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RATIFICATION PAGE

Complete report of experiment in physical chemistry with title “Adsorption of Isotherm”, was made by:

 Name : Dhidi Erwanto Reg. number : 081304167 Group : VI Class : International Class Program of Chemistry

After checked by Assistant and Coordinator Assistant, so this report have accepted. Parang tambung, November 2010

Coordinator Assistant

Assistant

Nurul Aulia Rahman

Known by:

Responsibility Lecturer

Nurul Aulia Rahman

Jusniar, S.Pd, M.Pd

• A. Title of Experiment

• B. Objectives

After done this experiment, the students can determine an adsorption of isotherm from Freundlich in adsorption process of acetic acid on the active carbon.

• C. Background

Freundlich isotherm curves in the opposite way and is exponential in form. It often represents an initial surface adsorption followed by a condensation effect resulting from extremely strong solute-solute interaction. In chromatography the Freundlich isotherm is not common, most adsorption processes are best described by the Langmuir isotherm (Greenirs. 1998: 212).

The small concentration range and a mixtures of a liquids, adsorption of isotherm can be showing with empirical equation by freundlich. This isotherm based on the assumption the the absorbent have a heterogeneous surface and each molecules have a different adsorption ability. The Freundlich Adsorption Isotherm is mathematically expressed as

Where:

mass of adsorbate m = mass of adsorbent p = Equilibrium pressure of adsorbate c = Equilibrium concentration of adsorbate in solution. K and 1/n are constants for a given adsorbate and adsorbent at a particular temperature (Leich. 2001:192). If the concentration of solution within equilibrium get plotting as ordinating and adsorbate concentration within adsorbent as absis on the logarithmic coordinate shoul be get gradient n and intercept k. from this isotherm, will be knowing the " id="pdf-obj-2-6" src="pdf-obj-2-6.jpg">

or

mass of adsorbate m = mass of adsorbent p = Equilibrium pressure of adsorbate c = Equilibrium concentration of adsorbate in solution. K and 1/n are constants for a given adsorbate and adsorbent at a particular temperature (Leich. 2001:192). If the concentration of solution within equilibrium get plotting as ordinating and adsorbate concentration within adsorbent as absis on the logarithmic coordinate shoul be get gradient n and intercept k. from this isotherm, will be knowing the " id="pdf-obj-2-10" src="pdf-obj-2-10.jpg">

p = Equilibrium pressure of adsorbate

K and 1/n are constants for a given adsorbate and adsorbent at a particular temperature (Leich. 2001:192).

If the concentration of solution within equilibrium get plotting as ordinating and adsorbate concentration within adsorbent as absis on the logarithmic coordinate shoul be get gradient n and intercept k. from this isotherm, will be knowing the

absorbent capability to absorb the water. This isotherm using in the experiment because of hat, isoptherm can determined of efficiency an absorbent, we can explaining by curve are:

• 1. Sotherm curve will tendence flat, it means isotherem which using to absorb in the constant capacities more then the equilibrium area.

• 2. Isotherem curve which sheer, it means the adesorbtion capacities increasing with the increasing of equilibrium concentration (adnin. 2008:3).

Absorption is a grouping and classifying process of soluble on the solutiuon by the object surface absorbance, where occur a chemical bonding and physical between substances and its absorbance. Adsorption process viewing as the molecules process leaving the solution and adhere on the absorbent surface caused by physical and chemical bonding. So that way, adsorption always classifying as the tertiary managing (Sawyer. 1994:59).

A solid surface which contacting with a solution tendencies to nearing a solution from a solute of molecules in its surface caused by the disbalancing forces in the surface. Chemical adsorption producing the formation of adsorbate monomolecular layers, in the surface undergo the forces from valence residue on the surface molecules. Physical absorption caused by molecular condensation on capillary from solids. Generally, elements with molecular weight which more big will be easily to absorbed (author. 2010).

Activating process is the most importantly to getting attention beside the standard materials that was used. It means with activating, atreatment to the active carbons which have objectives to making a big pore’s with cutting a hydrocarbon bonding or oxidation the surface of molecules. So that the active carbons get a changes of properties. Both of physical and chemical are the surface wide adding and become biggest, as well as it was influence the absorption occurs (author. 2010).

• D. Apparatus and Chemicals 1. Apparatus:

• a. Shaper Erlenmeyer flask 250mL, 6 pieces.

• b. Erlenmeyer flask 250mL, 6 pieces.

• c. Burette 50mL, 2 pieces.

• d. Drops pipette

• e. Volumetric glass 100mL

• f. Spraying bottle

• g. Shaker

• h. Stopwatch

• i. Stove

• j. Analytical balance

• k. Spoons

• l. Funnel, 6 pieces

• m. Porseline dish

• n. Clamp.

• 2. Chemicals:

• a. Various concentrations Acetic acid/CH 3 COOH (0.500M, 0.250M, 0.125M, 0.0625M, 0.0313M, and 0.0156M).

• b. Sodium hydroxide/NaOH 0.1N

• c. Phenolphthalein indicators

• d. Active carbons (charcoals)

• f. Tissues.

E. Instructions

• 1. The charcoals was activated by using a stove to make it hot and we trying to arranged the temperature is constant. Sometimes we stirred it.

• 2. The active carbons was measured ± 1 grams and directly input on the shaper Erlenmeyer flask. Each one time of balancing. So that, the total are six active carbons that was charged on the Erlenmeyer than closed it.

• 3. About 100mL of each concentration of acetih acid was put on the shaper Erlenmeyer flask as togerter in one time.

• 4. The acetic aced was mixtures with the active carbons and it was silently as 10 minutes, and it was shaking as ± 1 minutes in the shaker. Its treatment was continued as 3 times with the same time rage to shake it.

• 5. The six Erlenmeyer flask with containing a mixtures acetic acid and active carbons were shaking then filtering together.

• 6. The acetic acid was divided into six different concentrations. They are (0.500M, 0.250M, 0.125M, 0.0625M, 0.0313M, and 0.0156M) will labeling.

• 7. The NaOH 0.1N was input on the burette as 50mL and directly titrated with various volume:

• a. 0.5000M = 10mL,

• b. 0.250M = 10mL,

• c. 0.125M = 25mL,

• d. 0.0625M, 0.313M, 0.0156M = 50 mL.

• 8. The volume of NaOH that was used to titrated then write down in the tables.

• F.

Result

100mL CH3COOH (transparent) + 1 grams of active carbons (black)

black mixtures

± 30 minutes

each 10 minutes getting shake in the

shaker

transparent (filtrate)

various volume.

The volume was showed in the table below

 No. Concentration of Weight of active Average volume CH3COOH(M) carbons (gr) of NaOH 1. 0.5000 1.25 80.5 2. 0.2500 1.16 36.9 3. 0.1250 1.40 57.7 4. 0.0625 1.34 48.75 5. 0.0313 1.37 24.95 6. 0.156 1.39 14.95

G. Data Analysis

• 1. Standardization of naOH by H2C2O4

10 mL H2C2O4 0.1M

NaOH, V = 20.00 mL.

 So, its molarity: M1V1 = M2V2

(0.1M)(10mL) = M2 (20.00mL)

M2

(0.1)(10)

 = (20.00) = 0.05 M
• 2. CH3COOH 0.5000M, VCH3COOH = 100mL

• a. Concentration of CH3COOHlast M

 (.) = 3 (0.05)(80.5) = (10) = 0.4025 M
• b. First mmole of CH3COOH mmole = (M.V)CH 3 COOH

= (0.5000M)(100mL)

= 50 mmole

• c. Last mmole of CH3COOH mmole = (M last .V)CH 3 COOH

= (0.4025M)(100mL)

= 40.25 mmole

• d. mmole CH3COOH adsorbed mmole

= (First mmole-last mmole)CH 3 COOH

= (50-40.25)mmole

= 9.75 mmole

 M = 3 9.75 = 100 = 0.0975 M f. Adsorbed mass of CH3COOH M = (mmole CH 3 COOH adsorbed) (Mr) = (9.75 mmole) (60 mg/mmole) = 5.85 mg = 0.585 g g. Its x/m = . = . = 0. 468
• 3. CH3COOH 0.250M, VCH3COOH = 100mL

• a. Concentration of CH3COOHlast M

 (.) = 3 (0.05)(36.9) = (10) = 0.1845 M
• b. First mmole of CH3COOH mmole = (M.V)CH 3 COOH

= (0.250M)(100mL)

= 25 mmole

• c. Last mmole of CH3COOH mmole = (M last .V)CH 3 COOH

= (0.1845M)(100mL)

= 18.45 mmole

• d. mmole CH3COOH adsorbed mmole = (First mmole-last mmole)CH 3 COOH

= (25-18.45)mmole

= 6.55 mmole

 M = = 3 6.55

100

= 0.0655 M

• f. Adsorbed mass of CH3COOH

 M = (mmole CH 3 COOH adsorbed) (Mr) = (6.55 mmole) (60 mg/mmole) = 393 mg = 0.393 g g. Its x/m = . = . = 0. 338
• 4. CH3COOH 0.125M, VCH3COOH = 100mL

• a. Concentration of CH3COOHlast M

 (.) = 3 (0.05)(57.1) = (25) = 0.114 M
• b. First mmole of CH3COOH mmole = (M.V)CH 3 COOH

= (0.125M)(100mL)

= 12.5 mmole

• c. Last mmole of CH3COOH mmole = (M last .V)CH 3 COOH

= (0.1142M)(100mL)

= 11.42 mmole

• d. mmole CH3COOH adsorbed mmole = (First mmole-last mmole)CH 3 COOH

= (12.5-11.42)mmole

= 1.08 mmole

 M = 3 1.08 = 100 = 0.0108 M f. Adsorbed mass of CH3COOH M = (mmole CH 3 COOH adsorbed) (Mr) = (1.08 mmole) (60 mg/mmole) = 64.8 mg = 0.064 g g. Its x/m = = .

.

= 0. 0462

• 5. CH3COOH 0.0625 M, VCH3COOH = 100mL

• a. Concentration of CH3COOHlast M

 (.) = 3 (0.05)(48.75) = (50) = 0.04875 M
• b. First mmole of CH3COOH mmole = (M.V)CH 3 COOH

= (0.0625M)(100mL)

= 6.25 mmole

• c. Last mmole of CH3COOH

mmole = (M last .V)CH 3 COOH

= (0.04875M)(100mL)

= 4. 875 mmole

mmole = (First mmole-last mmole)CH 3 COOH

= (6.25-4.875)mmole

= 1.375 mmole

M

=

3

1.375

 = 100 = 0.01375 M
• f. Adsorbed mass of CH3COOH

 M = (mmole CH 3 COOH adsorbed) (Mr) = (1.375 mmole) (60 mg/mmole) = 82.5 mg = 0.0825 g g. Its x/m = . = . = 0. 0615
• 6. CH3COOH 0.0313M, VCH3COOH = 100mL

• a. Concentration of CH3COOHlast M

 (.) = 3 (0.05)(24.95) = (50) = 0.02495 M
• b. First mmole of CH3COOH mmole = (M.V)CH 3 COOH

= (0.0313M)(100mL)

= 3.13 mmole

• c. Last mmole of CH3COOH mmole = (M last .V)CH 3 COOH

= (0.02495M)(100mL)

= 2.495 mmole

• d. mmole CH3COOH adsorbed mmole = (First mmole-last mmole)CH 3 COOH

= (3.13-2.495)mmole

= 0.635 mmole

 M = 3 0.635 = 100 = 6.35x10 -3 M f. Adsorbed mass of CH3COOH M = (mmole CH 3 COOH adsorbed) (Mr) = (0.635 mmole) (60 mg/mmole) = 38.1 mg = 0.0381 g g. Its x/m = = .

.

= 0. 0278

• 7. CH3COOH 0.0156M, VCH3COOH = 100mL

• a. Concentration of CH3COOHlast M

 (.) = 3 (0.05)(14.95) = (50) = 0.01495 M
• b. First mmole of CH3COOH mmole = (M.V)CH 3 COOH

= (0.0156M)(100mL)

= 1.56 mmole

• c. Last mmole of CH3COOH

mmole = (M last .V)CH 3 COOH

= (0.01495M)(100mL)

= 1.495 mmole

mmole = (First mmole-last mmole)CH 3 COOH

= (1.56-1.495)mmole

= 0.065 mmole

M

=

3

0.065

 = 100 = 6.5x10 -4 M
• f. Adsorbed mass of CH3COOH

 M = (mmole CH 3 COOH adsorbed) (Mr) = (0.065 mmole) (60 mg/mmole) = 3.9 mg = 3.9x10 -3 g g. Its x/m = . = . = 2.8x10 -3
• 8. The tables of result

 Active Concentration of No. carbons CH3COOH (M) X(g) Log C mass(g) First Last 1.25 0.5000 1. 0.4025 0.585 -0.329 0.468 -1.010 1.16 0.2500 2. 0.1845 0.393 -0.471 0.338 -1.183 1.40 0.1250 3. 0.1142 0.0462 -1.335 0.0648 -1.966 1.34 0.0625 4. 0.04875 0.0615 -1.211 0.0825 -1.861 1.37 0.0313 5. 0.02495 0.0278 -1.335 0.0381 -2.197 1.39 0.0156 6. 0.01495 3.9x10 -3 2.8x10 -3 -2.552 -3.187

Graphics between log x/m and log C

## Y-Values

1
-1.455
0.5
-1.844
-0.924
-0.987
-0.515
-1.73
0
-0.5
-1
-1.5

Series 1

H. Discussion

This experiments was done to know the adsorption occurs in the acetic acid by

active carbons, where using the various concentration of acetic acids to made it

comparison in the result. Active carbon have an adsorptions ability define by the

surface wide of particles and this ability can be more high if the active carbon get

activating by chemicals and heating with high temperatures. according from

theory (Areenirs.2009:728), the wide surface of active carbon about 300-3500

m2/g ant its relating with interval pore’s structure which cause the active carbons

have properties as an adsorbent. The activating done to made the pore’s getting

bigger with cutting the hydrogen bonding or oxidizing the surface molecules and

use it to adsorption. To increasing the adsorption velocity of active carbon, it

must be pouring before, because as small the pore’s of active carbons, the wide

Here, we got various concentration of CH3COOH and same weight of active

carbons that should be using to know how many CH3COOH will be adsorbed by

its carbon actives. The volume of NaOH after done titration same with how many

According to the data, as high the concentration of CH3COOH made the NaOH

volume is high also, with a little bet range of active carbons weight. When the

concentration is 0.5M, it weight is 1.25 grams, needs volume of NaOH to change

it become pink solution and the work of indicators where the equivalent point was

achieved both of two solution. It volume is 80.5mL, while the concentration is

0.0156M, weight is 1.39 grams, needs NaOH is 14.95mL. the function of

indicator phenolphthalein here is as the shower of equivalent point both of NaOH

and CH3COOH achieve, with changes the color of CH3COOH from transparent

become pink after titrated with NaOH.

In this experiment, adsorption that was used namely carbons active, where its

having a properties really active and should be adsorbed anything which

containing both of air or in the water. Acetic acid would be adsopbed at the first

in not pure become more pure because another substances which is followed in

the CH3COOH, would be adsorbed by active carbons. The stirred treatment

done after addition of active carbon was pourposed to adsorb the color of

colution. Actually, the stirred process must be done by magnetic stirred to

effective it. The using of shaper Erlenmeyer is avoid the distributed from outside

and ovoid the Ch3COOH got contaminated by another substances which can be

influence the resistance of acetic acid by active carbons.

When added by indicators, it was indicated when the color chaged. This indicator

functioning to know when the titrane addition must be stopped and know the

equivalent point are amount of titrane same with the titrated amount. Also to

determining the last point where titration must be stopped because the colors got

change. Indicator that was used here namely phenolphthalein. Where when in acid

condition, pp is colorless, but when base condition is pink.

• I. Conclusion and Suggestion

• 1. Conclusion After done this experiment, can be concluded:

• a. Active carbon is adsorbent.

• b. As low the concentration, influence the little bet of NaOH amount which needs to titration, and its vise versus as high the concentration, needs a NaOH more also to titration.

• c. Amount of naOH which needs to titrated the acetic acid which was adsorbed more little if compared with the amount of naOH is need to titration with carbons.

• d. The substance that absorbed in CH3COOH:

 1) 0.5000M is 0.5850 g, 2) 0.2500M is 0.3930 g, 3) 0.1250M is 0.0648 g, 4) 0.0625M is 0.0815 g, 5) 0.0313M is 0.0381 g, 6) 0.0156M is 3,9x10 -3 g. 2. Suggestion In here, standardization of NaOH is really important, so the

practicant better to do that.

\

Bibliography

Author. 2010. Adsorption isotherem. Online. http://www.education.word.press.com.

Acces on 29 th November 2010.

Author. 2010. Freundlich experiment. Online. http:www/Wikipedia.com. access on

• 29 th November 2010.

Greenier. 1998. Instruments in Physicals. American: oyen press.

Leich. 2001. Physical subject in laboratory. American: OT press.

• 1. Qualigfication:

• 1. Not changes the materials properties

• 2. Properties are black and forth

• 3. Occurs in low temperature

• 4. Adsorption time is fast and equilibrium more fast to achieve

• 1. Change the old properties become new properties of a materials

• 2. Reaction is currently

• 3. Slow time of adsorption

• 4. Occurs in high temperature.

• 2. It is a physical adsorption, because using a heating process to activated the carcoals.

• 3. With heating process, the particles and wide serface of carbon’s becomes more big so that the adsorption ability molre big if compare with not heating the carcoals.

• 4. According to him, for a gases adsorption on the surface of solids substances is the amount of adsorbatent and related with the gases pressure.

• 5. Because freundllich equation get from empirical without basic theory, for the high pressure is not used while Langmuir based on the theory from layer form.