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Published in the Interest of Customer Education


VOL. 6 NO. 4


Ruminal microbes play a vital role
in utilizing the feed nutrients in
ruminants. For the past several
years researchers were trying to
naturally boost the rumen function
by improving the beneficial
ruminal biomass. In this
connection several yeast culture
species & strains were tried for
ruminal probiosis with varying
Various studies have been conducted to
elucidate the mode of action of yeast cultures,
when used for probiosis in ruminants.
Researchers realised that the various strains of
yeast differed in their efficacy with respect to
stimulation of ruminal bacteria. After conducting
trials and a rigorous invitro and invivo screening,
researchers have zeroed in on the
Saccharomyces cerevisiae as the most efficient
yeast culture in the rumen. Saccharomyces
cerevisiae is more suitable to the anaerobic
conditions of the rumen when compared to
baker's yeast which is active only in aerobic
The role of microbes in rumen & reticulum is

very vital for proper digestion & utilization of

feed stuffs in ruminants. Yeast culture
supplementation is one of the promising & I hope the present issue will give an insight in
exciting areas to favourably manipulate the understanding usefulness of yeast culture in
ruminal microflora to enhance the limiting dry ruminant nutrition.
matter intake & to reduce digestive upsets in
Bharat Tandon
Saccharomyces cerevisiae IN RUMINAL decreased ruminal motility and ruminal
ACIDOSIS digesta turnover, as well as rumen ulceration,
Ruminants are unique in their ability to utilise liver abscesses and death. Saccharomyces
low quality fibrous feedstuffs. Bacteria are the cerevisiae reduces acidosis and stabilises the
principal organisms responsible for the ruminal pH by supplementing malic acid, the
hydrolysis and degradation of cellulose within growth stimulating factor for lactate utilising
the rumen. Even though ruminants can utilise bacteria viz. Selenomonas ruminantium and
cellulolosic feedstuffs, most often dairy cattle Megasphaera elsdenii. It is also likely that
are fed rations that contain high levels of Saccharomyces cerevisiae provides other
cereal concentrates in order to meet the growth factors such as B-vitamins, PABA and
energy requirements. These cereal amino acids that are required by
concentrates provide the substrate for rapid Selenomonas ruminantium for growth on
proliferation of rumen bacteria such as lactate. It has been found that Saccharomyces
Streptococcus bovis that produce large cerevisiae not only increases the
amounts of lactic acid. Since lactic acid is a concentration of lactic acid utilising bacteria
stronger acid than volatile fatty acids, it but also the rate of lactic acid utilisation by the
results in acidosis and rumen dysfunction. microbial population of the rumen. Thus
Saccharomyces cerevisiae is effective in
Ruminal acidosis results in reduced overcoming ruminal acidosis & dysfunction.
cellulolytic activity and fibre digestion,

Saccharomyces cerevisiae and cellulose degradation

It was observed in one of the latest studies that concentrations of total anaerobic and
cellulolytic bacteria were increased 5 and 8 times respectively in the rumen receiving yeast
culture supplemented diets. Not only the concentrations but also the bacterial activity is
enhanced in the presence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The lag time of predominant ruminal
bacteria, i.e. the time required to initiate growth and produce enzymes to start the digestion of
ration components was also significantly decreased when yeast culture was supplemented.
Increases upto 11% in the digestibility of the fibre fraction have been found.
Thus increased number of beneficial ruminal bacteria, early start of fibre digestion and better
ration digestibility explain the increased dry matter intake in Saccharomyces cerevisiae
supplemented animals.
Stimulation of lactate utilizers leads to a consistent, stabilized ruminal pH which is congenial
for cellulolytic species activity resulting in improved digestibility & dry matter intake.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Milk production
Saccharomyces cerevisiae, when supplemented in diets not only increased the milk
production but also resulted in a better persistency in lactation. It intensified rumen
fermentation and resulted in less pronounced energy deficit post partum, resulting in
improved body condition and production performance. Milk production especially during the
last four months of lactation was higher in cows fed diets supplemented with Saccharomyces
Improved digestibility of the diet
Other benefits of Saccharomyces
cerevisiae > Starch
> Fiber (NDF, ADF)
1. Saccharomyces cerevisiae chelates several
important trace minerals like zinc, copper and > Crude protein
manganese and increases their availability to
the animal. Many of these are recognised as Increased milk production
critical to the animals.
2. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a natural Increased growth rate
source of vitamins including the B-complex
3. Saccharomyces cerevisiae acts to reduce Effect of Saccharomyces cerevisiae:
methane production by as much as 25%. Farmer observations
Methane is a waste product of rumen
fermentation. Reducing methane production More milk
can improve feed efficiency.
Better weight gain
4. Saccharomyces cerevisiae stimulates
Less feed refusal & digestive upsets
Saccharomyces cerevisiae does it naturally -
sustained higher milk production
Less variation in milk production and feed intake
In a nutshell Saccharomyces cerevisiae
seems to be the best naturally available tool to
improve rumen function in ruminal Better "bloom"
acidosis/dysfunction. At farm levels it is proven
to have long term benefits of reducing
incidence of digestive upsets & improving
productive and reproductive performances.
Effect of Saccharomyces cerevisiae:
Scientific proof

Decreased lactic acid concentration in the


Stabilized rumen pH

Improved dry matter intake

More microbial protein and VFA

Better rumen ammonia utilization

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So this man ordered coffee in a restaurant and said serve me fast, I must go
before my cow gets up. So what if it gets up? asked the unassuming waiter.
Big trouble said the worried man. It will start singing loudly and dance
violently creating a lot of nuisance for the neighborhood.
This is the first time I am hearing about a cow singing and dancing the surprised
waiter exclaimed. And when I said the same thing to my cow, it abused me
in a very bad language said the man in a hurry.

The role of chelated minerals and electrolytes

Next Issue
Stress pack in alleviating heat stress

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