You are on page 1of 26

For an isotropic material the following are true:

A. Normal stress can only generate normal strain in the

same coordinate system.
B. A shear stress can only produce the corresponding shear
strain xy in the same coordinate system.
C. The principal strains and principal stresses occurs in the
same direction.

Prof. M S Dasgupta, BITS Pilani Pilani Campus

Total Elastic energy Density at a point element

Uo= Uo(xx , yy , zz , xy , yz , zx , x, y, z, T)

xx f1 xx , yy , zz , xy , xz , yz
yy f 2 xx , yy , zz , xy , xz , yz
-- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
yz f 6 xx , yy , zz , xy , xz , yz
Expressed in compliance matrix form
= S
Expressed in stiffness matrix form
= C
In general, stress-strain relationships
such as these are known as
constitutive relations

Note that the stiffness matrix is

traditionally represented by the
symbol C, while S is reserved for
the compliance matrix!
Internal Energy

= Uo + Co

U 0 d Uo

C0 d

C0 U0 xx xx yy yy zz zz
2 xy xy 2 xz xz 2 yz yz
For linear elastic material, both the energy terms can be interchangeably used.
Hookes Law (Anisotropic)
xx C11 xx C12 yy C13 zz C14 xy C15 xz C16 yz
yy C21 xx C22 yy C23 zz C24 xy C25 xz C26 yz
zz C31 xx C32 yy C33 zz C34 xy C35 xz C36 yz

xy C41 xx C42 yy C43 zz C44 xy C45 xz C46 yz

xz C51 xx C52 yy C53 zz C54 xy C55 xz C56 yz
yz C61 xx C62 yy C63 zz C64 xy C65 xz C66 yz

The 36 coefficients C11 to C66 are called

elastic coefficients
Hookes Law

Cij C ji

21 independent constants
Hookes Law

The generalized Hookes law is an

assumption, which is reasonably
accurate for many material
subjected to small strain, for a
given temperature, time and
Strain Energy Density
Elastic strain energy = stress strain
Stress = Elastic constant strain

U 0 12 C11 2xx 12 C12 xx yy 12 C13 xx zz 12 C14 xx xy 12 C15 xx xz 12 C16 xx yz

12 C21 yy xx 12 C22 2yy 12 C23 yy zz 12 C24 yy xy 12 C25 yy xz 12 C26 yy yz
12 C31 zz xx 12 C32 zz yy 12 C33 zz
12 C34 zz xy 12 C35 zz xz 12 C36 zz yz
12 C41 xy xx 12 C42 xy yy 12 C43 xy zz 12 C44 2xy 12 C45 xy xz 12 C46 xy yz
12 C51 xz xx 12 C52 xz yy 12 C53 xz zz 12 C54 xz xy 12 C55 2xz 12 C56 xz yz
12 C61 yz xx 12 C62 yz yy 12 C63 yz zz 12 C64 yz xy 12 C65 yz xz 12 C66 2yz
Isotropic material

Isotropic materials have only 2

independent variables (i.e. elastic
constants) in their stiffness and
compliance matrices, as opposed to
the 21 elastic constants in the
general anisotropic case.

Eg: Metallic alloys and thermo-set polymers

The two elastic constants are
usually expressed as the Young's
modulus E and the Poisson's ratio n.

Alternatively, elastic constants K (bulk

modulus) and/or G (shear modulus) can
also be used. For isotropic materials

G and K can be found from E and n by a set of

equations, and vice-versa.
Hooke's Law in Compliance Form
Hooke's Law in Stiffness Form
Youngs Modulus from Uniaxial Tension

An isotropic material subjected to uniaxial

tension in x direction, xx is the only non-zero
stress. The strains in the specimen are
The modulus of elasticity in tension,
Young's modulus E, is the ratio of stress
to strain on the loading plane along the
loading direction.

2nd Law of Thermodynamics and

understanding that under uniaxial tension,
material must elongate in length, implies:
Shear Modulus for Pure Shear

Isotropic material subjected to pure

shear, for instance, a cylindrical bar under
torsion in the xy sense, xy is the only non-
zero stress. The strains in the specimen are
Shear modulus G:Ratio of shear stress
to engineering shear strain on the
loading plane
2nd Law of Thermodynamics and
understanding that a positive shear
stress leads to a positive shear strain

Since both G and E are required to be
positive, the quantity in the denominator
of E must also be positive. This
requirement places a lower bound
restriction on the range for Poisson's

n > -1

Bulk Modulus for Hydrostatic stress
For an isotropic material subjected to
hydrostatic pressure , all shear stress
will be zero and the normal stress will
be uniform
Under hydrostatic load, material will
change its volume. Its resistance to do
so is termed as bulk modulus K, or
modulus of compression.

hydrostatic pressure
relative volume change

Also note:
The fact that both bulk modulus K and
the elastic modulus E are required to
be positive, it sets an upper bound of
Poisson's ratio

n < 1/2

K=E/ 3(1-2n)
Orthotropic material
Orthotropic material has at least 2
orthogonal planes of symmetry, where
material properties are independent of
direction within each plane.

Eg: Certain engineering materials, 2-ply

fiber-reinforced composites, piezoelectric
materials (e.g.Rochelle salt)

Orthotropic material require 9 independent

variables (i.e. elastic constants) in their
constitutive matrices.
The 9 elastic constants in
orthotropic constitutive equations
are comprised of
3 Young's modulii Ex, Ey, Ez,
3 Poisson's ratios nyz, nzx, nxy,
3 shear modulii Gyz, Gzx, Gxy.

Note that, in orthotropic materials, there

are no interaction between the normal
stresses x, y, z and the shear strains
yz, zx, xy
Ch. 2,3