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12-09-2017

Bearing Selection
MCL2 11
DE PARTME N T OF MECHANICA L E NG IN E E RIN G
IIT DE L HI

Bearing Life Definitions


Bearing Failure: Spalling or pitting of an area of 0.01 in2
Life: Number of revolutions (or hours @ given speed) required for
failure.
For one bearing

Rating Life: Life required for 10% of sample to fail.


For a group of bearings
Also called Minimum Life or L10 Life

Median Life: Average life required for 50% of sample to fail.


For many groups of bearings
Also called Average Life or Average Median Life
Median Life is typically 4 or 5 times the L10 Life

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Load Rating Definitions


Catalog Load Rating, C10: Constant radial load that causes 10% of a
group of bearings to fail at the bearing manufacturers rating life.
Depends on type, geometry, accuracy of fabrication, and material of bearing
Also called Basic Dynamic Load Rating, and Basic Dynamic Capacity

Basic Load Rating, C: A catalog load rating based on a rating life of 106
revolutions of the inner ring.
The radial load that would be necessary to cause failure at such a low life is
unrealistically high.
The Basic Load Rating is a reference value, not an actual load.

BEARINGS IIT DELHI 2017

Load Rating Definitions


Static Load Rating, Co:
Static radial load which corresponds to a permanent deformation of
rolling element and race at the most heavily stressed contact of
0.0001d.
d = diameter of roller
Used to check for permanent deformation
Used in combining radial and thrust loads into an equivalent radial load

Equivalent Radial Load, Fe:


Constant stationary load applied to bearing with rotating inner ring
which gives the same life as actual load and rotation conditions.

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Load-Life Relationship
Nominally identical groups of bearings are tested to the life-failure
criterion at different loads.
A plot of load vs. life on log-log scale is approximately linear.

Using a regression equation to


represent the line,

a = 3 for ball bearings


a = 10/3 for roller bearings
(cylindrical and tapered roller)

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The basic dynamic load rating C is defined as the


constant radial load that will give a rating life of one
million revolutions of the inner race (stationary load
and stationary outer race).

The life of a bearing subjected to any load F will be

L = (C/F)a
C = FL1/a

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F1L11/a = F2L21/a C = FL1/a

Associate load F1 with C10, life measure L1 with L10

C10L101/a = FL1/a

C10 = F(L/L10)1/a

where the units of L are revolutions.

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Subscripts,
D to refer to design or required values
R for the rated values

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Example
Consider SKF, which rates its bearings for 1 million
revolutions, so that L10 life is 106 revolutions. If you desire a life of
5000 h at 1725 rev/min with a load of 1800 N with a reliability of
90 percent, for which catalog rating would you search in an SKF
catalog?
5000 h 1725 rev/min

Solution

1800 N 106 revolutions

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Combined Radial and Thrust


Loading
A ball bearing is capable of resisting radial loading and a
thrust loading.
Consider
Fa axial thrust load
Fr radial load

Fe the equivalent radial load that does the same damage


as the combined radial and thrust loads together.
A rotation factor V is defined such that
V = 1 when the inner ring rotates and
V = 1.2 when the outer ring rotates.

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Two dimensionless groups can now


be formed:
Fe /V Fr
Fa /V Fr

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The rotation factor V is intended to correct


for the rotating ring conditions.

The factor of 1.2 for outer-ring rotation is


simply an acknowledgment that the fatigue
life is reduced under these conditions.

Self-aligning bearings are an exception:


they have V = 1 for rotation of either ring.

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Equivalent Radial Load Factors for Ball Bearings

Values of X1, Y1,


X2, and Y2 as a
function of e,
which in turn is a
function of Fa/C0,
where C0 is the
bearing static
load catalog
rating.

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The basic ABMA plan for boundary dimensions.

The bearings are identified by a two-digit number called


the dimension-series code.
The first number in the code is from the width series, 0,
1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6. The second number is from the
diameter series (outside), 8, 9, 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4.

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The housing and shaft shoulder diameters listed in the tables


should be used whenever possible to secure adequate support
for the bearing and to resist the maximum thrust loads.

Shaft and housing shoulder


diameters dS and dH should
be adequate to ensure good
bearing support.

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Dimensions and Load Ratings for Single-Row 02-Series Deep-Groove and


Angular-Contact Ball Bearings

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Dimensions and Basic Load Ratings for Cylindrical Roller Bearings

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Bearing-Life Recommendations for Various Classes of Machinery

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Load-Application Factors

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Example

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Variable Loading
Bearing loads are frequently variable and occur in some
identifiable patterns:
Piecewise constant loading in a cyclic pattern
Continuously variable loading in a repeatable cyclic pattern
Random variation

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Variable Loading with Piecewise Constant Loading

A three-part piecewise continuous


periodic loading cycle involving loads
Fe1, Fe2, and Fe3. Feq is the equivalent
steady load inflicting the same damage
when run for l1, l2, l3 revolutions, doing
the same damage D per period.

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Bearing Lubrication
The purposes of bearing lubrication
To provide a film of lubricant between the sliding and rolling surfaces
To help distribute and dissipate heat
To prevent corrosion of the bearing surfaces
To protect the parts from the entrance of foreign matter

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Bearing Lubrication
Either oil or grease may be used, with each having advantages in certain
situations.

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Some Common Bearing


Mounting Configurations

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Duplexing
When maximum stiffness and resistance to shaft misalignment is
desired, pairs of angular-contact bearings can be used in an
arrangement called duplexing.
Duplex bearings have rings ground with an offset.
When pairs are clamped together, a preload is established.

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Duplexing Arrangements
Three common duplexing arrangements:
(a) DF mounting Face to face, good for radial and thrust loads from either
direction
(b) DB mounting Back to back, same as DF, but with greater alignment
stiffness
(c) DT mounting Tandem, good for thrust only in one direction

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Preferred Fits
Rotating ring usually requires a press fit
Stationary ring usually best with a push fit
Allows stationary ring to creep, bringing new portions into the load-
bearing zone to equalize wear

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Preloading
Object of preloading
Remove internal clearance
Increase fatigue life
Decrease shaft slope at bearing

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Alignment
Catalogs will specify alignment requirements for specific bearings
Typical maximum ranges for shaft slopes at bearing locations

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Enclosures
Common shaft seals to exclude dirt and retain lubricant

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