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Chapter 80 - Abasa (He Frowned), Verses 1-


16
Ϣ˶ ϴ˶Σή˴˷ ϟ΍ Ϧ ˶ Ϥ˸Σή˴˷ ϟ΍ Ϳ
˶ ΍ Ϣ˶ ˸δΑ˶ - ϰ˷ϟ˴Ϯ˴ Η˴ ϭ˴ β
˴ ˴Βϋ
˴ {1} ϰ˴Ϥ˸ϋϷ ˴ ΍ ϩ˵ ˯˴ Ύ˴Ο ϥ˴΃{2} ϰ˷ϛ˴ ΰ˴˷ ϳ˴ Ϫ˵ Ϡ˴˷ό˴ ϟ˴ Ϛ
˴ ϳ˶έ˸Ϊϳ˵ Ύ˴ϣϭ˴ {3} ϯ˴ή˸ϛά˶˷ ϟ΍ Ϫ˵ ό˴ ϔ˴ Ϩ˴Θϓ˴ ή˵ ϛ˴˷ ά˴˷ ϳ˴ ˸ϭ΃˴{4} Ύ˷ϣ˴ ΃˴
ϰ˴Ϩ˸ϐΘ˴ ˸γ΍ Ϧ ˶ ϣ˴ {5} Ζ ˴ ϧ˴΄ϓ˴ ϯ˷Ϊ˴ μ
˴ Η˴ Ϫ˵ ϟ˴{6} ϰ˷ϛ˴ ΰ˴˷ ϳ˴ ϻ
˴˷ ΃˴ Ϛ
˴ ˸ϴϠ˴ϋ
˴ Ύ˴ϣϭ˴ {7} ϰ˴ό˸δϳ˴ ϙ ˴ ˯˴ Ύ˴Ο Ϧ˴ϣ Ύ˷ϣ˴ ΃˴ϭ˴ {8} ϰ˴θ˸Ψϳ˴ Ϯ˴ ϫ˵ ϭ˴ {9} ϰ˷Ϭ˴ Ϡ˴Η˴ Ϫ˵ ˸Ϩϋ ˴ Ζ
˴ ϧ˴΄ϓ˴
{10} ˲Γή˴ ϛ˶ ˸άΗ˴ Ύ˴Ϭϧ˴˷·˶ ϼ ˴˷ ϛ˴ {11} ϩ˵ ή˴ ϛ˴ Ϋ˴ ˯Ύ˴η Ϧ˴Ϥϓ˴ {12} Δ˳ ϣ˴ ή˴˷ Ϝ˴ ϣ˵˷ ϒ ˳ Τ˵λ
˵ ϲ˶ϓ{13} Γ˳ ή˴ Ϭ˴˷ τ ˴ ϣ˵˷ Δ˳ ϋ
˴ Ϯ˵ϓ˸ήϣ˴˷ {14} ΄˴Α˶ Γ˳ ή˴ ϔ˴ γ
˴ ϱ˶Ϊ˸ϳ{15} ϡ˳ ΍˴ήϛ˶
Γ˳ έ˴ ή˴ Α˴ {16}
In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful. - {1} He frowned and turned away {2} When
the blind man came to him {3} And how do you know, perhaps he would purify himself {4} Or
take admonition and the admonition would benefit him {5} But for the one who is self-
complacent {6} you attend him {7} Though you are not liable If he does not purify himself {8}
But he who come hurrying to you {9} while he fears Allah {10} You are neglectful of him {11}
No indeed these verses of Qur'an are a reminder {12} So let anyone who wishes remember it
{13} In honored scriptures {14} Exalted and purified {15} In the hand of envoys {16} Noble
and pious.

Commentary
Traditions from Sunni sources state that these verses were revealed about a blind man called Ibn
Umm Maktum, who came in the presence of the Holy Prophet(s) while the Prophet(s) was in a
conversation with a group of leaders from the Quraysh about matters pertaining to Islam. So the
Prophet(s) frowned at him, and Allah reproached him with these verses. A few traditions from
the Shi'ah sources also mention this narrative.

Other traditions from the Shi'ah state that the one who actually frowned and turned away was a
man from Banu Umayya who was in the company of the Prophet(s), and when Ibn Umm
Maktum came in the presence of the Prophet(s), the man frowned at him and turned away his
face. Subsequently these verses were revealed. God willing, a comprehensive discussion on this
issue will soon come to you in our forthcoming narrative discourse.

In any case, the aim of this chapter is to reprimand one who prefers the affluent and wealthy over
the weak and destitute among the believers, who elevates the people of the world and degrades
the people of the Hereafter. Then the speech continues to allude to the frailty of human creation
and his extreme dependence in managing his affair, and despite all this, his unthankful attitude
vis-a-vis the blessings of his Lord and His magnificent control over his affairs. The chapter
finally ends with a mention of the human being's resurrection and reprisal as a word of
admonition. And the chapter is Meccan beyond any doubt.

QUR'AN: ¥ .
Means he frowned and constrained his face and turned away.

QUR'AN: Ö   


   

This verse describes the reason for frowning. It can be explained by understanding its implicative
composition: despite the literal absence of letter " " before the clause ... ¥ ¥  it
is held to be implicatively present. [Hence in actual fact it should be read as " ¥ 
¥ ", the letter  denoting "
". Therefore the verse would read: ¥
  

    ¥.]

QUR'AN:             
    

This is a circumstantial clause for the active noun of ¥¥ and ¥'. And  here
means self-purification through good action after realization, which is to heed to admonition and
be vigilant of the true ideology. And the benefit of admonition refers to its call for self-
purification through belief and good deed.

MEANING: He frowned and turned away from the blind man when the latter came near him,
while he did not know that the blind man may purify himself by good action after belief due to
his coming and seeking knowledge. And indeed he has taken admonition before or will take
admonition by coming to the Prophet and heeding to what he learns, so that the admonition
benefits him and he purifies himself.

The first four verses bear a severe tone of reproval, and are further aggravated by bringing the
first two verses in the context of the third person, for that means turning away from direct
conversation and exhibiting severe negation; and articulating the second two verses in the
context of the second person shows intense reproval.

And in stating the one who arrived as ¥ ¥ there is an additional reproof, for if the needy
who struggles to meet his ends is blind and lacks eyesight and his religious need led him to
struggle for the same due to fear of Allah, he is more worthy of mercy, increased specific
attention, and affection, rather than being frowned upon or turned away.

Some, on the basis that the object of reproval in the verse is the Holy Prophet(s), say that the
reason why the Prophet was mentioned in the third person pronoun was to venerate him and
thereby indicate that the one who frowned and turned away cannot be the Prophet(s), for such an
act can never issue from the like of his personality; furthermore mentioning him in the same
verse with the second person pronoun is again for his veneration, for that exhibits familiarity
after desolation, and attention after inattention always exhibit veneration.

This opinion however can be negated since it is not in harmony with the next verse: '  
 

   ¥ For the reproval here is more stern than in the verse
¥ , and certainly there is no sense of familiarity in it.

QUR'AN:     



       
    

The words     , all mean the same according to
what Raghib has mentioned. Hence "  " would denote "one who is affluent", which
would necessitate priority, superiority, prominence in the eyes of the people and arrogance in
following the truth. Almighty Allah says: ¥  
 
    ¥ And the verbal noun  means to embark on something
by attending to it and showing concern for the same.

This verse and the next six verses present a detailed account on the criteria of what has been
mentioned about 'frowning' and 'turning away' that necessitated reproval. A summary of the same
is as follows: You show concern and attend to one who is affluent and arrogant in accepting the
truth, distancing yourself from the followers of truth, and how do you know whether he would
not purify himself and you disregard and turn away from one who struggles to purify himself
while he is fearful [of his Lord].

QUR'AN:          

Some have said: The preposition " " is a negative particle and the meaning of the verse is:
"There is no harm on you if he does not purify himself so that your ardent craving for his
submission to Islam makes you turn away and disregard a Muslim, and not attend him.

Some say that the preposition " " here is a particle for negative interrogation (  
) and the meaning of the verse is: And what will happen to you if he does not purify
himself from disbelief and sin, for verily you are only an Apostle and you have no obligation
save to convey the message.

Others say that that the meaning of the verse is: Do not mind if he does not purify himself from
the taint of disbelief and sin. And this meaning is more suitable for the tone of reproval, followed
by the view prior to this, and thereafter the one previous to that.

QUR'AN:   


       ! 
  

¥ is to hasten in one's walk, and thus the meaning of the verse "  
 
   " in view of the context, would be: And as for the one who hastens to you to attain
realization and purify himself through what he learns of religious teachings...

QUR'AN:   ,

i.e. while he fears Allah. And    is a sign of realization through Qur'an. Almighty Allah
says: ¥        ' (20:3) and He says: ¥#  
 ¥ (87:10)

QUR'AN: ! 
   

i.e. 'you turn your attention from him and occupy yourself with other than him...; and positioning
the second person pronoun  in the clauses " " and "¥ 
 " as well as the two pronouns in " " and '" " in the beginning of the two verses are
for the assertion and affirmation of reproval.

QUR'AN:    $¥ %    


  ¥

The particle "" is to restrain from the act for which he was reprimanded, which is frowning,
turning away, giving attention to the affluent and disregarding one who fears God.

And the pronoun in "   " (Surely they are a reminder) refers to Qur'anic verses or
the Qur'an in general and the feminine gender of the pronoun is due to the feminine form of the
predicate. And the meaning of the verse is: Surely the verses of Qur'an or the Qur'an is a
reminder, a counsel for one who takes counsel or a reminder that reminds one of the true belief
and action.

QUR'AN: %      .

This verse is a parenthetical clause (   ¥ ). And the pronoun in the verse refers to
the Qur'an or that which the Qur'an reminds, such as Divine teachings. The verse therefore would
mean: 'whosoever wishes would remember the Qur'an or that which the Qur'an reminds, i.e. to
move towards the direction of the untainted human nature ( ) and what is safeguarded in its
tablet, which is true belief and action.

Moreover, in employing the following expression "%      " there
is an allusion that there is no compulsion in the invitation to seek admonition, for no benefit
returns to the caller. Rather, the only one to benefit is one who heeds to the admonition. So let
him choose what he wants.

QUR'AN:   


&'

Al-Abrasi says in his Qur'anic exegesis ( ¥ that the word %  is the plural of %  .
And the Arabs call any object where something is written as a %  or , whether that be a
piece of paper or something else.

And the verse '%  ' is another predicate after the first predicate of the particle
''.[..   %    . Thus the implied composition would be:
 %    ]. And the apparent import of the verse denotes that the Qur'an has
been written in a number of scriptures (% ) by the hands of the Angels of Revelation. And this
view enfeebles the contention that what is meant by %  here is the Guarded Tablet (
 ). In fact no where in the Qur'an have the words %   have been employed in
their plural form to denote the Guarded Tablet. Likewise it is inadequate to contend that the
meaning of %  here is the books of the previous Prophets of God, for that is not in harmony
with the apparent import of the verse " " (in the hands of envoys) which is an
adjectival clause of % .
QUR'AN:  

Means "Ennobled & Great". And the adjective " ¥ " means elevated in terms of rank near
God. And the adjective "   " means purified from the dirt of falsehood, vain talk, doubt,
and contradictory speech. Almighty Allah says:...

QUR'AN: In the hand of envoys, Noble and pious.

"   " This is an adjectival clause following an adjectival clause of
% . And  are ¥ (envoys), the plural of  which means an envoy. And ¥ ¥
is an adjective that qualifies them in terms of their essences and  is an adjective that
qualifies them in terms of their actions, which is perform virtue.

The meaning of the verse, therefore, is as follows: The Holy Qur'an is a reminder written in a
number of scriptures which are great, elevated in status and pure from every taint and dirt; they
are written by the hands of envoys from among the Angels who are noble near Allah due to the
purity of their essences, and virtuous near Him due to the beauty of their actions.

The aforesaid verses apparently state that there are Angels for revelation, who take the
responsibility of bearing the scriptures and revealing what it contains of the Qur'an. Hence they
are the helpers of Gabriel and under his command. And there is no contradiction between
attributing them with the task of revelation and attributing Gabriel with the same as indicated in
the verse: ' ) % 
 *        
.' (26:193-194) And describing Gabriel Allah says: "(  Ö  
          
  +   
,      ." (81:19-21) Hence he is obeyed by angels
who carry out his command and do what he wants, and the act of revelation that is carried out by
his helpers is his very action. Similarly, his action and their actions are all the actions of Allah.
And we have already alluded to this discussion on several occasions.

And some opine that ' ' (envoys) in the verse refer to the scribes () among the
angels. However, the meaning that we mentioned earlier is more apparent.

Others hold that the envoys refer to the reciters of Qur'an who write and read the same. And this
opinion is has no base as you can see.

raditions
[al-abrasi in his] Al-Majma' says: It is has been said that these verses were revealed about
'Abdullah bin Umm Maktum, and he is known as 'Abdullah bin Shuray bin Malik bin Rabi'ah al-
Farhri, who belongs to the family of 'amir bin Lawi.

He is reported to have come to the Holy Prophet(s) while the latter was in a secret conversation
with 'Atabah bin Rabi'ah, 'Aba Jahl bin Hasham, 'Abbas bin 'Abd al-Muttalib, Ubayy, Umayyah
bin Khalaf in which he invited them to Allah and anticipated their change toward Islam. On
entering their presence, Ibn Umm Maktum said to the Prophet(s): 'O Messenger of Allah, recite
for me, and teach me what Allah taught you.' He continued calling the Prophet(s) thus and
repeated his call, oblivious of the fact that the Prophet(s) was busy attending to others, until signs
of displeasure were apparent in the complexion of the Messenger of Allah due to the interruption
in his conversation. The Prophet(s) thought to himself: These leaders would say: Muhammad's
followers are only blind people and slaves. So he turned his face away from him and attended to
the people whom he was conversing with. Thereupon the above verses were revealed.

After this incident, the Messenger of Allah would always venerate him, and when he would see
him he would say: 'Welcome O the one about whom my Lord reprimanded me' and ask him: 'Do
you need anything?' And the Prophet(s) left him as his representative in ( on two
occasions of battle.

he author says: al-Suyuti in his ,(  narrates the same incident from 'Aishah,
Anas and Ibn 'Abbas with slight variations. And what Al-abrasi narrated is a summary of these
traditions.

The apparent import of the verses does not indicate that they were revealed about the Prophet(s).
Rather, they purely mention a narrative which does not specify '  
  '. Instead,
there is an apparent indication in the verses that they refer to other than the Prophet(s), for the act
of frowning is not among the characteristics of the Prophet(s) vis-a-vis the enemies who differ
with him, not to speak of the guided Muslims.

Furthermore, the description that he is one who caters for the affluent and is indifferent of the
poor, does not resemble his noble traits, as is the opinion of Sayyid al-Murtadha (may Allah's
Mercy be on him).

Furthermore, Allah has described him with exalted character prior to the revelation of this
chapter as follows: '  

 ' (68:4). And this verse comes in
chapter , which according to the narrations that expound the order of revelation of the
Qur'anic chapters was revealed after the chapter -¥ ....(ch.96). So how can it be
intellectually plausible that Allah venerates his character traits at the onset of his apostleship and
does that in the absolute sense, and then later withdraws and reprimands him for some of his
actions and reproaches with an expression such as attending to the affluent despite their disbelief
and being indifferent of the believers despite their belief and guidance.

Also, Almighty Allah says: '        


     ¥ (26:214-215). Hence Allah instructed him to show kindness and be
soft and gentle to the believers. The chapter where these verses appear is among the Meccan
chapters of Qur'an, and the verse '   ' was revealed in the context of the
verse: '     ' which was revealed in the beginning of the Prophet's
invitation.

Likewise is the verse: ',  ' 


 Ö   


       
    


  '(15:88); and
in the context of the same verse the verse '  
   
    .'(15:94),which was revealed during the onset of his open
invitation. So how can it be conceived of him to frown at and disregard the believers while he
was ordered to respect their belief and be gentle and kind to them and not extend his glance
towards the world and its lovers.

Besides, preferring the affluence of the affluent, which is not at all a criteria of merit, over the
perfection of the poor and their state of spiritual equilibrium, by frowning and turning away one's
face from the poor and attending to the rich, is intellectually reckoned as a repulsive and ugly
deed, which contradicts the nobility of the human character, and hence there is no need of a
verbal prohibition to oblige its abstention.

With this in mind, as well as what was said earlier, the inadequacy of the following argument
also becomes clear: Since Allah, the Exalted, had not prohibited the Prophet(s) from this act
save in this occasion, it cannot be considered to be a sin, except after the Divine prohibition.
Before that, however, there is no sin.

This is because claiming that Allah did not prohibit him from such an act except in this case is a
forbidden contention. And presuming that it was true, it is intellectually immoral. And that
contradicts its origination from a noble character, for surely Allah described him in the absolute
sense with an exalted character before this when He said: '  


.' (68:4) And a character trait ( -) is a habitual disposition (  ) that cannot
perform an act contrary to what it dictates.

It is reported from Imam al-Sadiq (as) - as has been mentioned in ( ¥ - that these verses
were revealed about a man from Banu Umayyah who was in the company of the Prophet(s),
when Ibn Umm Maktum arrived. When the man saw him, he regarded him as filthy, gathered
himself, frowned at him and turned his face away from him. Consequently, Almighty Allah
narrated the incident and reprimanded him for that.

Also, in ( ¥ Imam al-Sadiq (as) is reported to have said: 'Whenever the Messenger of
Allah would see 'Abdullah bin Umm Maktum, he would say: 'Welcome, welcome, I swear by
Allah, Allah would never reprimand me about you; and the Prophet(s) would behave with him so
kindly, such that he would prevent the Prophet(s) from his attitude.
he author says: That which can be said about this tradition is similar to what was said about
the earlier tradition; and the meaning of the phrase '
     /   '
means that he would refrain from coming into the presence of the Prophet(s) out of introversion
and shame due to the Prophet's(s) over generous attitude towards him.

Chapter 80 - Abasa (He Frowned), Verses 17-


42
ϩ˵ ή˴ ϔ˴ ˸ϛ΃˴ Ύ˴ϣ ϥ ˵ Ύ˴δϧ˶Ϲ΍ Ϟ ˴ Θ˶ ϗ˵ {17} Ϫ˵ Ϙ˴ Ϡ˴Χ ˴ ˯˳ ˸ϲη ˴ ˷ϱ˶ ΃˴ ˸Ϧϣ˶ {18} ϩ˵ έ˴ Ϊ˴˷ Ϙ˴ ϓ˴ Ϫ˵ Ϙ˴ Ϡ˴Χ
˴ Δ˳ ϔ˴ ˸τϧ˵˷ Ϧ˶ϣ{19} ϩ˵ ˴ήδ ˴˷ ϳ˴ Ϟ
˴ ϴ˶Βδ
˴˷ ϟ΍ Ϣ˴˷ Λ˵ {20} ϩ˵ ή˴ Β˴ ˸ϗ΄˴ϓ˴ Ϫ˵ Η˴ Ύ˴ϣ΃˴ Ϣ˴˷ Λ˵ {21}
ϩ˵ ή˴ θ ˴ ϧ˴΃ ˯Ύ˴η ΍˴Ϋ·˶ Ϣ˴˷ Λ˵ {22} ϩ˵ ή˴ ϣ˴ ΃˴ Ύ˴ϣ ξ ˶ ˸Ϙϳ˴ Ύ˷Ϥ˴ ϟ˴ ϼ ˴˷ ϛ˴ {23} ϓ˴ Ϫ˶ ϣ˶ Ύ˴όσ˴ ϰ˴ϟ·˶ ϥ ˵ Ύ˴δϧ˶Ϲ΍ ή˶ ψ ˵ Ϩ˴ϴ˸Ϡ{24} Ύ˷Β˱ λ ˴ ˯Ύ˴Ϥ˸ϟ΍ Ύ˴Ϩ˸ΒΒ˴ λ ˴ Ύ˷ϧ˴ ΃˴{25} Ύ˴Ϩ˸ϘϘ˴ η ˴ Ϣ˴˷ Λ˵
Ύ˷Ϙ˱ η
˴ ν ˴ ˸έϷ ˴ ΍{26} Ύ˷Β˱ Σ ˴ Ύ˴Ϭϴ˶ϓ Ύ˴Ϩ˸ΘΒ˴ ϧ˴΄ϓ˴ {27} Ύ˱Β˸π˴ϗϭ˴ Ύ˱ΒϨ˴ ϋ ˶ ϭ˴ {28} ϼ˸Ψϧ˴ ϭ˴ Ύ˱ϧϮ˵Θ˸ϳί˴ ϭ˴ {29} Ύ˱Β˸ϠϏ ˵ ϖ˴ ΋˶ ΍˴ΪΣ
˴ ϭ˴ {30} Ύ˷Α˱ ΃˴ϭ˴ Δ˱ Ϭ˴ ϛ˶ Ύ˴ϓϭ˴ {31}
Θ˴ ϣ˴˷ ˸ϢϜ˵ ϣ˶ Ύ˴ό˸ϧ΄˴ϟ˶ϭ˴ ˸ϢϜ˵ ϟ˴˷ Ύ˱ϋΎ{32} Δ˵ Χ ˴˷ Ύ˷μ˴ ϟ΍ ˶Ε˯˴ Ύ˴Ο ΍˴ΫΈ˶ϓ˴ {33} Ϫ˶ ϴ˶Χ΃˴ ˸Ϧϣ˶ ˯˵ ˸ήϤ˴ ˸ϟ΍ ή˵˷ ϔ˶ ϳ˴ ϡ˴ ˸Ϯϳ˴ {34} Ϫ˶ ϴ˶Α΃˴ϭ˴ Ϫ˶ ϣ˶˷ ΃˵ϭ˴ {35} Ϫ˶ ϴ˶ϨΑ˴ ϭ˴ Ϫ˶ Θ˶ Β˴ Σ ˶ Ύ˴λϭ˴ {36}
Ϫ˶ ϴ˶Ϩ˸ϐϳ˵ ˲ϥ˸΄η ˴ ά˳ Ό˶ ϣ˴ ˸Ϯϳ˴ ˸ϢϬ˵ ˸Ϩϣ˶˷ Ή
˳ ή˶ ˸ϣ΍ Ϟ ˶˷ ˵Ϝϟ˶{37} ˲Γή˴ ϔ˶ ˸δϣ˵˷ ά˳ Ό˶ ϣ˴ ˸Ϯϳ˴ ˲ϩϮ˵Οϭ˵ {38} ˲Γή˴ θ ˶ ˸ΒΘ˴ ˸δ˷ϣ˵ ˲ΔϜ˴ Σ˶ Ύ˴ο{39} ˲Γή˴ Β˴ Ϗ ˴ Ύ˴Ϭ˸ϴϠ˴ϋ
˴ ά˳ Ό˶ ϣ˴ ˸Ϯϳ˴ ˲ϩϮ˵Ο˵ϭϭ˴ {40}
˲Γή˴ Θ˴ ϗ˴ Ύ˴ϬϘ˵ ϫ˴ ˸ήΗ˴ {41} Γ˵ ή˴ Π ˴ ϔ˴ ˸ϟ΍ Γ˵ ή˴ ϔ˴ Ϝ˴ ˸ϟ΍ Ϣ˵ ϫ˵ Ϛ
˴ Ό˶ ϟ˴˸ϭ΃˵{42}
{17} Perish man! How ungrateful is he! {18} From what has He created him? {19} He has
created him from a drop of [seminal] fluid, and then proportioned him. {20} Then He made the
way easy for him; {21} then He made him die and buried him; {22} and then, when He wished,
resurrected him. {23} No indeed! He has not yet carried out what He had commanded him. {24}
So let man observe his food: {25} We poured down water plenteously, {26} then We split the
earth into fissures {27} and made the grain grow in it, {28} and vines and vegetables, {29}
olives and date palms, {30} and densely-planted gardens, {31} fruits and pastures, {32} as a
sustenance for you and your livestock. {33} So when the deafening Cry comes {34} the day
when a man will evade his brother, {35} his mother and his father, {36} his spouse and his sons
{37} that day each of them will have a task to keep him preoccupied. {38} That day some faces
will be bright, {39} laughing and joyous. {40} And some faces on that day will be covered with
dust, {41} overcast with gloom. {42} It is they who are the faithless, the vicious.

Commentary
These verses curse the human being and express wonder at his extreme denial of the Lordship of
his Lord. It also points out to the Divine Command in its initiation and subsistence, for surely
man does not own anything for himself, whether it be his creation or the management of his
affairs. Rather it is Allah Who Created him from a degenerate drop of sperm, ¥   

               
  # 
  .' Hence Allah is his Lord and Creator, and one who
absolutely controls his affairs. Despite this, man does not perform what his Lord commands him
and does not get guided by His guidance.

And if man were to look at his food, which is only one of the manifestations of Divine
management and only a handful from the oceans of His Mercy he would witness such a vastness
of Divine sovereignty and fineness of creation, that it would intellectually bewilder and astonish
him. And beyond that are blessings that cannot be enumerated. 'And if you count the blessings of
Allah you cannot enumerate them.'

Therefore concealing the sovereignty of his Lord and neglecting to thank Him for His blessing is
astonishing. And surely the human being is very oppressive and disbelieving. And they would
soon witness the result of their thankfulness or unthankfulness in the form of joy and glad tidings
or misery...

And these verses, as you can see, are not in disharmony with the previous verses and can be said
to be of the same context, although some exegetes opine that they were revealed on another
occasion of revelation, as we shall come to see.

QUR'AN: /  #  

This is a curse on the human being due to his nature in being immersed in following his vain
desires and forgetting the Lordship of his Lord and denying to follow His commands.

The clause '  ¥ is an expression of astonishment in being extremely disobedient and
concealing the clear truth while the human being witnesses himself to be under the control of
Allah, other than whose sovereignty no one has any share.

Hence what is meant by '' is any kind of concealment of the truth whatsoever, which
corresponds to rejecting the Lordship and relinquishing worship. And this can be endorsed by the
verses that appear in the context of these verses which allude to areas of Lordly control where
 is taken to mean 'the concealment of truth' and 'relinquishing worship'. Some exegetes have
interpreted  to mean 'the neglect of gratitude' and 'not appreciating the blessing' which
although is conceptually correct in itself. However, the meaning that we mentioned before, in
view of the context of the verse, is more suitable.

Zamakhshari says in his 0  : The verse '/   ' is a curse on the human being,
and the worst of its kind near the Arabs, for  is the most intense and dishonorable
calamity of the world. And the phrase '  ' is to be amazed at the human being's extreme
sense of ingratitude vis-a-vis the blessings of Allah. And you shall not find any tone of speech
more stern, forceful in penetration, and vociferous in annoyance, than this; and despite the
proximity of the meaning of the two clauses of the verse, there is nothing more comprehensive in
rapprochement and complete in meaning, despite its brevity.

And it is said that the clause '  ' is interrogative and it means 'what is that which made
him a disbeliever?' However the preceding probability is more eloquent.
QUR'AN: '  ¥ - '

Means, according to the context, 'From what did Allah Create the human being so that he
deserves to transgress and be arrogant of belief and obedience'; and dropping the active noun in
the verse ' - ' as well as the verbs that follow it, are to indicate their clarity; for it is
innately known and the polytheists have admitted the same, other than Allah, there is no creator.

And the interrogation was brought about as an emphasis of astonishment in the verse ' 
 ' (how ungrateful is he!). And astonishment only comes about with regard to those events
whose causes are not apparent. Hence the verse would first of all like to say: the human being's
extreme ungratefulness is astonishing; it then asked: when Allah created him was there
something in his creation that necessitated extreme ungratefulness; thereafter an answer negating
the same is given that he has no evidence with which he can prove himself and has no excuse to
support himself for his has been created from a degenerate drop of sperm and neither owns
anything of his creation nor has any control over his affairs in his life, death, and resurrection. In
short, the interrogation is an introductory question for the answer that is given in the verse ' 
 - '

QUR'AN: ( - - # 


     1 2
      .

Mentioning  in the absolute sense is for its abasement. In other words it means 'He created
him from a degenerate drop of seminal fluid'. Hence he has no right to transgress through
ungratefulness and show arrogance vis-a-vis Divine submission while he is of such origin.

QUR'AN: )- :

Means that He conferred him a proportion in his essence, attributes and actions. Hence he cannot
transcend beyond the limit that has been proportioned for him, for Divine sovereignty
encompasses him from every side and he cannot independently acquire what has not been
proportioned for him.

QUR'AN:    :

The context of the verse that apparently negates any excuse from the human being for his
ungratefulness and arrogant attitude shows that the meaning of  (the path) which is in its
indefinite form refers to the path towards the obedience of Allah and carrying out His
commands; in other words you may say 'the path towards good and salvation'.
Therefore the verse would like to repel any kind of influence, for if it is said: '#
  
     
     ' it is possible for the listener to
think that if creation and proportion encompass the human beings from all sides, the actions the
spring from his essence and attributes are prescribed and linked to the Divine Will, which cannot
be contravened, and therefore human actions would necessarily come to transpire and
indispensably exist and he would forcefully have do them lacking any volition of his own. Hence
the human being would not be responsible in his disbelief when he disbelieves nor in his
sinfulness when he sins and does not do what Allah has ordered him to do, and this is only due to
Allah's predetermination and volition. Hence neither is there any rapprochement or blame on the
human being, nor any religious claim linked to him, for all these are derivatives of volition, and
the human being has no volition.

So Allah repelled the ambiguity by saying: ' #   '. A gist of the
answer to the said ambiguity is that 'to create' and 'proportion' do not conflict with man having a
free will in what he has been ordered to do such as belief and obedience, which is a path towards
salvation for which man was created. This is because all that for which something is created is
easy for the thing. And that means that human acts are proportioned according to his free will
and the Divine Will is linked to the human action by his free will to do such and such a deed.
Therefore the action originated from the human being, and despite that it is linked to Divine
proportioning.

Hence the human being is free in his action and responsible for the same, although they may be
linked to Divine proportioning. And we have discussed this repeatedly under relevant verses in
our exegesis.

It is said that the meaning of 'making the path easy' is the exit of the human being from the
womb of his mother and the meaning is: 'Thereafter He made easy for the human being the path
to exit while he was fetus created from seminal fluid.

It is also said that it means guiding toward religion and expounding the path of virtue and evil, as
Almighty Allah says: '     '.

QUR'AN: ' #     '   means to 'take the human life' and
by - (the infinitive of the verb - ) the burial is hiding the dead body in the depth
of the earth is meant. And this happens mostly by building an edifice which has been a custom of
the human beings, and for this reason it has been attributed to Allah for He is the one who guided
them to that and inspired that to do it. Hence as this act of burial is human beings it is also
attributed to Allah.

And it is said - means to make the dead human being the possessor of a grave, which
means to order for his burial out of his veneration and for the concealment his stanching dead
body so that others are not disturbed thereby and do not feel an aversion for the same.

The first opinion is more suitable due to the context of the verses that have been brought to
remind Allah's ontological ()- and not legislative ( ¥) - control, upon which this
opinion is based.

QUR'AN: '  # 


  ¥.

In al-Majma' it is said:   means to enliven, to continue one's state after death as is the
case with a folded attire when unfolded. Thus its meaning is 'resurrection' when Allah wills. And
in the verse there is an indication of the suddenness of resurrection, such that non save Allah
knows about it.

QUR'AN: ' #  


  # 
  .'

That which the apparent context connotes is that the article '' negates the question implied in
the context and alluded to by Allah in the verse: '#  
  # 

  .' It is as if when it was pointed out that is created and under Divine control from
the top to the bottom of his existence in terms of creation, proportioning, easing the path, causing
to die and get buried while all these are His blessings, it was asked and said: 'Why then did He
create the human being while this is the state of affairs? And was he submissive to the Divine
Lordship or grateful for His blessings? Thereupon in response it was said: 'No indeed.' Then it
was explained further and said: He has not carried what Allah commanded him; rather, he has
been ungrateful and disobedient.

Hence it is clear from the preceding discussion that the pronoun implied in the verb '- '
refers to the human being and the meaning of ¥- ¥ ¥ in the verse is   (to carry what
Allah commanded him to do). And it is said that the inferred pronoun in the said verb refers to
Allah, and thus the verse means: 'Allah has not ordained for this disbeliever to carry out what He
commanded such as belief and obedience. He only ordered him to carry out what he ordered him
to do, as a completion of his evidence. And this opinion is farfetched.

And it is clear that the reproach and censure in the verses are only aimed at the human being in
terms of the attitude of his nature in being extremely ungrateful as is indicated in the verse:
¥    ¥ (14:34) Hence it refers to one who has clad
himself with the garment of ungratefulness and exceeded the limits through enmity. And thus
clarifies the inadequacy of what has been said by some exegetes that the verse generally refers to
the disbeliever as well as the believer, for none has worshipped him that way He ought to be
worshipped.
And that is because the pronoun that returns to the human being that is mentioned in the
beginning of the verses refers to him in his natural construct which calls him towards extreme
ungratefulness and accords to one who actualizes such a trait.

QUR'AN: '%     '

It is derived from the aforesaid as an exposition of the synopsis. For it draws the attention of the
human being towards his food, which he consumes and from which he derives help for his
subsistence; and this while it is only one among the countless blessings which the Divine
Lordship facilitated to satisfy his needs in this life so that he should reflect over it, and witness
the vastness of Divine sovereignty that baffles his mind and bewilders his intellect, and how
Divine attention in all its fine and comprehensive nature- is attached to the good of the human
being and the uprightness of his affair.

And  (lit. human being) in the verse, as it has been said, is other than that which has been
mentioned in the verse 'Perish human being! How ungrateful is he!' for the human being
mentioned in this verse is one who is specifically ungrateful, and is unlike the human being
mentioned in the verse under discussion, who is instructed to reflect, for that refers to every
human being, and that is why it was literally mentioned and not implied from the verb.

QUR'AN: Ö    


   
.

It is commonly read as '' with a ¥  over the    - and it is a detailed exposition of
Divine control over the human food, obviously its primary stages, for a comprehensive word
explaining the details of the particularities of the system which facilitates all these things, and the
wide system that flows in all these things and the existential interconnections between each of
them and the human being cannot be contained by the exposition of human speech.

In short the word % in the verse 'Ö   ' is to pour water from
a height. And what is meant by 'pouring water' in the verse is to bring down rain on the earth for
the growth of plants; and it can also include 'making the wells and river flow' for whatever is
contained in the depths of the earth from the treasures of water is only from rain.

QUR'AN: ' Ö   '.

The verse apparently refers to the fissures caused by the growth of plants, and that is why the
present clause was adjoined to the preceding clause 'the pouring down of water' by the particle of
adjunction '  ' and the plantation of the seed too has been adjoined to it.
QUR'AN: '   ¥

The pronoun ' ' in   refers to 'the earth', and  refers to all the species of grain which the
human being consumes such as barley, wheat; the same applies to grapes, vegetables, etc.

QUR'AN: '.'

¥ (grape) is commonly well- known and it is employed to denote the vine tree, and
perhaps that is what the verse actually refers to. And similar is the case with olives.

And -  means fresh vegetables such as herbs that the human beings eat. The verb
- , which is in the imperfect tense means 'to cut one after another'. And it has been said
that the meaning of -  is that which is cut from among the plants, so that the beasts can
feed the same.

QUR'AN: '  '.

These are well-known plants.

QUR'AN: '.'

 ¥- is the plural of the noun - and it has been translated as a fenced garden. And
  is the plural of  ¥. It is commonly said:    ', which means 'a huge
and thick tree' Hence  ¥-  would mean gardens that contain huge and thick trees.

QUR'AN: ''.

It is said the   means all kinds of fruits. Some however say that grapes and
pomegranates are not included in the word. And some have said: a specific mention of what
comes under fruits such as olives and date palms is to consider their value and status. And the
word  means pasture.

QUR'AN: '
   
.'

This clause is ¥ (an object noun which confers the reason why something is done).
Hence the verse would mean: We planted what we planted of the food that you consume so that
it may be a means of sustenance for you and the livestock that you have chosen for yourselves.

And a transfer from the third person (%     ) to the second person (

    ) in the verse is to underline the favor of Divine lordship and His
blessing.

QUR'AN: '%   



':

This verse is a reference to the final consequence of what has been said about the universal
Lordship and control of the human being which involved the Divine command for submission
and was either carried out by the human being or not. And that is Judgment Day when every
human being would be aptly given the consequence of his deeds.

And    means 'an intense cry' that deafens the ears due to its intensity. And it refers to
the 'blowing of the trumpet' in this verse.

QUR'AN: ¥           ¥

This refers to the intense difficulty of the day, for those among the relatives and near ones of the
human beings who would run and escape were the same people who would seek shelter in them
and would be their friends and take them as their supporters and helpers where they would seek
protection in this world. However, they would run away from them on the Judgment Day, for the
reason that difficulty would envelop the day such that they would not get respite in dealing with
other than themselves and pay attention to others, whosoever that may be. Therefore when the
confusion is aggravated and intensified and envelops the human being it draws him to himself
and disengages him from others.

And the proof of this contention is in the verse that follows: ' 
    
   

 ' - which means that it suffices him from being occupied with other
than himself.

And it is said that there are other reasons behind the escape of the human being's own relatives
and near ones. These however are not supported by cogent proofs, and thus we have overlooked
and not mentioned them here.

QUR'AN: '  


     '

This explains that human beings would be divided on that day into two factions: people of
salvation and people of wretchedness. And it alludes that they can be deciphered by their
complexions. And  means 'the brightness of the face' and its radiance through joy
and happiness. And anticipating glad tidings can be known through what appears in their faces
after having witness the glad tidings that await them.

QUR'AN: '  


  
 ¥
  in the verse refers to dust and dirt which is the complexion of grief and sorrow.

QUR'AN: ' 


  '

Blackness and darkness would overcast and envelop them. And surely the state of the two groups
have been explained by explaining the state of their complexions, because 'the complexion' is the
mirror of the heart in joy and sorrow.

QUR'AN: '     


  '

i.e. they are those who combine in themselves disbelief in ideology and corruption which is an
detestable sin in action, or it would like to say that they are ungrateful of the blessings of Allah
and mischief mongers. And this is a definition of the second group. They are the people of
wretchedness and misery. And no comment was brought to qualify the first group who are the
people of salvation because the speech is led by the context of admonition and attention to the
wretched people.

Chapter 112 - Al-Ikhlas (he Unity), Verses


1-4
Ϣ˶ ϴ˶Σή˴˷ ϟ΍ Ϧ
˶ Ϥ˸Σή˴˷ ϟ΍ Ϳ
˶ ΍ Ϣ˶ ˸δΑ˶ - ˲ΪΣ
˴ ΃˴ Ϫ˵ Ϡ˴˷ϟ΍ Ϯ˴ ϫ˵ ˸Ϟϗ˵ {1} Ϊ˵ Ϥ˴ μ
˴˷ ϟ΍ Ϫ˵ Ϡ˴˷ϟ΍{2} ˸Ϊϟ˴Ϯ˵ϳ ˸Ϣϟ˴ϭ˴ ˸ΪϠ˶˴ϳ ˸Ϣϟ˴{3} ˲ΪΣ
˴ ΃˴ ΍˱Ϯϔ˵ ϛ˵ Ϫ˵ ϟ˴ ˸ϦϜ˵ ϳ˴ ˸Ϣϟ˴ϭ˴ {4}
In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful. - {1} Say: He, Allah, is Unique! {2} Allah is
He on Whom all depend. {3} He begets not, nor is He begotten. {4} And (there is) none is like
Him.

General Comment
This chapter describes the pure Oneness ( ) of Allah (swt), freeing Him from all kinds of
need without associating anything with Him and that which is not in His essence, attributes or
actions. This is pure   according to the Qur'an and it is one of the specialties of the
Qur'an and the edifice of all the Islamic knowledge.

There are numerous traditions discussing about the virtues of this  including those received
by Shias and Sunnis that say that this  is equivalent to one third of the Qur'an and the same
will be forthcoming in our narrative discourse.

This  is either a Meccan Sura or revealed in Medina, but is likely that it descended in
Mecca according to the reasons of its revelation.
Commentary
Qur'an: %#  *-

The word  (unique) is an attribute which is derived from the word Ö  (one) but the word
 is used about something which cannot be counted or numbered and something that does
not accept numerousness (from all sides) - not even evidently or imagined. Therefore, the word
 does not mean one, unlike the word Ö , so that we may start counting two, three and so
on. In the (usage of the) word , whatever is followed by a second is that very same thing.
For example if someone says: "No one (from the people) came to me" (   - 
 ), it negates the coming of one, two or more but if someone says "one (from the people) did
not come to me" (      ) it negates the coming of only one but not two,
three or more.1

In this backdrop, the word  (in the verse under discussion) is used in a positive sentence and
it has a connotation that in His essence, Allah is such as no one like unto Him can even be
imagined - be it one or more. Therefore, regardless of its condition in actuality, it is impossible
even to imagine it properly.

Qur'an:  # Ö 

The literal meaning of " " is to intend or to depend. The word has been explained in many
different ways. More so, it has been explained as the One on Whom all depend. The word  
in this verse has been used without any restriction ± therefore the meaning "One on Whom all
depend" is more acceptable.

For Allah is the one who brought everything into existence ± therefore everything with the
exception of Him (Who is self-Existing) depend on Him. Just like He said:

%# 
  
   +     (7:54)

   +    (53:42)

By mentioning the word "Allah" again in the verse under discussion saying: "Allah is He on
Whom all depend" and without saying: "He is the One on Whom all depend" or "Allah is Unique
and One on Whom all depend" shows that each of these two verses is sufficient in explaining (in
a limited way) the attributes of Allah.

These two verses praise Allah (swt) in His attributes of essence and action. Therefore, the clause
"Allah is Unique" is the praise of His Essence and the clause "Allah is One Whom all depend" is
the praise of action - which praises Allah for He is the end of everything.

It has also been said that the word   means One who does not eat, drink, sleep, beget or is
He begotten. Therefore the verse that follows (#   # ) is the
explanation of the word  .
Qur'an: #  #      # 

These two verses refute that Allah begets something through another thing by way of separation2
- just like what the Christians claim about 'Isa (as) that he is the son of God or the claim by the
polytheists concerning some of their idols that they were the sons of God.

In the same manner, these two verses refute that He was begotten or He came into existence from
another thing just like what the polytheists claim. In their (the polytheists) belief of god, there is
god the father, god the mother and god the son.

Also, these two verses refute that God has a partner in His actions just like the claim among
people like Firawn and Nimrud - who called themselves gods.

To give birth is one way of reproducing (or populating) however one defines it - for the one who
is born has to cling to (depend on), and becomes part of, the one who gave birth and definitely
each of the parts will be in need of each other. But Allah (swt) is not in need of anything and that
all things are in need of Him. Therefore, Allah does not beget.

His saying: "#  " a thing which is begotten must be dependable on the one
who begets and Allah is not dependable on or in need of anyone, therefore He was not begotten.

His saying: "    # " it is indeed not possible that He is self-Sufficient
(and on Whom all depend) if there is someone else like Him or a model like Him. For, He alone
is the One on Whom all depend, thus He has no example or model. Therefore it has become clear
that these two verses is the explanation of the word " " and they also confirm or establish
Allah's Oneness in His Essence, Attributes, Actions and in addition, those things that relate to
His Majesty and Glory. For this reason, this whole chapter explains the attributes of Allah and
His Oneness.3

It is also said that the word "" means wife because a wife is an example of a husband. In
this case, the verse (under discussion) takes on the meaning of the following verse:

 #'     +   


    (72:3)

raditions
In 0, from Muhammad bin Muslim, from Abu Abdillah (as) who said: "Indeed, some Jews
asked the Prophet (s): 'Praise your Lord for us'. The Prophet waited for three days without
replying them, and then this  was revealed."

he author says: In   , it has been reported from al-Askary (as) that the one to ask the
Prophet (s) was Abdullah bin Suriyya, a Jew. In some Sunni traditions, it is mentioned that the
one who asked the prophet (s) was Abdullah bin Salam, who asked him while in Mecca and
thereafter he became a Muslim but he concealed his faith. In some Sunni traditions it says that
some Jews had asked the Prophet while some others say that the polytheists of Mecca were the
ones who asked the Prophet (s).
In (¥ from the  from Asbagh bin Nabata from 'Ali (as) who said: "the praises
(attributes) of Allah is ¥$  ¥.

And in  from the , from as-Sadiq (as) who said in a tradition that in Meraj (ascention)
Allah (swt) told the Prophet to recite "$  " for it is His praise. This tradition with the
same meaning has been narrated by al-Kadhim (as) and also in many traditions of the Sunnis
from among the companions like Ibn Abbas, Abu Dhard, Jabir bin Masud, Abu Sais al-Khudr,
Muadh bin Anas, Abu Ayyub, Abu Amama and others. There are many traditions received from
the Shias regarding the same.

he author says: They have all explained that this chapter is equivalent to one third of the
Qur'an in different ways one of them being that the Qur'an has the exposition of three main
pillars or principles:  , Prophethood and the Hereafter and this whole chapter (of  )
covers one of the pillars i.e.  .

In   it is reported that 'Ali (as) said: "One day I saw Khidr (as) in my dream before the
battle of Badr and I said to him: 'teach me something that will protect me from the enemies' and
he (Khidr) said: 'say,     ' (O You besides Whom there is no one
except You). So when I woke up, I narrated this to the Messenger (s) who told me: 'O 'Ali you
have been taught a glorious name'. That is why this was at the tip of my tongue on the day of the
battle of Badr."

he author says: Indeed, Amirul Mu'mineen ('Ali ibn Abi Talib) recited $  until the
end (of the chapter) and then recited "     
- "  (O You besides Whom there is no one except You. Protect me and help me
from the disbelieving people)

In 0, from the  of Daud bin al-Qassim Jafari it is reported that he asked Abu Jaffar
(as): "What is the meaning of  ?" He (Abu Jaffar) said: "It means the One on Whom all
depend from little to plenty."

In the meaning of the word  , there are other explanations received from the Imams (as):

al-Baqir (as) said: "%  means one who is obeyed and no one else".

al-Hussein (as) said: "%  means one who has no example or model, one who does not sleep,
one who is available and will always be available".

as-Sajjad (as) said: "%  is He Who if He wants something, He says: 'Be' and %  is (also)
He who has produced things and created unique species in pairs - male and female.

he author says: The actual meaning of % , as narrated by Abu Jaffar II (as), is that which
is in keeping with the intended theme (of the h). So various meanings have been transmitted
by the Imams (as) in their tafseer and it compels us to say that %  means the One (Almighty
God) on Whom all depend for all their needs without Him having any dependence (or need).
In   it has been narrated by Wahab bin Wahab al-Quraysh who narrates from as-Sadiq
(as) who narrates from his grandfathers that people of Basra had written to al-Hussein (as) asking
him for the meaning of %  The Imam (as) replied them as follows: "In the Name of Allah,
the Beneficent and the Most Merciful. Do not argue and talk about the Qur'an without any
knowledge because I heard the Messenger (saw) say (about the Qur'an) that whoever says about
the Qur'an without any knowledge, then he should prepare for himself a seat in the fire of hell.
And Allah Himself has said: "%#  *-  # Ö . #
  #      # "

In the same   from the  of Ibn Abu Umair who narrates from al-Kadhim (as) that
he said: "Know that Almighty God (swt) is only One! One on Whom all depend, He did not
beget to be inherited nor was He begotten to be associated (to have partners)."

In another sermon of 'Ali (as), he said: "He (Allah) was not begotten except that He should not
have a partner in His Glory and He does not beget except that He should not be inherited.

he author says: There are many traditions narrating what has been mentioned in the foregoing.

Footnotes
[1]
This example also shows how the word  is used in negative and positive sentences
respectively. ( )

[2]
When part of a body separates and forms into another thing. ( )

[3]
These two verses negate such factors (like begetting and being begotten) that impose some
limits and isolation on Allah. ( )

Chapter 113 - Al-Falaq (he Dawn), Verses 1-


5
Ϳ
˶ ΍ Ϣ˶ ˸δΑ˶ Ϣ˶ ϴ˶Σή˴˷ ϟ΍ Ϧ
˶ Ϥ˸Σή˴˷ ϟ΍ - ϖ ˶ Ϡ˴ϔ˴ ˸ϟ΍ Ώ
˶˷ ˴ήΑ˶ Ϋ˵ Ϯ˵ϋ΃˴ ˸Ϟϗ˵ {1} ϖ
˴ Ϡ˴Χ
˴ Ύ˴ϣ ή˶˷ η
˴ ˸Ϧϣ˶ {2} ΐ
˴ ϗ˴ ϭ˴ ΍˴Ϋ·˶ ϖ
˳γ
˶ Ύ˴Ϗ ή˶˷ η
˴ ˸Ϧϣ˶ ϭ˴ {3} ϲ˶ϓ Ε
˶ Ύ˴ΛΎ˷ϔ˴ Ϩ˴˷ϟ΍ ή˶˷ η
˴ ˸Ϧϣ˶ ϭ˴
Ϊ˶ Ϙ˴ ό˵ ˸ϟ΍{4} Ϊ˴ δ ˴Σ˴ ΍˴Ϋ·˶ Ϊ˳ γ
˶ Ύ˴Σ ή˶˷ η
˴ ˸Ϧϣ˶ ϭ˴ {5}
In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful. - {1} Say: I seek refuge in the Lord of the
dawn, {2} From the evil of what He has created, {3} And from the evil of the utterly dark night
when it comes, {4} And from the evil of those who blow on knots, {5} And from the evil of the
envious when he envies.

General Comment
The Prophet (s.a.w.) has been commanded to seek refuge in Allah (for his well-being) from all
evil including some special ones as well. This chapter descended in Medina according to the
circumstances or reasons for its revelation.

Commentary
Qur'an: % +   

Seeking refuge means guarding and protecting from evil by seeking it from the one who can
provide such protection. The word - means the opening or crack whereas the word -
(dawn, daybreak) is an adjective in the meaning of an object i.e. cleavage in the meaning of
something which breaks through or cleaves. This is usually how the daybreak is described
because it cuts or cleaves through the darkness. This leads us to the meaning behind the
expression "I seek refuge in the Lord of the dawn" because He (Allah) makes the dawn emerge
from the darkness. Thus, the meaning is: I seek refuge in the Lord of the dawn - He who causes
the dawn to break through the darkness. And the reason of this expression is to seek refuge from
evil that hides the good and conceals what is manifest.

It was said that - means every created thing that is manifest and not veiled. As a matter of
fact, within the world of creation lies a crack which leads to the realm of obliviousness - an
opening which exposes the evil into existence. The latter becomes applicable to the beings. It has
also been said that the meaning of - is a pit in hell as strongly supported by some traditions.

Qur'an: )    # 




In other words, any bearer of evil from among mankind, jinn and animals including all His
creations that bear evil and one should not be preoccupied about it.

Qur'an:       




In %  , it is mentioned that word   (dusk) means the early part of the evening (just
before sunset) and the night or darkness becomes apparent when the twilight has disappeared or
ended. Thus, the meaning "from the evil of the utterly dark night when it comes" is appropriate.

The relationship between evil and night is established because darkness helps or assists the evil
doer in his evil deeds and covers him. Therefore, there is more evil (carried out) at night rather
than during day time and one also becomes more vulnerable to evil at night than during day time.
It was said that what is meant by darkness (in the verse) is every evil doer who strikes by
performing evil.

In this context, mentioning the evil of the night after the evil of what He has created, in the
manner of mentioning the specific after the general, is for the purpose of emphasis. Allah (s.w.t)
has drawn our close attention to three types of evil in this chapter - the evil of the night, the evil
of the witchcrafts and the evil of the envious - because people are often heedless or inattentive to
these things.
Qur'an:        

This refers to the sorceresses and witches who bewitch (others) by blowing into the knots. The
women have been specifically mentioned here because they seem to favor witchcraft (and magic)
more than men. This affirms the impact of witchcraft in general just like Allah has said in the
story of Harut and Marut:

"&     (Harut and Marut), 


 
   

    
    '
   ¥
   " (2:102)

In the same manner, as demonstrated in the story of Firawn and his magicians.

It is also said: "from the evil of those who blow knots" refers to women who tend to change the
standpoints of their husbands - in order to make them approve the women's beliefs and meet their
demands. In fact, the knots represent the standpoint and to blow into the knots is to dissolve
them.

Qur'an:        

This verse identifies the state in which envy overwhelms man and drives him to live by the envy
that he possesses, thus affecting him.

It was said: the verse includes the people who cast an evil-eye upon others. In fact, the evil-eye is
a kind of psychic envy realized whenever the envious observes a thing that he likes and shows
his admiration thereto.

raditions
Abd ibn Hamid has narrated from Zaid ibn Aslam, who said: "Someone among the Jews casted a
spell on the Prophet (s.a.w.) who complained (of being unwell) and was thus visited by Gabriel
who revealed upon him, the last two chapters of the Qur'an ( and )-), and he (Gabriel)
said: 'Indeed, someone from the Jews has cast a spell on you and it (the charm) is in so-and-so
well'. So the Messenger sent 'Ali (a.s) who brought that charm and ordered him to untie the knot
while reciting (the verses of  and )-) until the Prophet (s.a.w.) regained his wellbeing.
(,¥( )

he author says: A similar tradition is found in  ¥  (medicine of the Imams)
attributed to Muhammad bin Sanan from al-Mufadhal from as-Sadiq (a.s) and many traditions
from the ahlul Sunnah with slight variations. More than one of these traditions mention that the
Messenger sent (to get the charm from the well) 'Ali (as) together with Ammar bin Yassir and
Zubair.

The contents of such traditions have confused some people because they say that the Messenger
(s.a.w.) cannot be affected by magic so how did he succumb to the spell? But Allah has said:

"(Why)          (not) 


  3" 
"!       
 %  

          
" (25:8-9)

In these verses, they (the disbelievers) refer to the Prophet as being bewitched and insane whose
mind was corrupted by the effect of magic. The fact is that the Messenger was unwell bodily
(and not mentally) due to the effect of magic. This is an example to show the absence of proofs
that He (the Prophet) was immune from witchcraft and magic.

It has been narrated that, many times, the Prophet (s.a.w.) used to seek refuge (in Allah) for his
grandsons Hassan and Hussein (a.s) by reciting these two chapters()-). It has been
narrated by Uqba bin Amir who said: "The Messenger (s) said: none of the verses revealed to
me are like (¥  ()-)". (( ¥)

he author says: This tradition is also found in ,¥( attributed to at-Tirmidhi,
Nasai and among others A tradition with the same meaning has been narrated by Tabarani in 
 on the authority of Ibn Masud. In fact, the reason that no other similar chapters were
revealed (from the whole Qur'an) is because they ()-and ) exclusively aim at seeking
refuge in Allah - something that none of the other chapters share.

Furthermore, it has been reported by Ahmad, al-Bazzar, Tabrani and Ibn Murdawayh quoting Ibn
Abbas and Ibn Masud who related that people talked about these two chapters saying: "Do not
combine the Qur'an with things (chapters) that are not part thereof since they are not part of the
Book of Allah and the Prophet (s.a.w.) was only ordered to seek refuge in Allah by them. Even
then, Ibn Masud did not read them as part of the Qur'an. (,¥( )

he author says: As-Suyuti said, quoting al-Bazzar: "Ibn Masud did not follow any of the
companions and verily, it was said about the Prophet (s.a.w.) that He read (these two chapters) in
prayers. Thus, it was proven that they were at the end of the Qur'an".

Abi Bakr al-Hadrami said: I told Abu Jaafer (a.s) that Ibn Masud was erasing the two chapters of
refuge from the Qur'an. He then replied: "My grandfather used to say: 'certainly Ibn Masud did
so according to his own opinion'"

he author says: There are numerous traditions regarding the ways adopted by both sides
(Sunni and Shia) showing that there is a definite report among all the Islamic sects relevant to
whether these two chapters are part of the Qur'an or not. This has confused some of the deniers
of the miracle of the Qur'an who say that whether the two chapters were a miracle in eloquence
or not, it does not matter if they are not part of the Qur'an, like the opinion of Ibn Masud.

Reply: The specific traditions are enough to prove that no one has reported that these two
chapters were not revealed to the Prophet (s.a.w.) or that they are a miracle in their eloquence but
the issue was whether they are part of the Qur'an or not as proven by the definite report.

It has been narrated by Ibn Jarir that Abu Huraira quoted the Prophet (s.a.w.) who said that 
- is a covered well in hell. (,¥( )

he author says: The meaning of the word - is mentioned in more than one tradition. He
(s.a.w.) said: It is a threshold to the fire that, when opened, the hell will flare through it, as
narrated by Uqbah ibn Amir. In other traditions as narrated by Amr ibn Anbasa among others: It
is a well in hell and it is through this well that the fire shall flare in hell. According to as-Sadi,
narrated by Abu Hamza al-Thumali, it is said that - is a well in hell in which the people
will seek refuge due to the intense heat reigning therein. (( ¥)

In $ , transmitted respectively from his father, an-Naufal, from as-Sukuni from
Abu Abdullah (a.s.) who said: "The Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.) said: 'Poverty can lead one to
disbelief and envy appears to take over destiny'"

he author says: This tradition is narrated in his words by people who transmitted directly from
him (s.a.w.).

And in *, transmitted respectively from as-Sultiy, from ar-Ridha (a.s) from his
father and from the Messenger (s.a.w.) who said: "Envy appears to take over destiny".

Ibn Shayba has reported from Anas, who said: "The Messenger (s.a.w.) said: 'envy destroys
virtues in the same manner as fire consumes wood.'" (,¥( )

Chapter 114 - An-Nas (Mankind), Verses 1-6


Ϣ˶ ϴ˶Σή˴˷ ϟ΍ Ϧ
˶ Ϥ˸Σή˴˷ ϟ΍ Ϳ
˶ ΍ Ϣ˶ ˸δΑ˶ - α˶ Ύ˷Ϩ˴ ϟ΍ Ώ
˶˷ ή˴ Α˶ Ϋ˵ Ϯ˵ϋ΃˴ ˸Ϟϗ˵ {1} α ˶ Ύ˷Ϩ˴ ϟ΍ Ϛ
˶ Ϡ˶ϣ˴ {2} α
˶ Ύ˷Ϩ˴ ϟ΍ Ϫ˶ ϟ˴·˶{3} α
˶ Ύ˷Ϩ˴ Ψ
˴ ˸ϟ΍ α
˶ ΍˴Ϯ˸γϮ˴ ˸ϟ΍ ή˶˷ η
˴ Ϧ˶ϣ{4} ϱ˶άϟ˴˷΍
α
˶ Ύ˷Ϩ˴ ϟ΍ έ˶ ϭ˵Ϊλ
˵ ϲ˶ϓ α ˵ Ϯ˶ ˸γϮ˴ ϳ˵ {5} α ˶ Ύ˷Ϩ˴ ϟ΍ ϭ˴ Δ˶ Ϩ˴˷ Π
˶ ˸ϟ΍ Ϧ
˴ ϣ˶ {6}
In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful. - {1} Say: I seek refuge in the Lord of
humans, {2} the King of humans, {3} the God of humans. {4} From the evil of the 'persuasive
with obsession' of the slinking (Shaytan), {5} which whispers in the breasts of humans, {6}
From among the jinn and the humans.
General Comment:
It is a command to the Messenger (s.a.w.) to seek refuge in Allah from the slinking one (who
puts doubt and then retreats). This chapter descended in Medina just like the previous one (
-) according to the circumstances of its revelation. This is also substantiated by some
traditions that this chapter and that of -descended together.

Commentary:
Qur'an: % +     0    4    

It is human nature that when one is faced with (some kind of evil), which he fears and feels
vulnerable, he seeks help from the one whom he sees as very capable of protecting and
defending him from the evil (reaching him). The one who is suitable to be a protector and
preserver is one of the three:

First, a Lord who guards, administers and rears him and to whom he may turn for all affairs and
what is needed for survival and protection from evil that may threaten him. This is an
independent reason in itself.

Second, a King who is strong in authority, extreme in ability and influential in ruling who
protects him from evil with his authority. This as well is an independent reason (for seeking
help) in itself.

hird, a worshipped God who is One having no partner, especially if this worshipping is
associated with sincerity from the worshipper who will not glorify and beseech (help) for his
needs, except Him. So he does not desire except what God dictates for him and does not act
except what God wills (for him).

Allah (swt) is the Lord of the humans, the King of the humans and the God of the humans just as
He has combined all the three qualities (or attributes) in His words:

"5%
   +  # 0   4 # Ö   
3" (39:6)

Moreover, He has given the purpose of His Lordship and Divinity by saying:

"#  +       4 # % #   
 
 " (73:9)

And He has given the purpose of His Kingship (or authority) by saying:

"#         


   "
(57:5)
If a human seeks refuge with a Lord from the evil that endangers him, then Allah (swt) is that
Lord - there is no Lord except Him. And if he wants protection of a King, then Allah is that
rightful King ± the Kingdom and reign is His. And also, if he wants such a protection from a
God, then He (Allah) is that God ± there is no God but He.

% +    It is a command to the Messenger (s.a.w.) to protect


himself and preserve his status since he is among mankind and Allah (swt) is the Lord, King and
God of mankind.

The following have become evident from the foregoing discussion:

First, the reason for the specific selection of the three qualities (Lord, King and God) from all
other gracious attributes of Allah and also the significance of their sequence is: The Lord was
mentioned first because He is closer to the humans and possesses more specific guardianship
(over them); then the King because He is beyond reach and possesses universal guardianship
over a human who has no special guardian who can protect and satisfy his needs and thus seeks a
King for such protection; then the God because He is the ultimate guardian whom the human
follows due to his faith (in Him) and not due to his material nature.

Second, the reason behind the absence of "and" in His words: "the Lord of humans, the King of
humans, the God of humans" is that each of these attributes is a separate and independent means
to protect from evil. Hence Allah (swt) represents independent means for each of these attributes
because He is the Lord, the King and the God. So He becomes the Protector when the means of
protection is sought. A similar explanation is found in His words:

" #   *-   Ö " (112:1-2)

In the same way, the reason for repeating the word "humans" without saying "their Lord" or
"their God" becomes evident; because each of the three attributes can be sought for protection
independently (without the other two). Allah's are the fairest names.

There are other views regarding the explanation of these attributes and their specifics in ways
that do not seem beneficial to mention.

Qur'an: )    ¥   ¥   (Shaytan):

It has been said in ( ¥that an obsession is like a self talk or a hidden
conversation. Obsession is an abstract noun like "insinuation". Some have suggested that it is an
adjective and not an abstract noun.

The word "slinking" is a form of exaggeration for the act of hiding after being apparent.

It has been said that Shaytan is called the slinking one because it whispers allusion in the mind of
a person who when remembers Allah (swt), it (Shaytan) falls back and retreats. Then if the
person becomes oblivious (of his Lord), it (Shaytan) comes back to put (more) allusion.
Qur'an:  
     :

This sentence is a description of the slinking Shaytan. The meaning of "breasts" here is human
psyche or minds because obsession happens in human minds. The word "mind" is associated
with the word heart (in the common use of Arabic language) because the heart is in the chest,
hence the use of the word "breasts" (or chests). Just like He (swt) has said:

"5   
 "(22:46)

Qur'an: )       

This is a further portrayal of the slinking Shaytan. It hints that there are some people who are
associated with Shaytans and can be considered as part of their faction. Just like what He (swt)
has said:

"(Shayateen) %       " (6:112)

raditions
Abu Khadija has narrated from as-Sadiq (a.s) that he said: "Jibrael came to the Messenger
(s.a.w.) when he was not feeling well; and he greeted him with (¥  (The two
Chapters of refuge, chapters 113 and 114). Jibrael said: 'In the Name of Allah, the Beneficent,
the Merciful. May Allah cure you of every illness that harms you; take it to be in bliss.' He
recited $ . until the end."

It has also been narrated by Anas bin Malik, saying: "The Prophet (s.a.w.) said: 'Indeed Shaytan
keeps its snout above the heart of a human being. As he (the human being) remembers Allah,
Shaytan retreats; and if he forgets (Allah), it (Shaytan) engulfs him. Therefore it is the one which
puts doubt and the one which retreats (slinking one).

In ( ¥as well, it is narrated from Iyashi through his own authentication (),
narrated by Aban bin Taghlab from Jaffar bin Muhammad (a.s) who said: "The Prophet (s.a.w.)
said: 'There is not a believer who does not have in his heart, in his breasts, two channels (of
hearing): One which is blown by the Angels and the other (channel) blown by the 'persuasive
with obsession' ± one which puts doubt i.e. the slinking one.'"

he author says: Allah (swt) strengthens a believer through the Angels just like He says:

"  #    # "(58:22)

In the   of as-Saduq from his own authentication (isnad) from as-Sadiq (a.s) who said:
"When this verse descended ±     


   
 
      5 (3:135) Iblis climbed on a mountain in Mecca which is called
Thuwayr,and shouted aloud calling its associates which gathered and asked: 'Master; why have
you called us?' Iblis said: 'This verse (3:135) has descended , so which among you will be able to
confront it?' One of its associates said: 'I will confront it like this'. Iblis said: 'You are not the
one'. Another associate stood up and said the same thing and Iblis said: 'No, you will not be able
to.' Then stood up   (the persuasive slinking one) and said: 'I can.' (Iblis) asked:
'How will you be able to?' It replied: 'I will give them a promise and give them hope until they
commit sin. Then, when they do commit a sin, I will make them oblivious of asking for
forgiveness.' At this point, Iblis told it: 'You will indeed be able to confront this verse' and Iblis
delegated the mission to it until the Day of Judgment."

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