... Questions / Short Answers. Practice test 11... Inversion | Emphatic Structures. Practice test 12.. Pre-test 3 Appendix 1: fer Belihg Rules Appendix Appendix Appendix 4: Word Formation . Irregular Verbs... The FCE Use of English 2” js a practice book intended mainly for intermediaie and post-intermediate students, but it is also useful for more advanced students for revision and censolidation. ‘The aim of the book is to help students to understand and use English grammar through struciurally graded material ‘and full-colour pictures. In addition the book offers preparation for the new Cambndge FUE Examination, or any other similar examinations Oral Development sections, These appear throughout the book and help students practise the grammar structures presented. Foider sections. Each unit is followed by exercises which provide general practice for the new FCE Examination or any other similar ‘examinations. The use of Phrasal Verbs is explained in ‘Appendix 2 and the use of Prepositions is explained in ‘Appendix at the back of the book. There are also "key" word transtormation exercises, cellocations and idioms, test sections. After every unt there Is a section which trains students to cope with the new Cambridge FCE Exemination Papor 3 - Use of English or any othor similar examinations. Pre-test sections. After evory four units there is a section which familiarises the students with the format anc level of cifficulty of the actual tests. ‘These appear in the Teacher's Book and revise all structures: taught up {0 this point ‘A Teacher's Book accompanies the Student's Book This contains the answers to tne exercises in the Student's Book and presents useful grammar tips as well as three tests in two separate versions. yA a eo) ° i} Losi Cy | le) ra Pestea by Eapiess Fusing Ley movoe, New Greernam Par Newour, Bese RG 19 HW Tel. (G04s) 1605 917 963 Fax (44) 1805 B17 463 ermal nquines@enpresapuiroiny oo NTERNET hp ‘ian ouresspuolsting cus 2 vigna Evans 1096 Dentro irate © Bynes cau Fest publsned 1906 Now eatin 2300 A ognte feseray Me pal Ut ate publication may 0@ Fepraguced, stored ES retreva system, oF vansmitied in any teem, of Dy any moans. slectronic echnical phoiocepying oF cthewse ‘wthout the pri writen germission cf the Publenors Lay out E Maveayers WBN Baza) & e Identity 4 They are 2 The robb down on. 3 The sunt west 4 The cour 5 Clare is | 6 We've be 7. They emy 8 Paula ha “slavting u 9 The child Free b Identify 1 Bill alwa work. 2. Thonew 3. There ac 4 Scientist prevent 5 Andrea t 6 Laurais 7 Meet ext my asic 8 He's bec 9 The Kel Dear Mr 1) ar yoursdves, 3) Gust!move) time decare we 7) together in in the even 1D Tense Forms & identily the tenses, then match them with the correct description. 1 They are getting marie tris summer. @ fixed arrangements 1 the near future 2 The robber waves his gun and everyone gets —_b personal experiencesichanges that have happened down on the floor. © actions taking place at or around the moment 4 The sun rises in the east and sets in the of speaking; temporary situations west -€ actions started at a stated time in the past 4 The course starts on 10th October. and vontinuing up to the present 5. Clare is looking for a now flat © roviews/eports commmenteries/dramatic navratives 6 We've been sharing a lat for years. 1 permanent situations or states 7. Thoy employ staff from all over the world. g permanent truths or laws of nature 8 Paula has become more independent since —_h_ emphasis on duration of an action that began Starting university, In the past and continues up to the present 9 The child has been missing since last night. i timetables/programmes future meaning) da 2 3 4 8 6 7 8 8 & Identity the tenses, then match them with the correct description. 1 Bill always stops to buy mikonhis wayto past actons of cert curation naving visible work. resutts/ettects in the present 2. The naw sarial is growing in popularity b changing or developing situations 3 There goes the last dus! ¢ recently compieted actions 4 Scientists have just discovered a way to _ exclamatory sentences prevent memory loss. @ frequently repeated actions with “aways” > Andrea has phoned me every day this week ‘eupressing the speaker's annoyance or criticism 6 Laurais always criticising my appearance. actions which nappened at an unstated past 7 | fee exhausted as | have been working on time and are connected to the present ‘my assignment all nignt. @ emphasis on number, frequency Pileting 8 He's been asking to bortow money again. hy repeated/habitual actions 9 The Kellys have moved to Manchester. i expressing anger, irtation, ennoyance or pe cnticism Th 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 & Put the verbs in brackets into the vorrect present forms. Dear Mr and Mrs Williams, 1) ..am writing... (write) to thank you for coming to our wedding last month. J hope you enjoyed yourselves. Sheila and i 2). ssn Guatireturn) from our Roneymoon in Kenya and a . fhow/look forward to} starting our new life together. We 4) ust/move) into our new house and since our honeumoon we 5) .. . (Spend) all aur free time decorating. The house 8) 2c... sv: (actually/begir) to fee! ike home now and wed. (gracually/settie) into a routine. We 8) - have) breakfast together in the morning, but then we 9 soo. --+ (not/see) each other until late Fin the evening when We 10) once “Get) home from work. | hope both of you. 1. - (be) well since we last saw you. No pan vi ste sdieed, seed taneites in any ens, electronic Ing of obverse permsson ofthe Love, David and Sheila De Tense Forms .. Biv vis eerete permanent aa ter thn an econ ard do not ve conti ome, ‘These are: verbs of the senses (used to express involuntary actions): fool, hear, sce, smell, as ete, / see someone standing at the front door. Verbs of feelings and emotions : adore, detest, ; lke, enjoy, forgive, hate, like ete. She realy enjoys cooking for hor fiends. Verbs of opinion : agree, 4g | believe, suppose, understand etc. | dan't believe ne’s coming. Other verbs : appear ( coor), E belong, concetn, contain, depend, fit (= be the rignt shape and size for sth), have (= possess), know, mean, owe, own, possess, need, prefer, require, want, weigh, wish, keep (— continue), seem etc. This skit fits you wel Note: Feel and hurt can be used In continuous or simple forms. Ann is feeling/feels ted. Listen, i 0K and watch express deliberate actions and can be Used in continuous forms. They are looking at es some pictures. : es Some stative verbs (be, love, see, smell, taste, think etc) have continuous forms but there is@_p difference in meaning. B | al ~ 4 ee 28 I'see exactly what you mean. (=| understand) @ ‘She Is seeing a lavyer tonight. (= She's meeting) 3 Peter thinks he knows everything. (= He believes) @ He is thinking of studying Law. (= Kelscorsiderng) 4S They have a vila in Portugal. (= They own) © He is having probloms, (= He is excerieneng) 5.N ‘Ababy’s skin feels very smooth. (= thas. © He is feeling the engine to see how ht ts. smooth taxture) = He's touching) ‘This soup tastes of garlic (=itnas the asteofgarle)_@ Why are you tasting the curry? (= Wy are you Sine testing the nayour?) Ea ‘The room smells of fresh flowers, (= Itrashe _@ Why are you smelling thet meat? (= Way are you sinell op checking its smell) Most people love/enjoy eeting out. (= Theylike in. @ She is loving/is enjoying every minute of her © F ‘genera holiday. (= She likes soectcall Peter is a difficult person to get on with. (Hs @ Jane is being particularly generous this weok, Anima charactoris dificut) = She is behaving generousiy sir He looks as he's going to faint. (= He appears) @ They are looking at the photos. (= Theyaeviewing) that a The patient appears to be recovering, (= 2 © ‘Simply Red are appearing on stage next week, a long seems to ba) They are giving @ performance) chang Sam now weighs more than his father (=His __@ The doctor is weighing the baby, (= she s helps | wight is more) finding out its weigh) therap My uniform doesnt fit me. (= itisy’ he ight size) @ We are fiting a new kitchen next week (= instalina) be «ice been ¢ lve lor Fill in with Present Simple or Continuous. A: | ..am seeing... (see) an old friend tonight Bt {s2e) - so you won't be able to meet me after work, will you? A: Why (you/smell) the milk? Bit (smell) a bit strange. | think it might have gone oft A (youlenjoy) reading Jane Austen's noveis? B: Not usually, but | - (enjoy) this particular one. A: Why Wohn/be) so bad tempered today? 2. Lo B: | don't know. He (be) usually 60 easy to get on with, (g A: Carol and | hink) of getting married. B: (you'think) that's a good idea” You haven't known each other for very long, A (yourhave) the phone number of a good business consultant? 3 Me B: Why? (youynave) problems at work? A (the singer/appear) tonight? to B Unfortunately not. She (appear) to have lost her voice, (ne . . Tense Forms BAD Why (youtaste) the baby's drink? Be, Wenn (laste) @ lve bitter. | think Il] add some more suger. 9 A: Ihaar the Forde pees (look) for a bigger house. B: Yes, it (look) as if they are going to move. 10 A: How much _ [the parcel/weigh)? B: I'm not sure. The assistant»... (woigh) it at tho moment. 6 Fill in “hasjhave been tofin", “has/have gone to”. 1 HOWIONG sniennnnnnnneA AS. she POC Kiheensssessneesnn YOU? 2 Sheila Brussels twice this year. 3 MUM -» he supermarket. She'll be back in about an nour. 4 Sam isn't in the office, He snr ..@ meeting. 8 MrSmith Paris for nearly three years. Since expresses a starting point. She's been working here since November. For expresses the duration of an action. They've been in Hawall for (wo weeks. u ie Fill in “since” or “for”. ek, Animals have been @ source of help and comfort to humans 1) since... history began, and we have known 2) wv» YOS Bae eving) that animals make people gentler and more relaxed. 3) stwook. a long time the question has been exactly how animals can change people. Some researchers believe that siroking a pot helps to relieve anxiety and tension and, 4)...... the 1960's. therapists have believed that animals’ remarkable powers can be used to heal our bodies and minds. This belief has actually been confitmed 8) ..... the discovery that seriousiy ill people lve longer if they have a pet to care for. @ Put the verbs in brackets into the appropriate present forms. wil you? 1. George Smith ...hae been training... train) tor this match for months. He (practise) at ro rik? least four hours a day for the last two weeks and he sous (809) At NOW HE re snnonnn: FON) ye gone oft. confident. However, he (face) a difficult opponent tonight. Palmer (win) ns roves? several games recently, AA NE sr cnn ((o0%) determined to win this one too. The cular ono. match (66) about to sian. s0 let's watch and see what snes: (MAPPEN) yectoday? Louisa usually (g0) to work by tube, but todlay she et on wih, ina chauffeur-driven limousine. The reason for this se (08) that she ng marti. z ((ust/win) tho young business person award, and as part of the prize people eo (treat) her like royalty ensutant? 3 Mary sews (dye) her hal for years, She ....... (Go) to the hairdresser once a week and at work) (try) every colour you can imagine, She (cay) sho . -- (want) tonight? to maten her hair with ner clothes, | (ask) ner for ages why she Be isice jpotksep) hee nablial cowl but he an abe! (Giga) whats! 4 Tense Forms . 4 A: Excuse mo, | vos (7) 1 pay ior this shi for ten rrinutes, Nobady p (seem) to want to serve me | - ty) eomlaning But MoBOGY een eM. A its the worst service | leverlexperience). Something ought io be dene! z B: | agree sir but | (natwark) here. moment. | enclose references/former employer and CV. | trust you give/application{serious consider- | of French, | workJassistant French teacher/two years/school cutside London. | be unemployed/at the | | ation. | lock forward/hear you/earliest convenience. Yours faithfully, 8) Make all the necessary changes and additions to make a complete letter. Dear Sirs, | write/apply/position of French teacher/advertised /The European. academic qualifications include! degree in French/Oxford University. | spend several years/Paris/have excellent practical knowledge ee ee Dear Sirs, I'm writing to apply ... a co ne st GQ entity the tenses, then match them with the correct description. ‘ 0 a 1 \had read most of his novels by the end of —__@_ action in the middle of happening at a stated the holicay past time or 2. | was enjoying myseltat the pary while Tim complete action or event which happened at to was babysitting at home. 2 stated past time 3 We got up at half past six this morning past actions whieh happened one immediately 4 They were stil considering his proposal after another P that evening, past action in progress interrupted by 5 Sho jogged five miles every day when she was another past action ennstc young, € action continuing over a period up toa 2) 5 Sho had a shower, got dressed quickly and specific time in the past he 3) left for the airport 1 complete past action which had visible severe 7 Reporte’s had been telephoning all results in the past Portug morning, g past action which occurred before another Porlig 8 Acrowd of tourists were waiting outside the action or betore a siaied time andne hotel when the bomb exploded. h past habit or state Felina’ 9 Ho made his last fim in Poland i. Past Perfact Continuous as the past They 40. She had been going out with Tony tor the equivalent of the Present Perfect Continuous (de). years before she decided to marry him J. action not connected to the present which Colum 41. She was upset because she had just heard happened at a definte past time not world the news mentioned Queen 42 The police officer changed her phone k Past Perfect as the past equivalent ofthe _voyag number because she had been receiving Prasent Periect 1482, anonymous calls for several weeks 1 two or more simultaneous past actions and th 49. The dancer had awoys dreamed 1m past action of certain duration which hac (have) of becoming successtul visible results in the past the “Ne 19) 4g Bow Ban Bae Bene Boe Toe Bae Sane We MAR 18, anim ps fisten) be done! s include! wledge ce the Fconsider- sla stated ppened at rnedately by toa ile another : tinuous ‘wich the ns 1 had B .. Tense Forms © Put the verbs in brackets into the correct past forms, then match the tenses with the correct description. “% When she 1) ..was.. (be) only fifteen Helen 2) (leave) school without any qualifications. Nevertheless, she 3) (02) very ambitious and 4) (want) to work in the fashion industry. Luckily she 5) find) 2 job immediately as an assistant in a small fashion company. While she 6) (work) there she 7) (decide) to go to evening classes to get a qualification in business studies, ‘Once she 8) (successfullyjcomplete) the course she 9) (Ge/prometed) to the position of assistant manager. After she 10) (do) that job for some years sho 11) (want) a change. She 12) think) of moving to London for some time, so she 13) (eppiy) for a job which she 14) (see) advertised in a fashion magazine. Helen 18) (get) a job as the manager of a small but prestigious fashion company in central London, She 16) {achieve} her ambition of becoming a successful businesswoman at last complete past actions netcon- ag complete acton or event which nected to the present with a happened at a stated past time stated or implied time reference past action which occurred before action in the middle of happening anther action or before a stated ata stated past time past time action continuing over a period up {tho Past Porfoct as the past to.a specttic time in the past equivalent of the Present Perfect Put the verbs in brackets into the correct past forms. Christopher Columbus 1) (work) as a woollen clath weaver wit'1his father before he 3) (begin) his nautical carcer at the age of 22. After sevetal merchant voyages he 4) (settle) in Lisbon, Portugal in 1478. By this t me he 5) (teach) himsetf Portuguese and Latin and 6) (reac) many geographical and navigational books. in 1481 he 7) (marry) Folioa Perestrolio. They 8) (have) ono son, Diego. They9) (beimarriec) for wo years when his wife 10) (Gie). Ai tis time he 11) (wo1k) for John of Portugal. Columbus 12) : (always/wish) to sail around the wold westward but John would t agree. Finally King Fercinand and Queen Isabella of Spain 13) (decide) to finance the voyage. Ho 14) 1492. There 15) and the Santa Maria and a crew of 90 men. They 16) (rave) many false alarms before they finally 17) (spo!) the “New World” at 02.00 on Friday the 12th of October, 1482, Columbus (make) another three voyages after this. He 19) (retire) to Valladolid 12 years alter his first voyage and in 1517 he 20) was born... (belborn) in Italy in 1451. He “(Got off for the frst time in April (be) three shigs: the Nina, the Pinta »» (dig) there, Tense Forms . Prat the verbs in brackets into the Past Simple or Continuous. © Used to. and porn verbs aré ‘A fow years ago a iriand of mine, Tom, 1) ..wae travelling... (ravel\ in Java. One day he 2) (decide) to visit an ancient ternple The walls vere covered in oeautitl old paintings of mysterious-looking faces, While he 3) (walk) around the temple, he Would 4) (fee) a7 inexpicable desire to remove one particular ce face which seemed to be staring at him. Nervously, chocking to see that no one §) look), he 6) (peel) the ‘aoe trom the wall and 7) (put i caretuly in his bag, Tor 6) «thinly no: more about the incident until two years later A thal time he 9) {lve) n London and 40) (Work) ina shop seling old books and manuscripts Was gol One day an extromoly old man 11) the door. Tom could harcity see him but he 12) the man’s piercing black eyes. He 13) fixing him with his gaze, saying nothing. As the man 14) (have) an awful, terrifying feeling (stare) at nim, Tom 15) (walk) slowly through (notice) (stare) at Tom, of shame and fear. Suddenly, the man was gone. When Tom got home that evening he 16) (search) frantically through all hs things until he 17) (ling) the face from the temple. It was the face of the old man from the shop! He 18) so (know) then that he had to return the picture to the temple, or something terrible would happen. © She has come. (unstated ime: we con't know when she caine) © He has been in hospital for two months. (he's stil In hosptel - ection connected to the present) © He's been out twice this week. (t's stil the same ‘week- action connected to the presen) © I've seen Jessica Lange. (action connected 10 the present - she's sil alive) © The Prime Minister has decided to o'ssolve Parliament. (ennouncing news) Fill in with Present Perfect or Past Simple. 1 The president 1) unemployment. The problem 2) president 3) ... ‘© Se came last Friday. (steted time - Wher? Last Friday.) ‘@ He was in hospital for ane week. (he isn't in hospta any more - action not connected to the present) ‘@ Ho wont out twice last week. faction not comected to the present its the next week now) @ | saw Richard Burton. (ection not connected to the presant- he's dead) @ He announced his decision this morning. (giving dts ofthe news stated tre inthe past) 8 intended Comple Use two Paul live live When he the mom would Rosa di used He mean going dont th used My granc used She want going My moth would & Make al hae announced... (announce) the introcuction of a new set of measures to deal with (oecome) worse in recent months, and yesterday the (state) that action must be taken now. She actually 4) (sign) the new bill during this morning's session of Parliament. 2 George 1) ‘ive times this month. Tho supervisor 3) obviously 4) 3 John Keats, who 1) (wrte) a lot of beautiful poems. | 4) - (arrive) late to work again this morning. He 2) (not/pay) any attention. (die) when he 2) (be) late at leas . (speak) to him about it yesterday but he (be} only 26 years old, 3) (read) most of his poetry, but 15) (neverimanage) to get to the end of Endymion. t's tco long for me! 4 Clare 1) one month and | have to say | 3) major cities in Europe Dut | 5) 8 Dc, (see) five films this mont Actually, | think the films they 3) than anything | 5) (see) for ages. (be) in New York for almost a yeer now. |2) (be) very impressed. | 4) vo. (N@VEr/Se2) any place as exciting as the Big Apple but 2) (make) ten years ago 4) (go) to vist her la (visit) most of the (novike) any of them very much (be) much better Dear Sirs Yesterd Firstly/cieli control knc such bad c trust/this n Dear Yoot Tense Forms © Used to expresses past habitual actions She used to wake up al 6 am avery day. ‘and permanent statos. (Note that stative (also. would wake up) verbs are not used with “would”. They used to live in a fat. (not: would) ‘© Would expresses past repeated actions When I was young, | would go fora walk before and routines - not states. breakfast. (also: | used t0 90...) # Be/Get used to expresses habitual actions she isn't used to staying up late al night. and means “beiget accustomed to", “be in She js gotting used to working under presours, the habit of” ‘@ Wes going to expresses actions one She was going to buy a new watch but unforu- intended to do but didn't. rrately sho couldn't afford one. GG complete the sentences using the words in bold. Use two to five words. 1 Pau lived in Brazil when he was young live Paul ...uged to live... in Brazil wnen he was young. = 2 Whan id was nite, he Sed towel ges oaeakie tear gem sould non he was nthe ay, nnn: 8 018K he morrng BP) 2 ocacicrt ho Bnglon od stra bution ahe ule cs & ; Used Rosa cnt tke Engish iood att Put now i arti make a up oft bu they had un ut of sabags gong He Zeus evs uty bat un oto tent Bitipial s Secrttrink i ova nd i ooy to oat wih chopsticks : deed dont tank eve ° with chopsticks 6 gender evel) aves oy saa BEM) used uy gararemer sce wil 2. Sho wantd to oa im but obs could Had is phos rat oe ES bat ho couldn't hie pheno number. : a: Uy nett alvase Gave mis a uf SVSO/ FUG) ig WS hese wld Mymoler cere 2 bath evry Fidey right when | waste AS Make aul the necessary changes and additions to make a complete letter. todeal with Dear Sirs, | Yesterday/l receive/new TV set/l order. However/| be/ very angryfas it arrive/terrible condition. | Firstly/delivery men/be rudejrefusewait/while lunpack/TV, When | unpack/! see/it be damaged. The control knob/be brokenjand there be/ large crack/on the top/TV. I/never before/receive/anything/ in such bad condition. Could you arrange/collect this set/and deliver/a new one/soon/possible? | | trust/this matter receive/prompt attention. late at loast day put he | Yours faithfulle ter ast regs most of the | | Big Apple. | Leta eA tf ce very much uch better Dear Sirs, Yesterday | received. Tense Forms .. Pat the verbs in brackets into the appropriate past forms. Aloxander the Great ..1vae born... (be/born) in 356 BC in Macedonia. He (become) King When he Was 20 aNd... (oOntiNUe) eile the Work that his FAtheF ecu (begin). In 384 BC he si (invade) Persia and by his thiristh birthday he vient (Conquer) most of south-west Asia, However, aestot while he on iplen) the invasion of Arabia he (catch) a fevar and (dia), Pare cpeny no GOs UO EB nn. Scotland. We (Save up) for months ard 20 we ibe) very excited when the time (come) 0 leave. We (PACK) OUT Bags, wussnesne (Get in the car and (eet Of), We nse {erive) for six hours when 7 Albert suddenly remember) something - we (forge topack theskis! =) 3 George Grimes --.---nssrss (Wake Up} feeling very ocd. Al through the night he wn ‘ (¢ream) about strange eroatures when {ry) to brea in tough his wincow. They Nv (nave) hors ang big green eyes and they a . (seem) to be threaten- ing him, “Oh well he = (hink), "at leest they aren't real Just at that moment, howe er, abig scaly hand (Come) crashing through the window! fate and bic 4 When B09 (invite) me to 0 fishing wih him | (be) excited because | problems (rever/go) fishing before. But as w= {drive to therivorwo 8) (see) the first black clouds and ten minutes later it (rain) heavily. efund. By t Three hours iter, Soaking Wet WE es san (StIINO0K for) somewhere to get warm and dry. doubt that y 5 ss [youlonjoy) your hoidey?® "No, (be) adieactor! As (get on) the plane, ound | (leave) my hoiday money at hore! | We 18) (Save) for months to get that money. My father (eend) ine a cheque, but i 2 (teks) fve days to reach me.” 6 Alan (work) in the same office for ten years betore he (apply) for ranorer lg) Fill int post With "Mask LID". HE evsnnserennen (weit) for en ansiver for WEEKS WHEN NE suesennn (be/asked) to attend an interview with the Personnel Manager. He (go) there dressed = in an expensive suit which he «en (Duy) the day before, only to find that they. Dear Mr (want) someone to werk as a cleaner ecard Thailand, Identify the tenses, then match them with the correct description. min Our tour 1 Tho buildors are going to start work ternorrow, a. prediction about the future imperial 2 Sheil be waiting oulade the station as Usual, basking poliely about people S airarigemenis mmc uanea! 3. | forgot to tell Jim the news. I'll ring him now. ¢ action which may (net) happen in the future time for y 4 By Christmas wo will have been working action which isthe result of a routine on loth together for ten years. e action intended to be performed in the near life. Our ti 5 BeaicuLyaitegargtolaiciveutiace: aus if you 13) 6 Tho mesting starts at 9 clock faction which willbe finished before a stated 7 'msure tings will work out inthe enc future ime 8 Pethaps your mother will change her tind. action in progress at a stated future time — © Will many people be coming to tho wodding? h_ovidenco that sth will definitely happen 40 They will have finished the plans by the end i duration of an action up to a certain time in ze of the week. the future Fill in 11. Hospital stat are beginning a two-day stike |. timetable/orogramme tis, tomorrow. fixed arrangement in the near future 2D) ee coo rite eon ora wll CecuerT ee ne Genero catego bbe moving to the cies, ea 3A Have Bee Be Bare Bee Bie Ca Pons Bie Dees Was Mae 12 B: No.t Po cx he skis! ndow They e threaten ent, howev: j because | he river wo in) heavily rm and dry) que, but it for ancther re drassed gements je future ne near a stated time en time in aking 2 . Tense Forms ime, if (conditional), unles ase, tiljuntil, when (time conjunction), ‘unenever, while, ‘once, suppose/supposing, on concition that etc. Let's buy more food in case James comes. (70: in Case danies-Wit-oorie.) © If meaning “whether” especially after | don’t know, | doubt, | wonder etc end when used as a question word can be used with future forms. When will the race take place? | doubt if they will hold their ennual anniversary party this year. MLB Hittin the correct present or future forms. Welcome to Nutfield Valley Health Farm! v After you 1) ..have settled in... (seitle in), a member of staff 2) (come) and SAD Fittin the correct present or future forms. Dear Mr Green, Regarding our telephone conversation last week, here are the details of your forthcoming trip to Thailand. You 1) ...will be leaving... (leave) on Saturday 4th December from London Gatwick at 10.00 pm. You 2) (fly) with Thai Air, flight number TA 907. The flight 3) (arrive) in Bangkok at 4.00 pm on Sth December - that 4) vw» (be) 17.00 pr local time. Our tour guide, Jim Smith, 5) (wait) for you ct the airport to accompany you to the Imperial Hotel. As soon as you 6) Gettle in), you 7) (attend) a welcome | dinner party, In the next days you 8) (visi famous Sights. There 9) svn erenen (62) time for you to do your shopping as well. By the time you 10)... Get on) the return fight | on 10th December, you 11) experience) the most traditional aspects of Thai | life, Our tour guide 12)... (be) with you throughout, so there shouldn’t be any problems, | lf you 13) (need) more information, please contact us. Yours sincerely, A. Jones | a ee aia ii, (ED Fatt in “wit” oF “be going to”. + A: There's no suger let B: That's OK. |... go and buy some, 2 Have you got any plans for the evening? B Yas, | see "The Doll’s House” in town, 3A: Haye you bought a dress for the reception? B: No, but | buy one this afternoon. 14 Tense Forms ...- 4 A: Here's £20. B: Thank you. : - pay you back as soon as | cen. 5 A: Have you heard that Mrs Potts is il? B: Yes. Actually we ... . visit her this atternoon. 6 A; Peteris taking his driving tost tomorrow. B: Oh, I'm sure he met snes PASS: 7A: Is Tom coming tonight? B: | don't know. | phone him and see. 8 A: Has Helen decided what to study? B: Yes, She - ‘ train to be @ teacher 9 A: It’s quite cold today. B: I think winter Z seurnee BO Here SOON 10. A: Weare having a picnic on Sunday, be nice B: | hope the weather 2 Make all necessary changes and additions to make a complete letter. Dear Mrs Scott, | write [confirm J arrangements | concerning / new nanny Margarita. Margarita’s plane | leave Hambura | 5.30 / arrive! London Gatwick 6.45, so | it/ be fearly start | you. As agreed / Margarita / work 7-10 morning / 3-8 afternoon and evening, Ske / have j English lessons / tvery Saturday. As know / by Christmas / Margarita / complete ! six months’ employment eth Hazlett. | hope / things run smoothly / you / Margarita Yours sincerely, Janet Hemsworth si iin Tn a contact | secretary Eliza a ee Dear Mrs Scott, i'm writing to confirm the arrangements concerning your new nanny Margarita. (2B ut the verbs in brackets into the appropriate present or future forms. ae le a arctuad va par Des aor eek sagcantel ona nce ea Pe ee cventater ron eens Ae Be cae a is cor ad agvrure Du (Sarge ON ea mare tort Top) cee BS) ee oes yeirae ace aaa iam 3 oyjubichod nod year a AS SGVTT Gear barat sareo! 1 errs) 2 opan dey oh Tag al of Caer Ft St ce able) mael your Mas tscham fou adromte heygioune, Weape tala) oe ogra 8) en, (89H) 9 om, Gon you tra es ee ey haya ceensemov) tere. They 4) Jeanne is afraid she 7) (Piss) living in Nottingham, but Paul is convinces that they 8) ibs} happier in London because there is so much more to do there Pr [therefore / expect / pay rise, 10%, / go | holiday | three Pieeke /Satirday /aj have problems I | a ow “1d “We ke t elag int © su ca in © Al alr @ Ye insferred there anc Jeanne (drive) down next weekend to look for a fat. They hope they §) .. (fine) something inanice area, but with prices the way they are, they will have to be satisfied with whatever they 6) (ing). ee C—"#U....1 | eee . Tense Forms 4 “Where 1) (youlge) on hoviday this year Leura? * an as | can, ' don't now Sue, What about you? “We 2) (probably'go) to Spain again, But as 13) (ged a pay nse very soon. Vd aflernoon, lke to go Somewhere more glamorous. | think | 4) iget) some brochures from the trev agent iomertow, so if you want, 15) (GIcK up) a couple for you es wel pass. ‘Good idea. With any luck, we 6) (decide) where to go by the time summer 7 (come) mand see. | 5 pear Anne, teacher. {got he job! 11) (leave) for Atica in two weeks. Its a shame 12) (Cotisee) you before 13) (go). For the fist Sk MONINS 4) sos (work) in vil here soon, lage school, teaching English anc Maths. 5) . (yoube abi to vist me? If not, by the UME 18) worse (e2) you again, so much 7) (nappen) to us both that be nice. it take us hours to catch up on the news Lots of love, Daniole pees fea eae || ® Ago (= back in time from now) used with Past Simple. Jil called an nour ago. e/ © Before (= back in time from then) Phil told mo vill ‘had calied an hour before. It can also be used agreed | ‘with present or past forms to point out that an action preceded another. He had been working ens | intho company fortwo years before he was promoted. nt “ems / | © Sills used in statements and questions after the ausiliary verb or befor the main verb. They roblems can stil walk long distences. She still works in ihe same office. SUIl comes before the auxiliary verb innegations. They still can't find @ solution to the problem. © Already is used with Pertect tenses in mid or end position in statements or questions. Sheila had th elready cooked dinner before Liz came home. Has he finished already? © Yetis used with Perfect tenses in negative sentences after a contracted auxiliary verb or at the end of the sentence. She hasr't yet accepted the post, She hasn't accepted the post yet. I can also be used at the end of questions. Has sho phoned yet? & Underline the correct word, 1. She has gone to Singapore and she’s still/yet there. 2. He doasn't want to watch the jilm as he's seen it already/stil 3. Amwas on a diet five months velore/ago. She lost three kilos. 4 Sho's only been playing the violin for two years and she can already/stil play several of Mozart's most difficult pieces. Even after twenty-five years she is stil/yet actvaly involved in the club. Jo's yatisiill got a good figure even though sho's five months pregnant. Has Sandra typed up those reports yet/stil? Inead them now.” Peter left the party two hours before/ago because he wasn't feeling well. She had come back ago/before he returned. | can't do the exam - | haven't finished doing all my revision stiliyet 1 & ut the verbs in brackets into a correct tense. 1 Anew addiction 1) ...has recently emerged... (recently/emerge) - to soap operas- and the world's fitst clinic to treat people obsessed with the soaps 2) (open) next week. Victims 3) and Jeanne (coma) from every walk of life - from company directors to cleaners. Symptoms of adcic: ee tion 4) (include) refusing to miss an episode and watching recorded episodes again anice area, and again, One victim §) jor (explain) how he 6) (become) addicted five (fina years ago. His obsession 7) (be) so bac that he &) (be) unable to koop nt thoy asteady relationship. "When my friends 9)... [come round, | was more interested in the soaps. It vias almost as f the people On TV 10) vrevieensnnenn (BECOME) my friends instead.” Bq Tense Forms 2A 11) {think) of going to that new Chinase restaurant inthe city centre to ccolabrato my birthday. 2} (yourbe! there yet? Bi NO, 18) soronnsnsnne (20UbE}, but people 4) (say) that the food is fantastic. ‘A: Woule you like to go there next weexend? B: Yes, that's a great idea. 15) (wit) it in my dary now 3 John 1) (leave) the house in a tush this morning, AS he 2) (drive) to work he suddenly 3) (remember) thathe 4) jn. (belasked) to spoak at a conference. He 5) (look) at nis watch and 6) (see) that it was nearly time for the conference to begin ce 4 Last March Sam 1) (cecide) that ne 2) (have) enough of working ina bank Tp, Nd that NE 3) arn (ide) around the world on a bicycle. He 4) (leave) England ‘two weeks later with his bike, a rucksack and a tent. He 8) (bo) auray for six months now, and no one 6) (know) vihether he 7) (ratutn) oF not e 5 Jan and Paul 1) (argue) in the next room at the moment. It 2) (seem) th Col Pall 3) cen (come) in lato last night after he 4) (promise) Jan that he 5) (be) home in time for dinner. By the tme Ae 6) .o..m (ge) home, Jan?) 1 She (Give) his dinner to the dog and 8)... i (wait) by the window for wo hours! bef 6 AN) /oulgo) en holiday to Germany this year? 2 She B: No, we 2) (go) there every year, so we want a change this year bee A; Where 3) .~» (you/plan) to go instead? B: Wall, we 4) (beltokd) that Greece is @ beautiful country so we 5) (already/book) 2 two-week holiday on Cort 7 Susen 1) vw» (Study) interior dosign part fimo for threo yoars and she 2) (get) her diploma next month. Since she 3) (work) in tne same company for over ten years she 4) (leel) mat she 5) (need) 2 change, so she 6) sense (912M) to open her own design ousiness. She 7) (start) locking for an office next week, and she 8) (hope) she 9) find) someting in a good location ana at a reasonable price by the end of the month. Her tutors 10) (tell) her that she 11) (be) very talented and thoy 12) (assure) hor that she 13) make) a success of the business. 8 Jim 1) (walk) along the High Street when he 2) susmnsene (NOMi®) someone teehind him. Actually, he 3) (follow) him since he 4) (get of the bus. Jim 5) (stop) at a shop window. The man 6) -. (corne) closer to him. vim 7) oo (have) the feeling he 8)... (09) him befor, so ho 9) (go) up to him and 10) (ask): (nowiknow) you? Why 12) (yourfollow) me?” The man 13) (smile) and 14) (cay), "Smilel You 15) (be) on Cancid Camera!" 9 ule 1) awaysiwant) to be famous, ever since she was young. She 2) . (ake) acting classes for years and last week sorneone 9) (offer) ho: a part in an advertisement, They only 4) (need) her vows, though because t's going fo be on the radio. At least her career 5) a (SN) 10 Tom 1) wwe (88V Up) 10 go 10 France for months, and yesterday when he 2) (count) his savings he 3) [realise] he had enough. Uniortunately as he 4) (arive) to the traval agent's he remembered that he 5) (not/pay} his rent for two months so he 6) (turn) round and 7) (drive) back home again 11. Next month 11) (isit) my friend who 2) live) in Brazil, The flight from LONdON 3) ..ern (lake) avout fifteen hours and | 4) {never/be) on a plane before. | §) - (feo!) quite nervous about the journey but my friend 6) (keep) teling me that there 7) . (be) nothing to worry about. o pis orking in @ bank leave) England ex monthe now, (seer) that. & Complete the sentences using the words in bold. Use two to five words. Jan that he 5) ) roma, Jan 7) fortwo hours! zat 8) ~ (goth QF over ten years. (plan) tL woek, and she at a reasonable (make) a otice} someone (gato) the c) doser to him, ore, 60 he 9) (POW) you? Why gq. She 2) Fucice, though, ni ry hs rent (or two. }omo again, (live) in Brazil 14) vous about tho: . 10 1 12 13 Iva never read such a good book, It's the dest Dook Ive ever read He started siudying Spanish two years ago. He has been studying Spanish for two years. When dic he star work? How long is it since he started work? How long ago did he start work? ‘They haven't reached Maarid yet. ‘Thoy stil haven't reached Madrid. He moved to London two months ago. He fas been in London for two months. He hasn't beon out for two months, ‘The last time he vient out was two months ago. She didn't go outuntil after Philip had called, before She started taking ballet lessons ten years ago, been = She How long ago cid he move to Canada? moved — How long I've never driven such a fast carl ever its the We haven't been abroad for two years, time The last How long is it since you visited Spain? visit When eee She has never eaten lobster before. time Its the first He hasn't tuned up yet He ‘The last time | saw Emily was six months ago for i soos When did Patricia finish writing her essay? since How long She 100k up knitting five years ago. boon Sho .. ‘They have never been outside Britain before. first Ws the Ho can't spoak italian yet. still He How long is it since they met? ago HOW . : ‘They waited until sunrise before they get up. get They . 3 Thaven't smoked a cigarette for six months, since It’s, I've never seen sucn a pretty gir. ever She's the «++. Tense Forms It's a long time since we went out We haven't bean out for a long time I've never eaten Chinese food before. It's the first time I've ever oaton Chinese food. He startes cleaning as soon as the guests {had) let He dint start cleaning untl after the gusts hac left He started cleaning when the guests (had) let. He waited until the guests had left before he started cleaning We jcined the club a month ago. We've been members of the club for a month She waited until Philip ...hlad called before she went... out for ten years. to Canada? driven, ‘two years ago. Spain? lobster. up. jn. Sik Months, writing her essay? five years. outside Britain, Italian. meet? atter sunrise, a cigarotte. seen. 5 Tense Forms .... 18. Sho didn't start serving until all the guests had arrived, before She walted until all the quests serving, 19. Geoff hasn't come back from his holiday yet. still Geoff from his holiday. Be * 2D 100 §QD Find the word which should not be in the sentence. 4 Pass on 1. She is being looking for a new job these days. berng | 2 merci 2 Jerry has been given me a lot of help Present Continuous Infinitive he is cnving/ne wil be driving - (to) be oriving # Past Simple/Present Perlect/Past Perfeci/Future Perfect > Perfect Infinitive hie croveihe nas driventhe had driven will have driven = (to) have driven © Past Cont./Present Pertect Cont.’Past Perlect Cont./Future Perfect Cont, > Perfect Cont. infinitive fie vas divingihe has been drivingihe had been dhivinglhe will have been diving > (to) have been driving Present Infinitive =| & Rewrite the sentences using the verb in brackets. Mind the tense of the infinitives. ach line xes She has lost her job, (seer) She seems to have lost her job. Ann vas accepted to work there. (seem) Ho is working hard. (appear) They have been watching TY all afterncon. (seem) Tom missed the train. (appear) Thay are moving house. (sem) She found the solution. (claim) : : Ithas been raining hard. (appear) Sheis reading a magazine. (pretend) Sharon tells lies. (tend) Fill in the correct form of the infinitive. Tre woathor somes ..t0 have improved. (mprove). Let's go out She appears, (work) on her composition for hours She has deciced (accept) my offer. Im hoping : (leave) by then so | won't be able to come with you This campet is fithy: it really needs (clean) soon! The waste from the power station is said (pollute) the aimosphere for months. Itwill be much too hot... i (wear) a coat. You must have been thirsty (anink) all that water He appears (injure) as a result of the fight. You're not expected (pay) the whole amount tocay. ‘The report was supposed 28 sewn ffISh) WO OUTS aQ0. ii was very cold earlier on today but it seems (warm up) now. He daims (discovat) a cure for the common cold Gan | trust you : gui sown (ROBD) HIS a SECTE! BESES Scart emsens a ioe loner RT Sho S6ME sen (work) too hard these days. 234 © to express purpose She liad 10 avold being punished. © after certain verbs (agree, appear, decide, expect, hope, plan, promise, refuse etc) He promised ia be back ai 17.00, © after certain adjectives (difficult, glad, happy, obliged, sorry, unable ete) He was happy to hoar te hac been promoted. atter “I would like would love|would prefer” to express specific preference. 'd prefer fo stay i iovight atter certain nouns. t's ny privilege to present the winner of the competition. alter “ioofenough” constructions. I's too late 10 go ow. She's experienced enough to be appointed Saloe Manager. He's got enough patience to cope with chilaren. The c alter; be + the firsvsecond etc/next/lasi/best etc. You'll be the first to break tho nows. Mill yc 1 | sugg 2 3 4 5 8 i 8 9 with: it + be + adjective (4+0f + noun/pronoun) It was rude of him to speak like that. 40 We sa " 2 13 4 1» it's no Hook | She sf Fred To tell We we with: so + adjective + as Would you be so kind as to help me with ihe washing? I woul with “only” expressing an unsatisfactory result. She went there only to find the meeting had been called off 12 Iwas in the expression: for + noun/pronoun + to-inf. For Mary to behave like that was very unusual Sandr in the expressions: to tell you the truth, to begin with, to be honest, to start with, to sum up ote. To 14 For Bi begin with, Id like (0 introduce our new manager, Mr Jones. Is rai i «Note that if tvo infntves are joined by “and or “or, the “io” of the second infnlive can be fp Yous ‘omitted. /'¢ like to go to an island and swim and sunbathe ail day long during my holidays. Ha heise © Dare expressing lack of courage is used with an infinitive with or without to, I-don' dare (to) t2ll 49 16 we pin the tuth, Dare expressing anger, threat or warning is used with an infinitive without to. Don’ty% 29. We w dare come back fate. Dare expressing challenge Is used with a to-infinitive. / daro you to jump ovei the fence. Putt ¥ 1 Isaw © after modal verbs (can, may, will, would eic) You mey use the phone. acer @ after hed better/would rather would sooner. dl rather have an early night Mele @ after feal/hear/let/make/see in the active, Wil you let me play In the garden? a But: be heard/be made'be seen, all take a to-int. She was made to werk ovortimo. sire © “Let” turns into “was/wore allowed to” in the passive. He wasn't allowed to play in the garden. = RD Fini as a noun. Collecting stamps is Ns favourite hobby. pe Orde ‘after prepositions. He lef without being seen. be a thin Soeae eee lorbs (anticipate, appreciate, avold, consider, continue, delay, deny, olscuss, detest, Wa". Tc escape, excuse, explain, fancy, finish, forgive, go (physical activities), imagine, it involves, keep Gin tor -ontinue), it means, mention, mind (= object to), miss, pardon, postpone, practise, prevent, years | {uit recall, recollect, report, resent, resist, risk, save, stand, Suggest, tolerate. understand etc) PUG fr ‘She doesn't mind working forig hours. paler ¥9 © after: detest, dislike, enjoy, hate, like, love, prefer to express general preference. | enjoy snorkelling. (in genera)) [like + to-inf = i's a good idea John likes to walk jong disiances.] piu ioe © after: 'm busy, I's no use, it's no good, it's (not) worth, what’s the use of, can't help, can't stand, >¥ 8) {eel like, there's no point (in), have difficulty (in), in addition to, as well as, have trouble, have a trates Un hardjdiffcuit time. Tom had! diffieulty (in) driving on the left when he frst cere here. kind of be © after: look forward to, be/get used to, be/get accustomed to, admit (fo), object to, what about..?, Satie anc how about ...2 He admitted (to) stealing the old woman's jewels. particular after: spendjwaste (money, time ete) She spent a fortune redecorating jier house which To © her roar listen, notice, gee, watch to express an incomplete action, an action in progress or a (obsen) long action. | saw hor window-shopping as | drove by. (|saiv part o! the action) ut: hear, listen, see, ‘watch + infinitive without to express a compiete action, something that one saw or heard from = STAY anah beginning to end. / savr ihe car erash into the shop window. (! saw all the action.) pene cortainly pa i {e promised to ppy to hear he stay in tonight. o be apointed j bean called off ; unusual sum up etc. To finiive can be Vf. 11 dare (10) tell ul to. Don't you 5 to jump over Ly sg) RB Fin the blanks withthe correct form of the infinitive or -ing form. iscuss, detest, wolves, keep. se, prevent, erstand etc) nrogress ora ear, listen, see, hoard from veeeses The Infinitive / -ing form / varices il & Put the verbs in brackets into the correct form of the infinitive or the -ing form. + 1 suggest ..callig.. (eal) the cinema to find out what time the fim begins 2 Ieno use «.... (try) to make excuses. She won't believe you. 8 100K forward omen os unes (888) the artwork in the museum's latest exhibition. 4 Ste spent along te nee 2. talk) on the telephone so she dicn't finish her chores. 5 Fred enjoys (listen) to classical music as it helps him relax. 6 Totel you the truth, | don't know how . sven, (ance). T We were happy .... . “(hear that Mary is coming fo visit us. 8 The couple plan (announce| thelr engagement later today. 9 Wil you let me = «.. (read) you some parts to tell me if you like them? 40 We saw him .nrsonne (paini) the fence as we walked past his house. 11 I would have preferred oousens (Charige) my clothes before we went out to dinner. 12 twas so nice of him ... - (send) me flowers. 19. Sandra was the last (perform) at the dance recital 4 For Bod ee ((elire) at such a young age was unexpected 15 Itsraining, There's no point in... : . (go) out now. 16 Vlould you be so helpful as (camry) this heavy bag for me? 47 You should (speak) to her when you saw her. 48 Heseems : (work) hard on a solution to the problem. Don't interrupt him. 19. Ho was the first runner (inish) the maratnon. 20 We rushed 10 the station only sows. (axtive) as the train was leaving, “ AGB et the verbs in brackets into the -ing form or the infinitive without to. 1 I saw her turn. (tum) the commer and... ..- (disappear) 2. Can you hear the dog (bark) outsice? 3 Iwatched the plane «00m sein (lake ff) and then | left 4 He was listening to the 1a eames «. patter) on the roof 5 Paul notced a woman (tare) at him while he was waiting at the station, 6 When she opened the door she Saw Someone assis vse (ty) t0 steal her car. 1) Ordering. (order) your own meal in a restaurant may soon ba a thng of the past. In Brusse's, at an Italian restaurant, the waiter, Tory, claims to be able 2) sm (Chocse) the ‘ight dish for each customer. After 3) sow (work) for many yeas in Italian restaurants, Tony noticed that different people piel’ certain types of food. “Women appear 4)... ike) iriler foods and rich, croamy sauces while men seem §) (enjoy) spicier foods cooked in alive oll and served wih juises from the meat,” he reports. Tony makes his choices by 8) ne susnsses (Chat) to his customers - but not about ther \ testes in fond, What he does fist iS 7) . (find out) what kind of personality the customer has. After 8) s...n.-u. (Ber¥e) an Englishman a salad of red tuna with garic and parsley, Tony was happy 9) (Ges) that his customer was very satstied. One italian paricularly enjoyed 10) ... (munch) on wild mushrooms stuffed with Mediterranean anchovies ‘which Tony had served with black olives, spicy olive oll and lime. Tony spends a lot of time 11) {cbsene) his customers. Once, a young French couple argued througnout the meal. Tony avoidec 12) (give) them a sour dessert, He served them a sweet dessert instead, and alter that they couldn't stay angty with each other. People aren't accustomed 13) .. {be/served) meals that are not of ther own choice, but Tony seems 14) (know) exactly what Deople wil ike, This restaurant is certainly worth 15) (ast). 23<@ The Infinitive / -ing form / Participles SEY Fin in the blanks with the correct form of the infinitive or «ng form. Steam trains were replaced by electric ones years ago, so when the newspaper | work for heard that the “Biack Admiral” steam engine nad been restored, they decked 1) ...t0 genta... (send) me on its firsttrip.| didn't object t0 2) (go) even though | generally disike 3) (travel) by tain, In fact was looking forward 4) (ee) something | had nover seen betore When | arrived at the station | saw lots of paople 5) (celedrate) the rebirth of the Admiral, and | was glad 6) (be) pert of the party. At2 o'clock overyone was ready 7) (board) the train. | settled mysetf into a compartment where | was Soon joined by an ald man who olaimed 8) ... (be) one of the original workers on the Admiral. He claimed 9) (work) fora penny a day, anc told me how much he nad hated 10) (oeje ered) in coal dust all the time. H's family ad been too poor 11) « (buy) more than the basic neoess: ties, It was a ead story, but it was a pleasure 12) (listen) to him. At every station peopie were waiting 13) (greet) the train, and itwas 2xCHING 14)...» (See) the spectators’ faces asthe past seemed 15) ".. (come) alive again, Ifall trains were as appealing as the Black Admirel, | woud choose 16) “. (ravel) ky train all the time. @ begin, continue inf or -ing form. We don't n have two -ing forms together She hegan dancingito dance. not: She is IH © advise, allow, encourage, permit, require + object + to-inf, He advised me to stay indoors. © advice, allow, encourage, permit, require + -ing form. He advised staying Indoors. © be advised, be allowed, be encouraged, be permitied, be required + to-inf, We were advised to stay indoors. . ‘© need, require, want + to-inf/-ing form/passive inf, You need to prune the irees. The trees need pruning. The trees need to be pruned. Be Complete the sentences using the words in bold. Use two to five words. 1. We are allowad to take a one-hour lunch break allow They . .allow us to take... a one-hour lunch break. 2. They requite employees to work on Saturdays. ® required Employaes on Saturdays. M0) py 3 You need to improve your ancwriting considerably. needs Your handvwitng oo considerably. 4 A: | 4. She has been learning German since lest year BE BEGAN SNE veer i lactyear. 9 A | 5 They acvised not crinking tho water oe wore We os oe the water, 3 R. 8 S Fill in the blanks with the correct form of the infinitive or -ing form. aw (do) outdcor activites of any kind, We thoucht we'd have cificuty n 9) (persuade) > him but it was his idea 4) (set off the very next day. We euggested 8) vwsnn.n- (Go) t0the gp. Lake District as it would be the best place 6) find) hotel rooms each night. Though we'd nave preferred 7) (take) the coach, Thomas encouraged us 8) (travel) by train, We decided 5 9) senna (MBWH) at the station early the next morning as we wanted 10) (be) in Carlisie by 7 * midday, imagine the look on our faces when Thomas arrived on a huge. brand-new motorbike. “Do you | think I be allowed 11) ......mn (lake) iton the train?” he said, "it needs 12) (unin)andihis 8 A: holiday's the ideal ime 13) (do) it!" 8 ps miral. He turdays erably, ast year ve water y hated 2) persuade) go) to the ed have e cecided Carlisle by >. "Do you n) and this — ing form / Participle: i The Infinitive / 1 forget + to-inf (= fail to renember to do sth) 7 try + to-int (= do one's best: attempt He forgot to turn off the racho. Tiy to throw the ball into te basket forgot + -ing form (= not recall a past evort) ‘ry + -ing form (= do sth as an experiment) Ii never forget seaing the Eifel Tower forthe fst Try cooking with olive ol, you mignt find t ‘ime. improves the taste. 2 remember + toring ( not forget to do sth) 8 want + to-inf (~ wish) I want to go home. Please, remember to feed the dog before leaving want + -ing form (= sth needs to be dore) remember + -ing form (= recall a past event) These windows want cleaning. | con't remember seeing hin at ihe party last night 3. moan + to-inf (= intond to) Sho means to study 9 stop + to-inf (= pause temporatily). Can we stop arin Panis this summer, here to admire the view’? mean + ing form (= involve) ( vont go iti stop + -ing form (= finish; cease) means taking the train during rush hour. He stopped studying and switched on the TV. 4 go on + to:inf (= finish doing sth and start doing 10 be sorry + to-inf (~ ragrot) was sorry to hoar Sth else: then; afterwards) He pruned the hedges, he failed his exam then went on to mow the laven, be sorry for + -ing form (= apologise fo”) go on + ing form (= continue) She was sorry for yelling at him, ie went on dancing until we got tired. 5 regret + tornt (= be sory to) /regret to Inform 11. hate + to-Inf (= not like what one is about to do) yeu that there are no seats on the 12.00 fight. hate to argue, but you are ceiiritely wrong. regret + -ing form (= have second thoughts hate + ing form (= feel sorry for wnat one is about sth already done) He regrets buying such doing) (hate bothering you at such a fate hour an expensive sports car. 6 would prefer + tosinf (specific preference) 42 be afraid + to-inf (= be too frightened to co sth, 6 preter to eat at this cestaurant. hesitate) She was afraid to Jump into ihe ood prefet ~ -ing form (in general) be afraid of + -ing form (= be afraid that what i> I prefer reading spy stories. referred to by the-ing form may happen) When Prefet + to-int + rather than + inf without to ctving in the rain, 'm afratd of skidding on the I prefer to drive to work rather than take tho bus wet roed, NG) rut the verbs in brackets into the infinitive or -ing form. 1A. Iilnever forget ...travelling... (aval) across America. B: Yes, but you forgot (send) me a postcard, didn't you? 2 A Irate (ask) you, but can you help me with the housework? B. Sure, but remember | hale (do) the vacuurning 3A: The door wants ( B: know, | wanted (ask) the carpenter to come and have a look but | forgot 4A Im sory (put) you In such a difficult postion. B: I's OK. I'm sorry for (shout) at you. 5 A: Id prefer (spend) this weekend at home. 3: Really? | prefer (go out) whenever I've got free time. 6 A: Did he go on (talk) about the same boring tonics all night? 3: No, he went on (show) us nis holiday photos. 7 A: Don't be afraid... talk) to her in French, 3: |an’t, I'm afraid of (make) mistakes, 8 A: Imeant (ell) you there’s a job vacancy at the chernist's 8: Well, | won't apply if it means (work) at the weekend, ad = _ Bine Infinitive / -ing form / Participles ... 9 A Why don't you try (take) a different medicine if you're stil i? B: | think I'll just try (get) some more sieeo. 10 A Lets stop (have) something to eat B; Again? | wish you'd stop (eat) so much! Fa cs 41. A: The notice says the gallery regrets inform) us that the Picasso exhibition has finishes 3 yyy B: Oh, no! Now | regret (notigo} last wook, Bey 12. A, Dic you remember (post) the letters? @ Doy B: | remember (take) them but | think I've left them on my desk, We AGB siti the correct form of the infinitive or the -ing form. Eli Bilston always enjoyed 1) .. telling. (tell) us about his life, and we were always attaic 2) (interrupt) him because he had a very hot temper. He had left school at thirteen, and he had managed to avoid 3) (Vook fr) a real job by 4) (work) for his father in the family scrapyard, He was supposed 5) check) the weight of scrap metal leaving the yard, but he always preferrec 6) sb aroundand 7) (make) cups of tea for the other workers instead, You won't be surprised 8) (hear) that eventually Eli's fathor noticed him 9) (waste) time 10) {do} nothing. an (ind, 17, Don’ another job. Elinever regretted 12) (have) to leave the scrapyard, because his next job was even 18 | nec easier! He was employed at Dudley Zooas a nightwatchman, where he found ita pleasure just 13) 19 Have (sit) and 14) (watch) the monkeys 15) (play) in thelr cages. His only duly was 16) 20 | car (feed) the jaguars at cawn - something which he clains he only forgot 17) .-.v...mu- (do) once inthis time there. He said that he would nevor forgot 18) (see) the zookeeper s face after the poor man nad tried 19) (give) them their lunch - they had nearly eaten him alive! After 20) (work) in the 200 for six years, war broke out in Europe and Eli went on 24) (join) the army in the hope of finding some adventure. “2 Fill in the correct form of the infinitive or the -ing form. 4 Jused to love ...visiting.. Santorini so much that | finally bought a house there. 2 He couldn't bear his mother the truth because he didn’t want to upset her. 3. I'm somy, | don’t remember you betore On Satur 4 Till have to go to Belgium by train -'m afraid of Ithought 5 You are required this form before you can start the job. butactua 6 Before you leave, don't forget the plants ished by 7 hegre you that your nouse must be demolishes. wore 4) 8 If we want to catch the early train, it means They bala up early tomorrow morning, ible ease. 9 | would preter . to the cinema for a change by theirp = we always go ‘0 the theatre. lion-tame 40 There's no point it was your decision after all tortifying, 41. The explorer escaped from the fon only himself Santorini- Greece _ the lion’ surrounded by savages amusing 42 Asa hile, | spent so much time that people used to call me “the Fish magician 43. Ifyou can’t get the stain out of your shitt, you could try salt on it itwas 9) 44. He regretted lias to his parents make va 15 Ty some more pepper 10 the Soup. it might taste better poar. The 16 Pease stop | There's a meeting in progress next door into the < 47 The thief got into the manager's ofice by pretending a cleaner, ingienter 48 You must complete this exercise without a dictionary. were 12) 19 Acid rain is said many trees all over Europe. clowns tc 20 What do you mean Bob's a vegetarian? | saw him a chicken sandwich only yesterday! felt 14) © bee . The Infinitive / -ing form / rail MGB hittin the correct form of the infinitive or the - hae finished, (find) jeb was oven 3) duly was 16) ater he Door 0} ) the army in Fish’ y yesterday! 1g form. 4 ladvise you ..t0 take... (ake) some money in case the banks are shut. 2 My mother used (encourage) us to eat lats of vegetables. 3 Don’t forget (lock) the door when you leave the oftice 4 Doyou rememoer (swim) in Lake Langaron last summer? 5 When you finish this exercise go on (do) the composition on page 11 & Would you mind (uin) the radio down? Ive got a headache 7 Why don't wo try (cat) some Thai food for a change? 8 They stopped running have) a rest. 9 He put off (tel) her the bad news. 10 Irealy regret (spend) so much money at the weekend 11 | suggest (look) this word up in a dictionary. 42 David was too afraid (enim) in the rough sea 13. He doesn't look old enough (bo/married) 46 I coud stop (wonden wnether I had done the right thing 48 In general | orefer (watch) films on the big screen rather than on TV. 46 I'msoy, didn’t mean, (hur) you 17 Don't you dare (be) late again 48 | ncod to get a job, I'm tired of have) to rely on my parents for money. 49 Have you considered (lea) another language? 20 {ant stand (listen) to you complaining all the time. # Prosont participles (vert + ing) describe what somebody or something is. It was @ fascinating stery. (What kind of story? Fascinating.) © Past participles (verb + ed) describe how somebody feels. We were fascinated by hs ston. (How dd wo feo! about his story? Fascinated.) ay Underline the correct participle. (On Saturday. | took my children to the circus. Ithought Iwould have a 1) boring/oored time, butactualy| was quite 2) astonishing/ aston- ished by the 3) amazing/amazed acts. We wore 4) stunning/stunned by the acrobats, ‘They balanced on top of each other with inerec- ibe ease. We were realy 5) impressingimpressed by theirperiormance. The childron ‘ound tho licn-tame’s act 6) exciting/excitea. | felt 7) leréyngjterriied when he put hishands into the lion's mouth, but the children were 8) amusng/amused and they clapped loudly. A ‘magician performed many incredible tricks; ttnas 9) fascinating fascinated to watch him make various objects disappear and reap- pear. The chicren were more 10) in‘eresting/interested in the elephant act. When the huge animals cane rio the arena, the audience cheered, The elephants were wall-irained and their tricks were 11) entertain. nigeteriained, Some children trom the audience were invited to ride on the elephants’ backs. My children were 12) disappointng/d sappointed when they were nat chosen, but their disappointment faded when the Clowns look the centre ring. It was quite a 13) captivating/cantivated show. By tha time we got heme we all fel 14) exhavsting/exhausied. m4 10 " 12 13 1” 18 16 7 18 It's too hot for him to go jogging. ® | profer listening to music to dancing Itisn't cool enough for him to go jogging | prefer to listen to music rather than dance Its so hot that he cant go jogging. © We were interested in the lecture. It dangerous to exceed the speed limit. We found the lecture interesting. Exceeding the speed limit is dangerous. © Could you do the wasning? \ They éllowed us fo enter the room Would you mind doing the washing? We were allowed to enter tho room. © He had difficulty (in) concentrating on his wo It took him two hours to reach London, It was aitfioutt for him to concentrate on his Wot He took two hours to reach London. Roaching London took him two hours, He could hardly concentrate on his work, He found it dificult to concentrate on his wor. She made him carry the bags. © ‘Sno let them use the spare room. He was madie to carry the bags. They were allowed to use the spare room. Complete the sentences using the words in bold. Use two to five words. We were allowed to take our dog inside. allowed They ..allowed us to take... out deg inside. We found what she said shocking were We Going swimming aiter eating is dangerous go Itis dangerous Could you turn the volume up? mind Would He prefers walking to riding a bicycle walk He prefers It was dltficut for her to understand what he was talking about difficulty Sho The Dox was too heavy for him to If enough The box The dress is so long that she can't wear it her The dress is ‘They made him weit for an hour. was He She could hardly do the exercises. sult She He made her promise that she would come back was = She The audience found the performance amusing were Tho audience ‘Tne film was so interesting that | saw ft tice was | It was dificult for him to understand the instructions. hardly He Could you move a bit please? mind Would ‘The headmaster let the boys leave the school. were The boys Sho prefers working to staying at home than She prefers, ‘They took three days to finish the project. them It se 30 she seid after eating the volume up! a bicycle what he was taking abou! for him to lit wea: for an nour, the exercises ... that she would came back. the performance. the film that | saw it twice, the instructions abit please? the school. athome. to finish the project 8 9 10 " 12 13, 14 15 16 7 18 The ara He mit To mak Those She pie {would We enje Itsnot She'iin He was Shirley Agrou what h decide aftaid, eg. B anc, is work. is Work, rk. is work. om. ne said. r eating sme up? bicycle. g about. im to lift wear. anhour xercises, ne back, orrance vit twice tuctions. t please? e school, athome. 0 project 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 0 " 2 19 1 6 6 1 8 {GD Find the word which should not be in the sentence. She let me to use her computer. ‘Tho Persian rug was too expensive for us to buy it Taking rogular oxorciso it is beneficial to your health, In addition to be losing her purse, Joan also lost hor passport We saw the Queen to welcome the British Olympic winners. Itwas enough too late to fine accommodation elsewhere. We would sooner to renew our contract than move somawhera alse The archaeologist is believed to have being found the tomb of the ancient King. He might 1o be given a more responsible position in future. To making promises you do not intend fo keap is dishonest. Those curtains want being dry-cleaning, She prefers working out than to sitting at home doing nothing. would like entertaining people at home at the weekends. We enjoy going for fishing from time to time. I's no use you spending money on impractical household items. Sho'll never forgot to esting Bruce Springsteen, Ho was afraid of to tell his parents that ho had damaged the car. Shirley won't accept their offer if it means that working at tho weekend, Oral Development2 Agroup of people went fishing last Sunday. Use the list below and your own ideas to say what happened using infinitives or -ing form. decide, look forward to, try, manage, continue, stop, notice, begin, have a difficult time, be afraid, appear, happen help, be relieved, regret. eg, Bob and his friends decided to go fishing last Sunday. All of them ... . The Infinitive / -ing form / Participles 2 QZ Look at Appendix 2, then explain the phrasal verbs in bold. 1 The companys planning te bring out a new per fume in tne summer. launch: produce The situation calls for immediate action The director's death brought about the callapse ofthe company, Do carry on with your work while lm away. Heavy smoking brought on nis desth John was completely carried away by the music and lost track of time. The nurse brought the patient round by putting cold water on his face They managed to earry the task through despite opposition This tune brings back memorias of my chile hood 10 "4 12 1a 4 15 16 Tho sale of the paintings will bring in sovors| thousand pounds: We need to carry out some tests to find ou: what's wrong with you. ‘She was nervous about chairing the meeting, bu: she carried il off witout any problems. Please dont bring up the subject of politics in class. ‘The meeting was called off due to the President's sudden illness When fire broke oul we called out the fire brigade, They tried to bring down the government by starting a revolution. 2 QE Look at Appendix 3, then fill in the correct preposition. 1 2 3 4a 5 10 1" 12 8 She applied ...C... the manager the post of editor of the magazine. Ho is crazy all kinds of fast cars. wouldn't bet it being warm tomorrow. The manager of the bank had to account all the money that was missing I didn’t realise there would be a charge Using this telephone. The police announced that they were going to charge someone the muicier of the priest. Nobady seems to care what is happen: ing in the world today. James’ mother told him to take care himself during the journey. Mark was very cever .. machines worked. I was very clever bring an umbrella If you apply now, you'ro aesured getling @ place on the course You can't compare Elvis Presley ... Jackson. Elvis s the king Comparea winters in Moscow, this isn't really cold at all . figuring out how you to remembar to Michael 14 15 16 7 18 19 20 24 22 23 24 25 The Police Inspector wasn't able to comment the case es they had no new evicence I'm gaing to have to stop eating chocolate. | think I'm addicted i Michael's been asked to contribute new science fiction magazne. I couldn't get into the museum because it wes crowded tourists Scientists are stil tying to tind a cure... AIDS, You have to comply these rules or you wil lose your job. Brian’s been accused Maria should go and sea a doctor She has been complaining back pains for weeks now. the cheating in hs I'm going to compiain....... the manager this meal. It was terrible. Itupsets me when people are cruel ther pots. He coasn't seem to be aware what's gaing on around him, This new book I'm roading is based the lite of Jackie Onassis. * 4) complete the sentences using the words in bold. Use two to five words. 1 When did Gearge give up his job? since baz How long ...2 It elnce George gave. up his job? 2 Then dowr 3 Thes hot 4 Coule mind 5 The fi were 6 sher rathe 7 Wee out 8 They were © He fr used He th for The ti need He de objec We hi hearc 10 4 2 13 3 Hor vc 4 When 5 The la 6 When 7 Herm propar John r Mary ¢ had m You cé SY ric in soveral to find out jeeting, but (paltics in ut the fire mment by comment ovidence. nocolate. | thie use il was AIDS. e rules of ing In his has bean Boks NOW. their what's the ‘The machine stopped working sa we asked someone to check it down The machine " su. a8ked someone to check it 3 The soup is so hot that she can't eat it hot The soup ese 19 eat 4 Could you water the flowers? mind Would soon the flowers? 5 The film was quite boring. were Wo i the film 6 She prelers watching TV to listening to music. rather She'd to music, 7 We left oarly to avoid the ‘raftic out We : to evoid the traffic. 8 They made the children study for five hours a day. were Tho : ‘ for five hours a day. 9 He finds driving on the left ditficut used = He . (informa e? (polite) r, please? je? (very ing? (infor sg overtime? Duty 2a, (proh- wed to) at area. ent statues, ddden) nthe formal) hinthis il in that t the right gon't fed the (was ithe didn’t Criticism | Youeould at least call her. (present) ‘You could at least have called her yesterday, (past) Ho should It us know. Heshould have fetus know before | Quite adr) ‘ought tooo more helpful ‘ou ought to have been more | ‘elptul, (I was the right thing to {0 but you dict do it.) Permission Youeanleantt take my cv. (giving éeiohising permission; informal) Hewasn' allowed to/couldn’t take my car. (past) Hawas alowed to take my car. foocou, past) ‘ui co out for a minute? (more pole: ating for permission) You my go out fora minute ‘oral gving permission) Mig fave the pleasure of your scmpany? (very formal; asking jorparission) fir sory, but you can'vmustn’t make lorg dstance phone cal's (ifort: refusing parmission) Visors may not take pictures of thedtaues (formal; refusing pe Msson- writen notice) ‘Yavare allowed to see ihe patient (pamisior) Logical Assumptions He must be tired. (60% certain - positive; I'm sure he is tirec.) He must have arrived by now. (0ositive; I'm sure he has arrived.) ‘tt ean't/couldn’t be 2 fake. (neg- ative; I'm sute It isn'ta fake.) Sho ean’t/eouldn't have killed him. (negative: i'm sure she didn't kill him) Offers / Suggestions Gen we carry your bags? (offer = informal ‘Shall I/we collect your laundry? (offer - informel) Would you like to stay with me {or @ couple of days? (offer) Would you like me to gve youa lif? (oer) ‘Shall we Have a break? (suogestion) We can watch TV. (suggestion) ‘We could go to the theatre tonight. (suggestion) Wo eould have stayed longor f you'd wanted. (suagestion - past) Let's play football (suggestion) Why don't we play feotbal? (suggestion) How about playing football? (suggestion) What about paying football? (euggestion) LJ Modal vert il Probability He will come tomorrow. (100% certain; prediction) He should/ought to come by later. (90% certain; future oni; its probable) He should/ought to have reached Rome by now. (He hes probably reached Rome.) Advice You should stop smoking, {general advice; | acvise you) ‘You should ave stopped smoking (but you didn’ ‘You ought to comply with the regulations, (Iedvise you, most people believe this) You ought to have contacted a lawyer earlier. (but you didn’t) You had better rot fe to her. It isn't a good idea; advice ona ‘specific situation) it would have been better If you hadnt lied to her. (but you did) Shall | enter the competition? (asking for advice) Read the following sentences, then identify the use of each verb in bold. 1 They can't have lied. 2 You must tell them the truth 3 Ke was able to run the Marathon. 4 Can you help me with my homework? 5 He should have seen a dactor 6 You'd better acimit to your guilt, 1 They don't have to employ more stati 8 Shall | speak to the Manager about my problem? 9 People ought to treat animals with respect, 10 She isnt al home. Sne may be at the supermarket, 11 He had to wear glasses. 42 She could at least have told me in advance, Jogical assumption - negative. | Modal Verbs ...-+ & Identify the use of the verbs in bold, then say the same sentence in as many ways as possibly Pere 1. She can cook Chinese food. ability... She's able to cook Chinese food ve, 2 Tim may come over today oss es 3 He should be at the party tonight : : a ae 4 They must have gone out; the lights are off... et 5. | need to call my mother a oe y 3 You ought to taxe an umorella; I's raining 5: : 2 a 8. | have to help Mum clean the house Lean sereenele 9 Can | have a look at your newspaper? th 2 © musin 40. Would you like me to carry that for you? © needn 41. Wo ean go to the beach toro-row 42. You may not smoke in ine hospital 43 Al employees must attend tho meeting, 44 The dogs need to be ied al 12:00 meee corn 48. You should go to Pam's patty = : abe 46. Shall we go out tonight? : ace Pra 47 People ought to dive more caretuly os : : ua 48. She can’t be fevling well : ll Ae have 3 It's pr not 4 itien' must work ove need fo meylnight wor 5 ohiet ae not 6 Sixth have @ he hasn't worked . Im sure he hadn't worked. le can" Infinitive Perheps tre was working. He maylmight have "Perhaps he has been working. He may/might hai = Complete the sentences using the words in bold, Use two to five words. ‘Tm sure she lost the race have She ... must have lost... the race. 2. Perhaps she will phone us sometine today. may She . sometime today, 2 He do 3. | don't think the Rogers have been living here long. need been The Rogers ven vs - here long oie be 4 (mune he has oper lis taone, wim ves have HE vanrnensn al his money * times 5 I'm sure James won't be seeing the boss tommorrow Banat be James : . . . the boss tomorrow 7 peed 8 Pemaps he Is feeling Il. 6 Iwas be He snninenee : sesstuannnily Rave bao = wes * - Modal el 7 I'm sure Alan wast ving carelessly. o | been Alan ‘te reecssnaresessneeen lenesieeiemeitniseemeneniene COFEIBSSIY. sspossible. | § Perhaps he had left before you called. have He. bofore you called, neee food.. 9 |'msure she is considering your offer. be SHE wae sara te your offer. 10 Perhaps they rented the fat. | ‘Complete the sentences using the words in bold. Use bo to five words, 1 Its forbidden to teed the animals, not You ... must not feed... the animals. 2 Itisnt necessary to cut the grass; it’s still quite short, ave YOU vn i sues the grass; it's stil quite short 3 I's prohibited to take dogs into the restaurant. not You .. Into the restaurant. 4 tient necossary to dust the furniture} lil do it later. need = You the furniture; Il do it later. 5 Children aren't allowed to run in the corridor. not Children in the corridor. 6 Sxth formers neean't wear school uniforms. have Sith formers vnneinnnnnnnsnnenmnnnnnnneennen SHO! UNFOHMS. ce England. ot know ifthe action out and we don't © needn't + & Complete the sentences using the words in bold. Use two to five words. 4 Timwent an 2 two-day trip. He took more clothes than necessary. have Tim...needn't have taker... 30 many clotes on a Iwo-day tip. yetime today, | 2 Ho dacided not to take his passport because it wasn't nocoseary. need = He his passport hore long. 2 We bought more food than was necessary for the party have We 50 much food for the party 4 twas necessary for Gloria to iron the clothes because Sue had already done it. uihis money: have Gloria the clothes because Sue had already done it 5 Itisn't necessary to nave a visa to visit Australia, ss tomorrow, need You... visa to visit Australia. 6 itwasnt necessary for Jim to accep! the offer il, have Jim steno the offer. 4 = Fi edt oe psa ; something to be done. m rs. You bese oxpocts | you to.) You should be helpful to St customers, (I's 2 900 a od impression.) Ww ® be to + Infinitive expr a that son i e else demands something, You are to be in my office at 12 sherp. (You must V4 - - Ye © be upposed to and be to are a ee it mn sone expects about a previously Ye arranged event. The shop assi ester a aad pt. i? Ye Yo xy Read the following sentences and explain their meaning. Th Yo 4 You were supposed to ect your salad. ..Your mother warrted you to eat your salad, 2 You should clean your room. i 3. Youare to finish your homework. 42 All students are supposed to do their homework © You are supposed to wear running shoes. 6 You should wear running sho 7. Iwas to walk the dag twice a cay, 8 | was supposed to walk the dog twice a day. (GB Rewrite the sentences using the words in brackets. 4 Let's go jogging. (shall) ..Shail we go jogging?.. 2. Please turn the TV off, [could) 3. Am allowed to sit here? (may) 4 Please answer the phone. (will) 5 Don't bite your nails (must) 6 Do you mind if | use your pan? (can) 7 I wish I nad cheoked the tyres. (ought) 8 These curtains don't have to be ironed. (noed) 9. It's not polite to speak with your mouth full. (should) 10. Why don’t we visit Mark and Jane? (shall) = 7 : 11 Is there any chance that he'll phone? (ikely) : oe L 42 It's advisable to brush your teeth after meals. (should) 48. Thore’s a possibility that he'll arive a litte late, (might) 414 Do you know how to ice-skate? (can) 415. it wasn't necessary to show any identification but he did. (need) 48. Why didn't you tell mo there was no one in? (could) os 47. tt wasr't necessary for us to wait because there was no queue. (need) 1 You 1B ets goto ne enema tonight. (hal ai 49's important that you be here at 9.00. (must Bon 20 I'meute ho is a millionaire. (must) ies! 21. Perhaps hell change his mind. (may). : : Eo 22 Please, nelp me carry these! (could) : = : Rv 23. danit believe she paid 20 much for that dress. (can] Pee 24 t's. a good idea to lock the door at night, (shoul) iB val 25. Is here any chance we'll get a pay rise? flikel) : is. You 28 Why didnt they inform us of the delay? (could) So hol 27 We could try to mend it oursalves. (Les) : 40 Your 28 it wasn’t necessary for you to go to so much trouble. (need) i 41 Your 12. Your 29 It's. a good idea to show more respect. [ought to) 30 You have to inform the bark of any change of adress, (must) - ba . Modal Verbs Will Fill in the blanks with a suitable word or phrase practising modals. Identity the use of the be done. modal verb andior the expressions used. ful to 1 She ...must have worked... (work) late last night: she looks exhausted. ..lagical aseumption. 2 Whon wo omigrated to Australia, we (leave) our pets behind. : ye in Ty. 3 (wooo)? I's getting late 4 You tart) learning Spanish if you're going to live in Madric. | 5 You (bo) kinder to her; she's only a baby. . Bec (You/collact) my parcal for me? 7 You .. (novsmeke) cigars on an aeroplane, B You (notipay) by cheque without a cheque guarantee card. 9 ThE GOCTOT SAYS | sn renm ne» (1O5€) Weight before my operation 10 . (paint) my room a different colour, please? 41 You really {notieat) so much red meat 12 He «. (@k®) Your car since he Nad the keys. 19 I'm sorry to bother you but... svn (youhelp) me? 14 Callthem later; they (sleep) now. 15. YOU vane .. (write) to your grandfather more often 16 Sho types very fast. Actually cho ... (type) 150 words per minute. 17 You (confitm) your resignation in writing, 18 lan ‘ow (tell her the truth; she now feels betrayed 19 Ann (play) the piano at the age of six. pees | 20 They soon (GAD their flat and buy a bigger one, lg AQ) Read the following situations, then write how you would respond to each using modals. 1 Your fiend has won £10,000 in the lottery. What do you advise her to do? "You should go to Venice.” “Why don't you go to Venice?” Your friend cannot sleep at night. What do you suggest he does? ltis snowing. Tom said he would be home early and he stil hasn't arrived. What do you think? Some children are playing football in the flower beds. What do you say to them?... Itis your birthday. Your friend gives you a very expensive present. What co you say? You are at a train station. An old lady is carrying a heavy suitcase. How do you offer to help her? You are in a vain. The window Is open and you are cold. What do you say to the other passengers? You see your windowcleaner with a broken arm. What do you say 10 your friend? You are looking after your young cousin. itis after midnight and he is stil running around the house. What do you say to him? si 10 Your frend hurt hor leg a week ago. She still hast seen her doctor, What do you tell her to do? 11 Your friends are late for your dinner party. What do you say ae you impatiantly look at your watch? 12 Your friends arrive three hours late for the dinner party. They say they were dalayed by an unexpected visitor. How do you reply? = i ad L.A Bvcca Verbs . giv 49 Per . ~ ha © Perhaps he is sleeping now. © ‘It wasn't necessary for her to take so much 20 Shi He may be sleeping now money with her. me © |'msure he hasn't finished yet. ‘She needn't have taken so much money with he He can't have finished yet. © Ho is likely to perform in the concert. Fin ® I'm sure he has left. Its likely that he will perform in the concert. He must have left. He'll probably perform in the concert, 1 You © Shall help you with the dishos? © Let's go for a ride. Awe Would you like me to help you with the dishes? Shall we/Why don't we go for a ride? 3M © It’s forbidden to take pictures in this museum. WhatiHow about going for a ride? lat You musin tek pictures in this museum © It would be a good idea to stop smoking. 4 ‘For You aren't alowed to take pctures in nis museum, You should stop smoking 5 Wo © ‘Itisn't necessary for you to take the bus. You'd better stop smoking, ie tie You don't have to/dor't need toned’ fake @ Woulld you mind it | used your phone? reg the bus. May/Might | use your phone? ae 9 The g Complete the sentences using the words in bold. Use two to five words. 10 Let’ 14. The 41. Pathaps the car needs a new engine 2 Why don't you go to Canada for a holiday? 2 could = You for a holiday, 14 Chil 3 Shall get you a cup of tea? 15 Wo me Would . you a cup of 62 16. The 4 Sue itprobbly go se her ant ‘eee neraun 7% ue 0 see her 5 Itwasn't necessary for thom to buy such a big car as they did, peo Mia have ‘They sucha big ca 18 You 6 Its forbidden to smoke in this building. 20 Lot's not You in thie building 7. Itwould be a good idea to change your hairsiylo. better You your hairstyle 8 Why cidr't anybody warn me about the bus sirke? havo You about the bus str 9 Itisn't nesessary tor you to attend the meeting need You the meeting 40 Late go to tho cinema going What nu the cinema’ | 11 Fmsure he is seeing Ruth be He rut es 42 Itisn't necessary for you to come early tonight have You early tonight 49 I'm sure he didn’t send you this later sent He this let 14. May | read your newspaper? mind Wouls your nenepapor 46 I'meure cho wasnt ying to you: been She rove 16 She is likely to fal her exams. that itis her exams 47 It's forbidden to talk to the driver while he & driving must You the driver while he is drving pu aa » Modal Verbs | 18 itwasnt necessary for him to give me the money back so soon gven He the money back so soon | 19 Pethaps she went to her uncle's ees re Woulder teas you lengthen your cress? ney with er rt 1G Find the word which should not be in the sentence. 2 concert. eit 1 Youreedi't to repeat the course. @ 2 Mok was being able to change tne faulty fuse on his own. be | 3 Maeve might nave been helped you if you had asked ner. noking 4 Fortunately, we didn't have needed to walk the whole distance. 5 Would it you like me to pick up the laundry? \~ =a 6 He should have must known better than to trust her. one? 7 Jeremy would like that to study nuclear physics. 8 She had has to work overtime every day last month. 9 They ought to have had given us more instructions 10 Let's notte argue about this any more. 11. The Prime Minister is o¢ing supposed to leave for the USA tonight 12 Were you allowed itt take photos inside the museum? 13 They can't have hed spent all that money in just one week | rahoiday, | 1% Children are may not to be left unattended at any time. 18 Would they mind if my bringing a friend along? cup of tea? | 16 They must have pack all their things before noon. 17 You shoul have try to trect customers mare politely pe her aunt. 18 Mgnt! to ask you for a favour? srabig car, | 19 Youncodn't have to invited s0 many people. 20 Let's we go to Ann's. ris building 1 alse ere! Development.3 o bus strike Make speculations for the following pictures as in the example: he meeting the cnema? Ruth rly tonight. this letter. newspaper? to you. her exams. Si: There must have been an accident. S2; The boy may not have seen the car coming. he's driving, od % oy 1 While | was walking down Oxford Street | came Acr066... 8 good record shop. 2 You should try to cut of cigarettes you smoke a day. 9 Aiter the death of his father the young man came a lot of money. 4 I wonder how sho came 5 We were driving stomly enjoying the countrysi¢e, when a police car cut and stopped us . the number that expen: 6 The writer's new book came In time for Ciistmas. 7 This nacklace came me from my grandmother. 8 The stain came of the shirt whon it was washed 9 10 1" 42 1B 14 16 16 53} Look at Appendix 2, then fill in the correct particle(s) Tim isn't cut such a high-pressure job. The performance camo well Nothing about the accident came inthe news. You are always cutting +» OUF Com versalions! You'd belter come .. a good ‘excuse oF you'l be in trouble. ur electricity was cut + DeCAUSE we forgot lo pay the bill After playing football in the rain he camé aad cold, Do come anytime. We can havo : cup of cotiee together. s SY Look at Appendix 3, then fill in the correct preposition. was 1 Your diet is deficiont ... in 2 The TV programme teenagers 3. She had to beg aimed money on the street 14 6 The Manager demanded an explanatior : his assistant ‘Apolicoman arresied the woman stea ing from a shop, 4. He i vary careless nisclothes, | 16 Contrery whet the nevispaper said 5 There wesalorg delay the completion of | the minister had agreed to sign the treaty the road 17 Babies are cependent their mothes 6 As it was oy he lost contro! of his car and | for everything crashed 2 wall 48 The doctor told the woman that she wes alet 7 Tho couple took great delight theirnew | ac dairy producis. born baby. 19 The young actress could never dream 8 | was delighted the news of their | starring in such a film. ongagement 20 Although her husband hes been dead for yeas, 9 Sue Is very attached her pet dog she stil dreams im 40 She couldn't concentrate ‘what she was | 21 Are you conscious the fact that you doing because the television was on have caused us a lot oi Feuble? 11 The holiday wes cifferent othe one they | 22 In tha desedt you can cle thirst. hac last year 23. Alt of people cied the accident 42 The only diference the twins is in their | 24 The boy was bored. his. compute characters; one is sty while the otheris outgoing. | game aiter having played ital dey 48 There is a groat domanc econom | 28 We were doutitul vahether we cal cars. should sign the contract or not « SF) Complete the sentences using the words in bold. Use two to five words. 1. Perhags he got caught in the tratfic. have He .. may have got caught... n the traffic, 2 You should continue practising cally. keep You shoulc . daly 3. Itwasn't necessary for Julie to buy him a present but she did Julie " bought him a present 10 "1 12 She | her Is the likel Whe set They were They disco Peor belie Ho p pref This Inter Wet sinc You Bob cans I bot itall Myc siipp pressure our con. 2 good because he came san have a planation steal- papor said, treaty eh mothers e was aller- am ad for years, that YOu ist ecident 8 computer ether we daily, ma present. 4 She took @ month to reorganise the office, her It ane zi .» teorganise the office. 5. Is there any chance of his coming to the party? likely Ishe to the party? & When did he start his own business? set When his own businose? 7 They made us wait two hours before boarding the plane. wero We 5 sua: two hours before boarding the plane. 8 They have been discussing the new law for a wask, discussion The new law ee, on for a week. 9. People believe Sarah was reeponeible for the accident. believed — Saran responsible for the accident. 10 He prefers cycling to walking, prefer He would san penne Walk, ff This new project is very interesting intorested We ere .... cota noneeu this new project 2 We haven't seen Jean for a long time since It's.a long time Jean f 59) Explain the idioms in bold. 1 Im surprised he wasn’t killed - it was a really close shave. 2 We have to pay for a new roof. That's a thousand pounds down the drain. 3. Im afraid we'll have to give him the sack - his missing the meating was the last straw, 4 That man thinks ‘co much of himself - he is always blowing his own trumpet. I must have offended har somehow - sho is looking daggers at me. As she sald, he's a total idiot - that's his character in a nutshell Since you nave no proof to show us, |'mn afraid your theory just doesn’t hold water. He's s0 sensitive to criticism that if you even make a suggestion he flies off the handle. He's obsessed with environmental problems: where they are concained he has got a real bee in his bonnet. 10 Ive never seen two people make friends ¢o quickly - trom the frst day they got on like @ house on fre. 11 Im very suspicious about his making that offer - in fact, | smell a rat. ‘2 I's impossible to ignore him in a meeting - he really knows how to make his presence folt. ‘8 | wouldn't book a holiday with that company - they'll make you pay through the nose. & (3) Fill in the blanks with the words from the lists below in their correct form. a. bring - carry - fetch - take b. anxiety - nuisance - problem - trouble 1 The baby is too young to walk so he has to be | 1. The woman was full of when her everywhere. dauchter was late hone, 2 You may borrow this book as long as you 2 That boy i9 @(r) .essnnsimeneus= he's always dis- it back tomarrow, turbing the class. 8 BOD sensu hnis dog fora walk bythe | 3 Can you speak up, please? Ihave ain) canal last night. with my hearing, 4 |bought so much shopping | couldn't 4 you don't revise, you'll have a lat of ‘all home. answering the questions 8 My dog has been trained 0 xenon my | left my gasses at home - what a(r) slippers from the bedroom. ! Practice Test 3 Pett For ques For questions 1-15, read the text below and decide which word 4, B, C or D best fits each Cse.only space. There's an example at the beginning (0). Living a healthier life You not a Keeping fit end healthy may (0) .. dificult, but there are a few easy-t eg) folow (1) ... Firstly, a balanced cle is absolutely essental. This (2). But for ( ‘selecting food that is (8). n Salt and suger. Experts recommend (4). itels hav the amount of fat in our Giet, as too much can lead to heart problems wards ‘They also suggest increasing the (6)... of high fire food we eat Thi This sche comes in the (6) .. of fresh fru, vegetebles, wholemeal bread art... kn pesta, As well as being packed (7)... vtemins and minerals, they @ strengthe Gelicious 100. Secondly, t's important to fit exercise into your Cally take (26) This can be done by simply walking as much as (9)... and Cimbite Logit) “Gos instead of (10) .. the lit. Exercise is necessary to (11) .. ahah) ag th body, as well as increasing energy levets and (12)... you fee! genera tttgcand happier. Fnaly staying rlaxed is important for good healt, €° Fen ‘Too much strees.can (13) ...to a variety o nesses, from headaches high blood pressure, (14) ,.passible, do things you enjoy and tre youself eceasionaly. So the message is (15) ..- enjoy yoursel bd d eum ta espedt your body too. Itsalla question of geting the bales right 0 A have B som tind D_ nappen 1A las B guides ¢ ores ——D_ guidelines & 2 A contains —-B ports © G_~means, «=D auggests 3 3 A poor B short c small D low & 4 A declining B cropping cutting D reducng cs 5 A buk B emou © umber mass 6 A form Bway © ook D. means 7 Arby 3 with cof Din 8 A wouine = B cusiom © time D practice 9 A possiblo © —«Bprobatle «Cable D_ capable 10 A catching —-B_having «=< taking «=D ong 11 A keep B mamvain support manage = 42.A providing —B doing ©—«G assisting making = 13. A bing B diet C guide «=D ead =| 44. Whichever 68 Whenever C Howover D How = 15 A ordinary B natural Cc simple D casual a oe ————— each few easy-10- 1. This 2) amend (4) problems. we eat, This | byead and as, they are: cur dally (8) and giimbing ) ..ahealthy general. good healt yeadaces to oy and treat yourself but y he balance .+. Practice Test 3 Patt 2 For questions 16 - 30, read the text below and think of the word which best fits each space. Use only one word in each space. Write your answers in the answer boxes provided. Laughter You not only laugh more (0) you are relaxed, but you (16) rolax when you laugh, and it has (17)... found that when you're (18) holiday itis easier to do both But tor (19) people laughter is nat just a pleasure, itis a (20) of fighting illness. Some hos- Pitals have begun to bring in clowns to relieve the silent, depressing atmasphere, especially in children’s vars This scheme is celled "Medical Smile” and it helps sick children in a (21) that doctors, with all (22) .. knowledge, can't de. The effect of the clowns 's more (23) psychological, Laughter helps srengthen the immune system - (24) is, the part of our bodies (25) fights off disease. We eke (28) more oxygen when we laugh, and our heartbeat slows (27) Hospital clovins are becoming more (28) more popular because (29) the positive effect they havo. They both relieve depression, which tends to (80) illnesses worse, and give people the will to fight thoirilnossos themselves. when = B / Practice Test 3 . Pag 8 For questions 31 - 40, complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the For qu first sentence. Use the word given and other words to complete each sentence. You must are cor use between two and five words. Do not change the word given. Write your answers in the (A by answer boxes provided. there, | (0 I'm sure it wasn’t Jim who ai it 0 Th heye! can't have been 001% 00 wo It Jim who did it SS 41 10; 31 Smoking on buses isn't allowed eo are 341 o 43 isn You on buses. — = 44 iror 45. she 32. Shaill do the washing up? 46 ror mes , , 0 1) a7 For Would the washing up ee ev 33. He promised me he would de back before midnight 49. aro word [33 met) 50. bro: He he would be back before ee 51 nee midnight. 52 ap 53. eye 24 wasn't necessary for hrf getup ary 8 twas oe need wo 1) 55 abil She up early as it was Sunday, = a Ae Pag 35. They mace the girl take her mecicine. 08 35 eso tt For que The girl her medicine. = a gi fine to f 36. Ill ty ae hard as | can to finish in time. boxes p best firish in time. 37 | suppose they are ready to go now. Althougt be 20 (BGs) They now about (8)... 38 Sheila hasn't been to & disco for months. a oui since se | [aves 's months to a disco. - ec islands t 39 You can call me any time you want - these (67 give 39 01 | for (62) You any time you want aval (64) 40. Skiing in the Swiss Alps thrills me. Co ski we 1 | Eutopear its the Swiss Alps. SS making ¢ Doo tothe nust in the no 1 2 bo! oo] one wo 12 « Practice Test 3 Dalit for questions 41 - 55, read the text below and look carefully at each line. Some of the lines are correct and some have a word which should not be there. If a line is correct, put a tick (by the number in the answer boxes provided. If a line has a word which should not be there, write the word in the answer boxes provided. Satellite TV ©The arival of satelite TV has brought up a whole new {0 world of viewing into our living rooms - if we can afford 41 to pay fori, that this is. Major sporting events can now {2 be seen lve. Besides of this, a wider variety of sports 48 is now available. The viewer can choose anything 44 from dog-racing up to sumo wrestling. Certain channels 45 show 20 films every day. Again, the choice is enormous- 48 from old classics or to the latest Hollywood releases. 47 For those ones who like to keep informed, 24-hour 48 news itis available at the touch of a button. Children 49. are not forgotten either. A special for junior channel 50 broadcasts out cartoons and children’s fims. But do we really 51 need all this choice? The most danger is that we will become 52 a population of passive couch-potatoes with square 53 eyes and fingers glued to the remote-control, Of course 54 the choice is a good thing, but viewers should use their 85. abllty to select the best and disregard of the rest. Pat S For questions 56 - 65, read the text below. Use the word given in capitals at the end of each line to form a word that fits in the space in the same line. Write your word in the answer boxes provided. Easter Island Athough Easter Island is (0)... for its FAME famous [=m (66).... tone statues, very litle is known ASTONISH 36 about the (67) ... which produced them. CIVILISE (68) .. believe that the statues were ARCHAEOLOGY a frst put up by (89) ... who arrived between COLONY = the frst and seventh centuries AD from (60) DISTANCE = ‘sands to the north-west: They continued to make Po ‘hose (61)... for over a thousand years, possibly | CONSTRUCT _o_, ‘or (62)... reasons, The statues became larger RELIGION =< and more (63) ... until about 1500, when DECORATE = (64) . suddenly stopped. By the time PRODUCE = European (65) ... arrived in 1722, the statue SAIL. East making civilisation had died out. OO = “BAdjectives / Adverbs / Comparisons Adjectives tell us what something is like. They are the same in singular and plural. They can be used before a noun or after a linking verb (appear, be, become, get, feel, look, seem, smell, sound, stay, taste). She's got long hair. These roses smell nice. Adjectives can be factual (big, square, blue tc) of express an opinion (nice, beautiful etc). ‘When two or more adjectives are used before a noun, they normally go in the following order: Opinion Fact Adjectives & adjectives size age shape colour origin material used for/ noun be about Isa lovely small ofd square brown Chinese wooden writing table. 1 2 3 © When there are two or more adjectives of the same type, the more general adjective goes before the 4 more specific. a kind, gentle lady s 5 © Afraid, alike, alive, alone, ashamed, asleep, content, Ill, glad etc are never followed by a noun. 6 The students were ashamed of what they had done. (not: the-aehemedt-skicents) Es ‘© Chief, eldest, former, indoor, inner, main, only, outdoor, outer, principle, upper can only be used 8 before nouns. This is an indoor swimming pool. (not: This swimming pool is inesee) ‘© Present and past participles can be used as adjectives. The film vas amusing. We were amused. 9 10 Rewrite the sentences putting the adjectives into the correct i» place, then identify what kind of adjectives they are. 1 Hove ice-cream. (strawberry, Italian, tasty) ...! love tasty Italian Ri strawberry ice-cream.... (opinion, origin, material) 2 They have a sofa. (leather, navy-biue, modern) — = 3. He loves his bike. (new, red, expensive, mountain) sto 4 She has a voice. (lovely, singing, pure) cir roc 5 He's just sold that suit to a woman, (beautiful, slim, tall, French, Ait young) ma sof 6 She bought curtains. (brown and orange, dining-room) 7 She bakes cakes. (chocolate, delicious, birthday, round) 8 June has a puppy. (tiny, brown, fluffy) 9 She was given a dress. (black, spectacular, Italian, evening) 10 He bought a racquet. (tennis, graphite, new) . 11 He has a grandiather. (French, ninety-year-old, wonderful), ° 12 We watched a film. (boring, German, black and white) ° 13 She wears lipstick. (pink, horrible, glossy) ° 14 We used to have a teacher. (strict, old, biology, American} ° 15. Itwas a dress. (wedding, antique, cream, stunning, lace) 16 Yesterday we went to the club. (huge, sports, modern) 17 Mary has a job. (sales, demanding, new) wa ‘i 2 3 4 18 The house has a kitchen. (large, well-equipped, white, modern) 19 Itwas a pool. (marble, huge, white, swimming) 20 He has a bag. (black, big, schoo!) 21. I have rarely seen such a film. (American, well made, detective) bs ycan be nell, "7 table, efore the noun. be used ed g Underline the correct adjective. Adjectives / Adverbs / Comparisons ‘Nouns of material, purpose or substance can be used as adjectives. (a summar suit, a telavision series) ‘© Certain adjectives can be used metaphorically: silky skin (soft and smooth, like sik), but a silk dress (a dress made of silk), stony look (aisapproving look) but a stone wall (a wall made of stone), golden eagle (a bird with gold-brown feathers) but a gold ring (a ring mace of gold), feathery snowllakes (soft and delicate like feathers) but a feather pillow (a pillow containing feathers), metallic. paint (paint which looks like metal) but metal-rimmed glasses (glasses with a rim made of meta), leathery meat (to0 firm and dificult to cut) but a leather coat (a coat mace of leather), a leaden sky (dark sky; the colour of lead) but lead pipes (pipes made of lead), a steely character (a hard, strong, unkind character) but a steet-pfated tank (a vehicle with a steel covering). 1 Agold/golden eagle glided gracefully across the sky. 2 She ruined fer silkisilky suit by washing it. 3 We had to climb over a low stone/stony wall 4 He approached the task with steel/steely determination. 5 This soap will leave your skin feeling silk/silky and sof 6 Leathery/Leather coats never seem to go out of fashion, 7 This plant has soft feather/feathery leaves. 8 We spotted the metal/metallic blue car speeding into the tunnel ahead, 9 The manager's stone/stony expression showed that all was not well 40 She was given an expensive gold/golden watch for her twenty-first birthday. Its a 1) ...beautiful large stone... (stone, beautiul, large) villa on the coast, with spectacular views of the sea. You will love the 2) (old, huge, marble) swimming pool we have in our 3) (mountainside, terraced, colourful) garden. There is a 4) (sunny, stone, rectangular) patio at the front with many 5) (terracotta, flower filled, circular) pots. The house has five 6) (elegant, white, medium-sized) bed- fooms and three marble bathrooms - each with iS OWN 7) swvrnn 3 (antique, litle, wonderful) wall-painting. The living room has a 8)... (cool, lovely, marble) floor with 9) " (expensive, Persian, antique) rugs and comfortable sds. You can eatin the many 10) . «italian, excellent, traditional) restau- rants nearby and enjoy using the facilities inthe new sports centre. Compound adjectives are formed wit ‘¢ present participles. a smartfooking man, a sharp-cutting knife past participles. a muctriked colleague, a well-known singer cardinal numbers + nouns. 2 one-month holiday, a seventy-mile speed limi, a three-year degree prefixes and suffixes. anti-social behaviour, a part-time worker badly, il, poorly, well + past participle, a badty-treated animal, a well-established firm (@ Make compound adjectives to describe the following. 1 Astudent who has been taught well. ..a well-taught student. 2 Aletter that you have been waiting for for a long time. 3A person who loves having fun 4 A garden which is tended perfectly. sn Adjectives / Adverbs / Comparisons 5 Alife that is free of trouble Ea 6 A visit that was not timed wall 1 7. Anaction that is not advisable. Q 8 A journey of seven days i a ‘¢ Most common adjectives do not have a particular ending. However there are certain common endings for adjectives which are formed from nouns and verbs. These are: sable (prediciable), «al (practica), «ant (observant), «ar (polar, -ary (reactionary), -ate (oassionete) «ial (rata), ent (dependent), -esque (grotesque),