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1.

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background

The proposed irrigation sub-project is located in Sakhuwa Mahendranagar Village


Development Committee (VDC) Ward No.1, 8, 9 of Dhanukha district of Central
Development Region. The sub-project is a major rehabilitation project. Farmers of
the project make temporary earthen bunds annually to tap the river water for
irrigation. Flood water enters in the canal through a temporary side intake made by
farmers and there is disturbance in canal diversion at the time of flood. There is a
drain crossing at ch 2+950 in the main canal which washes the canal in each flood
So, farmers are expecting assistance from outside agencies to permanent to
rehabilitate canal networks to irrigate about 240 ha of land efficiently.

1.1.1 Context of the Present Study

The present study is the outcome of previous initial stages of studies i.e.
identification, pre-feasibility. The present Detailed Feasibility Study is based
user's demand and priorities, keeping in view the present Irrigation Policy,
Irrigation Regulation and Irrigation Directives.

1.1.2 Historical Background

This Farmers' Managed irrigation scheme was initiated in the past without
any formal organization. Later, farmers formed an autonomous project
organization for this project with the responsibility of all aspects of
construction, operation and maintenance as well as water allocation and the
solution of the problems and conflicts.

The detailed feasibility study is carried out by Central Irrigation


Development Division No.1 (CIDD-No1), Mahottari.

1.2 Objective and Scope of the Sub-project

The overall objective of the project is to provide reliable irrigation facility to


increase agriculture production in the command area.

Specifically, objectives of the sub-project are

- To construct permanent and sustainable irrigation system

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- To develop institutional capacity of Water Users' Association (WUA), so that
they can operate and maintain the system themselves

- To make project more cost-effective through adoption of appropriate


technologies, increased use of locally available materials and by minimizing
overhead cost

- To uplift the financial status of the farmers by increasing the agricultural


production

Scope of the sub-project

- The sub-project is intended to irrigate 240 ha of the command area. The


command area of the project covers ward no 1,8 and 9 of Sakhuwa
Mahendranagar VDC

1.3 Approach and Methodology

1.3.1 System Walk-Through Survey

The project area was visited from head to tail with necessary interaction with
the farmers of head, middle and tail reaches. All problems and constraints of
the project area were noted.

1.3.2 Ranking of Identified Problems

The problems and constraints noted during the inventory were prioritized on
the basis of dialogue with the beneficiaries.

All the required agro-economic and socio-technical data were collected


during field visit. Different procedures were used to collect various types of
data. Socio economic data were gathered from VDC sources and by
conducting group discussions among the farmers. For the assessment of
available flow, the discharge of Aurahi Khola at the intake site was measured
It was found to be 81 l/s on 26th Dec, 2006. Dudhmati pond also feeds 50lps
in the canal at ch 1+700. Topographical maps of scale 1:25000 were used for
the assessment of catchment area of the source, types of land and vegetation
in the catchment area and maximum level difference of ground in the
catchment area. The proposed sub-project development plan is prepared
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considering demands of the farmers' and site requirements. Some data of
agriculture inputs and outputs were obtained from District Agriculture
Development Office (DADO), Agriculture Service Center (ASC). On the
basis of field data, further designs and extrapolations were carried out using
the Planning and Design Strengthening Project (PDSP) manuals and other
textbooks of designs.

1.4 Sub-Project Area

1.4.1 Location, Accessibility and Command Area

The Intake site of the project is located in Sakhuwa MahendranagarVDC,


Ward No. 1 of Dhanusha district, Janakpur Zone of Central Development
Region. The area is located between 2649'55" to 2652'25" North latitude
and 8557'12" to 8557'48" East longitude. The project area is shown in
Index map (Topo sheet No. 2685 04D,).

The project area is accessible from Mahendranagar Bazar. The Intake site is
at about 27 km from Jaleshwor, district headquarters of Mahottari district.
The proposed Intake site is about 1 km west from graveled road linked with
Janakpur-Dhalkevar road at Mahendranagar Bazar. The project area is easily
accessible from Janakpur too.

The gross command area of the proposed irrigation sub-project is estimated


to be 290 ha. Culturable command area of the sub-project is estimated to be
240 ha which is 80% of gross command area. The command area is plain
terrain type. Ref Index map.

The command area was measured in the field by traverse survey and was
found to be 240 ha. Later it was marked in the topographical maps of scale
1:25000 and the value thus obtained closely matched with the measured
value in the field.

Since the project is rehabilitation type and the location of the existing Intake
site is located at the technically suitable position of external bend, and this
existing location has been devoid of conflict for ages. The proposed main
canal longitudinal slope has been established by trial and error and it was

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found to be the best alternative. The command area thus fixed was measured
in the field and was found to be as mentioned earlier, i.e. 240 ha.

1.4.2 Climate, Topography and Soils

The command area is influenced by tropical climate zone. Average


temperature ranges from 17.4 C to 31.1 C at Janakpur Airport Station
(1111) which is close to the command area. The average altitude of command
area is 110m above mean sea level. The air temperature of the command area
is suitable for cultivating paddy, wheat, potato, oilseeds, pulses and
sugarcane. The average yearly rainfall of the nearest rainfall station
Hardinath Station (1114) is 1265 mm.

The main canal is a ridge canal passing totally through the plain area. The
topography of command area is also flat.

The soil types seen in the canal alignment are clay loam, loamy and silty
loam. The variation of soil type shows the absence of rock along the canal
alignment and command area.

1.4.3 Socio - economic Background

1.4.3.1 Settlements Pattern and Population Distribution

Total population of the project area is estimated to be distributed in


160 households in the command area. This data shows the average
household size is 9 persons/household.

1.4.3.2 Ethnicity and Migration

There are various types of ethnic groups in the project area. The
dominant ethnic groups in the sub-project area are Shah followed by
Kurmi, Yadav, Brahmin and Kumhar. About 20% to 25% of the
population goes outside the project area for seasonal employment.
So, they can be said seasonal migrant of the area.

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1.4.3.3 Land Tenure and Land Holding Size

Total number of households in the command area is 160. The average


landholding size is found to be 1.5 ha (=240ha/160 beneficiary HH)
Owner cultivator constitutes 60%. About 20% households are found
to be tenants and 20% are landless in the project area. Details are
given in Table 1.1.

Table: 1.1 Percentage distributions of Households by Land Tenure


Category Number of Households Percentage (%)

Owner - Cultivator 96 60

Tenant 32 20

Landless 32 20

Total 160 100

1.4.3.4 Occupation and Labor Force

Agriculture was reported as the main occupation of about 90 percent


of the economically active population in the study area. About 10
percent are engaged in wage earning: service holders in various
government and private agencies.

Livestock is another major occupation intimately related with the


agriculture. The importance of livestock in the project area is due to
the fact that it also provides most of the draft power requirements,
farm yard manure and fuel for bio-gas plants and skins generating
cash income to the farmers.

Animal power is very popular and frequently used for ploughing,


harrowing and puddling with local wooden implements. Almost all
the farm households own bullock pair for the purpose of agricultural
cultivation. It is worth mentioning here that the farm size is positively
related with bullock pairs.

Government of Nepal has established a livestock breeding centre in


Janakpur to produce high yielding milk animals as well as to supply
regular services of artificial insemination to the local breeds so that

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the local breeds of animals will be gradually improved in the
following generations.

1.4.3.5 The Local Economy

The local economy in the sub-project area is characterized by


subsistence level agricultural production. Agriculture is the main
occupation. Agricultural practices are traditional and the farmers
mostly grow paddy, wheat, pulses, potato, oilseed and sugarcane in
their fields. The command area is flat land. Livestock production is
an integral part of the farming in the study area. Paddy is the prime
agricultural production for commercial purposes. Other products like
wheat, oilseed and potato are consumed by farmers themselves. The
nearest market is at Mahendranagar Bazar is the near market place
for selling the products. Living standard of the most of the farmers of
the project area is poor.

1.4.3.6 Existing Irrigation Infrastructures

There is no any irrigation infrastructure in the command area earthen


canal and temporary earthen bund which is made by the farmers to
divert the water from the river is washed out annually by flood.

1.4.3.7 Issues Related to Infrastructure and Institutions

There are no serious issues related to infrastructure. The main


demands of farmers are

- Simple gabion weir with simple side intake

- Overflow weir

- Village Road Bridge (VRB)

- Division Box etc

There is no serious issue regarding institutional aspects. They had


elected formal Water Users' Committee The WUC has proposed to
allocate whole authority to the committee. This issue was discussed
during the meeting and following consensus has been made

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- Contribution part will be done by Users' committee
- Contractors as per financial rules and regulations of
Government of Nepal will execute structural parts.

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2. TECHNICAL ASSESSMENT AND DESIGN

2.1 Water Resource Assessment

2.1.1 Water Source:

The source of the sub-project is Aurahi River and is perennial. This is non-
snowfed river. Dudhmati pond is also used as additional source of water. The
length of the longest water course is 20 km. It originates from Siwalik range.
The area falls under hydrological region no. 7 of the regional hydrograph.
The catchment area of the river at Intake site is about 60 km measured on
1:25000 topographical map. By field inspection and verification from topo-
sheet, the catchment area consists of plain terrain having very low
longitudinal slope from north to south. The average slope was found to be
1:275. The command area does not have any forest except some patches of
mango and sisam trees. the discharge of Aurahi Khola at the intake site was
measured It was found to be 81 l/s on 26th Dec, 2006. Dudhmati pond also
feeds 50lps in the canal at ch 1+700.

2.1.2 Maximum Flood Discharge

The design discharge of the river at the proposed intake site is calculated
using various methods and the appropriate value by the technical
consideration has been adopted. The adopted methods for the estimation of
high flood discharge are as follows.
- Dickens's method
- Manning's Formula
The design flood adopted for the design is taken as 250m3/s.

2.1.3 Present Water Utilization

Water resource of River is being utilized primarily for irrigation. However


other use of this river includes drinking water for livestock. There is no
irrigation system within 2.5 km upstream and downstream of proposed
headworks.

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2.2 Crop Water Requirement

2.2.1 Air Temperature, Rainfall, ETo, Eo and Humidity

Air temperature is taken from Hardinath (Station: 1114). Similarly, mean


rainfall and 80% reliable rainfall data at Janakpur station (1111) based on 1
in 5 years of homogeneous rainfall has been taken. Evapotranspiraton (ET O)
and Evaporation (EO) at Hardinath (station 1114) estimated in PDSP Manual
M-3 have been adopted for the design. The data of the temperature, rainfall
and evapotranspiration are given in Table 2.1, 2.2 and 2.3 respectively.

Table 2.1: Temperature of the nearest station Janakpur Airport (St.


1111)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Max. 24.0 24.7 30.8 35.5 36.5 35.3 34.1 33.2 32.7 31.4 29.6 25.9
Min. 10.7 11.7 16.8 20.4 24.8 26.6 27.0 26.7 25.5 20.7 14.9 10.1
Mean 17.4 18.2 23.8 28.0 30.7 31.1 30.6 30.0 29.1 26.1 22.3 18.0

Table 2.2 Monthly Rainfall in mm Station: Janakpur (St. 1111)


Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Mean 10.44 10.56 12.25 32.56 95.00 183.69 402.06 237.69 191.00 74.19 4.25 13.25
Std Dev 11.82 9.19 17.85 27.10 69.89 100.57 211.58 112.53 118.00 67.25 6.19 22.33
80% Exc 2.1 6.9 8.3 14.9 61.0 221.0 193.7 263.0 176.1 23.1 0.00 0.00

Table 2.3 Monthly ET0 and E0 in mm/day Station: Hardinath


(St. 1114)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Evpt (ET0) 2.44 3.51 5.18 7.29 7.80 6.14 5.77 5.53 4.59 4.24 3.00 2.34
Evp (E0) 3.15 4.35 6.30 8.79 9.04 7.28 6.78 6.54 5.56 5.21 3.83 3.06

2.2.2 Crop Coefficient and Irrigation Efficiency

Crop coefficient and Irrigation efficiency for early paddy, main paddy,
wheat, pulse, oilseed, potato and sugarcane are taken from PDSP manual
M.3 and are presented in the Appendix-D, Vol.-II. The various efficiencies of
the irrigation system have been adopted as per the same manual.

Irrigation efficiencies have been taken as follows


Field efficiency for monsoon paddy = 85%
Main canal efficiency =80%
Branch canal efficiency = 80%

2.2.3 Diversion Water Requirement Computations

Diversion/Intake water requirement is carried out for Early PaddyMain


Paddy-Sugarcane cropping pattern and presented in Annex. The command
area is loamy sand. The canal has been designed for the maximum calculated
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diversion/intake water requirement, which is 15% more than the highest
water demand calculated based on the rainfall data of 1 in 5 homogeneous
series, which is 400 l/s.

2.2.4 Sub Basin Water Balance-Existing Scenario

The sub-project has no U/S and D/S water rights problem. The water balance
has been calculated considering the U/S and D/S water diversion
requirements as per the duty of the proposed subproject. The discharge is
measured by float method. The summary of predicted 80% reliable monthly
flow computed by different methods is presented below.

Table 2.4 80% reliable river flow in lps.

Month MIP WECS NZIDP

Jan 23.19 1462.96 956.78


Feb 15.33 966.90 849.52
Mar 10.13 638.99 736.57
Apr 6.66 420.39 605.54
May 28.99 1828.69 737.28
Jun 52.18 3291.65 1547.31
Jul 159.35 10051.52 6956.68
Aug 266.58 16815.59 5956.56
Sep 226.60 14293.25 3504.03
Oct 110.10 6944.84 2083.84
Nov 57.98 3657.39 1531.96
Dec 34.79 2194.43 1108.05

Note: Since

The project area lies in hydrological region 7. For this region this method
gives only minimum enveloping curve values of monthly flows, whereas for
the computation of crop water requirement, 80% reliable values are
emphasized upon. The minimum values thus obtained must be considerably
less than 80% values. Hence the values obtained by this method are not
adopted. WECS method for low flow yielded very high absurd values. Hence
this method, too, is not used. NZIDP regression method yielded plausible
80% reliable monthly flow values which have been adopted for subsequent
analyses.

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2.2.5 Water Balance with the Subproject

There is sufficient water to irrigate more than 240 ha of land for monsoon
paddy and other crops according to designed cropping The canal size is
determined with 15% extra for future possibilities of extension and the
design discharge for the canal is 400 lps.

2.2.6 Conclusion

The Aurahi Irrigation Project has reliable water availability and no water
right problem.

2.3 Engineering System Design

Design of project facilities have been made, in principal, on the basis of " Design
manuals for irrigation Projects in Nepal" prepared under Planning and Design
Strengthening Project, 1990 and are given in the Appendix-G.

4.2 Intake

A permanent side intake has been constructed for the water diversion to the
canal. The course of river is confined and banks are stable at the proposed
site. The left bank at intake side will be further protected by providing
gabion box and other protective devices.

Side Intake

Design discharge : 0.4 m3/s

Width : 1m

Total floor length : 15 m

4.3 Canal Network

The canal is a ridge canal and bed slope of the canal is maintained within
1:1500 to 1:500 The canal shape is trapezoidal with side slope 1.5:1 (H:V).
The sections of the main canal is designed for discharge of 0.4m3/s at

Irrigation system consists of main-1, secondary-3 irrigation canals. Main


irrigation canal starts from intake, secondary ones start from main irrigation
canal.
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4.4 Structures

Canal structures will be of plain and/or reinforced concrete depending on the


site conditions. Main structures are Intake-1, Overflow weir-1, Main canal-
4.8 km, branch canal-4.2 km, Fall structure-12, Village Road Bridge-2, Pipe
culvert 4.Div. box 3.

4.5 Drainage Consideration

The sub-project area is partially irrigated area. The soil of the command area
has high permeability value. Existing drainage network in the area is
sufficiently efficient. Hence no further improvement is necessary.

4.6 System Operation Plan

The WUA will be responsible for the overall system operation. Decision
regarding canal discharges, rotation schedule will also come under the
responsibility of WUA. They will also be responsible for the equitable water
distribution among secondary and tertiary canals to conflict resolution and
prevention of water theft.

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3. AGRICULTURE

The project area covers ward 1, 8, 9 of Sakhuwa Mahendranagar. The number of


farm households is about 160. The average family size in the study area is about 9
persons. The average land holding size is 1.5 ha per farm household based on net
command area.

3.1 Operational Landholding and Tenancy Status

The farm households in the project area are divided into four categories by land
holding size: small, medium, large and very large excluding landless farmers. The
land holding status in the project area is estimated on the basis of land records given
by the WUA. The land holding situation is summarized as below.

Table 3.1 Number and Percentage distribution of Households by Farm Size


Category of
Farm Size (ha) No of H.H. Percentage of HH (%)
farmers
Small < 0.6 88
55
Medium 0.6- 3.3 32
20
Large 3.3 6.67 16
10
Very Large >6.67 24
15
Total 160
100

About 75% farm households belongs to small and medium category, while only 25%
farm households fall under the category of very large. The average land holding size
is 1.5 ha (=240ha/160 beneficiary HH).

3.2 Land Use

The project area is mainly dominated by agriculture of the total gross area of 290 ha.
The share of cultivated land is 240 ha. A breakdown of existing land use, based on
information collected during field survey from local farmers and key informants, is
presented as below.

Gross Command Area (GCA) = 290 ha


Culturable Command Area (CCA) = 240 ha

Nearly 85% of the GCA covers cultivated land and rest covers grazing land, shrubs
and others. The information collected from the local people showed that most of the
cultivated areas are rainfed.

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3.3 Cropping Area, Cropping Intensity, Crop Yield and Production

3.3.1 Cropping Area and Cropping Intensity

The main crops grown in the project area are paddy, potato, oilseed, wheat
and pulses. During the rainy season, paddy is grown in almost all of the
cultivated land while sugarcane is grown on rainfed land during this season.
During the winter season, the main crop grown is wheat. The cropping
intensity for the project area is about 128% at present. Total area of cropping
land is 307 ha during this season. Cropping area and intensity are given in
the Table 3.2. The low cropping area and intensity is basically attributable to
lack of reliable irrigation facilities.

3.3.2 Crop Yield and Production

The annual planted area, unit yield and production of major crops in the
project area were estimated from the agricultural statistics in the Dhanusha
District and the farm survey. The unit yield of major crops remains very low
not only due to shortage of irrigation water but also due to insufficient
agricultural inputs and traditional farming practices. Moderate yield level of
crops can be attributed to the following overall factors.

- Shortage of water due to lack of irrigation facilities


- Inadequate supply and low level application of inputs, particularly
improved inputs
- Degeneration of seed stock
- Delayed planting of crops
- Lack of appropriate intervention and acceptance of improved
production technology
- Inadequate market facilities

3.3.3 Present Cropping Patterns and Cropping Calendar

The cropping pattern and cropping calendar with cropping area and yields
for the project area as shown in the Table 3.2 which is averaged for the
whole area.

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Table 3.2 Present cropping Area, Pattern, Yield/Production and cropping
calendar
Area Yield Time of
S.N. Crops Production (t)
ha % (t/ha) Planting Harvesting
1. E Paddy 15 6.3 2.1 31.5 Apr-1 Mar-1
2. Main Paddy 200 83.4 2.8 560 July-2 Nov-2
3. Wheat 30 12.5 1.9 57 Nov-2 Mar-1
4. Sugarcane 5 2.1 30 7.5 Aug-1 Jun-2
5. Pulse 25 10.42 0.4 10 Nov-2 Apr-1
6 Oilseed 25 10.42 0.3 7.5 Nov-2 Feb-1
7. Potato 5 2.1 6.0 30 Nov-2 Feb-1
8 Winter veg. 2 0.8 2.8 5.6 Nov-2 Feb-2
Total 307 128
Cropping Intensity = 128%

3.4 Farm Inputs

The principal inputs used in the fields in the project area are human labor,
draft animal power, seeds, chemical fertilizer, farm yard manure and agro-
chemicals.

3.4.1 Seed and Fertilizer Use

Majority of the farmers of the project area use local seeds and few farmers
use improved seeds. The main source of the seeds is farmers' own stock.
Farmers get seed from AIC and co-operatives but they use their own seed
because seeds of AIC and co-operatives are costly and not reliable according
to the farmers. The farmers of the project area use fertilizer mainly on
sugarcane, paddy and wheat crops.

3.4.2 Farm Labor Use

Since the existing cropping system is totally traditional one, no improved and
sophisticated tools and implements are used by the farmers.

Present and estimated labor requirements based on the present cropping


pattern and proposed with improved agricultural practice for 240 ha
command area is given in Table 3.3.

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Table 3.3 Distribution of Labor days Requirement in Different Crops
Area (ha) Labor days/ha Labor days requirement
Crop
Present Future Present Future Present Future
15 30 110 175 1650 5250
3.4.3E Paddy Pric
M Paddy 200 215 142 175 28400 37625
Wheat 30 70 55 95 1650 6650 es
Sugarcane 5 20 195 180 975 3600
Pulses 25 35 50 66 1250 2310
of
Oilseeds 25 35 50 63 1250 2205
Potato 5 15 180 140 900 2100
W Vegetables 2 10 190 200 380 2000
Total 36455 61740
Farm Products and Seeds

The information regarding to the prices of inputs and agricultural products


were collected at the various marketing outlets within the district and also
from AIC.

The project area is historically a surplus area of agricultural products. The


crops produced by the farmers are mainly sold/bought in their own villages
and/or local markets. However, wholesale marketing is done in
Mahendranaga. Paddy is the prime product to be marketed, while other
products such as wheat, pulse and oilseeds are marketed in lesser quantity
and are mainly consumed internally by the farmers.

3.4.4 Farm Inputs

Detail information about inputs used in different crops is presented in Table


3.4.
Table 3.4 Present inputs used in various crops

Fertilizer Agro- Labor


Seeds
Crops Chemicals (kg/ha) chemicals Human
(kg/ha) Animal (ad/ha)
N P K (Rs./ha) (md/ha)
E Paddy 30 20 10 0 100 110 18
Main Paddy 30 25 15 0 150 142 25
Wheat 120 30 20 10 200 55 26
Sugarcane 5000 40 20 10 100 195 42
Pulse 42 20 10 0 250 50 20
Oilseed 12 0 0 0 80 50 20
Potato 2000 50 20 0 200 180 40
Winter veg. 12 80 50 10 250 44 175

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3.4.5 Labor Wages

The farm survey indicated that hiring labor cost is at NRs. 115.00 per day. It
is also indicated that the price of draft-animals is NRs. 250 for pair of
bullocks.

3.5 Present Crop Budget and Production Value

3.5.1 Crop Budget

Gross income, production costs and the profit of major crops per ha in the
project area under the present condition were estimated from the results of
the field survey and various information. The gross income was calculated
from the farm-gate price and the average yield of each crop, under partially-
irrigated and non-irrigated conditions. The production cost of each crop was
estimated on the basis of input quantity and labor cost under the present
condition.

3.5.2 Present Production Value

The total crop production value and total net profit value were estimated
from the cropped area, gross income and net return per ha.

The total crop production value and total net profit value are NRs
9817000.00 and NRs 4260000.00 respectively.

3.6 Agriculture Development in the Subproject area

3.6.1 Change in Land Use

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The provision of irrigation water and introduction of improved technology
by the project will not basically cause the change of the land use pattern, but
will raise the cropping intensity.

As almost all the farmland to be covered by the project are the existing
paddy fields, no significant change in the type of crops to be planted will
occur even in the future, and paddy will remain as the main crop in the rainy
season. With the completion of the Aurahi Irrigation project, all the paddy
fields in the project area will be fully irrigated and more intensive use of the
farmland will be realized.

3.6.2 Proposed Cropping Area and Cropping Intensity

Proposed cropping area will increase up to 300 ha, due to construction of


permanent intake and canal structures. Proposed Cropping Intensity is
estimated to be 179% in the project area.

3.6.3 Proposed Cropping Pattern

For the design of future cropping pattern, the preparation was made in due
consideration of the factors such as climate, agronomic conditions including
availability of irrigation water, present cropping pattern and farm practices,
socio-economic conditions, farmers preferences, market limitations and
prices, present and future availability of agricultural inputs.

With an assured water supply, improved farm management, with adequate


supply of inputs, use of HYV seeds and improved agricultural extension
services, the crops yield are projected to increase over years. It is also
expected that with assured irrigation water, the farmers would not hesitate to
apply fertilizer in recommended doses to get project yields.

Experimental results obtained from agricultural stations and the irrigated


area as well as farmers' preferences, climate, agronomic conditions and
marketability of agricultural products etc. have been duly considered while
projecting the future yields of crops.

3.6.4 Crop Yields and Production

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After construction of the project facilities, the crop yields would gradually
increase from the present level to the target level and stabilize after the
completion of the project facilities. To achieve the targeted yields, optimum
application of farm inputs as well as effective water management is required.

Total agricultural production in the project area with and without project
conditions is estimated by multiplying the target unit yield and cultivation
area of the proposed crops and given in Table 3.5.

Table 3.5 Proposed cropping Area, Cropping Intensity, Pattern,


Yield/Production
Area Yield Time of
S.N. Crops Production (t)
ha % (t/ha) Planting Harvesting
1. E Paddy 30 12.5 4.35 376.5 Apr-1 Mar-1
2. Main Paddy 215 89.6 4.50 1182.5 July-2 Nov-2
3. Wheat 70 29.2 3.20 224 Nov-2 Mar-1
4. Sugarcane 20 8.33 50.00 1000 Aug-1 Jun-2
5. Pulse 35 14.6 0.80 28 Nov-2 Apr-1
6. Oilseed 35 14.6 0.90 31.5 Nov-2 Feb-1
7. Potato 15 6.25 10.00 150 Nov-2 Feb-1
8 Winter veg. 10 4.2 6.00 60 Nov-2 Feb-2
430 179
Proposed cropping intensity = 179%
The targeted unit yields of the proposed crops under "without project" and
"with project" conditions are compared in the Table 3.7.
Table 3.6 Crop yield in t/ha without and with project
S.N. Crops Without project With Project Increment
1 E Paddy 2.10 4.35 2.25
2 Main Paddy 2.80 4.50 1.70
3 Wheat 1.90 3.20 1.30
4 Sugarcane 30.00 50.00 20.00
5 Pulse 0.40 0.80 0.40
6 Oilseed 0.30 0.90 0.60
7 Potato 6.00 10.00 4.00
8 Winter veg. 2.80 6.00 3.20

3.6.5 Proposed Farm Inputs and Labor

To achieve the targeted yields, optimum application of farm inputs and labor
are required. The organic matter content of the soil is very low. So farmers
should include green manuring crops in their crop rotations after the project
to supply organic matter and other nutrients. Similarly, legume crops such as
gram, lentil, moong and arhar should also be managed in the cropping
pattern to maximize the nitrogen content of soil from the atmospheric
nitrogen.
Table 3.7 Proposed inputs used in various crops

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Agro-
Fertilizer chemicals Labor
Crops Seeds (kg/ha) (Rs./ha)
Chemicals (kg/ha) Human Animal
N P K (md/ha) (ad/ha)
E Paddy 30 80 40 20 200 175 44
Main Paddy 30 80 40 20 250 175 44
Wheat 100 80 40 20 260 95 35
Sugarcane 4000 50 30 20 180 180 50
Pulse 40 20 20 10 280 66 19
Oilseed 9 20 20 10 200 63 24
Potato 1500 60 50 30 400 140 50
Winter veg. 10 70 50 40 280 200 50

3.6.6 Future Crop Budget

As assured irrigation facilities would ensure the farmers timely cultivation


and use of complementary inputs, the productivity and production of crops
would increase rapidly. The cropping intensity and land use pattern would be
expected to be changed positively. Gross income, production costs and the
profit of major crops per ha in the project area under the future condition
were estimated from the results of the field survey and various information.
The gross income was calculated from the farm- gate price and the average
anticipated yield of each crop, under fully-irrigated and non-irrigated
conditions. The production cost of each crop was estimated on the basis of
input quantity and labor cost under the future conditions

3.6.7 Future Agriculture Production Value

The future agriculture production in the project area with and without project
conditions is estimated by multiplying the target unit yield and cultivation

20
area of the proposed crops. Net incremental benefit of the project is
estimated to be NRs. 42,60,022.65.

3.6.8 Input Use and Anticipated Crop Yields

The agricultural service centre located in some VDC provides technical


support to the farmers. Junior Technician (JT) and Junior Technical Assistant
(JTA) transfer the improved technologies of farming generated in the
research centers. Farmers are trained by these technicians and will be
continued for this type of support in future.

4. SOCIO-ECONOMIC PROFILE

4.1 Demographic Characteristics

4.1.1 Population:

Total population of the project area is estimated to be 1440 distributed in 160


households in the command area. This data shows the average household
size is 9 persons/household. The population distribution in the sub-project
area is given in Table 4.1.

Table 4.1 Dominant ethnic groups

21
S.N. Name Percentage HH Number

1 Kurmi 20 33

2 Yadav 20 32

3 Shah 22 34

4 Brahmin 16 25
5
Kumhar 10 15

6 Others 13 21
Total
100 160

4.1.2 Distribution of Households by Sex

The total population of the project area consists of 47% male and 53%
female which indicates that the proportion of female is slightly more than
that of male.

4.1.3 Distribution of Households Heads by Age Group

Not Available

4.1.4 Distribution of Sample Population, Literacy and Education

Not Available

4.2 Social Organization and WUA

For construction, management, operation and maintenance of the Aurahi Irrigation


Project, which commands an area of 240 ha in different villages, the farmers
themselves have organized a formal Water Users' Association (WUA). There are 9
members in the committee, including chairman, vice- chairman, secretary and
treasurer. They have already deposited a sum required as per Irrigation Policy at the
rate of Rs. 50/ha. The WUA has given a written commitment to implement
according to Irrigation Policy.

4.3. Economy and Occupation

4.3.1 Occupation of the Sample Households

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There are all together about 160 households in the command area, having
population of 1440. The major occupation of households is agriculture. Some
of the members of these households work as daily labor at different places.
About 20% to 25% of people go outside the project area for the seasonal
employment and 5% of population is found to be migrating to the project
area.

4.3.2 Economically Active Population

There is no accurate data available, because some of the labor force works
outside the village and even abroad.

5. INSTITUTIONAL ASPECT

5.1 Overview of the System

The main objective of sub-project implementation under Medium Irrigation Project


(MIP) is not only to construct an irrigation system considering the farmers' demand,
but also to make the beneficiaries fully capable for operation & maintenance (O&M)
of the system in the future. To achieve these goal farmers should be involved in the
subproject activities from the beginning. A WUA has been established by the formal
election, registered in Central Irrigation Development Division No.1 (CIDD-1)
23
office. Before the implementation of sub-project, memorandum of agreement will be
signed by CIDD and WUA. WUA's representatives will be trained for O&M of the
system and for agricultural extension program.

5.2 Current Status of WUA

5.2.1 Membership Criteria and Water Allocation

There is already existing formal water users' association in the project area.
At present, they have formed a Water User's Association and registered in
Central Irrigation Development Division No.1. They have some rules and
regulations for the management of the project. According to their rules and
regulations, every user, who owns land in the command area has rights to be
a member of WUA.

Existing canal system which is not in good condition and thus incapable to
carry the water discharge to irrigate the proposed command area, can't
provide reliable and adequate irrigation facility in the command area. After
construction of the project, water allocation rules and regulations will be
decided.

5.2.2 Conflicts Management

As there is a formal water users' association (WUA) which is capable to


solve the conflicts among the farmers, there is no conflict at present. But
during the discussion with the farmers it was found that the normal trend to
resolve any other type of conflict in the area is generally through the social
norms. All of the people in the project area are on the support of the project.

5.2.3 Resource Mobilization for System O&M

The farmers are prepared to contribute resources for the implementation of


the construction works according to MIP criteria and Irrigation Policy, 2060.
The farmers have negotiated a written agreement regarding the terms and
conditions of assistance to be provided by the government. Farmers have
formed a WUA that will participate in sub-project planning and construction
and will be fully responsible for O&M of the scheme after commissioning as
mentioned before.

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5.3 Institutional Linkages to Support Services

Following government organizations are involved directly or indirectly in the


agricultural support services for increasing productivity and improving the living
standard of the farmers.

- District Agriculture Development Office (DADO)


- Agriculture Inputs Corporation (AIC)
- Central Irrigation Development Division No.1 (CIDD-1)
- Agriculture Development Bank, Nepal (ADBN)

These organizations are interlinked to each other to cooperate the farmers.

5.4 Level of Cooperation and Willingness to Contribute in System Improvement

Farmers have presented their willingness to cooperate at all stages of the project
development. They are committed to contribute for;

- Land without cost for the construction of canal network;


- Contribute at least 3 % of estimated cost in the form of labor or cash;
- Operate and maintain the system after completion.

5.5 External Support

Two years back, in F/Y 062/63, Government of Nepal had provided assistance to the
system in form of cash amounting to NRs 1,50,000.00. Even after the government
launches the project through donor agencies, the involvement of the NGOs and
INGOs in the future can not be predicted.

Post construction supports are extension services, credit, agriculture inputs, post
harvest facilities and marketing, which should be provided by different line agencies
at proper time.

5.6 Potential Extension

DADO, a district office of the Department of Agriculture Development is located in


the district headquarter, Janakpur and is responsible for the extension of cereal
crops, cash crops and vegetables.

5.7 Proposed Organizational / Institutional Arrangements


25
The irrigation office and Water Users' Association are major institutions involved
from the 1st stage of the development of the Aurahi Irrigation Project. The WUA has
been involved from survey and design stage of the project. After approval of the
project from CRID and tendering, WUA will form a construction sub-committee,
which will look after the construction of the system together with irrigation officials.

After completion of the construction work WUA will operate and maintain the
system. The CIDD-1 will provide necessary training for strengthening and
development of institutional capacity of the WUA.

Training is to be given to the beneficiaries in the following areas:

Construction supervision
Water management and irrigated agriculture
Resource mobilization
O&M of the system
Institutional Strengthening/Capability Building
Benefit monitoring
Conflict resolution
Womens participation etc.

5.8 System Maintenance Plan

The WUA will make a maintenance plan in close assistance from CIDD-1, which
covers
- rules and regulation for system maintenance
- implementation of rules and regulation effectively

- penalizing system for water users who do not comply with the rules and
regulations

- plan for monitoring its maintenance program properly

Maintenance work will be classified into three categories:

i) Regular maintenance
ii) Routine maintenance
iii) Emergency maintenance

The WUA will prepare annual maintenance program based on the following tasks.

26
i) Identification of maintenance need
ii) Identification and Provision of needed resources for carrying out the
maintenance
iii) Timing or schedule of various maintenance activities
iv) Keeping records of maintenance including labor mobilization of members
v) Regular review of improvement of rules and regulations
vi) Penalties for violation of rules and regulations
vii) Arrangement of required tools and equipment

The actual system maintenance plan will be made and enforced after first irrigation
in the command area.

6. INITIAL ENVIRONMENTAL EXAMINATION

According to Environmental Protection Rules 2054 of government, Initial


Environmental Examination (IEE) is carried out for the project which irrigates less
than 2000 ha command area in the terai region of country. Recommended Checklist
was adopted for IEE. In the checklist, activities affecting environmental resources
and values are listed with their respective levels of effects and mitigation measures.
Checklist of environmental parameters for IEE is presented in Annex. The main
findings are listed below.

27
6.1. Environmental effects due to site selection

6.1.1 Encroachment into forests

There is no forest except some patches of mango and sisam in the command
area and canal alignment, it does not pose any problem to the flora of this
area. Therefore this category of the impact is ranked at D1 level.

6.1.2 Impediment to movement of wildlife, cattle and people

Sufficient numbers of crossings are planned in the proposed development


plan as a part of the lined canal with a slab over it and VRB at different
chainages. Therefore, the impact is ranked at D1 level.

6.1.3 Impediment of historical/cultural, monuments, buildings and values

Such objects are not located in the sub-project area and ranking is done at D1
significance level.

6.1.4 Conflicts in water supply rights

There is no water rights problem at present, and even if it surfaces in the


future, the impact can be solved by coordination among users. So it is ranked
at D1 level.

6.1.5 Regional flooding/drainage hazards

River training works will be provided for flood control providing bank
protection, check dam, plantation etc. the impact is ranked at D1 level

6.2. Problems from oversight in planning and design

6.2.1. Watershed erosion and sedimentation

No problem of erosion and watershed sedimentation is observed. That is why


the impact is ranked at D1 level.

6.2.2. Downstream water quality/quantity problem

The quantity of water discharge is sufficient to be left certain portion of


water for the aquatic life and further, since the water is used only for
28
irrigation purposes, the quality of water downstream of the project area is
bound to be of reusable quality. So it is ranked as D1 and can be prevented
by taking precautions not to pollute water.

6.2.3. Suitability of water quality for irrigation

There is not any big industry in the watershed area. So the water pollution
problem is not a major issue and the available water is suitable for irrigation
in the project area. Hence the impact is ranked at D1 level.

6.2.4. Adequacy of drainage planning

The command area can be provided with proper drainage in lowland area;
hence drainage will not be a problem. Thus the impact is ranked at D1
significance level.

6.2.5. Land use conflicts

There is no major conflict about land use. It can be solved within Water
Users' Group (WUG) and VDC and ranked at D1 level of significance.

6.2.6. Inadequate canal system

Canals are designed for full supply discharge with safety factor and no
problem of insufficient canal capacity. This is also ranked at D1 level.

6.2.7. Passageways

It may cause loss of wildlife and disruption of local socio-economic


condition. However, the project area will not be the only one of its type. In
fact, there are more developed and prosperous localities in the vicinity. This
impact can be mitigated by providing adequate passageways. This is ranked
at D1 level of significance.

6.2.8. Scouring hazards

29
Though there is permanent weir structure across the river, it has been well
protected and scouring possibility has been adequately incorporate in design
and estimated part. Serious scouring hazards are not expected and thus, the
impact is ranked in D1 level.

6.3. Problems During Construction Stage

6.3.1 Soil erosion/landslides

The project area is a plain area and does not have steep slope. Major
problems of soil erosion and landslide will not result from minor box cutting.
Considering the minor landslides that may occur during the construction
stage, provision is made for mitigation measures in the project cost
estimates. Thus ranking can be done at D1 level.

6.3.2 Uses of blasting material

No blasting will be done for the construction works, so there is no such risk
of environmental problem. Hence it is ranked at D1 level.

6.3.3 Monitoring during construction

Monitoring is necessary to achieve good quality of work. WUA


representatives and CIDD-1 shall strictly supervise the construction works to
achieve good quality of work thus reducing the risk of any possible
environmental hazard and hence it is ranked D1.

6.4. Problems Stemming from Deficiencies in Operation

6.4.1 Inadequate O&M

Farmers of the sub-project area are to be trained for O&M.

6.4.2 Adverse modification and changes in soil

30
CIDD-1 and other support agencies shall extensively advice the users
regarding the use of chemical fertilizers and other modern inputs. Hence
these adverse effects will not be the major issues for the sub-project.

6.4.3 Change in water table

According to available means of analyses water table is not expected to rise


or fall beyond allowable levels.

6.4.4 Water borne disease hazards

The still water stored in the project area may cause communicable diseases
related to water use. These diseases can be prevented by forewarning the
people through training.

6.4.5 Uses/misuses of agro-chemicals

Same as in 6.4.2.

6.5. Realization of Enhancement Potentials

6.5.1. Community Water Supply

The project will have no adverse impacts on existing and future community
water supply schemes.

6.5.2. Micro hydro electricity

No micro hydro electricity projects were observed in the source river.

6.5.3. Industrial Water Supply

No industrial water supply schemes were observed in the source river.

6.5.4. Aquaculture in the service area

No problems of aquaculture in the service area are expected.

As per the impact significant criteria, all of the environmental issues listed in
the checklist are categorized as D1, it indicates that further EIA studies are

31
not necessary for this subproject implementation. The subproject is
environmentally sound.

7. RESETTLEMENT PLAN

There are existing canal alignment, so there will be no need of resettlement of any farmers.

32
8. SUB-PROJECT COST AND ECONOMIC ANALYSIS

8.1 Analysis of Rates

33
The analysis of rates includes,
- analysis of transportation cost,
- analysis of material cost,
- analysis of labor cost,
- Taxes
- Availability of materials
- Others

The material and labor costs for F.Y.2063/64 are obtained from District
Development Committee's Technical Office, Janakpur.

8.2 Quantity and Cost Estimates

The quantity estimate is based on shape and size of designed structures and canals.
Quantities for canals have been calculated from cross-sections. Total project cost is
estimated to be NRs. 9817000.00 including overhead, contingencies and farmer
contribution cost. Cost per hectare is estimated to be NRs 36740.00.

8.3 Analysis of Project Costs and Benefits

8.3.1 Expected Agriculture Benefits

Agricultural, Socio-Economic and Environmental benefits would be realized


as a result of the implementation of this irrigation project. The productivity
and production would be increased in fast pace with the project because of
assured irrigation facilities.

Without Project Implementation

Change in yields or crops would be envisaged due to change in the use of


inputs and experiences of the farmers over years. However, changes in
cropping pattern and cropping intensity would be insignificant.

With Project Implementation

Assured irrigation facilities would ensure the farmers both for timely
cultivation and use of complementary inputs. Thus, the productivity and
production of crops would increase rapidly.
34
8.3.2 Socio Economic Benefit

Because of irrigation facilities, the farm production on an average will


increase and employment opportunities particularly during project
construction period will be generated both for farmers and agricultural
labors. They will be able to benefit and increase non-farm income.

8.3.3 Economic Analysis

8.3.3.1 Basic Assumptions

The following assumptions have been made for performing the economic
analysis of this project.

- The economical project cost is derived by multiplying financial cost


(excluding taxes) by a conversion factor of 0.95 and O&M financial
cost by 0.90.
- The BCR values have been computed for 10% and 12% discount
rates.
- The sensitivity analysis have been performed for three risk factors,
namely cost increased by 15%, benefit decreased by 20% and the
combination thereof.
- The construction period of the project is 1 year.
- The life span of the project is 25 years from the year of the
completion of construction.
- Of the total capital cost 100% budget will be allocated within one
year.
- The project is estimated to incur an annual operation and
maintenance (O&M) cost at the rate of 3% annually of the capital
cost after the completion of the project.
- 50% benefit will start from 1st year of the completion of the project
and 100% in the subsequent years after the completion of the project.
So full agricultural benefit will be realized from 2nd year after project
completion.

8.3.3.2 Net Present Value (NPV) and Benefit Cost (B/C) Ratio

35
In order to determine economic feasibility of the project discounted
cash flow method is used. Present worth benefit cost ratio at different
discount rate and Economical Internal Rate of Return (EIRR) is
determined.

8.3.3.3 Economical Internal Rate of Return

The EIRR calculation revealed that the EIRR value is 32.13% and
BCR at 10% and 12% discount rate are 2.84 and 2.51 respectively.
Sensitivity analysis has been conducted for three cases:
It is found to be economically feasible even in different adverse
conditions.

9. IMPLEMENTATION SCHEDULE AND COTRACT MANAGEMENT

9.1 Basic Consideration

36
The project works comprise the following major components

Construction of Side Intake


Drain crossing overflow weir
Construction of Distribution System including main and branch canals
Construction of Village Road Bridges (VRB)
Construction of fall &Division box

These works will be independently but simultaneously executed. The


implementation plan for the project, accordingly, has been worked out on the basis
of following basic assumptions.

i) The construction of the irrigation system/distribution system will be


constructed simultaneously during the construction of headworks in order to
obtain project benefits as early as possible.
ii) The construction works will be undertaken in contract basis and also by
WUA.

9.2 Implementation Schedule

The survey and detailed design works, drawings and cost estimate have been
completed.
Immediately after approval of cost estimate tendering will be commenced.
The construction works will be completed within one year.
The WUA training program will be carried out simultaneously.
The project will be handed over to WUA for operation and maintenance
(O&M) as per irrigation policy after completion.

10. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

10.1 Conclusions

37
The Aurahi Irrigation Project is a major rehabilitation project having perennial type
of river source. The project is technically viable. The results of economic analysis
revealed that the project is feasible. The structures are designed in such a way that
locally available materials can be used. Farmer's enthusiastic response towards the
project implementation ensures that the project beneficiaries are both eager and
capable of managing the system in future.

10.2 Recommendation

During the present hardship of low economic status, it is essential to bring more area
under irrigation to grow more food thereby economically uplifting living standard of
people in the area. Based on the conclusions drawn, the Aurahi Irrigation Project is
strongly recommended for immediate implementation.

38