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CHAPTER 4

BEGINNING AND
ENDING THE SPEECH

THE INTRODUCTION

• In most speech situations, the introduction has


four objectives:
1. Get the attention and interest of your audience
2. Reveal the topic of your speech
3. Establish your credibility and goodwill
4. Preview the body of the speech

1. GET ATTENTION AND INTEREST


a. Relate the topic to the audience
b. State the importance of your topic
c. Startle the audience
d. Arouse the curiosity of the audience
e. Question the audience
f. Begin with a quotation
g. Tell a story

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2. REVEAL THE TOPIC
• Be sure to state the topic of your speech clearly
• If you beat around the bush in your introduction,
you may lose your listeners
“Imagine taking a leisurely boat ride along a peaceful
waterway. The sun is high in the sky, reflecting brightly off the
ripples around you. You see a stately pelican resting on a low-
lying branch. You grab your camera, snap a shot, and check
the result. The picture is perfect. But will it be perfect in the
future? That is the question I want to explore today”

3. ESTABLISH CREDIBILITY AND GOODWILL


• Credibility: the audience’s perception of whether a
speaker is qualified to speak on a given topic
• Credibility need not be based on firsthand
knowledge and experience
• Goodwill: the audience’s perception of whether the
speaker has the best interests of the audience in
mind

4. PREVIEW THE BODY OF THE SPEECH


• Preview statement: a statement in the introduction
of a speech that identifies the main points to be
discussed in the body
• Usually come at the very end of your introduction,
as they provide a smooth lead-in to the body of the
speech

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• SAMPLE INTRODUCTION WITH COMMENTARY
– Refer to the Word document

• TIPS FOR PREPARING THE INTRODUCTION


1. Keep the introduction relatively brief
2. Be on the lookout for possible introductory
materials as you do your research
3. Be creative in devising your introduction
4. Don’t worry about the exact wording of your
introduction until you have finished preparing the
body of your speech
5. Work out your introduction in detail

THE CONCLUSION

• A conclusion has two major functions:


1. To let the audience know you are ending the speech
2. To reinforce the audience’s understanding of, or
commitment to, the central idea

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1. SIGNAL THE END OF THE SPEECH
1. Crescendo ending: a conclusion in which the speech
build to a zenith of power and intensity
2. Dissolve ending: a conclusion that generates
emotional appeal by fading step by step to a
dramatic final statement

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2. REINFORCE THE CENTRAL IDEA


a. Summarize your speech
b. End with a quotation
c. Make a drastic statement
d. Refer to the introduction

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• SAMPLE CONCLUSION WITH COMMENTARY


– Refer to the Word document

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• TIPS FOR PREPARING THE CONCLUSION
1. As with the introduction, keep an eye out for
possible concluding materials as you research and
develop the speech
2. Conclude with a bang
3. Don’t be long-winded
4. Don’t leave anything in your conclusion to chance

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