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# 12-09-2017

Bearing Selection
MCL2 11
DE PARTME N T OF MECHANICA L E NG IN E E RIN G
IIT DE L HI

## Bearing Life Definitions

Bearing Failure: Spalling or pitting of an area of 0.01 in2
Life: Number of revolutions (or hours @ given speed) required for
failure.
For one bearing

## Rating Life: Life required for 10% of sample to fail.

For a group of bearings
Also called Minimum Life or L10 Life

## Median Life: Average life required for 50% of sample to fail.

For many groups of bearings
Also called Average Life or Average Median Life
Median Life is typically 4 or 5 times the L10 Life

## BEARINGS IIT DELHI 2017

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group of bearings to fail at the bearing manufacturers rating life.
Depends on type, geometry, accuracy of fabrication, and material of bearing
Also called Basic Dynamic Load Rating, and Basic Dynamic Capacity

Basic Load Rating, C: A catalog load rating based on a rating life of 106
revolutions of the inner ring.
The radial load that would be necessary to cause failure at such a low life is
unrealistically high.
The Basic Load Rating is a reference value, not an actual load.

## BEARINGS IIT DELHI 2017

rolling element and race at the most heavily stressed contact of
0.0001d.
d = diameter of roller
Used to check for permanent deformation

Constant stationary load applied to bearing with rotating inner ring
which gives the same life as actual load and rotation conditions.

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Nominally identical groups of bearings are tested to the life-failure
A plot of load vs. life on log-log scale is approximately linear.

## Using a regression equation to

represent the line,

## a = 3 for ball bearings

a = 10/3 for roller bearings
(cylindrical and tapered roller)

## The basic dynamic load rating C is defined as the

million revolutions of the inner race (stationary load
and stationary outer race).

L = (C/F)a
C = FL1/a

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## Associate load F1 with C10, life measure L1 with L10

C10L101/a = FL1/a

C10 = F(L/L10)1/a

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Subscripts,
D to refer to design or required values
R for the rated values

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Example
Consider SKF, which rates its bearings for 1 million
revolutions, so that L10 life is 106 revolutions. If you desire a life of
5000 h at 1725 rev/min with a load of 1800 N with a reliability of
90 percent, for which catalog rating would you search in an SKF
catalog?
5000 h 1725 rev/min

Solution

## BEARINGS IIT DELHI 2017

Consider

A rotation factor V is defined such that
V = 1 when the inner ring rotates and
V = 1.2 when the outer ring rotates.

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be formed:
Fe /V Fr
Fa /V Fr

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## The rotation factor V is intended to correct

for the rotating ring conditions.

## The factor of 1.2 for outer-ring rotation is

simply an acknowledgment that the fatigue
life is reduced under these conditions.

## Self-aligning bearings are an exception:

they have V = 1 for rotation of either ring.

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## Values of X1, Y1,

X2, and Y2 as a
function of e,
which in turn is a
function of Fa/C0,
where C0 is the
bearing static
rating.

## The bearings are identified by a two-digit number called

the dimension-series code.
The first number in the code is from the width series, 0,
1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6. The second number is from the
diameter series (outside), 8, 9, 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4.

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## The housing and shaft shoulder diameters listed in the tables

should be used whenever possible to secure adequate support
for the bearing and to resist the maximum thrust loads.

## Shaft and housing shoulder

diameters dS and dH should
bearing support.

## Dimensions and Load Ratings for Single-Row 02-Series Deep-Groove and

Angular-Contact Ball Bearings

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Example

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## BEARINGS IIT DELHI 2017

Bearing loads are frequently variable and occur in some
identifiable patterns:
Random variation

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## A three-part piecewise continuous

Fe1, Fe2, and Fe3. Feq is the equivalent
when run for l1, l2, l3 revolutions, doing
the same damage D per period.

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## BEARINGS IIT DELHI 2017

Bearing Lubrication
The purposes of bearing lubrication
To provide a film of lubricant between the sliding and rolling surfaces
To help distribute and dissipate heat
To prevent corrosion of the bearing surfaces
To protect the parts from the entrance of foreign matter

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Bearing Lubrication
Either oil or grease may be used, with each having advantages in certain
situations.

## Some Common Bearing

Mounting Configurations

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## BEARINGS IIT DELHI 2017

Duplexing
When maximum stiffness and resistance to shaft misalignment is
desired, pairs of angular-contact bearings can be used in an
arrangement called duplexing.
Duplex bearings have rings ground with an offset.
When pairs are clamped together, a preload is established.

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Duplexing Arrangements
Three common duplexing arrangements:
(a) DF mounting Face to face, good for radial and thrust loads from either
direction
(b) DB mounting Back to back, same as DF, but with greater alignment
stiffness
(c) DT mounting Tandem, good for thrust only in one direction

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Preferred Fits
Rotating ring usually requires a press fit
Stationary ring usually best with a push fit
Allows stationary ring to creep, bringing new portions into the load-
bearing zone to equalize wear

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Remove internal clearance
Increase fatigue life
Decrease shaft slope at bearing

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Alignment
Catalogs will specify alignment requirements for specific bearings
Typical maximum ranges for shaft slopes at bearing locations

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Enclosures
Common shaft seals to exclude dirt and retain lubricant

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