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same coordinate system.

B. A shear stress can only produce the corresponding shear

strain xy in the same coordinate system.

C. The principal strains and principal stresses occurs in the

same direction.

Total Elastic energy Density at a point element

Uo= Uo(xx , yy , zz , xy , yz , zx , x, y, z, T)

xx f1 xx , yy , zz , xy , xz , yz

yy f 2 xx , yy , zz , xy , xz , yz

-- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

M

yz f 6 xx , yy , zz , xy , xz , yz

Expressed in compliance matrix form

= S

Expressed in stiffness matrix form

= C

In general, stress-strain relationships

such as these are known as

constitutive relations

traditionally represented by the

symbol C, while S is reserved for

the compliance matrix!

Internal Energy

= Uo + Co

Co

U 0 d Uo

C0 d

C0 U0 xx xx yy yy zz zz

2 xy xy 2 xz xz 2 yz yz

For linear elastic material, both the energy terms can be interchangeably used.

Hookes Law (Anisotropic)

xx C11 xx C12 yy C13 zz C14 xy C15 xz C16 yz

yy C21 xx C22 yy C23 zz C24 xy C25 xz C26 yz

zz C31 xx C32 yy C33 zz C34 xy C35 xz C36 yz

xz C51 xx C52 yy C53 zz C54 xy C55 xz C56 yz

yz C61 xx C62 yy C63 zz C64 xy C65 xz C66 yz

elastic coefficients

Hookes Law

Cij C ji

21 independent constants

Hookes Law

assumption, which is reasonably

accurate for many material

subjected to small strain, for a

given temperature, time and

location

Strain Energy Density

Elastic strain energy = stress strain

Stress = Elastic constant strain

12 C21 yy xx 12 C22 2yy 12 C23 yy zz 12 C24 yy xy 12 C25 yy xz 12 C26 yy yz

12 C31 zz xx 12 C32 zz yy 12 C33 zz

2

12 C34 zz xy 12 C35 zz xz 12 C36 zz yz

12 C41 xy xx 12 C42 xy yy 12 C43 xy zz 12 C44 2xy 12 C45 xy xz 12 C46 xy yz

12 C51 xz xx 12 C52 xz yy 12 C53 xz zz 12 C54 xz xy 12 C55 2xz 12 C56 xz yz

12 C61 yz xx 12 C62 yz yy 12 C63 yz zz 12 C64 yz xy 12 C65 yz xz 12 C66 2yz

Isotropic material

independent variables (i.e. elastic

constants) in their stiffness and

compliance matrices, as opposed to

the 21 elastic constants in the

general anisotropic case.

The two elastic constants are

usually expressed as the Young's

modulus E and the Poisson's ratio n.

modulus) and/or G (shear modulus) can

also be used. For isotropic materials

equations, and vice-versa.

Hooke's Law in Compliance Form

Hooke's Law in Stiffness Form

Youngs Modulus from Uniaxial Tension

tension in x direction, xx is the only non-zero

stress. The strains in the specimen are

The modulus of elasticity in tension,

Young's modulus E, is the ratio of stress

to strain on the loading plane along the

loading direction.

understanding that under uniaxial tension,

material must elongate in length, implies:

E>0

Shear Modulus for Pure Shear

shear, for instance, a cylindrical bar under

torsion in the xy sense, xy is the only non-

zero stress. The strains in the specimen are

Shear modulus G:Ratio of shear stress

to engineering shear strain on the

loading plane

2nd Law of Thermodynamics and

understanding that a positive shear

stress leads to a positive shear strain

implies

G>0

Since both G and E are required to be

positive, the quantity in the denominator

of E must also be positive. This

requirement places a lower bound

restriction on the range for Poisson's

ratio,

n > -1

G=E/2(1+n)

Bulk Modulus for Hydrostatic stress

For an isotropic material subjected to

hydrostatic pressure , all shear stress

will be zero and the normal stress will

be uniform

Under hydrostatic load, material will

change its volume. Its resistance to do

so is termed as bulk modulus K, or

modulus of compression.

hydrostatic pressure

K=

relative volume change

Also note:

K>0

The fact that both bulk modulus K and

the elastic modulus E are required to

be positive, it sets an upper bound of

Poisson's ratio

n < 1/2

K=E/ 3(1-2n)

Orthotropic material

Orthotropic material has at least 2

orthogonal planes of symmetry, where

material properties are independent of

direction within each plane.

fiber-reinforced composites, piezoelectric

materials (e.g.Rochelle salt)

variables (i.e. elastic constants) in their

constitutive matrices.

The 9 elastic constants in

orthotropic constitutive equations

are comprised of

3 Young's modulii Ex, Ey, Ez,

3 Poisson's ratios nyz, nzx, nxy,

3 shear modulii Gyz, Gzx, Gxy.

are no interaction between the normal

stresses x, y, z and the shear strains

yz, zx, xy

END

of

Ch. 2,3

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