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# totalgadha.com http://totalgadha.com/mod/forum/discuss.php?

d=3537

## Dagny has been telling me smugly that it's

now my turn to write an article. So I decided to
write one as soon as possible and pass the
buck back to her. We both know that it takes a
lot of pain to research for an article and write
the text so we both try to avoid it for as long
as possible. On the other hand, since we both
enjoy writing and like to publish a well-finished
chapter, we both undertake the task eagerly
once the ball is in our court. Writing these
chapters have made me realize how true is the maxim "if you want to
learn something well, teach it." I can cite a lot of topics which I learnt
while teaching in the class or answering students' questions. These
years of teaching have made so many topics seem pretty childish to
me which were nightmares to me before. But knowing a topic well
and teaching it are two different ball games. Many a times, I have
found myself struggling in the class to make a student understand
something which I have found obvious to understand! The fault is
not on the student's part. Three or four years ago, I would have been
stuck on the same point! Every time I encounter a situation like this,
my only measure is to stop at that point, retrace my steps with the
students and slowly unravel the difficulty he's facing. It works most
of the times. But sometimes, the student is in so much awe with the
topic that his mind gets frozen. I have seen this happening many a
times. Topics such as time, speed and distance, Permutation and
Combination, geometry etc. inspire so much fear among the
students that sometimes simple principles, which they would have
otherwise understood do not strike them as simple. I get incessant
queries such as "Sir, time speed distance chhod sakte hain?," "Sir,
permutation combination na karein to chalega?" from my students all
the time. And the sad part is, that the level of CAT in these topics is
very simple. They are doable. In the present chapter, I am trying to
present one of these dreaded chapters as I understand it. I hope my
students understand it too.
I shall have to end here and leave the rest of it for my CBT Club
students. I shall cover some problems based on this in the CBT
Club this week.

If you think this article was useful, help others by sharing it with your
friends!
You might also like:
Probability
Maxima, Minima and Inequalities

Sir,

thnkz,

VaMsI

u rock ....

Amit

## Very Very useful article..

Thanks
Re: Permutation and Combination

Hi TG,

## A fabulous article.I think there is a mistake in the solution of Prob 3

of the 4 friends problem.

together is

Hi TG,

## Answer to 'Good Boy Bad Boy' movie question:

Since these two couples want to sit together at either end. Now, we'll
tie them together. Hence, total number of students will be 7 out of
which 6 students can sit in 6x5x4x3x2x1 = 720 ways. and the couple
can sit at either ends (i.e 2 ways) and the couples can sit in 2 ways
among themselves and finally, in each couple, boy and girl can sit in
2 ways(BG and GB)(Total = 2x2 ways). Hence, Number of ways all
can sit will be:

## by Manika Tandon - Sunday, 17 August 2008, 10:41 PM

hey TG...

awesome piece of writing dude... rather thanx dagny for giving him a
push to write it... :D

cheers,

hi....Tg....

## G8 article...thk u so much for a wonderful article,actually i was

worried as u were not writing articles for cat 08 students....but nw m
so glad and confident dat my all worries will vanish.Tg can u plz write
an article on probability too....

## by Ashwin A - Monday, 18 August 2008, 07:51 AM

TG Sir!
Simply Fantabulous!! Just wanted to know do u have a Book having
all topics of Quant...I have the book on Number theory which in itself,
is very good.!!!
Re: Permutation and Combination

## by Dagny Taggart - Monday, 18 August 2008, 09:17 AM

Hey Manika,

TG played smart this time. I asked him to write an article three days
back ;he wrote, edited and uploaded it within two days. Now the ball
is back in my court.

## Thnks a lot TG...........

i dont have word to say anything more ...................

Hey Amit,

Pl Recheck

## 3..and then each couple on either side can exchange their

seats..in 2 ways so two couples can do tat in 2 X 2 ways

regards,
VaMsI

## by amit kumar - Monday, 18 August 2008, 01:44 PM

Thanks TG

Awesome Article.......

Thanks a lot TG

## by rajdeep choudhuri - Monday, 18 August 2008, 05:46 PM

Hi TG,
The article is simply mind blowing!!!Plzzzzzzzz post an exercise on
Permutation and Combination problems.

Hi Rajdeep,

Total Gadha

## Yes.But i feel it will be lot more helpful if you can give us an

exercise like the one on Number System problems,I mean
plenty more problems to solve.Also where can i get the
answers to these problems???

Anywys TG rocks!!!!

## Re: Permutation and Combination

by Riyaz Iqbal - Wednesday, 20 August 2008, 11:03 PM

Hi TG,

## Excellent article,as usual.I've a question about the 'counting

functions' problem.The no.of functions from a 5-element set to 7-
element set should be less than 7^5,right? 7^5 simply represents
the number of ordered pairs (x,y) from first set to the
second.Several of them may correspond to a single function.eg:
(1,1) (2,2),...(5,5) are five distinct ordered pairs but a single function
viz y=x. Am I missing something?

## by ands ands - Thursday, 21 August 2008, 07:22 AM

ash, hi I've just started with the Num system but am finding the
area vast,enomously huge and the topics not concentrated from a
particular source.From your post I see that there is some
consolidated resource for the Num system you talkin about or is
the the ebook by TG ppl.Can you post on the name here.It would be
sure help if I am to find the book and the contents
satisfying.Thanks.....!!!!

Hi Riyaz,

## There are 75 arrangements, and every arrangement, mapping 5

elements of set 1 to 7 elements of set 2 would be counted as a
single function only.

Total Gadha
Re: Permutation and Combination

Hi TG,

## I have registered for your Copycat exams by paying through credit

card but I am facing problems while trying to write the exam online. I
have mailed you long back about this (to the copycat email ID and
also to admin email ID). But I have not received any answer for that.
And I could not find any contact number too on this site where I
could call up and report my problem. Please respond.

Content from my previous mail dated July 30th 2008 to you below:

## My problem is that when I tried taking copycat 2 the site was

unresponsive and did not navigate to the next page at all. I tried
taking the exam but when I started with it and entered my options for
the first page and clicked on the Next button, the site became very
slow and did not show the next page at all. I tried several times but it
was of no use. I checked the browser compatibility test and it said
my system is fine for taking the test and my internet connection is
good and all other websites are working fine. I am mighty
disappointed. Please look into this problem ASAP

## by manoj 1123 - Thursday, 21 August 2008, 04:06 PM

Hi TG,
Though I feel not ok to write here, I am also facing the same
problem, not able to browse to next page. may be if the page
remains open for some time the connection to ur server breaks.
Please send the pdf for the COPYCATs to my mail beforehand.
So that I can take print and appear the test..
Plz find a solution for us.

Thanks.
Re: Permutation and Combination

Hi TG,

## Can you please post some articles on

functions,logarithms and probability

## by rakesh ojha - Sunday, 24 August 2008, 08:02 PM

hi dear

First of all ..thnx a lot for such a nice collections of questions which
has helped to build the fundamentals of this topic...

i just have one doubt in one of the examples ..above where we are
getting number of 7 didgit numbers ...in binary.....that part is ok...

## but when the number is converted to decimal base....there will be

other conditions aprt from last 3 digits as zeros........say a binary no
when conveted to decimal and becomes 24...that is divisble by 8....

may be i m wrong somewhere but plz tell me why only you have
taken the condition of last 3 didgits as 0 for dibisiblity by 8...why not
other conditions....

thnx

rakesh

Hi Rakesh,

Total Gadha

## by amit kumar - Monday, 25 August 2008, 01:31 AM

HI ALL,
question.>there are 10 students out of which three are boys and
seven are girls,in how many different ways can the students be
paired such that no pair consists of two boys?

## "There are 6 tasks & 6 persons. Task 1 cannot be assigned either to

person 1 or to person 2; task 2 must be assigned either to person 3
or person 4. Every person must be assigned one task. In how many
ways can the assignment be done(CAT 2006)?"

## First person: As task 1 & task 2 cannot be assigned any of the

other 4 tasks can be assigned to him - 4 ways
Second Person: As task 1 & task 2 cannot be assigned, and
one already assigend to Person 1, any of the other 3 tasks can be
assigned to him - 3 ways
assigned to him - 3 ways
Third Person & Fourth person: one of these get Task 2. The other
gets any of the other 3. (one of tasks 1,3,4,5,6 (leaving the tasks
assigned to Persons 1 & 2) - 3 ways
Fourth & Fifth Persons: other 2 tasks can be assigned in 2 ways.

total = 4*3*3*2 = 72

## by arpi sin - Monday, 25 August 2008, 12:20 PM

TG/Dagny
Wonderful work!!!
I was going through the number system quiz,and have a doubt in a
question .Where can I post my query ?

Regards
Arpita

## by Surendran Chandravathanan - Monday, 25 August 2008, 09:43

PM

Hi Amit,

Here's my try...

1st Approach

1 boy can pair up wid 7 girls in 7 ways...So for 3 boys, total no. of
ways is 21..And 1 girl can pair up wid 6 other girls in n(n-1)/2,
ie, (7x6)/2 = 21 ways..(or) Just 7C2 = 21 will cede u the answer.

[[OR]]
2nd Approach

## To select 2 ppl from 10, we can do in 10C2 = 45 ways..And

arranging them in pairs can be done in 45x2 = 90 ways..(or) juz we
have to arrange 2 places out of 10 which can be done in 10P2 = 90
ways..

I am perplexed..

Best Rgds,

Suren

PM

TGGGGGG,

## Ur art of solving & simplifying the problems leaves me in awe but it

invites more confusions.....

I wud say dat the below problem can be solved easily but u said it is
not so..

## In how many ways can four persons be seated out of 5 boys

and 3 girls on four different seats?

Now see, totally thr are 8 ppl where they 've to be seated in 4 seats..

## ie, 8P4 = 1680 ways....

Plz elucidate the fact for breaking the problem & considering 4
cases in ur approach....

Thanks in advance,

Best Rgds,

Suren

## by Black i - Monday, 25 August 2008, 11:38 PM

Hi TG,
It is regarding the '7 digit binary no div. by 8 when converted to
decimal no' question.
How can one decide that the last 4 bits , if are equal to zero then the
no is divisible by 8 when converted to decimal ?
Suppose the same question asks about octal no instead of binary,
how should one decide about it ?

## by amit kumar - Tuesday, 26 August 2008, 10:21 PM

Hi
Answer is 630.give another try.

## by Harish Bansal - Thursday, 28 August 2008, 12:51 PM

Hi TG,
Gr8 article....
Plz post the solutions of the problems that you have mentioned in ur
artical...
We want to match our answers and approach.
And plz can u post something on probability prior to CAT 2008.

combination.

## I have question on the same topic and have two different

approaches , kindly tell me which one correct :

## Question: Ten students have been shortlisted to form two teams of

six students each, such that there are exactly three common
between the two teams, In how many ways can the teams be
formed.

Ans:

1st approach:

C3 ways ,

## We need to build each group having 6 students , for the 1stGR.

rest of the 3 students we can take out of 7 students =7C3 ways

## So , 1stGR complete, for the 2ndGR we can take rest of the 3

students out of the 4 students in = 4C3 ways.

2nd Approach :

## From 10 students , 3 students commonbetween the two teams can

be selected in = 10C3 ways.
since 7 students are still left and for each team we need 6 students
, Now select the student

will find a place in neither team and it can be done in = 7C1 ways.

## Now remaining 6 students have to divided into two groups of 3 each

and it can be done in

= 6C 3 / 2

Hi TG,

## In the example where u asked:

How many arrangements r dere of six 0's, five 1's and four 2's,
where

## (i)first 0 precedes first 1?

shudnt the ans be 343980 and not 349380?.... and there's an easier
way as well. It goes like this:

total arrangements=(15!/(4!*5!*6!))

so,

q=11!/(6!*5!)
p=10!/(5!*5!)

ans=343980

## by Total Gadha - Wednesday, 3 September 2008, 10:49 AM

Hi Rudra,

Corrected the typing error. And good way to solve the question.

Total Gadha

Hi Tuhin,

## The second solution is correct. First has repetition. Please check

the question of "three states with three students from each state...."

Total Gadha

## by bhageerath n - Wednesday, 3 September 2008, 10:30 PM

hi
i'm here for the first time.. this was pretty helpful.. how do i cross
check if i got the right answers?? will the solutions be available for
the questions??

## by bhageerath n - Wednesday, 3 September 2008, 11:04 PM

Hi TG,
for the question -
In how many ways can four persons be seated out of five boys and
three girls on 4 different seats?

## should we take those cases as mentioned by you??

why cant we do it like this?

there are 8 people in all.. select four of them in 8c4 ways (70 ways).
Now you can arrange these four in 4! ways(24 ways). So total ways
is 70*24 = 1680.

## was just wondering guys bout dis prob,,,

"in how many diff ways can the faces of a cube be painted in 6 diff
colors?"

## shudnt the no of ways be 6 X 5 x 3!,,

as the first face can be painted in 6 ways,,
rather than only 1 way,,

## jus wanted 2 knw,,y is it 5 X 3! rather than 6 X 5 x 3!

thnx
Re: Permutation and Combination

## That U Very much sir..........as expected my search for the best

article on permutation and combination did end here..

## by kladad asda - Sunday, 7 September 2008, 08:44 PM

just being curious. are u vamsee krishna from CSE IITKGP, class
2006??
If you are kindly reply back, it would be nice to know one more
familiar face at TG

## by Manish Kashyap - Tuesday, 9 September 2008, 07:56 PM

Hi TG,

My Solutions are -
1)a

2)c

3)b

4)

5)c

6)

7)c

8)c

9)a

10)b

11)b

12)c

13)b

14)b

15)

16)

17)b

19)d

20)

21)c

22)16725
23)24
24)840

25)120

26) 680
27)26!/2
28)45

29)21

30)35
31)5
32)7c2
33)33600
I was not able to solve some questions for which I had not put any
answers. Can you please verify my answers and tell me the
solutions of which are wrong or which I was not able to solve.

Manish

## by Ankit Arora - Wednesday, 10 September 2008, 05:27 PM

Hi TG,

I haven't solved all the questions till now...just want to confirm the
answers of first 5 ques..

1 (a)

2(b)

3(d)

5(c)

Hi TG Sir,

solutions.

Manish

Frns

## Check/discuss answers for above problems @

http://totalgadha.com/mod/forum/discuss.php?d=3683

VaMsI

Hi TG,

Saurabh

Hi suren,

## I think the question involves just the selection. Hence the

arrangement is not required. Hence 10c2-3c2=45-3=42 is the
answer.

Hi TG sir,

## The link is fabulous. In combination part there is a question " In how

many ways 5 boys , 3 girls can be sitted in 4 seats?"

combination)

## by Amit Trivedi - Saturday, 11 October 2008, 10:31 PM

Hi TG sir,

The lesson is really great. i have a doubt for one of the examples.

## the examplein which 5 boys and 5girls go to watch the cinema

spiderman3.

you gave two arrangement for the wish of the boys "every boy wants
to sit with a girl" and no two girls sit together

## i think other arrangement of the form are possible

GBBGBGBGBG

GBGBBGBGBG

GBGBGBBGBG

GBGBGBGBBG

In the above arrangements every boy is sitting with a girl and no two
girls are sitting together

reasoning.

Warm Regards,

Amit

Amit

## by meena k - Saturday, 18 October 2008, 04:24 AM

hi,

for the states question can't we solve like this from 3states 3
students eachso selecting 5 frm 9= 9c5

then subtracting 6c5 (case where all 5 students are selected frm two
states)
ie:9c5 - 6c5 .pls tell me where the problm is

Hi TG,

## This is in regard to an example problem (No. of 7 digit binary

numbers that are divisible by 8 when converted to base 10). i was
wondering as to y the 3rd digit from the last cannot be 1 or 0. You've
mentioned that the last 3 digits should be 0. But if the last 3 digits
are 100 then its base 10 equivalent will be 400 which is divisible by
8.... I'm really bad at P n C but i can't figure out the logical flaw in my
thought... Can u help me out on this?

## by rajesh kambampati - Thursday, 6 November 2008, 12:36 AM

Ya i agree with you sandesh, i too got this doubt.And i think we are
correct.

## by Complete Gadha - Friday, 7 November 2008, 08:03 PM

Hi TG Sir,

This is the best material i have ever come across for Permutation
and Combination.

I have been going through the material in the forum. all of them r so
amazing that i am actually gaining the confidence to crack the CAT
though i have not been doing so good in the mock cat. Thanks a
lot..!!
Hats off To U...!!!

Hi TG,

## I had a doubt in the first problem (i.e 10 speakers problem) solved

in the permutation section.

I solved it in this manner. you tie the PM, MP and MLA into a single
person and then calculate the ways to arrange them.
wudn`t it be 8! then that we have other 7 speakers and 1 group of
PM, MP and MLA to arrange?

I find your way also logical but am not able to understand difference
between my approach and your approach. kindly can you explain
where I am missing the logic?

## by sumit jamwal - Wednesday, 4 February 2009, 08:51 AM

Hi TG,
I have some problem in understanding the concept of partition
problem..

6 choices..

6C2 = 15 ways..

## by sumit jamwal - Thursday, 12 February 2009, 09:41 PM

hi TG,
the problem i had above , i'd done a mistake
actually thr wud be 30 ways ...

## for 1st stick - 6 ways

for 2nd stick - 5
so total - 6*5=30.

Regards,
sumit

## Re: Permutation and Combination

by Total Gadha - Thursday, 12 February 2009, 11:09 PM

Hi Sumit,

In your solution, you can't place sticks like this for example
||* * * * *

This would denote a 0 0 5 case which you cannot cover. You can
only cover 0 5 0 case by placing the sticks in this manner: |* * * * *|

The way you are placing the sticks you can never place two sticks
side by side because you are taking it to be one space only.

Total Gadha

## by sumit jamwal - Friday, 13 February 2009, 12:16 AM

hi sir,
sir that's fine ..bt if iam nt considering this case ..then y is my answer
comin to be arnd 30 ..whr as u stated it's 21.
i think thr might be somekind of repeatition...

and as u told
| | * * * * * nt included so,

## now suppose i place 1st stick

then arrangement wud be like..
| *****

now to include ur case for 2nd stick thr are 6 cases as i can place
stick between stars and beside 1st stick

method.

regards,
sumit
sumit

Hi Sumit,

## The repetition is because you are taking partitions to be different

whereas there have to be taken as similar. For example, take two
simple cases:

## * P1 * * * P2 * and * P2 * * * P1 * where P1 and P2 denote the

partitions. Both these case would yield the same result, i.e. 1 3 1 but
you are counting them as different.

## If I do this by your method I will do it like this:

For the first partition I have 6 places.
**| ***

## For the second partition I have 7 places. Therefore total number of

ways = 6 7 = 42. As each case is being repeated once, the total
number of cases = 42/2 = 21.

Total Gadha

hi TG,

## thanks,that was wat i thinking....

gr8 work ..

Regards ,

sumit
Re: Permutation and Combination

variety.

Thanks a Lot

Abnv

hi TG,

which

reply soon...

## by iim freak - Tuesday, 26 May 2009, 12:29 PM

hi tg.. 1st of all thanks a ton for this simply awesome post .. i ws nt
getting any gud material on P&C n Probability n was worried ...
thanks again..

## .. regarding the Problem :: there are 10 speakers who r supposed 2

address. One constraint is PM shud address before MP and MP
before MLA .

## the order shud be PQR .. so i tuk PQR as 1 block and so total

people 2 b arranged becomes (7+1) = 8 ... and now arranging them
we get

Ans = 8! .

Hi TG,

## In the question, How many 3-digit numbers are even and

with no repeated digits, in the second case for number not
ending in 0, you have multiplied 8*8*4.

## This may be simple question for others, bt i believe in saying.. when

in doubt ask....

Thanks,
Priyesh Tungare
Re: Permutation and Combination

## by Total Gadha - Thursday, 28 May 2009, 02:06 PM

Hi Randeep,

'Before' might not always mean 'just before,' as you have assumed
by taking them together. There can be other persons between P, Q
and R.

Total Gadha

## by Total Gadha - Thursday, 28 May 2009, 02:08 PM

Hi Priyesh,

There are four 4 even digits after removing zero- 2, 4, 6 and 8. The
number would end in one of these.

Total Gadha

## by iim freak - Thursday, 28 May 2009, 10:21 PM

oh yeah ,, gosh i shud hav thot dat.. thanks a lot for clearing the
doubt ...

TG sir it will b a gr8 help if u cud post some gud text, like dis, for
Probablity also .. dats another area, which i find tough..

## Re: Permutation and Combination

by iim freak - Friday, 29 May 2009, 10:09 AM

hi tg.. from where can i find the answers 2 the above exercise.. its v
imp 2 chk whether i hav understud ur concepts pr nt.

## by anirban bhar - Sunday, 31 May 2009, 12:34 PM

hi tg,
im a bit confsed wid the solution to the paint cube problem............

## the firstface wich we choose cn b painted in 6 ways,.........y havent u

considered that....plzzz enlighten

## by Avishek Chakraborty - Thursday, 11 June 2009, 07:39 PM

Hey guys I have a question related to this topic, could u solve this?
Here it goes...

## Q. 4 boyz n 4 girls are arranged in a row so that no 2 girls are

together.Wat is the probability that any 2 boyz are together?

## dude .. this is PnC thread n u asking Probability ..jst kidding ..

anyways i dnt know probability so cant help @ this moment .. TG sir
will be posting a text on Prob soon... waiting for that...ATB mate
Re: Permutation and Combination

## there are 4 friends and 10 hotel rooms

q)in how many ways can at least two friends stay together

## my answer to this is as follows,which is leading me to the wrong

answer,will be very grateful if someone can point out the fallacy in
this

c(4,2)*10*9*8

c(4,3)*10*9

10

## adding up all these cases i am getting 4690,which is wrong....please

tell me the mistake in this

## by rohan kaushal - Saturday, 20 June 2009, 09:03 AM

hi,

Q. how many three digit numbers are there which are even and
have no repeated digits ????

## can't it be this way???

___
the 3rd place 5 choices ,(i.e; 0,2,4,6,8) so no of ways are 5
1st place have 8 choices (excluding 0 and the 3rd place's number)
& 2nd place have again eight choices ....
and that comes out to be 8 * 8 * 5 = 320 ..

thanx a lot!!!!

## by amit jain - Sunday, 21 June 2009, 12:37 PM

@Rohan,

When you will use 0 for the unit's place then for the hundreds place
you will have 9 choices(1....9) and 1oth place 8 choices.

## by srinivasan ravi - Sunday, 12 July 2009, 10:51 AM

hi sir,
can u pls explain me the problem just before cicular combinations..i
cant understand it clearly..pls help..thanks..

Hii,

## This is a rather simple looking problem but has been pestering me

and am unable to solve. Pl chech it out and help me guys.
You have to find out the number of ways to reach from A to B.

Extremely sorry 4 the poor quality of fig. I ain't that good with
computers.

## Plz give a detailed solution.

Thanx in advance.

## by aryan raj - Monday, 13 July 2009, 03:03 PM

hi
sir

this file is so good for cat exam so i want solution of the all prob

## by Ankit Megotia - Tuesday, 28 July 2009, 11:13 AM

hey smruty,
by any chance do you know the answer to your question?
its coming out to be 72.
if its correct i will tell you the procedure.

## by Jaideep Das - Tuesday, 28 July 2009, 10:44 PM

Can somebody provide me the answers for (ii) and (iii) parts of the
question for 6 0's, 5 1's ans 4 2's?

I got the answers as 15840 for (ii) and 378738 for (iii)

## Re: Permutation and Combination

You r right.
The solution given here, is based on a assumption that the three
speek in order, which is not the case. Your solution is perfect i
guess.
Re: Permutation and Combination to Bheemesh K

You r right.
The solution given here, is based on a assumption that the three
speek in order, which is not the case. Your solution is perfect i
guess.

## by Gowtham Muthukkumaran Thirunavukkarasu - Tuesday, 4 August

2009, 12:31 AM

From the figure you have given i have worked out and got the
answer to be 30. Juz check if you already know the answer and if it
is wrong please let me know. I have attached the file here.

Moreover I have assumed that one can travel through a path only
once. For example you cannot go through ED and again comeback
to E.
Re: Permutation and Combination

childish!

## There's one question related to dice, in how many ways sum of 8

can be obtained by rolling 2 dice if the they are distinguishable...

## now my question is as we are rightly considering (3,5) and (5,3) as

different cases, why are we not taking two cases for (4,4)? Though
the denominations are same but the dice are distinguishable.

## by cat champ - Saturday, 8 August 2009, 04:11 PM

i dont think it will be taken abhishek.. as(4,4) is making the dice
indistinguishable..

btw.. very good work tg sir..the best article till date i have found on
p&c.. and i will be posting the solns soon..

## by animesh chandan - Saturday, 15 August 2009, 10:57 PM

hi TG
i hav problem
Q:there are 7 men and 5 women we have to select 4 men and 3
women but if mrs A will go then mrs B will not go.in how many ways v
can select them?

## my approach is 7 men will be selected in 7C4 ways

and there are 3 cases
case 1: we first select mrs A them automatically mrs b will not be
selected then we can select remaining women in 3C2 ways,
that is 7C4*3C2=105.
case 2: we select mrs B then automatically mrs A will not be
selected then ve can select remaining women in 3C2 ways,
that is 7C4*3C2=105,

case 3:if both of them are not selected then wewill have 3C3 ways
to select women
that is 7C4*3C3=35
that means total no of ways =105+105+35=245

Hi TG..

Hi TG,

@ ku klux klan

same hotel.

Hi All,

## Using one or more of the digits 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7, how many 7-

digit numbers can be formed which are divisible by 7?

Options :-
A) 75 + 74 + 73 + 72 + 7 C) 4 76

B) 4 75 D) 7 6 E) 6 7 6

Thanks

Pallav Jain

## by priya ramraj - Friday, 18 September 2009, 04:00 PM

Hi TG,
I have a doubt in the article that u have posted. To get a sum of 8
with distinguishable dices, wont the occurrence of(4,4) be different
because it is distinguishable??? shudnt we consider it as 2 cases
..Pls clarify...

Hi priya,

## To get a sum of 8 with distinguishable dices, wont the occurrence

of(4,4) be different because it is distinguishable??? shudnt we
consider it as 2 cases ..

## (2,1) and (1,2) are different in distinguishable dice(which is not the

case in same kind of dice).

## Case: (1,2) and (2,1)

1.Red->1 Blue->2
2.Red->2 Blue->1

You can distinguish the two not only by their color but also by the
difference in their numerical value.

Case 2: (4,4)

1.Blue->4 Red->4
2.Red->4 Blue->4

## In short, since the numerical value is same, we cannot distinguish

the case though the two dice are distinguishable.

Rohit

## by priya ramraj - Friday, 18 September 2009, 05:31 PM

Hi Rohit,
going by ur example,Wat i understand from the article is that
color is the distinguishing factor and not the number... If we remove
the color aspect from the argument only then the distinguishing
property vanishes... hope i am not wrong..anyways.. Thanks for the
approach

Hi priya,

## Color is the distinguishing factor and not the number...

If we remove the color aspect from the argument only then the
distinguishing property vanishes...

## I do not completely agree with your conclusion..

The dice had two different colors viz. red and blue..(I did not remove
them)

But, still you could not distinguish <4,4> from each other..!!(how
could you if they are the same ones?)

## The reason was not color but same numerical value..

If you had changed the number to <1,2> then you would have
distinguished it from <2,1> occurrence.

## if you can check my explanation again after reading this hope it

would be more clear..

## 1. If colors of dice are same(i.e indistinguishable dice) then

occurrence of <1,2> or <2,1> or for that matter any pair of values
and vice versa cannot be distinguished..(very obvious)
(indistinguishable because of color)

## a. <1,2> can be distinguished from occurrence of

<2,1>(distinguishable because of color of the dice)

b. <4,4> or for that matter any same value on both dice cannot be
distinguished from vice versa value(which is actually the same
occurrence as the previous..) (indistinguishable because of same
value on the dice)

## Hence, the conclusion can be drawn that the distinguishing factor in

the dice of different colors is the color aspect, only when numbers
appearing on the dice are different. If the number becomes
same(indistinguishable) then you cannot distinguish the occurrence.

## Hope this helps..

Rohit
Re: Permutation and Combination

## by Suresh S - Monday, 21 September 2009, 11:11 AM

Hi sir ..
its really superb.... thanks for ur article.....

Hi TG..!!

## In how many ways can 4 persons be seated out of 5 boys and 3

girls in 4 different seats?

While explaining you said it is not the simple formula based P&C
problem.

## Though, I think that it could be solved in very simple terms without

breaking down the problem into cases(the way you already
suggested as the concept).

done in 8C4 ways

## 2. Arranging the 4 persons on 4 different seats for each selection

which can be done in 4! ways

## So total number of ways = 8C4 * 4! = 70*24 = 1680 (same as 8P4)

Please let me know if this is not the right way to approach the
problem.
I need your insight into this.

Rohit

Hi,

superb article.

## in the ques where u hv 10 college students , 5 boys and 5 girls and

u have to make sure that no two girls sit together,

_B_B_B_B_B_

## now, for the girls to sit , we have to choose 5 of the 6 places

available so that no two girls sit together, this can be done in 6 ways
and the girls can then be seated in 6* 5! ways.

## Therefore, the no of ways in which they can sit according to the

given condition then comes out to be
6*5!*5!.

Thanx

## by AsHwIn Drmz - Saturday, 10 October 2009, 01:32 AM

hi Sharmista,

You are missing out some hig here. Say 1st we seat all the boys..in
5! ways.

## Then we have 6 places where 5 girls have to be seated.Now, 1st girl

can be seated in any of the 6 available places,2nd girl can be
seated in the remaining 5 avaialble places ,3rd girl can be seated in
remaining 4 available places....etc

ie 6 x 5 x 4 x 3 x 2 .

Ashwin

Thanx ashwin.

## U might think me to be a dud but kindly explain how u got the

2 in 2*5!*(6*5*4*3*2) .
Re: Permutation and Combination

## by AsHwIn Drmz - Saturday, 10 October 2009, 10:59 PM

hey..

dont think like dat..We are all here to learn from eachother no one is
perfect.So never underestimate urself...Coming to the question, see
there will be 2 cases :1st case when u seat all the boys 1st in 5
places then arrange the girls .2nd case you can seat the girls 1st
then arrange the boys among them.

hence we take 2*

Ashwin

## by Saravanar B - Wednesday, 21 October 2009, 01:24 PM

Hi TG Sir,

Thanks a lot for your article and I don't have any words to describe
ur work sir...

I owe a lot... Great job sir... I have a great respect for you sir and
long live TG family

## 1. Four friends go to a city in which there are 10 hotels. In how

many ways can they stay ?

Sol :

## (approach 1) : The first friend can stay in 10 ways, the second

friend can stay in 10 ways, similarly the third and fourth..
so the ans is 10*10*10*10 = 10000
(approach 2) : The first hotel can accomodate 4 friends or 3
friends or 2 friends or 1 friend or 0(zero). So nu of ways the 1st
hotel can accomodate is 1+2+3+4 = 10 ( i have added 1,2,3,4 as it
is either - "OR" case)

Same goes for 2nd hotel, 3rd hotel and 4th hotel...
so the ans is 10*10*10*10 = 10000
*******************************************************
Now have a look at question no 2
*******************************************************
2. In how many ways can u post 10 letters in 4 letterboxes ?

Sol :

## ( approach 1 ) The first letter can be posted in 4 ways, similarly the

second,third....tenth.
So the ans is : 4*4*4...*4 = 4^10 = 1048576

(approach 2 ) : The first letter box can get '1' or '2' or '3' ..... '10'
letters.So nu of ways
the 1st letter can accomodate is 1+2+3+4+..+10 = 55

Same goes for 2nd letter 3rd letter and 4th letter

## Doubt : I couldn't figure out what is wrong with my second

approach.. Kindly explain me sir.. Also tell me given a question when
to apply which approach...

My prob is I never get satisfied with one approach sir.. I always try
out different approach..

like me...

Thanks
Saran

## by Total Gadha - Wednesday, 21 October 2009, 09:42 PM

Hi Saravanar,

If first letter box posts even 1 letter or 2 letters etc. the second letter
box does not have 10 ways.

Total Gadha

Hello,

## m not sure if this is the right section to post permutation problem,

but anyways please help me out with the following

In how many ways can 10 soldiers stand in 2 rows such that there
are 5 soldiers in each row?

Puneet

Hi TG

Thanks again,

## Wanted to share the probabilistic approach to dearrangement

problem with the TGites.

http://mathforum.org/library/drmath/view/56592.html

A query: If you go through the proof in the link I have given, you can
see that they are considering 4 out of 5 letters placed in the correct
envelope. How come there result matches with the one given in this
thread? I mean i could not find where I am going wrong. Please
help!!!

Hi TG,

## Thanks for your reply...

Yes i got it... the second letter box need not have ten ways...

## Is there a way to solve this question in the letter box perspective

(approach 2) ?? I tried to solve but couldn't get the ans as well as
the approach..

Saran

## 6 Balls of different colours are to be distributed among 2 boys.

What is the probability that each boy gets same number of balls?

a) 5/16
b) 15/64
c) 1/2
d) 3/8

## by nishchai nevrekar - Wednesday, 4 November 2009, 05:58 PM

Hi,
I would like to point out the that the solution to the 5 BOY , 5 GIRL
MOVIE movie problem with no girls sitting together is a little flawed...

## It doesnt take in to consideration this arrangement

GBGBGBBGBG n many others lik this....

## so the soln to this has to be considered by keeping objects (or

people for this problem) who are not supposed to be together as
dynamic and others as static...
here boys have to be static n girls dynamic... as shown below
_B_B_B_B_B_
so girls only have six positions to go into and also they will never be
together as we limiting them by providing only one slot btw boys.
Hence refer to them as dynamic as they can take 6 positions.
so, 6P5 = 6x120
while boys who can be together are static cause they can only take 5
positions.
5P5 = 120

## Hope this was helpful...

Also, Please correct me if I am wrong :D

## by Total Gadha - Friday, 6 November 2009, 01:46 PM

Hi Nishchal,

You forgot the condition mentioned in the question- every boy wants
to sit with a girl.

Total Gadha

## by saurabh prabhudessai - Friday, 6 November 2009, 03:42 PM

in the condition mentioned by nischai every boy has at least one gal
on his side!!

## in these types of arrangements GB GB BG BG BG

Here every boy is sitting with one girl.... it the condition was
"every boy wants to sit in-between 2 girls" then i would be a diff
case altogether.
If not then plz temme... y these cases are not to be considered...

## by vineet jain - Tuesday, 17 November 2009, 12:41 AM

Hi TG!!
superb article
I have a question which has been asked by Rohit also.i am using
same language as him

"In how many ways can 4 persons be seated out of 5 boys and 3
girls in 4 different seats?

While explaining you said it is not the simple formula based P&C
problem.

## Though, I think that it could be solved in very simple terms without

breaking down the problem into cases(the way you already
suggested as the concept).

done in 8C4 ways

## 2. Arranging the 4 persons on 4 different seats for each selection

which can be done in 4! ways
So total number of ways = 8C4 * 4! = 70*24 = 1680 (same as 8P4)"

Hello TG sir,

Thanx Sir...

Hi TG,

## It is great disappointment I would like say, even after going through

the Lessons multiple times, I am unable to solve even a single
problem. It is not because of the way you explain things, but it is my
ability.

## I am sure with these given set of skills, I am ill equipped to tackle

CAT.

It may be of great help if you can let me where the solutions are
present I can just read them for purpose of learning.

Thanks,
Harish.A

## Re: Permutation and Combination

by aritreyee chaudhuri - Wednesday, 2 December 2009, 08:50 PM

Hi TG

## I loved this article..thanks a lot for ur efforts..this helped me

recollect many of the concepts learnt earlier..

## but i am not clear about the 'painting faces of a cube' problem..two

other guys Syd S and Anirban Bhar have also asked the same
question that i am going to type now..

## When we fix the color of one side of a cube..we have 6 possibilities

(as there are six colors)..and in that case the opposite side will have
5 possibilities..for the remaining we can use the circular perrmutation
rule..so the remaining sides can be painted in (4-1)! ways..

be 6x5x3! ?

i hve a prob...

## ~ there r four sections of a paper wid a max. marks f 45 fr each

section & to qualify 1 have get min. 90 marks then in hw many ways
he cn qualify da exam??????????????

Hi ,

## @ an election meeting 100 ppl address rally. Order followed

PM then MP followed by MLA

## Solution given: Let PM = P MP denoted as Q and MLA as R. 10

speakers adddress rally in 10! ways. this includes PQR PRQ QPR
QRP RPQ RQP. Now Since need only PQR we divide 10! by 6.

I have a genuine prob here . First of all its decided tat PQR will be
the order which means we need to keep PQR fixed and only count
the remaining 7 ppl arrangement. Y cant it be so ??? I know I wrong
where am I making the mistake ....

Im a real dumb one to have such doubts ... but want to make it clear
....

Hi TG Sir,

## DEAR TG..help me on this??

the number of ways that 4 girls and 5 boys can sit around a
table st no two girls sit together ?

## what would be the solution for a linear table, ie 4 girls and 5

boys( no 2 girls sit together)??

## what would be the soln had 2 girls been always together,

(case1:around a round table

imlovinmath

Answers

1a
2b
3d
4c
5c
6a
7d
8c
9c
10 b
11 b
12 c
13
14 a
15
16
17 b
18 d
19 a
20 c

answers

Hi TG,

## In the part of Distribution in the problem of 5 balls and 3 boxes case

IV i.e when all balls and boxes are dissimilar, for distribution 113 and
122 u say the no of distributions are 3!. Shouldn't it be 3!/2! = 3 as
there are 2 groups with same number of things?

## by TG Team - Thursday, 8 July 2010, 05:32 PM

Hi Sonali

Though in 113 and 122 distribution there are two groups with
same number of things but still they are different groups because of
different balls. That's why it is 3! in place of 3!/2!

Hope it is clear.

## Re: Permutation and Combination

by Naman Mirchandani - Tuesday, 20 July 2010, 04:29 PM

Sir,

different boxes?

## Ans: (by method given here) 21

But there is one basic question in you article (like in how many
can one post 10 letters in 4 letter boxes: 4 * 4 *4.....10 times :
4^10....).....

## So if we apply the above method considering similar letters and

different letterboxes .....answer will come : 13C3 ?

## Have we considered all letters dissimilar to get 4^10? (can it be

generalised where nothing is mentioned about similarity or
dissimilarity ? )

Naman

## by Siddharth Khanna - Saturday, 7 August 2010, 09:36 PM

Hi TG Sir ,

(
in these types of arrangements GB GB BG BG BG
Here every boy is sitting with one girl.... it the condition was
"every boy wants to sit in-between 2 girls" then i would be a diff
case altogether.
If not then plz temme... y these cases are not to be considered...
)

## Even I have the same doubt as mentioned by nishchai .

Cant we consider this arrangement .

hi everyone!

## can anybody help me in below question?

how many different sums can be formed with the following coins

paise?

plz eleborate

## There are 10 steps in a staircase and a person has to take those

steps. At every step the person has got a choice of taking 1 step or
2 steps or 3 steps.The number of ways in whch person can take
those steps is??

## Can anyone please help me with this staircaseproblem.

Re: Permutation and Combination

## Out of 21 tickets marked with numbers from 1 to 21 ,three are drawn

at random, find the probability that the three numbers on them are in
A.P

## Hi Versha...my approach is as follows:

from 1 to 21 find the no. of AP's that u can get and there will be
cases accordingly:

## 1. AP with d = 1 , we have 21 nos. Among these 21 nos. we can

choose 3 nos. which are in AP as 1,2,3 or 2,3,4 or 3,4,5 and so
on...hence total no. of cases will be 19 here with last case ending at
19,20,21

## 2. AP with d = 2, we have two series here

a) 1,3,5,7......21 = 11 nos.
hence nos. can be chosen as 1,3,5 or 3,5,7 and so on ..so here
TOTAL CASES = 9
b) 2,4,6,8......20 = 10 nos.
hence nos. can be chosen as 2,4,6 or 4,6,8 and so on..so here
TOTAL CASES = 8

## 3. AP with d = 3, we have the following series

a) 1,4,7,10,13,16,19 -> total cases = 5
b) 2,5,8,11,14,17,20 -> total cases = 5
c) 3,6,9,12,15,18,21 -> total cases = 5

## 4. AP with d = 4, we have the following series

a) 1,5,9,13,17,21 -> total cases = 4
b) 2,6,10,14,18 -> total cases = 3
c) 3,7,11,15,19 -> total cases = 3
d) 4,8,12,16,20 -> total cases = 3

## 5. AP with d = 5, we have the following series

a) 1,6,11,16,21 -> Total cases = 3
b) 2,7,12,17 -> Total cases = 2
c) 3,8,13,18 -> Total cases = 2
d) 4,9,14,19 -> Total cases = 2
e) 5,10,15,20 -> Total cases = 2

## 6. AP with d = 6, we have the following series

a) 1,7,13,19 -> Total cases = 2
b) 2,8,14,20 -> Total cases = 2
c) 3,9,15,21 -> Total cases = 2
d) 4,10,16 -> Total cases = 1
e) 5,11,17 -> Total cases = 1
f) 6,12,18 -> Total cases = 1

## 7. AP with d = 7, we have the following series

a) 1,8,15 -> Total cases = 1
b) 2,9,16 -> Total cases = 1
c) 3,10,17 -> Total cases = 1
d) 4,11,18 -> Total cases = 1
e) 5,12,19 -> Total cases = 1
f) 6,13,20 -> Total cases = 1
g) 7,14,21 -> Total cases = 1

## 8. AP with d = 8, we have the following series

a) 1,9,17 -> Total cases = 1
b) 2,10,18 -> Total cases = 1
c) 3,11,19 -> Total cases = 1
d) 4,12,20 -> Total cases = 1
e) 5,13,21 -> Total cases = 1

## 9. AP with d = 9, we have the following series

a) 1,10,19 -> Total cases = 1
b) 2,11,20 -> Total cases = 1
c) 3,12,21 -> Total cases = 1

## 10 AP with d = 10, we have the following series

a) 1,11,21 -> Total cases = 1

now total no. of AP's cases that you can have from these nos. is
19+17+15+13+11+9+7+5+3+1 = 100
now total no. of ways of selecting 3 nos. from given 21 nos. are
21C3 = 1330

## Hence the required probability is 100/1330

I could not think of a shorter approach but i certainly feel that there
must be one....TGites please help here...kindly post a shorter or
simpler approach if you find one...and let me know if the answer is
correct...

thanks
Nitin

## hii...hv a ques..plz help me out

set A is formed by selecting some of the numbers from the first 100
natural numbers such that the HCF of any two numbers in the set are
same

Q1:if every pair of set A has to be realtively prime and set A has
max number of elements possible,then in how many ways set A can
be selected..??
1)64
2)96
3)72
4)108

Q2: if the HCF of any two numbers in set A is 3, then what is the
maximum no of elements set A can have..??
1)10
2)12
3)11
4)14

## Re: Permutation and Combination

by Animesh Devarshi - Saturday, 11 September 2010, 07:23 PM

Hi ,

reg question: how many ways can for persons be seated out of 5
boys and 3 girls on four different seats?

## by harleen mann - Monday, 4 October 2010, 01:27 AM

@deepti anand

Ans 1.
thinking part: here, for elements to be max, it can be understood that
we need to take all primes numbers <100 and "1". therefore we will
have 26 elements in that set.
A little more thought to it will get to the point that we can also select
powers of the primes nos. (<100). so here goes a little paper work
part:
1
2^1 to 2^6 (highest 6 since 2^7 >100)
3^1 to 3^4
5^1 to 5^2
7^1 to 7^2
11
13............
so we would have: 6*4*2*2 = 96 ways!!

Ans 2.
HCF = 3; this means that the only common factor between any 2
elements should be 3.
To make this possible, start taking numbers from 3 onwards
multiplied with primes,
i.e. 3*1, 3*2, 3*3, 3*5....3*31.
These are a total of 12 numbers!!
Re: Permutation and Combination

## by Pritesh Ranjan - Tuesday, 19 October 2010, 03:11 PM

hi TG..
i had 2 quests..i was wondering if u cud plz help me out wid dem..

## 1.)How many 6 digit numbers contain exactly 4 different digits..??

2.)Six white and Six black balls of the same size r 2 be distributed
among 10 urns such that each urn contains at least one ball.What is
the total no of distributions..????

## Hi, I am asking this question to get my concepts right , here is the

question :
Determine the number of 5 card combinations out of a deck of 52
cards if there
is exactly one ace in each combination.

4C1 X 48C4

&

## 4(ace can be selected in 4 ways) X 48(next card can be selected in

48 ways) X 47(next card can be selected in 47 ways) X 46(..) X
45(..)

Hi Ankit

## In the selection of five cards their arrangement doesn't matter but in

your second method the four cards have been ordered and that
needs to be divided by 4! which will again fetch the same result as
calculated by first method.

## by Ankit Mittal - Friday, 29 October 2010, 06:57 PM

Thanks very much for clearing the doubt , I got it right now for this
one. Actually I am always confused when to consider the order and
when not.usually if arrangement is asked in the question I consider
the order otherwise not.

## Thank you very much

It helped me get all the fundas.. so that I need not depend on 3 4
sources to get knowledge of single concept

Hello,

## where n things are to be arranged, among which

k1 is the number things of one type
k2 is the number of things of 2nd type
soon ..........

## now when among the n things above, if only r things are to be

selected and arranged then can we use the below formula?

## by Neelkamal Biswas - Thursday, 28 April 2011, 10:57 AM

Hi TG,

In the solved example of 5 boys & 5 girls in a cinema, the two ways
of sitting are given as : BGBGBGBGBG & GBGBGBGBGB

## but we are not taking into account the possibility of GBGBGBGBBG

as even in this situation no two girls sit together.
The answer should then be : 5! * 6! as after arranging 5 boys there
are six places in which the girls can be arranged
_B_B_B_B_B_

## by TG Team - Thursday, 28 April 2011, 07:08 PM

Hi Neelkamal

In the given example: it should be the desire of the girls also that
they won't let two boys sit together otherwise your version is correct.

Kamal Lohia

Hi Kamal,

## Can u pls post the answers to the problems mentioned above (P n

C), otherwise how do i check which 1 is right n which 1 is wrong. Pls
help.

Thanks

Hi Deepti

## We intentionally don't provide the answers/solutions to problems so

that you can always relish the taste of problem solving. Also most of
the problems have been discussed already many times in above
posts. If you are unable to solve some question or have some doubt
in a particular question, you are more than welcome to discuss. But
please don't pressurize to provide answers to all the problems.

Kamal Lohia

Hi Kamal,

## Q13 4 persons be chosen from a row of 10 persons,st no two

persons are sitting next to each other.

## Q26 3 blocks of 5 seats each, 20 seats in a row..

Thanks N Regards,

Deepti
Re: Permutation and Combination

Hi Deepti

## 4. Your answer is correct and surprisingly it's not given in the

options. (Though we have already corrected in our assignments at
TathaGat)

13. Lets make sit the remaining 6 persons of 10. Now we are to
select 4 places only out of 7 available from where the chosen 4
persons were picked which can be easily done in C(7, 4) = 35 ways.
Option (b) is correct.

## 15. We are to just determine the number of arrangements of I, I, I, I,

J, J, J which is given by 7!/(4!)(3!) or C(7, 3) = 35. Option (a) is
correct.

26. Just place those 3 blocks of 5 seats each, so that you have
used now 15 seats and remaining 5 seats are to be distributed
among the four gaps only. That's equivalent to find the number of
whole number solution of a + b + c + d = 5 which is given by C(5 + 4
- 1, 4 - 1) = C(8, 3) = 56.

Kamal Lohia

## Re: Permutation and Combination

by nikita dhanuka - Wednesday, 11 May 2011, 10:31 PM

Hi Kamal

## suppose if we have 6 distinct beads. then 5!/2 distinct necklaces

can be formed.
how to go about a similar sum if some of the beads are identical.
the exact question is:

## "A necklace is to be made using 6 red, 3 blue and 3 green beads

such that, no two red beads are adjacent to each other. All the
beads of the same colour are identical. In how many ways can this
necklace be formed?"

the way i approached the sum...all the red beads can be arranged in
only 1 way. this leaves 6 spaces between them. these spaces have
to be filled with the remaining 3 blue and 3 green beads. now i am
stuck..this can be done in (5!/2*3!*3!)ways or (6!/2*3!*3!)ways??
please explain..

## by TG Team - Friday, 13 May 2011, 03:32 PM

Hi Nikita

In the numerator part there will be surely 5! and not 6! but why are
you putting a 2 in denominator. Kindly express your thoughts.

Kamal Lohia
Re: Permutation and Combination

Hi Nikita

## In case of circular permutations if we have identical things then

it gets very complicated.

For the time being lets not consider the necklace case and just
consider the permutations of 6 red, 3 blue, and 3 green beads
around a circle such that no two red beads are adjacent to each
other.

Luckily here we just have to arrange the blue and green beads
between red beads as no two red beads can be together.

## So, now the problem reduces to permuting 3 blue and 3 green

beads around a circle.

## So, lets go back to basics. Why do we divide by n while counting

circular permutations to get (n - 1)! permutations.

## Because we can get n different permutations by rotating a particular

arrangement, but actually they are same. Thats why we divide by n.
This is the case when we have all different objects(here we have
"rotational period of n"*).

## * - Rotational period of n means that if you rotate it n times it goes to

an indistinguishable state from the first one

Now, suppose we have 3 red balls and 3 black balls. Now here we
can have cases when we have rotational period of 1 or 2 or 3 or 6
(factors of 6).
But 1 is not possible coz then we should have all balls of same
color.
Also 3 is not possible as then we need to have equal groups of
three balls which means by Pigeonhole there must be at least 2
balls of some color
Hence at least 4 balls of this color in all, which is not possible since
there must be 3 of each color. Hence, only possibilities are 2 or 6

## BGBGBG has a rotational period of 2, while all other cases have

rotational period of 6.

## Say there are x cases of rotational period of 6, then

6*x + 2*1 = C(6, 3) = 20
=> x = 3

## => There will be just 4 distinct permutations of 3 red balls and 3

black balls around a circle.

So, if you wants to solve a similar kind of question, then just find the
number of different permutations of 6 black chairs and 6 white chairs
around a circle.

## In case of necklace, BBGBGG and GGBGBB will also look alike, as

now we can look at the necklace from the back side also.

Hello Sir !

like

## 1) 3x+ y + z= 40 where x,y,z are positive integer

2) x+y+z = 10 if x, y, z are distince positive integers.

Thank You

Gaurav

hi kamal

## i have divided by 2 as the necklace is inanimate and can be

flipped over. so, for every 2 different circular arrangements, we
actually have only one necklace. hence, divided the total no. of
possible circular arrangements by 2 to get the no. of distinct
necklaces.
even i was inclined towards 5!/3!*3!*2 as the answer. but, this is
obviously wrong as it doesn't give an integer value.
the book gives the answer as 6!/3!*3!*2. i am not being able to
understand the logic behind this.
i will appreciate if you can discuss your approach for this sum. and
also if you can shed some light on these kind of sums in
general...circular arrangement of things, some of which are identical.
thanks,
nikita

## by nikita dhanuka - Wednesday, 25 May 2011, 05:56 PM

Hi Destiny

thanks for taking the time out. the book gives the answer as
6!/3!*3!*2 which works out to be 10.
i am still pretty confused in this regard.
Re: Permutation and Combination

Hi Nikita

Hi Gaurav

## 1. x varies from 1 to 12 and number of solutions for x and y in each

case form an AP. You just need to add them to get the total number
of solutions. It comes out to be 3(1 + 2 + 3 + ... + 12) = 234.

## 2. You can easily count the ordered triplets by assigning values to x

as 1, 2, ..., 7 - that comes out to be 24.

OR just count the ordered triplets when all the three variables are
positive integers i.e. C(9, 2) = 36. And subtract the cases when any
two of the variables are same (e.g. 11.., 22.., 33.., 44..). So
removing 3*4 = 12 ordered triplts from total 36, we are left with 24
ordered triplets of three distinct positive integers which add up to
10.

## 3. I am sure that there is some error in question because for the

stated question answer is going to be infinitely large. See If x + y + z

## 10, that means the solutions when x + y + z = 10 will be added to the

number of solutions of x + y + z = 11,...and so on. So there is no end
and the answer is

Kamal Lohia

I have a doubt:-

## In the question where we need to paint 6 faces of the cube with 6

different colors, why have we not multiplied the outcome with 6?

when we fixed the first color, it could have been done in 6 ways..

what m i missing?

## by sowmya k - Monday, 22 August 2011, 11:39 PM

Hi TG

came across this forum damn too late but simply brilliant are
your lessons and tips... as much about basics and foundation
as they are about tricks and shortcuts minus any heavy duty
formulae.. a lot of my friends too are hooked onto this site now
enroute me ofcourse ;)

Hi TG,

## Its a wonderful article.This is the first time I have been able to

understand P&C, that fear has somewhat vanished now..!!

groups.

groups.

## Re: Permutation and Combination

by priyanka j - Wednesday, 7 September 2011, 11:50 AM

Sir,

## 2) In d next ques of "election meeting" . How wud we know how

many MP,MLA are there out of 10 speaker. Not able to understand d
sol. Plz explain.

## 3)IN d ques first 0 precedes first 1,precedes d first 2. Does it mean

frst 0 pecedes frst 1&2 or it means frst 0 preceds frst 1& first 1
preceds frst 2.

Thanks

## by priyanka j - Wednesday, 7 September 2011, 11:53 AM

ketav ,
u can get ans here

http://totalgadha.com/mod/forum/discuss.php?d=3683

## In how many ways can we put 5 different balls in 4 different

boxes so that each box should have atleast one ball?

M y answer is 240.

regards

Regards,

## by TG Team - Friday, 30 September 2011, 11:48 AM

Hi Amit
Please post the question statements here so that it becomes
easier for everyone to try their hands at the problems.

Kamal Lohia

## Q.23(c) In how many ways can the letters in UNUSUAL be arranged

such that they have no consequtive Us?

## My answer is 240. Can you please confirm?

Q.27 There are 50 juniors and 50 seniors. Each class has 25 men
and 25 women. In how many ways can an 8 person committee be
chosen so that it includes 4 women and 3 juniors?

## Q. 29 I have two checkout registers, and twenty customers. What

formula will find how many different ways I can arrange them? Order
does matter.

## Q. 36 If combinations of letters be formed by taking 5 letters at a

time out of the letters of the word "METAPHYSICS", in how many of
them will T letter occur?

## Q.37 How many sequences a1, a2, a3, a4, a5 satisfying

a1<a2<a3<a4<a5 can be formed if ai must be chosen from the set
{1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9}?
My answer is 126. Can you please confirm?

## Q. In how many ways can we put 5 different balls in 4 different

boxes so that each box should have atleast one ball?

Amit

Hi Amit

## Q.23(c) In how many ways can the letters in UNUSUAL be

arranged such that they have no consequtive Us?

## Look after placing 3 Us we have 4 boxes (_U_U_U_) which must be

containing the other four different letters with the condition that the
middle two boxes have atleast one letter each. So we need to find
the whole number ways of distributing 2 letters among 4 boxes i.e.
C(5, 3) = 10 ways. As all the four letters are different so they can be
arranged among themselves in 4! = 24 ways. So the final number of
ways = 240.

## Q.27 There are 50 juniors and 50 seniors. Each class has 25

men and 25 women. In how many ways can an 8 person
committee be chosen so that it includes 4 women and 3
juniors?

## We have 50 Juniors (25M + 25W) and 50 Seniors (25M + 25W) and

need to select a team of 8 person which includes 4 women and 3
juniors (atleast or exactly is not mentioned). Assuming exactly, then
we have the following cases:

4W + 4M from 3J + 5S

## J - 3W and S - 4M + 1W - C(25, 3)C(25, 4)C(25, 1)

J - 2W + 1M and S - 3M + 2W - C(25, 2)C(25, 1)C(25, 3)C(25,
2)

2)

## It has been clearly taught in TG's lesson that required number of

ways are (2n)!/(n!2).

## Q. 29 I have two checkout registers, and twenty customers.

What formula will find how many different ways I can arrange
them? Order does matter.

## First customer has 2 choices, next has 3 choices, next has 4

choices and the 20th have 21 choices. So answer is 21!

Rest later.

Kamal Lohia

## Dear Kamal Sir,

THANK YOU for the detailed and lucid explanation. By the way
can you please discuss the remaining possibilities of Q27.

Amit

## Re: Permutation and Combination

by amit gupta - Friday, 30 September 2011, 08:05 PM

In the question: how many four letters can be formed from the word
Mathemetics why are the sub-dividing the problems into groups and
then solving ? Can't we directly use 11P4 ??
Also, similar approach is used for the 3 students 3 city question ?
would like to know the reason for it ?

## Q. 36 If combinations of letters be formed by taking 5 letters at a

time out of the letters of the word "METAPHYSICS", in how many of
them will T letter occur?

## Q.37 How many sequences a1, a2, a3, a4, a5 satisfying

a1<a2<a3<a4<a5 can be formed if ai must be chosen from the set
{1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9}?

## Q. In how many ways can we put 5 different balls in 4 different

boxes so that each box should have atleast one ball?

Amit

## Re: Permutation and Combination

by TG Team - Monday, 3 October 2011, 01:46 PM

Hi Amit

Check.

Kamal Lohia

Hi Amit

## Q. 36 If combinations of letters be formed by taking 5

letters at a time out of the letters of the word "METAPHYSICS",
in how many of them will T letter occur?

## Here we need to find out the number of cases when we are

selecting a T for sure while selecting 5 letters off the word
METAPHYSICS.

## So other than T we must be selecting 4 more letters and we just

need to find the number of ways of selecting 4 more letters. Now
there are two cases: when all the four letters are different i.e. C(9, 4)
= 126 ways and when two letters are same (i.e. both are S) and
other two are different i.e. C(8, 2) = 28 ways.

## Q.37 How many sequences a1, a2, a3, a4, a5 satisfying

a1<a2<a3<a4<a5 can be formed if ai must be chosen from the
set {1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9}?

## It is simply C(9, 5) = 126 ways.

Because in C(9, 5) ways you select five different numbers from the
available 9 and arrange them(according to desired order) in only one
possible way.
Q. In how many ways can we put 5 different balls in 4 different
boxes so that each box should have atleast one ball?

## There will be one box(which can be selected in 4 ways) containing

two balls(which can be selected in C(5, 2) = 10 ways) and the
remaining three balls can be arranged in three different boxes in 3! =
6 ways.

Kamal Lohia

## by amit kumar - Tuesday, 4 October 2011, 12:22 AM

Thank you Kamal sir for all your explainations. your way of
explaination is awesome....simple and clear!!!

Regards,

Amit

Hi Amit Gupta

## The problem is of repetitive counting. Try to check all the

cases and find the repetition.

Kamal Lohia

## Re: Permutation and Combination

by Mohit Sharma - Wednesday, 9 May 2012, 01:05 PM

Hi Kamal Sir,
Can you please explain the following two questions as I'm unable to
solve them,

## Q1) From 4 gentlemen and 4 Ladies a committee of 5 is to be

formed. Committee consists of a president, a vice-president and
three secretaries. Find the number of ways of selecting the
committee with a maximum of 2 women and having at the maximum
one woman holding one of the two posts on the committee.
a) 16
b) 512
c) 608
d) 256
e) 324

## Q2) The crew of an 8 member rowing team is to be selected from

12 men, of which 3 must row on one side only and 2 must row on
the other side only. Find the number of ways of arranging the crew
with 4 members on each side.
a) 40320
b) 30240
c) 60840
d) 10080
e) None of these

Hi Mohit

## Most important part is to get the correct interpretation of the

question and then framing the solution.

## 1. What I interpret from the given information is that you are to

choose 5 members from 4 M and 4W to form a committee. Of
these five members one is a president, one vice-president and
other three are secretaries.

## Now conditions mentioned are there should be maximum of 2W i.e.

cases can be 4M1W or 3M2W. Another condition is that maximum
one women holds one of the two posts. Here what i interpret
from the two posts is post of president/vice-president. That means
cases will be that no woman is president or vice-president AND
exactly one woman is president or vice-president.

## Now computing the first case: 4M 1W - (i) no woman is

president/vice-president = C(4, 1) 4 3 = 48

32

## Second case: 3M 2W - (i) no woman is president/vice-president =

C(4, 3) C(4, 2) C(3, 1) 2 = 144

## (ii) one woman is president/vice-president = C(4, 3) C(4, 2) C(2,

1) C(3, 1) 2 = 288

## So total cases are = 48 + 32 + 144 + 288 = 512

2. Again here I assume that these 3, which must row on one side
and 2, which must row on other side are to be chosen certainly. That
means I just need to choose 3 more out of 7 remaining in C(7, 3)
ways. Now out of the three newly selected members one should
be sent to 3 together's and remaining to other side with 2 together's
which can be done in C(3, 1). Now these groups can be arranged
among themselves in 4! each.

Kamal Lohia

## by Mohit Sharma - Thursday, 10 May 2012, 10:43 AM

thank you kamal sir,
I really didn't understood the question... thanks a lot...

## by Prerna Golani - Tuesday, 15 May 2012, 03:52 PM

Hi TG
In how many ways six different faces of cube be painted in different
color

Hi Prerna

## It would have happened if all the faces of cubes are different or

differently named. But that is not the case, so you need to remove
the identical ones.

Kamal Lohia

## Re: Permutation and Combination

by neha aggarwal - Thursday, 31 May 2012, 02:16 PM

Hi Kamal Sir

## Q.23(c) In how many ways can the letters in UNUSUAL be

arranged such that they have no consequtive Us?

## Look after placing 3 Us we have 4 boxes (_U_U_U_) which must be

containing the other four different letters with the condition that the
middle two boxes have atleast one letter each. So we need to find
the whole number ways of distributing 2 letters among 4 boxes i.e.
C(5, 3) = 10 ways. As all the four letters are different so they can be
arranged among themselves in 4! = 24 ways. So the final number of
ways = 240.

In above explanation i did not get the condition? And solution to it..
As in how did U get C(5,3)?

Please explain

Hi Neha

## See, that no two U's are to to be together. So first arrange the

remaining four letters (i.e. N, S, A and L) in 4! = 24 ways. Now
between these four letters (including at ends) we have exactly five
places at which U's can be placed.

## Remember that at no place two U's can be together. So we need to

select exactly 3 places out of these 5 in C(5, 3) = 10 ways such that
no two U's are together.

Kamal Lohia

## In a class of 12 students , 7 boys and 5 girls.The class has 4

sessions each day,one each of arithmetic ,algebra,geometry
and probability.These classes are to be held one after the
other in 4 distinct time slots and can be in any sequence
.Further there are 2 teachers available and they can teach any
topic.

## 1. if the sequence of class has to be

arithmetic,algebra,geometry and probability,then what is
number of distinct ways in which the session can be planned
for entire week.

## 2. In how many distinct ways can a session be scheduled for

two consecutive days if both the teachers have to have equal
no. of sessions..?
my take(24* 2^4)*(24* 2^4)

## 3. the entire class of 12 students is divided equally into two

dofferent divisions and sessiosn are schedules for these two
divisions 2ith classes being held simultaneously in 2 classrooms..in
how many ways can session be planned for these two divisions for
particular day?
Re: Permutation and Combination

Hi Manik

## 1. As sequence of class is fixed, so we are now to arrange for

the teachers only at a paricular time slot. Now in one day, at any time
slot, the teacher can be assigned in 2 ways. So number of ways of
assigning teacher in one day is = 24 ways and for the entire week is
= 228 ways.

## 2. When both the teachers have to have equal number of sesions on

two consecutive days i.e. we have eight sessions which must be
assigned to the two teachers equally i.e. 4 sessions each which can
be achieved in C(8, 4) ways. Also the topics can be scheduled in the
two days in 4! ways each. So the required number of ways are =
(4!) C(8, 4) = 8!

## 3. Now we are to schedule two parallel classrooms and topics can

be arranged for both of them in 4! ways each and teachers can be
assigned to both in 24 ways in total. Hence total number of ways
required are = (4!) 24.

## Remember that in all these questions, a session referred to a

particular topic arranged at a particular time slot taught by a particular
teacher only. Students don't matter in schedulling of the session.

Kamal Lohia

## Thanks alot Kamal Sir.

My another doubt in this topis is, like for above question mentioned
by neha:
In how many ways can the letters in UNUSUAL be arranged such
that they have no consequtive Us?

## I have one confusion for the solution given by u, like here

_n_s_a_l_, no two u's are together , so obvious answer is 4!*
C(5,3)=24*10=240.

But, as per question no two u's can be together, but NSAL can be
together, like _NS_A_L_,here answer would b like-
4!*C(4,2)=24*6=144.

## My take for this question is like, to normal permutation with all 7

letters- 7!/3!
Then no of ways when all U's are together, 5!=120
therefor,when no twou's are together= 840-120=720,

## by arsh arora - Thursday, 7 June 2012, 05:38 AM

hi manik,

see you are including the cases when only two u's are
together,which are to be discarded,there's the flaw!! as u had just
debarred the cases in which all u are together and in 5c3 approach u
will see the case which u had mentioned is already incorporated,as
we are selecting the 3 blanks out of 5 blanks,hope its clear now

## by manik bhardwaj - Thursday, 7 June 2012, 01:11 PM

Hi arsh,

well Iam including all the three u's together,perhaps there are total 7
letters, 3 taken together which are to be counted as one and the rest
4 letters, so the in all the sum comes to 5.

## by neha aggarwal - Thursday, 21 June 2012, 11:42 PM

Hi TG Sir/Kamal Sir,

## x+y+z = 120. x,y,z <60 number="" of="" integral="" />

This is a type.. I really get confused in identifying the cases.. Hope
am making sense.. Please explain the approach..

Thanks,
Neha

## by Akash Kumar - Wednesday, 29 August 2012, 04:23 PM

I think the answer will be

720*2*2*2

10 are there in total...1 couple will sit at one corner and other at
another corner so 720 arrangement

## 2 couples can also interchange seats among themselves in 2 ways

Couple can also changes seats in 2 ways as 2 couple are there 2*2

## In the que where boys and girls go for spiderman movie

why cant be there an arrangment gbbgbgbgbg
still no girl is sitting together

Hi TG,

## This is a really fantastic article! I'd really appreciate some more

help. Can you please explain how to find out the rank of a string
when repetition of characters is allowed?

## For instance, if I have the letters R, D, S, B and repetition of the

letters is allowed, then the number of 4-letter strings = 4X4X4X4 =
256. So how do I find out what is the 110th string?

Regards,
Alo