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22-08-2017

FAILURE
MCL2 11
DE PARTME N T OF MECHANICA L E NG IN E E RIN G
IIT DE L HI

Failure
Failure can mean a part:
has separated into two or more pieces;
has become permanently distorted, thus ruining its
geometry;
has had its reliability downgraded; or
has had its function compromised, whatever the reason.
A designer speaking of failure can mean any or all
of these possibilities.

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Failure Examples

Failure of truck driveshaft spline due to corrosion fatigue

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Impact failure of a lawn-mower blade driver hub.


The blade impacted a surveying pipe marker.

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Failure of an overhead-pulley retaining bolt on a weightlifting machine.


A manufacturing error caused a gap that forced the bolt to take the
entire moment load.

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Chain test fixture that failed in one cycle.


To alleviate complaints of excessive wear, the manufacturer decided to
case-harden the material
(a) Two halves showing brittle fracture initiated by stress concentration
(b) Enlarged view showing cracks induced by stress concentration at the
support-pin holes

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Valve-spring failure caused by spring surge in an oversped engine.


The fractures exhibit the classic 45 degree shear failure

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Static Strength
Ideally, in designing any machine element, the engineer
should have available the results of a great many strength
tests of the particular material chosen.
These tests should be made on specimens having the same
heat treatment, surface finish, and size as the element the
engineer proposes to design; and the tests should be made
under exactly the same loading conditions as the part will
experience in service.

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The cost of gathering such extensive data prior to design is


justified
if failure of the part may endanger human life or
if the part is manufactured in sufficiently large quantities.

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Four design categories:


1 Failure of the part would endanger human life, or the part is made in
extremely large quantities; consequently, an elaborate testing
program is justified during design.
2 The part is made in large enough quantities that a moderate series of
tests is feasible.
3 The part is made in such small quantities that testing is not justified at
all; or the design must be completed so rapidly that there is not
enough time for testing.
4 The part has already been designed, manufactured, and tested and
found to be unsatisfactory. Analysis is required to understand why the
part is unsatisfactory and what to do to improve it.

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Static Strength
To design using only published values of yield strength,
ultimate strength, percentage reduction in area, and
percentage elongation
How can one use such meager data to design against both
static and dynamic loads, two- and three-dimensional stress
states, high and low temperatures, and very large and very
small parts?
Methods are needed to safely and efficiently use published
strength values for a variety of situations

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Stress Concentration
Localized increase of stress near
discontinuities
Kt is Theoretical (Geometric) Stress
Concentration Factor

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Theoretical Stress Concentration Factor


Graphs available for standard configurations
See Appendix A15 and A16 (Shigleys book) for common examples
Many more in Petersons Stress-Concentration Factors
Note the trend for higher Kt at sharper discontinuity radius, and at greater
disruption

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Stress Concentration for Static


and Ductile Conditions
With static loads and ductile materials
Highest stressed fibers yield (cold work)
Load is shared with next fibers
Cold working is localized
Overall part does not see damage unless ultimate strength is exceeded
Stress concentration effect is commonly ignored for static loads on
ductile materials

Stress concentration must be included for dynamic loading


Stress concentration must be included for brittle materials,
since localized yielding may reach brittle failure rather than
cold-working and sharing the load.

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Need for Static Failure


Theories
Uniaxial stress element (e.g. tension test)

Strength S
n
Stress

http://pubs.sciepub.com/ajcea/2/1/6/image/fig5.png

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Need for Static Failure


Theories
Multi-axial stress element
One strength, multiple stresses
How to compare stress state to single strength?

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Need for Static Failure


Theories
Failure theories propose appropriate means of comparing multi-axial
stress states to single strength
Usually based on some hypothesis of what aspect of the stress state is
critical

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Maximum Normal (Principal)


Stress Theory
Theory: Yielding begins when the maximum principal stress in a stress
element exceeds the yield strength.
For any stress element, use Mohrs circle to find the principal stresses.
Compare the largest principal stress to the yield strength.
Often the first theory to be proposed by engineering students.
Is it a good theory?

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Maximum Normal (Principal)


Stress Theory
Experimental data shows the
theory is unsafe in the 4th
quadrant.
This theory is not safe to use for
ductile materials.

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Failure Theories
The tension test is uniaxial (thats simple) and elongations
are largest in the axial direction, so strains can be measured
and stresses inferred up to failure.
Just what is important:
a critical stress, a critical strain, a critical energy?

Unfortunately, there is no universal theory of failure for the


general case of material properties and stress state.

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Structural metal behavior is typically classified as being


ductile or brittle, although under special situations, a
material normally considered ductile can fail in a brittle
manner.
Ductile materials are normally classified such that f 0.05
and have an identifiable yield strength that is often the
same in compression as in tension (Syt = Syc = Sy ).
Brittle materials, f < 0.05, do not exhibit an identifiable
yield strength, and are typically classified by ultimate tensile
and compressive strengths, Sut and Suc, respectively (where
Suc is given as a positive quantity).

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The generally accepted failure theories are:


Ductile materials (yield criteria)
Maximum shear stress (MSS)
Distortion energy (DE)
Ductile Coulomb-Mohr (DCM)
Brittle materials (fracture criteria)
Maximum normal stress (MNS)
Brittle Coulomb-Mohr (BCM)
Modified Mohr (MM)

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Maximum Shear Stress Theory


(MSS)
Theory: Yielding begins when the maximum shear stress in a stress
element exceeds the maximum shear stress in a tension test specimen of
the same material when that specimen begins to yield.
The MSS theory is also referred to as the Tresca or Guest theory.
For a tension test specimen, the maximum shear stress is 1 /2.
At yielding, when 1 = Sy, the maximum shear stress is Sy /2 .
Restate the theory as follows:
Theory: Yielding begins when the maximum shear stress in a stress
element exceeds Sy/2.

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Maximum Shear Stress Theory


(MSS)
For any stress element, use Mohrs circle to find the maximum shear
stress. Compare the maximum shear stress to Sy/2.
Ordering the principal stresses such that 1 2 3,

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Maximum Shear Stress Theory


(MSS)
For design purposes, incorporating a factor of safety, n

Or solving for factor of safety

Sy / 2
n
max

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Mohrs circles for three-dimensional stress

The principal normal stresses:

The three principal shear stresses:

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Maximum Shear Stress Theory


(MSS)
For a general state of stress, three principal stresses can be
determined and ordered such that 1 2 3.
The maximum shear stress is then
max = (1 3) / 2.
Thus, for a general state of stress, the maximum-shear-stress
theory predicts yielding when
max = (1 3) / 2 Sy / 2
Or,
(1 3) Sy
Note that this implies that the yield strength in shear is given by
Ssy = 0.5Sy
(max = Sy / 2)

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Maximum Shear Stress Theory


(MSS)
To compare to experimental data, express max in terms of principal
stresses and plot.
To simplify, consider a plane stress state
Let A and B represent the two non-zero principal stresses, then order
them with the zero principal stress such that 1 2 3
Assuming A B there are three cases to consider
Case 1: A B 0
Case 2: A 0 B
Case 3: 0 A B

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Maximum Shear Stress Theory


(MSS)
Case 1: A B 0
For this case, 1 = A and 3 = 0
Eq. reduces to A Sy

Case 2: A 0 B
For this case, 1 = A and 3 = B
Eq. reduces to A B Sy

Case 3: 0 A B
For this case, 1 = 0 and 3 = B
Eq. reduces to B Sy

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Maximum Shear Stress Theory


(MSS)
Plot three cases on principal
stress axes
Case 1: A B 0
A Sy

Case 2: A 0 B
A B Sy

Case 3: 0 A B
B Sy

Other lines are symmetric cases


Inside envelope is predicted safe
zone

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Maximum Shear Stress Theory


(MSS)
Comparison to experimental data
Conservative in all quadrants
Commonly used for design
situations

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Distortion Energy (DE) Failure


Theory
Also known as:
Octahedral Shear Stress
Shear Energy
Von Mises
Von Mises Hencky

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Distortion Energy (DE) Failure


Theory
Originated from observation that ductile materials stressed
hydrostatically (equal principal stresses) exhibited yield strengths
greatly in excess of expected values.
Theorizes that if strain energy is divided into hydrostatic volume
changing energy and angular distortion energy, the yielding is primarily
affected by the distortion energy.

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Distortion Energy (DE) Failure


Theory
Theory: Yielding occurs when the distortion strain energy per unit
volume reaches the distortion strain energy per unit volume for yield in
simple tension or compression of the same material.

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Deriving the Distortion Energy


Hydrostatic stress is average of principal stresses

Strain energy per unit volume,

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Deriving the Distortion Energy


Substituting for principal strains into strain energy equation,

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Deriving the Distortion Energy

Strain energy for producing only volume change is obtained by


substituting av for 1, 2, and 3

Substituting for av

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Deriving the Distortion Energy


Obtain distortion energy by subtracting volume changing energy from
total strain energy

1+ + +
= =
3 2

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Deriving the Distortion Energy


1+ + +
= =
3 2
Tension test specimen at yield has 1 = Sy and 2 = 3 =0
Distortion energy for tension test specimen is, therefore

DE theory predicts failure when distortion energy exceeds distortion


energy of tension test specimen
/
( ) +( ) +( )

2

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von Mises Stress


/
( ) +( ) +( )

2
Left hand side is defined as von Mises stress
/
( ) +( ) +( )
=
2
For plane stress, it simplifies to

= + /

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von Mises Stress


The distortion-energy (DE) theory
yield envelope for plane stress
states.
This is a plot of points obtained
from = .
Rotated ellipse in the , plane.
The dotted lines in the figure
represent the MSS theory, which
can be seen to be more
conservative.

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von Mises Stress


In terms of xyz components, in three dimensions

In terms of xyz components, for plane stress

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Distortion Energy Theory With


von Mises Stress
von Mises Stress can be thought of as a single, equivalent, or effective
stress for the entire general state of stress in a stress element.
Distortion Energy failure theory simply compares von Mises stress to
yield strength.

Introducing a design factor,

Expressing as factor of safety,


Sy
n

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Failure Theory in Terms of


von Mises Stress
The distortion-energy theory is also called:
The von Mises or von MisesHencky theory
The shear-energy theory
The octahedral-shear-stress theory

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DE Theory Compared to
Experimental Data
Plot von Mises stress on principal
stress axes to compare to
experimental data (and to other
failure theories)
DE curve is typical of data
Note that typical equates to a 50%
reliability from a design perspective
Commonly used for analysis
situations
MSS theory useful for design
situations where higher reliability is
desired

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Shear Strength Predictions


For pure shear loading, Mohrs circle
shows that A = B =
Plotting this equation on principal
stress axes gives load line for pure
shear case
Intersection of pure shear load line
with failure curve indicates shear
strength has been reached
Each failure theory predicts shear
strength to be some fraction of
normal strength

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Shear Strength Predictions


For MSS theory, intersecting pure shear load line with failure line results
in

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Shear Strength Predictions


For DE theory, intersection pure shear load line with failure curve gives

Therefore, DE theory predicts


shear strength as

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Mohr Theory
Not all materials have compressive strengths equal to their
corresponding tensile values.
For example, the yield strength of magnesium alloys in compression
may be as little as 50 percent of their yield strength in tension.
The ultimate strength of gray cast irons in compression varies from 3 to
4 times greater than the ultimate tensile strength.

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Mohr Theory
Some materials have compressive strengths different
from tensile strengths
Mohr theory is based on three simple tests: tension,
compression, and shear

Plotting Mohrs circle for each,


bounding curve defines failure
envelope

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Coulomb-Mohr Theory
Curved failure curve is difficult to determine analytically
Coulomb-Mohr theory simplifies to linear failure envelope using only
tension and compression tests (dashed circles)

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Incorporating the factor of safety n,

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Plot of the Coulomb-Mohr theory


failure envelope for plane stress states.

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Failure of Ductile Materials


Summary
Experimental data show that either the maximum-shear-stress theory
or the distortion-energy theory is acceptable for design and analysis of
materials that would fail in a ductile manner.

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Experimental data superposed


on failure theories.

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Experimental data superposed


on failure theories.

For design purposes the maximum-


shear-stress theory is easy, quick to
use, and conservative.

If the problem is to learn why a part


failed, then the distortion-energy
theory may be the best to use.

The plot of the distortion-energy


theory passes closer to the central
area of the data points, and thus is
generally a better predictor of failure.

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Failure Theories for Brittle


Materials
Experimental data indicates some differences in failure for brittle
materials.

Failure criteria is generally ultimate


fracture rather than yielding
Compressive strengths are usually
larger than tensile strengths

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Maximum Normal Stress


Theory
Theory: Failure occurs when the maximum principal stress in a stress
element exceeds the strength.
Predicts failure when

For plane stress,

Incorporating design factor,

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Maximum Normal Stress


Theory
Plot on principal stress axes
Unsafe in part of fourth quadrant
Not recommended for use
Included for historical comparison

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Modifications of the Mohr Theory


for Brittle Materials
Two modifications of the Mohr theory for brittle materials:
the Brittle-Coulomb-Mohr (BCM) theory
the modified Mohr (MM) theory

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Biaxial fracture data of gray cast iron


compared with various failure criteria.

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Brittle-Coulomb-Mohr

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Modified Mohr

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Failure of Brittle Materials


Summary
In the first quadrant the data
appear on both sides and along the
failure curves of maximum-normal-
stress, Coulomb-Mohr, and modified
Mohr. All failure curves are the same,
and data fit well.
In the fourth quadrant the modified
Mohr theory represents the data
best, whereas the maximum-normal-
stress theory does not.
In the third quadrant the points A,
B, C, and D are too few to make any
suggestion concerning a fracture
locus.

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A plot of experimental data


points obtained from tests on
cast iron. Shown also are the
graphs of three failure theories
of possible usefulness for
brittle materials.

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Selection of Failure Criteria


First determine ductile vs. brittle
For ductile
MSS is conservative, often used for design where higher reliability is desired
DE is typical, often used for analysis where agreement with experimental
data is desired
If tensile and compressive strengths differ, use Ductile Coulomb-Mohr

For brittle
Mohr theory is best, but difficult to use
Brittle Coulomb-Mohr is very conservative in 4th quadrant
Modified Mohr is still slightly conservative in 4th quadrant, but closer to
typical

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Selection of Failure Criteria in


Flowchart Form

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