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DESIGN AND TYPICAL DETAILS

/ OF CONNECTIONS FOR
I PRECAST AND PRESTRESSED CONCRETE

Prepared by

PCI Committee on Connection Details

Edward R. Sturm, Chairman


A. Fattah Shaikh, Consultant/Editor

Alex Aswad *Paul E. Kraemer Russel I R. Sneddon


Charles B. Baker Paul Mack -Irwin J . Speyer
Christian J. Birkeland Joseph A. Miller Frederick R. Steinlein
Thomas J. DArcy Robert H. Murray Gene R. Stevens
Greg Force Heinz Nierlich James R. Voss
Brien N. Gibson Jagdish C. Nijhawan Kevin B. Wall
John R. Harbage Andrew Osborn James Woodman
J. Scott Heuvel Donald M. Schultz Zenon A. Zielinski
James A. E. King *A. Fattah Shaikh

The Committee Acknowledges these


Past Members for their
Contributions to this Manual
William C. Arons Mark Fintel John Mikle
George B. Barney Edwin Haggard Harald Nielsen
James D. Brown Nelson J. Hymans William ,E. Pery
Angelo DAttoma Sigmar Knebl *Donald W. Pfeifer
Harry H. Edwards Eugene A. Lamberson Charles H. Raths
Gordon Fenton J e r r y McLelland Kent L. Speheger

Past Chairmen

175 W. Jackson Blvd. Chicago, IL 60604


3121786-0300 . FAX: 3121786-0353
MN L-l 23-88

Copyright G 1988
By Prestressed Concrete Institute

First Edition, first printing, 1973


Second Edition, first printing, 1988

All rights reserved. This manual or any part thereof may not
be reproduced in any form without the written permission
of the Prestressed Concrete Institute.

ISBN 0-937040-40-l

Printed in U.S.A.
PREFACE
This Manual, titled Design and Typical Details of Connections for Precast and
Prestressed Concrete, is a second edition of the former manual (l), prepared in the period
1970-1972 underthe direction of the PCI Committee on Connection Details, and published
in 1973 with the title, PC1 Manual on Design of Connections for Precast Prestressed
Concrete, MNL-123-73
Portions of the First Edition were used in preparing a chapter on connectionsforthe first
edition of the PCI Design Handbook (2) which was published in 1971. A supplement to the
First Edition was published in the PCI JOURNAL, May-June 1975.
Since 1973, the PCI Committee on Connection Details has continued its activity in
monitoring and evaluating research, code revisions, and improvements in the state-of-the-
art in connection design. It was particularly involved in a 1980-82 study on precast,
prestressed concrete connections, sponsored by the National Science Foundation, that led
to a state-of-the-art report, Connections for Precast Prestressed Concrete Buildings -
including earthquake resistance, published by PCI in 1982. In the period 1982-l 987 the
Committee assembled and reviewed new material for the Manual. A. Fattah Shaikhwas
then engaged as consultant/editor to complete the document and carry it through the
detailed final review process.
Many parts of this Manual are based on the 1982 report (3). Also extensively used in
preparing this Manual is the Third Edition of the PCI Design Handbook (4). The Committee
recommends that this Manual should be used inconjunction with the PCI Design Handbook
Third Edition (4) to ensure proper consideration of the compatibility of connection behavior
with behavior of the overall structural system.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
It has been my privilege to have served as consultant/editor for this Manual. I
appreciate the trust placed in me by the Connection Details Committee and the PCI. I also
acknowledge the input and advice of the members of the Technical Activities Committee
and the Architectural Precast Concrete Connections Committee. Several other individual
members of PCI also provided comments on various portions of the document. Contribu-
tions by Peter Courtois, Les Martin, Alan Mattock, George Nasser and C.E. (Joe) Warnes
are gratefully acknowledged.
Processing of this Manual required assistance of several individuals associated with
me as colleagues and students. I, particularly, acknowledge the help of Aziz Almadi
Deborah Nettles and two very special associates - Christine Jacquet and Gerald Raasch:
Chris undertook the tasks of word processing and document layout, while Gerry assisted
In the overall management of the document as well as preparation of all sketches for
Chapter 4. I thank Chris and Gerry for their dedication to this project.
All other drawings were computer generated by Spectra Limited of Milwaukee using
CADKEY@ software. The fine service provided by Edward Knoblock and his associates
Rock Elgin, Carl Guile and Robert Sitzberger of Spectra Limited is appreciated.
A close interaction on my part with Dan Jenny, PCI Technical Director, was necessary
in carrying out my assignment. I am indebted to him for his guidance and encouragement.

A. Fattah Shaikh
Professor of Civil Engineering
University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee

(iii)
CONTENTS

NOTATION..................................................................... (ix)

INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . ..*..........*..........*..............*..*. *............ (xv)


CHAPTER 1 GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS FOR CONNECTION DESIGN

1.1 General.................................:.................... l-l


1.2 LoadsandLoadFactors...................,..................... l - l
1.3 Performance Criteria. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . l-l
1.3.1 Strength
1.3.2 Ductility
1.3.3 Durability
1.3.4 Fire Resistance
1.3.5 Stability and Equilibrium
1.4 VolumeChanges........................................... . . . . l-3
1.4.1 Volume Change Strains
1.4.2 Equivalent Volume Changes
1.4.3 Usual Design Criteria
1.4.4 Handling of Volume Changes in Connection Design
1.5 Tolerances and Clearances. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . -1-4
1.6 Production Considerations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-7
1.6.1 General
1.6.2 Production Standardization
1.6.3 Reinforcement in Connections
1.6.4 Proper Attachment of Embedded Plates and Structural Shapes
1.65 Dimensional Considerations
1.6.6 Bulkheads and Blockouts
1.6.7 Column Base Connections
1.6.8 Hot-Dip Galvanizing
1.7 Erection Considerations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 1-14
1.7.1 General
1.7.2 Typical Field Considerations
1.7.3 Temporary Connections
1.7.4 Field Welding
1 . 7 5 Site-Cast Concrete Connections
1.7.6 Additional Field Considerations
1.7.7 Cold Weather Considerations
1.8 Seismic Considerations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 - 1 9
1.8.1 General
1.8.2 Rational Seismic Design Methodology
1.8.3 Seismic Performance

CHAPTER 2 DESIGN CONCEPTS

2.1 General................................................... .. 2-1


-..
2.2 Load Transfer rams. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . : :. 2-1
2.3 Analysis of Potential Failure Modes. . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-2
2.4 Stress Relief Measures. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-2
2.4.1 Flexibility
2.4.2 Bearing Pads
2.4.3 Slip
4.3.3 Chord Forces
4.4 Bearing Pads.................................................. d-72
4.5 Member End Design for Bearing. . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . -
4.51 Plain (Unreinforced) End Bearing
45.2 Reinforced End Bearing
4.6 Dapped-End Connections . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-15
4.6.1 Design Procedure Based on PCI Design Handbook(4)
4.6.1.1 Flexure and Axial Tension in the Extended End
4.6.1.2 Direct Shear
4.6.1.3 Diagonal Tension at Reentrant Corner
4.6.1.4 Diagonal Tension in the Extended End
4.6.1.5 Diagonal Tension at Undapped Beam Comer
4.6.1.6 Anchorage of Reinforcement
4.6.1.7 Other Considerations and Recommendations
4.6.2 Design Procedure Based on Truss Action and Free-Body Equilibrium
4.7 BeamLedges.................................................. 4-24
4.8 Concrete Brackets and Corbels. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-26
4.9 Structural Steel Haunches. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . : 1: : : : .* 1: 1: : : : : : : : : : 4-29
4.10 Connection Angles. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-31
4.11 WeldedHeadedStuds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . :::::::::::::::::::: 4-33
4.11.1 Tension
4.11.2 Shear
4.11.3 Combined Shear and Tension
4.11.4 Plate Thickness
4.12 WeldGroups................................ 4-41
4.13 Column Base Plates. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . : .* .* . * * . * . :. 4-43
4.14 Moment-Resisting COnneCtiOnS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . *.... . . 4-46
4.15 HangerConnections.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..-... . . . ..*..*.*.. . . . . . 4-49
4.15.1 Cazaly Hanger
4.15.2 Loov Hanger
4.16 Connection of Load Bearing Wall Panels. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-53
4.16.1 Vertical Joints
4.16.1.1 Hinge Connection
4.16.1.2 Grooved Joint Connection
4.16.1.3 Mechanical Connection
4.16.1.4 Keyed Joint Connection
4.16.2 Horizontal Joints
4.16.3 Structural Integrity
4.17 Non-Load Bearing Wall Panel Connections. . . . . . . . . . . . 4-60
4.18 Seismic COnneCtiOnS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . ............*... 4-64

CHAPTER 5 TYPICAL CONNECTION DETAILS

5.1 General........................................ 5-1


5.2 Structural Precast Concrete Details. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .: 1: *..*.*..-..*.*. 5-l
5.2.1 Column to Foundation Connections . . . . . . . . . : : . . . . : : . . . . . . . . 5-l
5.2.1 .l Column Size Base Plates
5.2.1.2 Oversized Base Plates
5.2.1.3 Socket Base
5.2.1.4 Grout-Sleeve Base
52.2 Column to Column Connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-7
5.2.2.1 Bolted Connections
5.2.2.2 Welded Plate Connections
5.2.2.3 Tube to Tube Connections
5.2.2.4 Grouted Sleeve Connections
5.2.2.5 Welded Lap Bar Connection
5.2.2.6 Tube Sleeve for Composite Beam
5.2.2.7 Post-Tensioned Splice Connection

(vii)
52.3 Girder to Column Connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-l 3
5.2.3.1 Simple Welded, Bolted or Doweled Connections
5.2.3.2 Hanger Connections
5.2.3.3 Composite Moment Connections
5.2.3.4 Special Applications
5.2.4 Beam to Girder Connections. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-20
5.2.5 Beam to Beam Connections. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-23
5.2.6 Slab to Beam Connections. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-26
5.2.6.1 Hollow-Core and Solid Slab Connections
5.2.6.2 Double Tee Connections
5.2.7 Slab to Slab Connections.. . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-30
5.28 Slab to Wall Connections. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . * 5-33
5.2.8.1 Hollow-Core and Solid Slab Connections
5.2.8.2 Stemmed Member Connections
5.2.9 Beam to Wall Connections. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-39
5.2.9.1 Beam to Wall Corbel Connection
5.2.9.2 Beam to Wall Pocket Connection
5.2.9.3 Sleeve and Dowel Beam to Wall Connection
5.2.9.4 Beam Bottom to Wall Connection
52.10 Wall to Wall Connections. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-42
5.2.10.1 Horizontal - Bolted Wall to Wall Connection
5.2.10.2 Horizontal - Welded Wall to Wall Connection
5.2.10.3 Horizontal - Sleeve Wall to Wall Connection
5.2.10.4 Horizontal - Post-Tensioned Wall to Wall Connection
5.2.10.5 Vertical - Bolted Wall to Wall Connection
5.2.10.6 Vertical - Welded Wall to Wall Connection
5.2.11 Wall to Foundation Connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-48
5.2.11 .l Welded Wall to Foundation Connection
5.2.11.2 Bolted Wall to Foundation Connections
5.2.11.3 Moment Resistant Wall to Foundation Connections
5.2.11.4 Grouted Wall to Foundation Connection
5.2.11.5 Post-Tensioned Wall to Foundation Connection
5.2.12 Stair to Landing Connections. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-53
5.3 Architectural Precast Concrete Connections. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . , . . . . . 5-56
5 3 . 1 Bearing (Direct and Eccentric) Connections. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-58, 5-60
5.3.2 Tie-Back Connections (Bolted and Welded). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-59, 5-67
5.3.3 Alignment Connections (Bolted and Welded). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-59, 5-74
5.3.4 Column and Beam Cover Connections. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-59, 5-78
5.3.5 Soffit Hanger Connections. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-59, 5-82
5.3.6 Masonry Tie-Back Connections. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-59, 5-83
5.3.7 Seismic Shear Plates. . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-59, 5-84
5.3.8 Unique Conditions and Solutions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-59, 5-89

APPENDIX A DESIGN AIDS

APPENDIX B REFERENCES

APPENDIX C CONVERSIONS BETWEEN US CUSTOMARY (USC) UNITS AND SI UNITS


NOTATION

= depth of compressive stress block


ATC = Applied Technology Council
= shear span
A = diagonal tension reinforcement in dap-
= moment arm of concentrated load with ped end
respect to reinforcement
Avi = area of shear-friction reinforcement
a/d = span-to-depth ratio
A, = area of weld
A = area of member
A, = actual area overwhich load is transferred
Ail = area of bar or stud
A, = maximum area of the portion of the sup-
Acr = area of crack interface
porting surface that is geometrically simi-
A CS = area of horizontal shear ties lar to and concentric with the loaded area

= effective slab bearing area AASHTO = American Association of State Highway


Ae and Transportation Officials
A, = area of flexural reinforcement ACI = American Concrete Institute
A flat = area of the flat bottom of the truncated AISC = American lnstitutue of Steel Construction
failure surface
ANSI = American National Standards Institute
Ah = area of shear reinforcement parallel to
ASTM = American Society for Testing and Materi-
flexural tension reinforcement
als
AL = areaof longitudinal reinforcement in beam A W S = American Welding Society
ledge
b = bearing length
A = area of reinforcement for tension force
b,b,,b, = width of section or structure
A0 = area of failure surface
b, = width of member in which hanger is cast
A plate = area of bearing plate
ba
= length of anchor angle
A Ps = area of prestressed reinforcement
bd = average width of stem above dap
AR
= reduction area, see Fig. 4.11.4
b = width of interface between precast and
As
= area of reinforcement cast-in-place members

= area of reinforcement welded to steel b


= minimum effective web width
As
haunch
bbv
= web width
Ash = area of reinforcement for horizontal or
b = width of assumed failure surface
diagonal cracks
BA = bolted alignment connection
%h
= auxiliary reinforcement to ensure yielding
of hanger steel BB = beam to beam connection

A SlODe = area of the sloping sides of failure surface BC = beam cover connection
BG = beam to girder connection
At = nominal horizontal shear reinforcement
BT = bolted tie-back connection
Atie = area of tie reinforcement
BW = beam to wall connection
A top = effective area of cast-in-place composite
C.E. = carbon equivalent
topping
C = distance from extreme compression fiber D = spacing between beam webs
to centroid of a section or weld group
D,DL = dead load
c.g. = center of gravity
DB = direct bearing connection
C = chord force
DT = double tee
C&C, = compressive force
e = eccentricity
C = symbol for the element carbon
ei = center of bolt to horizontal reaction dis-
c c = column to column connection tance
c c = column cover connection = eccentricity of vertical load
e
CF = column to foundation connection
exgey = eccentricity of load in x,y directions
Cc = compressive force capacity of composite
topping EC = modulus of elasticity of concrete

= net compressive force perpendicular to a Es = modulus of elasticity of steel


cc
joint EB = eccentric bearing connection

% = diagonal force in corbel ESD = elastic strength demand


= horizontal force in corbel f = stress
C
C es = reduction coefficient for edge distance fa = computed axial stress

= reduction coefficient fb = computed bending stress


cr
Cr = symbol for the element chromium f bc = compressive stress under service loads
cu = symbol for the element copper fbr = actual bearing stress
CSA = Canadian Standards Association fbu = bearing stress under factored load
C = factored compressive force
f = bond stress
bs
C = vertical force in corbel
C = 28-day compressive strength of concrete
d = depth to centroid of reinforcement from
extreme compression fiber f cc = 28-day compressive strength of compos-
ite topping
d = diameter of section
ct = compressive strength of concrete at time
db = diameter of reinforcing bar or stud of initial prestress

db, Id,, = diameter of reinforcing bar 1,2 f Ct = splitting tensile strength of concrete

dbc = diameter of cross bar f PS = stress in prestressed reinforcement at


nominal strength
dd = effective depth of nib
f = ultimate strength of prestressing steel
= edge distance in direction of load Pu
de
fr = resultant stress on weld
del ~de*Jde3Bde4 = edge distances
fs
= design strength of steel
dh = head diameter of stud
f S.0 = effective stress in prestressed steel
ds = diameter of stud shank
ft = tensile stress
D = durometer
f ue = equivalent bearing strength, Table 4.16.1 h = total depth of a section
h = building height
f#f, ,f, = shear stress
h = depth of beam ledge
= unit design strength of weld
hd = height of dap
= combined shear and torsion stress in
H = overall depth of a beam
horizontal direction
H = overall height of a wall panel
fY = combined shear and torsion stress in
vertical direction = horizontal load due to wind
HI
fY = yield strength of reinforcement or struc-
tural steel
HZ = horizontal load due to eccentricity of
applied vertical load
f = yield strength of ASh reinforcement I = moment of inertia
Y=

F = Fahrenheit = polar moment of inertia


I,
F = connection force
IXJY = moments of inertia with respect to x and y
CF = greatest sum of factored anchor boft forces axes
on one side of column
lx& = moments of inertia of weld segment with
= allowable axial compressive stress in ab- respect to its own axes
sence of bending moment
j, = lever arm factor, used in j,d
Ftl = allowable bending stress in absence of J = joint force
axial force
k = distance from outer face of web to toe of
Fc = compression force fillet of rolled shape
CFc = total compression on one side of column = effective length factor in the plane of
Kb
bending
F nh = nominal horizontal shear strength
Ke = constant for equivalent shrinkage and
FS
= friction force
creep
F uh = factored horizontal shear force
Kt = constant for temperature change
Ft
= allowable tensile stress in absence of = length of angle leg one
4
shear
l,l,,l,,l 3 = length of structure
CFt = total tension on one side of column
Id = development length
F"
= allowable shear stress in absence of
tension I dh = development length of hooked bar

Fkv
= design strength of weld e = embedment length

= seismic base shear at yield 2, = angle leg length


FY

FY
= yield strength of steel G = projection of corbel, beam ledge, or dap-
ped end
9 = gage of angle
= width of joint Ll = horizontal shear length as defined in Fig.
9
4.2.2
GC = girder to column connection
L = length of weld
G.C. = general contractor

(xi)
L = total length of weld
'b
= radius of gyration in the plane of bending
L,LL = live load
R = response modification factor
L = symbol for steel angle
R = resultant force
L bc = length of cross bar
R.H. = relative humidity
M = unfactored moment
R* = reduction factor for load eccentricity
M ep = unfactored moment at elasto-plastic con-
ROF = random oriented fiber
dition
S = distance fromfree edge to center of bear-
= unfactored moment at failure of member
Mf ing
MT = masonry tie-back connection S = spacing of concentrated loads
Mn = symbol for the element manganese S = tie, bar or stud spacing
MO = symbol for the element molybdenum = strap width of Cazaly hanger
S

= moment at plastic condition = span 1,2


MP s1's2

Mt
= torsional moment S = section modulus

Mt
= total unfactored moment = shape factor
SF

Mu
= factored moment SB = slab to beam connection

= unfactored moment about x-axis SH = soffit hanger connection


Mx
SI = System International units
= unfactored moment about y-axis
MY
SL = stairs to landing connection
N = number
SP = seismic shear plate connection
N = unfactored horizontal or axial force
ss = slab to slab connection
Ni = symbol for the element nickel
SW = slab to wall connection
N = nominal tensile force
54 = section modulus of weld group
N = factored tensile force
t = thickness
P = wind pressure
= grout thickness
p,p,,p, = applied load $4
t ll = stud head thickness
PC = nominal tensile strength of concrete
L = effective throat thickness of weld
Fe = symbol for plate
ww2 =
effective throat thickness of weld I,2
P = nominal strength of joint
T,T, ,T2,T3,T4 = tensile force
PC4 = nominal tensile strength of steel
T = chord force
P/S = prestressed
Tb = bond capacity
P = applied factored load
Tbr = hook bearing capacity
= applied forces in x and y directions
px,p,
= radius of gyration T = horizontal force in corbel
r
r = radius of section Ts = tensile design strength

(xii)
TJ,, J, = factored tensile force W = wind load

= vertical force in corbel W = total load


T
wP = self weight of wall panel
TFE = tetrafluorethylene, trade name - teflon
WA = welded alignment connection
U = subscript denoting factored load
WF = wall to foundation connection
UBC = Uniform Building Code
w-r = welded tie-back connection
ucs = unique conditions and solutions
= wall to wall connection
,, ,, = unfactored vertical or shear force
X = horizontal distancefr0mc.g. of weld group
v = symbol for the element vanadium to point under investigation

c = nominal shear strength of concrete X*Y = spacing of studs in a group in x and y


directions
ci = shear at flexure-shear diagonal tension
cracking x = x-coordinate of centroid of a section or
weld group
cr = contribution of concrete to shear strength
of dapped-end xc = distance from centerline of bolt to face of
column
cw = shear at web-shear diagonal tension
cracking . xo = base plate projection

f = nominal sliding friction resistance Xt = distance from centerline of bolt to center-


line of reinforcement
WH, WH3 = shear at horizontal joint = vertical distance fromc.g. of weld group to
Y
V int = shear at interior support point under investigation
7 = y-coordinate of centroid of a section or
Vmax = maximum shear force weld group
V nh = nominal horizontal shear strength = distance from centerline of hanger rein-
Y
forcement to end face of web
n = nominal bearing or shear strength
YbC = distance from bottom of section to its
r = nominal strength provided by reinforce-
center of gravity
ment
z = the lesser of x and y spacings of studs in
w, = shear at right, left support a group

s = nominal shear strength of steel = plastic section modulus of structural steel


Zs
section
u = factored shear force
a = angle of assumed crack plane
= shear at vertical joint
a = angle of reinforcement placement
IS = volume/surface ratio
4 = coefficient of thermal expansion for con-
W = dimension crete
W = uniform load
PI = factor relating depth of compression block
w = factored uniform load to neutral axis

= sum of factored uniform loads Y = angle


=W
W = wide flange section 6,6,,6,,etc = deformation

(xiii)
% = actual creep shortening A *P = vertical elasto-plastic displacement

% = deformation due to compression AVP = vertical plastic displacement


& = strain
6, = elastic displacement
&f = strain at failure condition
se c = equivalent creep shortening
= strain in steel at yield condition
6 = elasto-plastic displacement EY
ep
= strain in steel at plastic condition
6 es = equivalent shrinkage shortening &P

0 = angle of assumed vertical crack


6e t = equivalent temperature shortening or
lengthening 08, se* = angle
= plastic displacement = factor related to the unit weight of con-
crete
= actual shrinkage shortening
= shear-friction coefficient
= actual temperature shortening or length- = structural ductility factor
ening
= effective shear-friction coefficient
= displacement occuring at yield
= static coefficient of friction
= horizontal deformation of bearing pad
= stress
= member deformation
= total equivalent shortening due to volume = stress in member at failure condition
changes = stress in member at plastic condition
A = prefix to denote change
= curvature
Ah = horizontal displacement = apparent angle of friction
A he = horizontal elastic displacement = strength reduction factor
A hep = horizontal elasto-plastic displacement = curvature at plastic condition

hr = design temperature differential = elasto-plastic curvature

A"
= vertical displacement = curvature at failure
Av e = vertical elastic displacement = curvature at yield

(xiv)
INTRODUCTION

This Manual, Design and Typical Details of Connections for Pre=


cast and Prestressed Concrete,* has been prepared as a guide for con-
sulting engineers, architects, and engineering departments of precast and
prestressed concrete producers. As a second edition of the former manual
(l)*, it represents a major revision and expansion. The revisions are mostly
in terms of design concepts and procedures. The chapter on typical details
has been greatly enlarged in number of conceptual details and in commen-
taryon them. Further, the details have been grouped as structural and archi-
tectural precast concrete connections.
The limited amount of information available on seismic behavior of
jointed structures and cyclic performance of connections in the inelastic
range precludes establishment of a prescriptive code or guidelines for the
seismic design of precast, prestressed concrete structures. The state-of-
the-art applicable to all seismic zones involves the use of a rational system
performance design methodology based on good engineering judgment.
PCI Technical Report No. 5(5) provides a simplified rational technique.
Using this technique as a basis, a special section (Sect. 1.8) is included in
this Manual to give a sharper focus to the design of seismic connections.
The selection and design of connections are two of the most important
steps in the engineering of precast concrete structures. Usually there are
several alternate solutions to each connection situation and the PCI Com-
mittee on Connection Details recognizes that the design methods and
details included in this Manual are not the only right ones. The information
presented however is based on a comprehensive review of the state-of-the-
art as well as cumulative experience of the members of the Committee
representing various segments of the precast, prestressed concrete indus-
try*
The Committee wishes to emphasize that this Manual is intended for the
use of those with a thorough understanding of engineering fundamentals
and structural design; in no case should it replace good engineering
judgment. It should also be noted that various drawings included in the
Manual are not the completed design details. In many details, much
information is purposely omitted to illustrate with clarity only the particular
aspects of connection design under discussion. The responsibility for all
connections shown on the plans and specifications for a given project lies
with the Engineer-of-Record.

* Numbers in parentheses refer to References in Appendix B.


nection to be the weak link in the structure, it may be
GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS FOR necessary to specify a load factor in addition to the
CONNECTION DESIGN load factors in ACI 318-83(6), particularly in situ-
ations where variations in dimensions of connec-
tions or in load transfer positions can cause signifi-
1 .I General cant changes in forces in the connectionl.
The design of connections is one of the most
important steps in the engineering of precast, 1.3 Performance Criteria
prestressed concrete structures. The purpose of a Precast concrete connections must meet a vari-
connection is to transfer load and to provide stabil- ety of design criteria such as strength, ductility,
ity. A single connection may be required to transfer durability and fire resistance. The connections must
several loads simultaneously. Each one of those also satisfy criteria related to aesthetics, production
loads must be considered by the Engineer in the and erection which are discussed elsewhere in this
design. In the sections which follow, various meth- Manual. A brief discussion of the design criteria
ods of transferring loads are examined and it is excluding special seismic considerations is given
illustrated how some of these methods may be below. Discussion of the seismic considerations is
combined to create typical connections. included in Sect. 1.8.
A good connection combines practicality and
economy with sound design and therefore requires 1.3.1 Strength
an understanding of several factors: strength, serv- A connection must have sufficient strength to
iceability, production, erection and economics. The safely transferthe forces to which it will be subjected
purpose of this chapter is to introduce these factors during its lifetime. In addition to dead and live gravity
and to illustrate how they influence each other in the loads, wind, earthquake, and soil/water pressures,
selection and design of a connection. attention must be given to the volume change re-
straint forces as well as other forces listed in Sect.
1.2 Loads and Load Factors 1.2.
Connections are generally subjected to forces Review of distressed and failed connections in
produced by many diff erent types of loads. Some of structures suggests that, most often, problems are
these loads are apparent, such as dead and live caused by inadequate consideration of some of
gravity loads, wind, earthquake, soil and fluid pres- these forces. Most frequently overlooked are the
sures. Others are not so obvious and are some- forces caused by the restraint in the connection of
times overlooked in design, often with serious volume changes, particularly those caused by
consequences. For example, the forces produced temperature variations and the shrinkage of the
by restraint of volume changes resulting from tem- structure.
perature variations and the creep and shrinkage of
concrete are sometimes not considered. In addition lEased on the research and performance experience
gained over the past twenty years, the Committee be-
to the above, consideration of other loads, such as
lieves that the use of a single value for this additional
those due to foundation settlement and the effects
load factor (as the 1.3 used previously) for all connec-
of gravity load eccentricities due to inelastic struc- tions is not appropriate. The Committee, therefore,
tural displacements which could occur during seis- recommends that the need and the magnitude for this
mic activity, may be required. additional load factor should be established by the
It is the responsibility of the Engineer to consider Engineer with consideration of each individual case. In
all applicable loads and to specify appropriate load certain situations, it may not be necessary to use an
factors and strength reduction factors. Considera- additional load factor. Examples of these situations are:
tion of these is necessary relative to production, (a) connections which are relatively insensitive to load
erection and service states as well as in ensuring transfer positions, (b) where justification for adequate
adequate design strength. connection strength can be provided based on appropri-
ate research, such as the recent PCI research (7,8,9),
With the exception of bearing pad design, the
and (c)where an additional load factor has already been
design equations in this Manual are based on applied due to specific requirements in othercodes such
strength relationships incorporating the load factors as model codes, local codes and ordinances. F o r
and strength reduction factors as specified in flexural members, it is recommended that the bearing
ACI 318-83(6); bearing pad design is based on connections be designed for a minimum horizontal ten-
service loads. Since it is undesirable for the con- sile force of 0.2 times the factored dead load.

1-l
The type, frequency and magnitude of the vari- nerable to the effects of fire and thus do not require
ous loads should be considered in establishing special treatment; for example, the bearings be-
appropriate strength reduction factors, ductility and tween slabs or stemmed units and beams. If the
redundancy (alternate load paths) in the total struc- slabs or tees rest on elastomeric or other combus-
ture and within the connection. tible material pads, protection of the pads is not
generally needed because deterioration of the pads
1.3.2 Ductility will not cause collapse. After a fire, the pads can be
Ductility may be defined as the ability of a struc- replaced.
ture, a component, or a connection assembly to Those connections in which reduction in
undergo large deformations prior to failure. In strength due to fire would result in loss of the
structures, ductility is usually measured by the structures stability should be protected to the same
amount of deformation between first yield and fail- degree as that required for the structural frame. F o r
ure. Ductility in the overall structure may result from example, an exposed steel bracket supporting a
ductility of the structural members and/or their beam may be weakened enough by a fire to cause
connections. the beam to collapse. Such a bracket should be
In precast, prestressed concrete structures, protected to the same degree as is the beam.
connection ductility can be effectively used to con- Connections which require a fire resistance rat-
tribute to the overall structure ductility. The connec- ing will usually require encasing of exposed steel
tion ductility is achieved by ensuring that various elements in concrete, Other methods of fire protec-
load transfer elements, such as deformed bar and tion include enclosing with gypsum wallboard,
headed stud anchors, wire and other inserts, are coating with intumescent mastic, or spraying with
adequately anchored in concrete. Adequate an- fire protection materials.
chorage in concrete ensures that failure of the steel Additional information on fire protection of con-
insert material (typically yield) will precede failure in nections is given in the PCI publication Design for
concrete. In certain situations, such as where Fire Resistance of Precast Prestressed Concrete,
member depth is limited, where inserts are located MNL 124-77(10) and in Sect. 9.3.8 of the PCI De-
close to concrete member edges, and/or where sign Handbook(4).
inserts are located close to each other, concrete
failure may precede insert material failure. In such 1.3.5 Stability and Equilibrium
cases, consideration should be given to the feasibil- Problems in precast concrete structures will be
ity of attaching connection inserts to member rein- minimized if proper consideration is given to stabil-
forcing steel, or providing auxiliary reinforcing steel ity and equilibrium of the structure and its compo-
forconfinement. Connectionfailuresresultingfrom nents not only in the completed state but also during
failure in concrete are typically brittle and, as a the construction phase. Liberal use of free-body
general rule, should be avoided. diagrams showing loads and reactions required for
equilibrium is recommended.
1.3.3 Durability A typical example is the case of a ledger or L-
Concrete, due to its high alkalinity, usually pro- shaped beam as shown in Fig. 1.3.1. Because of
vides adequate corrosion protection for embedded the ecce,ntric loading, the beam is subjected to
steel elements. Caution is advised in the use of torsion and tends to roll or rotate on its supports. To
admixtures, and those containing chlorides should prevent such rotation, appropriate end connections
be avoided. must be provided and the beam designed to resist
Steel elements exposed to weather and/or deic- resulting torsional forces.
ing salts are particularly susceptible to corrosion In some structures, cast-in-place concrete is
and therefore should be periodically inspected and used to provide restaint against torsional rotation.
maintained. Detailing to avoid water pockets is The cast-in-place concrete may be an integral part
essential. In applications where corrosion resis- of topping, or used. as a separate placement in
tance is important, the exposed steel elements may untopped floor systems. However, since this field
be hot-dip galvanized. However, special care is concrete is placed after the precast members are
necessary with this process. This is discussed in erected, temporary connections must be provided
Sect. 1.6.8. for restraint during erection. This dual approach
i.e., using temporary connections for erection and
1.3.4 Fire Resistance cast-in-place concrete for the completed structure
Many precast concrete connections are not vul- requires careful planning and is often costly. It is

l-2
.

Restraint Required
Load for Stability

Support Reaction

Fig. 1.3.1 - Equilibrium of a Ledger Beam

usually better to provide permanent connections and then released (by removing bolts, or cutting
that ensure torsional stability during construction as welds loose) when the permanent lateral stability
well as in the completed structure. assemblies are in place. This practice is not encour-
In most precast, prestressed concrete struc- aged, because it is too easy for the Constructor to
tures, permanent lateral stability is best provided by forget to release the mechanism, causing unac-
shear walls or cross-bracing, rather than by mo- counted stresses in the structure.
ment-resisting frames. To date, the most accept-
able way of developing seismic frames constructed 1.4 Volume Changes
of precast, prestressed concrete members is to Stresses resulting from restraint of volume
emulate the cast-in-place concrete systems for changes must be evaluated and considered in the
connections. The analytical models for such con- design of connections. While the stresses due to
nections are well established and their behavior has loads are produced immediately upon application of
been verified by tests including the recently com- Joads, the stresses due to restraint of volume
pleted PCI research (7). However, these connec- changes occur over a period of time. This section
tions tend to be congested and expensive espe- provides data on volume change strains and gives
cially when the moment-resisting frame must be recommendations for design.
designed for cyclic loads, such as those due to an
earthquake. 1.4.1 Volume Change Strains
Lateral forces are typically distributed to the Volume changes in concrete result from the
stabilizing elements through diaphragm action of effects of temperature variations, and creep and
the floor and roof units. Since the structural frame shrinkage of concrete. The degree of restraint to
is erected before the topping is placed, temporary these volume changes of members determines the
stability must be provided and maintained until the magnitude of the forces that must be transferred
final connections become effective. In multi-story through the connections.
buildings, this may require a detailed analysis and
careful planning of all construction phases. Con- 1.4.2 Equivalent Volume Changes
nections are sometimes designed which will pro- If a horizontal framing member is connected
vide temporary moment resistance during erection, such that the volume change shortening is re-
strained, a tensile force is built up in the member The total equivalent shortening to be usedforde-
and transmitted to the supporting elements. How- sign is:
ever, since the deformations due to volume
changes take place gradually over a period of time, A = 6, + se, + set = 6, + 6s 6,
shears and moments at the connections are re- K, +x,
duced because of creep and micro-cracking of the
member. (Eq.l.4.4)
For ease of design, the volume change shorten-
ing can be treated in the same manner as the short When the equivalent shortenings are used in the
term elastic deformation by using the concept of frame analysis for determining shears and mo-
equivalent shortening. ments in the supporting elements, the actual modu-
Thus, the following relations can be used: lus of elasticity of the member is used, rather than
a reduced modulus as used in methods based on
6, = JK, (Eq. 1.4.1) actual shortenings.

1.4.3 Usual Design Criteria


s e s = $IKe (Eq. 1.4.2) The performance of actual structures indicates
that only reasonable estimates of volume changes
are necessary for the design of most structures
where: even though test data on volume changes (see
secpses = equivalent creep and shrinkage Tables A-l through A-7 in Appendix A) exhibit
shortenings, respectively considerable scatter. The PCI Committee on
s,,s, = actual creep and shrinkage shorten- Connection Details considers the use of approxi-
ings, respectively mate values shown in Tables A-8 and A-9 in Appen-
Ke
= a constant with values in the range 3 dix A satisfactory for typical designs.
to 5
1.4.4 Handling of Volume Changes in Connec-
For typical precast, prestressed concrete mem- tion Design
bers, which are generally lightly reinforced, a value Depending on the degree of restaint, the volume
of KB= 5 is reasonable. change strains can result in large forces in precast
Shortening due to temperature change is simi- members and their connections. For example, in
moment-resisting frames there is always some
larly modified. However, the maximum tempera- restraint to volume changes which results in
ture change will usually occur over a much shorter stresses in the frame members and their connec-
time, probably within 60 to 90 days. Thus, the tions. These stresses must be considered in the
equivalent shortening would be closer to the actual design. However, it is generally preferable to de-
shortening:
sign so that the volume change movements are
allowed to occur without restraint. If movement is
set = stKt (Eq. 1.4.3)
allowed, then the actual (not equivalent) volume
change movement must be accounted for in detail-
where: ing the connection. The PCI Design Handbook (4)
bet and I!,= the equivalent and actual tem- Chapt. 3 gives methods for calculating volume
perature shortenings, respec- change strains in structures. Figures A-l and A-2
tively and Tables A-l through A-7 in Appendix A provide
K, = a constant; recommended value data to calculate actual movements. Example 4.4.1
= 1.5 (Chapt. 4) illustrates bearing pad design using ac-
tual volume change strains.

1.5 Tolerances and Clearances


Tolerance may be defined as the permitted vari-
1 Temperature change is, of course, a reversible effect; ation from a specified dimension or quantity. Toler-
increase causes expansion and is important in the lo- ances are specified to allow controlled leeway in
cation and design of expansion joints. Temperature fabrication of products (product or fabrication toler-
differentials in roof and wall elements should also be
ances, such as variation from specified length or
considered.

l-4
width) and their installation (erection or alignment The product tolerances that interact with con-
tolerances, such as deviation of a wall panel from nections are given in Table 1.51. An important
plumbness). Clearance, on the other hand, is the consideration is the compatibility of precast toler-
space that must be provided for interfacing two ances with tolerances required for other construc-
items. Clearance is required to accommodate toler- tion materials, such as the elevation of cast-in-
ances and to provide space for carrying out connec- place concrete footings and the location of preset
tion operations, such as welding and or turning of anchor bolts. Connection tolerances must be es-
wrench for tightening bolts. tablished that are structurally as well as architectur-
The PCI Manual for Quality Control for Plants ally acceptable. Consideration should be given to
and Production of Precast and Prestressed Con- the fact that normal fabrication tolerances preclude
crete Products, MNL 1 l&85(1 l), gives recom- the possibility of a perfect fit in the field. The
mended tolerances for structural precast members. Architect-Engineer should clearly define the toler-
The PCI Committee on Tolerances, working closely ances to be permitted in the building foundation and
with ACI Committee 117 on Tolerances, has pub- alignment, and the General Contractor should ver-
lished a comprehensive report in the PCI Jour- ify that these tolerances are being held. The toler-
nal(l2). ances shown in Table 1.52 are suggested as

Table 1.51 -- Product Tolerances Related to Connections


r Recommended
Item Tolerances (in.)
Field placed anchor bolts .............................................................. * l/2
Elevation of field cast footings and piers ....................................... f1
Field placed plates ........................................................................ +1

Position of plates .......................................................................... +1


Location of inserts ........................................................................ zk l/2
. Location of bearing plates ............................................................ I!I 314
Location of blockouts .................................................................... fi 1
Length ........................................................................................... zk 314
Overall depth ................................................................................ If: l/4
Width of stem ................................................................................ f l/8
Overall width ................................................................................. I!z l/4
Horizontal deviation of ends from square ..................................... f l/2
Vertical deviation of ends from square ......................................... + l/8 per ft. of height
Bearing deviation from plane ........................................................ f3/16
Position of post-tensioning ducts in precast members ................. It l/2

P~chitwtwl Precast Concrete

Length or width ............................................................................. + l/l6 per 10 ft. but not


less than of: l/8
Thickness ..................................................................................... + l/4, -l/8
Location of blockouts .................................................................... + l/2
Location of anchors and inserts .................................................... 318
Warpage or squareness ............................................................... l/8 in 6 ft.
Joint widths
- specified ............................................................................... 318 to S/8
- min. and max. dimensions ................................................... l/4 and 314

Other construction materials may control tolerances selected

l-5
erection tolerances for the purposes of interfacing. as possible. For example, if a 2 in. clearance can be
Clearances should be determined with consid- used just as easily as a 1 in. clearance without
eration of tolerances and other space requirements causing structural or architectural problems, the
for making connections. If clearances are realisti- larger clearance should be selected. Recom-
cally assessed, they will minimize construction mended minimum clearances are given in Table
problems. As a rule, clearances should be as large 15.3.

Table 1.5.2 - Erection Tolerances for Interface Design


Recommended
Item Tolerances (in.)

Variation in plan location (any column or beam,


any location) . . . ...*~..........**......*..........*.................................. 4 l/2
Variation in plan parallel to specified building lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . l/40 per ft., any beam less than
20 ft. or adjacent columns less
than 20 ft. apart
l/2, adjacent columns 20 ft. or
more apart
Difference in relative position of adjacent columns from
specified relative position (at any deck level) . . . . . . . . . . . ..**......*... l/2
Variation from plumb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...I.
......... l/4, any 10 ft. of height
I, maximum for the entire height
Variation in elevation of bearing surfaces from specified
elevation (any column or beam, any location) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .** rf: l/2
Variation of top of spandrel from specified elevation
(any spandrel) . . . . . . . ............................................................... 4 l/2
Variation in elevation from bearing surfaces from lines
parallel to specified grade lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. l/40 per ft. any beam less than
20 ft. or adjacent columns less
than 20 ft. apart
l/2, maximum any beam 20 ft. or
more in length or adjacent column
20 ft. or more apart
Variation from specified bearing length on support ................... k 314
Variation from specified bearing width on support ..................... zk l/2
Jog in alignment of matching edges .......................................... l/2, maximum

Table 1.53 - Recommended Minimum Clearances


Item Recommended Mlnimum
Clearance (in.)

Precast to precast . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .............f... l/2 (1 preferred)


Precast to cast-in-place . ........................................................ 1 (2 preferred)
Precast to steel .......I...............,............................................ 1 (2 preferred)
Precast column covers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..................................... l-1/2 (3 preferred for tall
buildings)
proper connection may be used.
1.6 Production Considerations With rare exception, all the materials and proce-
dures involved in making connections should be
1.6.1 General standard to the industry and readily available in the
In connection design, knowledge of production local area. It is generally more practical to use
is essential. Understanding of the production proc- additional quantities and even more expensive
ess for the precast concrete members leads to materials to achieve this type of standardization
economies in connections; it may also suggest than to select items or materials that may result in
ways in which the connection function can be im- delay of production or may be unfamiliar to the
proved. While several alternate connection details trade.
may be available for a particular situation, experi-
ence suggests that for greatest overall economy, 1.6.3 Reinforcement in Connections
the connection should be selected based on con- The diameter of reinforcing bars used in a con-
sideration of both production and erection. nection area should generally be as small as pos-
The following items pertaining to plant produc- sible. Large bars may be impractical due to their
tion of precast members should be kept in mind longer required embedment length, the difficulty in
when designing connections: obtaining the proper bend geometry to conform to
a. Standardize connection types. the connection hardware, or the space available
b. Avoid reinforcement and hardware congestion. within a precast member to properly contain them.
c. Avoid penetration of forms where possible. Fig. 1.6.1 shows how the use of a bent bar in a
d. Reduce post-stripping work. corbel creates an unreinforced area of concrete
e. Be aware of material sizes and limitations. nearthe edge of the corbel. It is betterto use smaller
f . Consider clearances and tolerances. bars or, as shown in Fig. 1.6.2, welded cross bars,
g. Avoid non-standard production and erection toi- or deformed bar anchors. The welded headed
erances. studs and deformed bar anchors provide a conven-
h. Standardize hardware items and use as few ient and reliable method of achieving positive an-
sizes as possible. chorage. Their use in precast concrete connections
i. Use repetitious details. is common.
j. Use symmetrical connection materials (for ex- In connection design, attention must be paid to
ample, welds) to minimize errors. positioning of reinforcement (both prestressing
strand and reinforcing bars) to allow proper casting
1.6.2 Production Standardization and vibrating of concrete into the connection region.
Standardization of materials used in connec- When a large numberof reinforcing bars cross each
tions improves quality control in the plant and con- other, it may cause honeycombing of concrete in
tributes to production economies. the connection area. Such problems can be mini-
Standardization can be applied to all elements of mized by checking the connection region for dimen-
a connection. For example, if a majority of the con- sions and clearances during the design phase.
nection details require a 318 in. plate while in some
a 5/l 6 in. plate would be adequate, all connections 1.6.4 Proper Attachment of Embedded Plates
should be made with 318 in. plates. Similarily, in and Structural Shapes
selecting reinforcing bars, if some connections Proper attachment of plates, angles, and other
require No. 6 bars and others No. 5 bars, it is better steel shapes to the form is important. If they are not
to use No. 6 bars throughout. Even more generally, held securely in the forms, they may become mis-
where a majority of the connections on a project are aligned or skewed relative to their planned position
required to support 80 kip loads, whereas a few are as shown in Fig. 1.6.3.
subjected to 50 kips, all connections should be This can result in insufficient, or uneven bearing
designed for the 80 kip load. when the connection is completed later in the field.
Standardization can also be used in dimension- Structural shapes, such as angles and plates, are
ing of connections. Little is gained by slight easily held in place by providing two small size
changes in dimensions, since the savings in mate- holes (say 114 in.) in the assembly for nailing or
rials may be more than offset by the extra labor screwing to a bulkhead or location jigs.
involved in developing the modifications. Further- Care is also necessary in positioning of plates
more, if different connections vary only slightly in di- and angles so that proper placing and vibration of
mensions, there is a greater chance that an im- concrete under these steel sections can be

1-7
Critical
Area

As Drawn As Produced

Fig. 1.6.1 - Problems With Bending Reinforcing Bars


in Critical Connection Areas

Welded Cross Bar Welded Deformed Bar (shown)


or Headed Stud

Fig. 1.6.2 - Solutions to Bar Bending Problems

achieved. For hard to reach positions, air release the embedment is placed and vibrated into fresh
holes l/4 in. to 3/4 in. in diameter should be pro- concrete to avoid dislodging of the anchor and
vided through the angle as shown in Fig. 1.6.4. This creating voids around the anchor bars.
procedure allows entrapped air to escape which re-
duces the possibility of voids under the plate or 1.6.5 Dimensional Considerations
angle. The actual position of the embedment during Where possible, connections should be dimen-
casting must be predetermined so that the holes are sioned to the nearest 112 in. This makes it easier to
drilled in the horizontal surface of the plates. detail connections and it simplifies production.
Another technique for eliminating voids under Also, 112 in. increments are common in plate sizes.
plates involves placing the concrete into the form Dimensional considerations should include stan-
and then placing and vibrating the embedment into dard clearances and tolerances (see Sect. 1.5).
fresh concrete. This requires special supervision so It is neither practical nor economical to require
that adequate vibration is supplied and accurate po- the various pieces of the connection to be as-
sitioning measurements are taken prior to and after sembled to very tight dimensions. The minimum
Ej jFk$-q
(a) As Shown Section C-C

Jyb c$lr

(a) As Shown (b) As Cast Section D-D

Fig. 1.6.3 - Potential Misalignments of


Em bedded Plates

Center Lines of
Air Release Holes
I I

(a) As Shown (b) As Cast (c) Detail to Prevent


Honeycomb

Fig. 1.6.4 - Air Bleed Holes for Reducing Voids Under


Embedments

clearance between items cast in a member should Fig. 1.65. This should be considered in dimension-
not be less than l/4 in.; 112 in. is preferred. Poten- ing.
tial conflicts of anchorage steel within a member The Designer must recognize that for connec-
must be identified during detailing to avoid prob- tion details in prestressed members, the position of
lems during fabrication. the prestressing strands must not interfere with the
Reinforcing bars have deformations that add connection items. Typical situations are shown in
l/8 in. or more to the nominal diameter, as shown in Fig. 1.6.6 and Fig. 1.6.7.

l-9
D + l/6 0 t 3/16"

Deformations +

Bars #3 to #8 Bars #9 to # 1 1

Fig. i .6.5 - Reinforcing Bar Deformations

View Section A-A Section B-B

Fig. 1.6.6 - Conflict for Space in Connection Areas Between


Prestressing Steel and Connection Detail

r P/S Strands

77-0 0 0
c c c
- - -

Section E-E
Confl ict

5" x 3"
Bearing
I

( Anchorage Steel not Shown far Clarity 1

Fig. 1.6,7 - Conflict Between Bearing Angle and Prestressing


Steel at End of Beam
1.6.6 Bulkheads and Blockouts can cause connection problems in that an uneven
The majority of precast, prestressed concrete bearing can develop due to the skewed geometry in
members are made in 200 to 500 ft. long beds with combination with the camber. Such members may
the individual units separated by wood or steel bulk- require bearing pads of different thicknesses to con-
heads. Misalignment of the bulkhead from the ver- form to the skew geometry.
tical ortwisting out of square may influence the per- Blockouts should be detailed for easy access
formance of a connection. A typical case is the during production. If it is difficult to place the block-
simple end bearing of double tees on a ledger out or to secure it to the form, its position may vary
beam. If the end of the tee varies from the vertical, from casting to casting. All blockouts should be
this could result in a reduction of bearing length as detailed to prevent entrapment of air and resulting
shown in Fig. 1.6.8. Standard variation allowed voids underthe blockouts. Air relief holes should be
from square ends is +1/8 in. per foot of beam depth used in all blockouts where concrete must flow
for long span building members and bridge beams. under the blockouts during the casting operation.
In detailing members and setting bulkheads, the ef- The non-bearing sides of blockouts should be
fects of end rotation and elastic shortening caused drafted to allow for stripping of the product and to
by camber and prestressing forces must be consid- minimize damage to areas surrounding the block-
ered. In deep members (24 in. or deeper) and outs.
heavily prestressed, the end rotation and elastic Special attention must also be paid to dimen-
shortening must be determined and the bulkheads sions and position of blockouts in the end regions of
skewed or set longer in order to avoid short bearing beams so that the continuous prestressing steel
conditions. pattern is compatible with the blockout as shown in
Long span members with highly skewed ends 1 Fig. 1.6.9.

(a) As Planned - Side View

(b) As Cast -. Side View

Ledger Beam

(c) Installed

Fig. 1.6.8 - Effect of Bulkhead Variations and Camber


Induced End Rotations
6

6" 3 at 2"

Bearing Plate and Stirrups Omitted for Clarity

(b) Preferred

Fig. 1.6.9 - Effect of Blockouts on Strand Placement

1.6.7 Column Base Connections jection from column faces as shown in Fig. 1.6.10.
Column base connections, although a relatively When only one corbel is required, it can be cast on
standard item of production, can greatly influence the upper surface. Corbels on opposite sides of a
costs and production time. For example, column column may require special forms, secondary
base plates which are larger than the cross-section pours, or welding of steel. Production problems and
of the column must extend outside the column form costs are greatly increased when corbels are re-
and thus such columns cannot be cast in long-line quired on three or four sides. It may be worthwhile
forms. Column-size or smaller base plates are de- to consider mechanical attachment of the corbels
sirable so that economical long-line forms can be to the column faces. Such methods include casting
utilized. corbels onto the column at a later time, welding
Some column base connections are designed structural shapes to plates cast in the columns, or
with reinforcing bars or bolts extended beyond the bolting structural steel shapes to inserts cast in the
end. Projecting steel requires special bulkheads column.
and their placement and alignment can be difficult.
In such cases it is recommended that threaded 1.6.8 Hot-DIP Galvanlzlng
inserts be used rather than projecting bolts. Con- In applications where corrosion resistance is
nection elements that project out of the precast specially important, the components of exposed
units are subject to damage. On occasion, projec- connections are sometimes hot-dip galvanized. In
tions may result in a product that exceeds normal order to ensure that the strengths of the various
limits for shipping, thus adding unnecessary cost. It elements of a connection are not reduced by hot-
is best to have all connection items internal to the dip galvanizing, several precautions are necessary.
members, yet accessible so that the connection can When items of a connection assembly require
be easily completed in the field by bolting or weld- welding, such as anchor bars to plates, the following
ing. For example, reinforcing steel continuity can be recommendations by the American Hot-Dip Gal-
achieved using products such as coil rods or post- vanizers Association (13) have been found to pro-
tensioning bars. duce satisfactory results:
Another consideration is that of the corbel pro-

1-12
T l ;..
.
Top View

>
3
@

Perspective
Side View Single Corbel Column

jll( ..y.

Top View

? ~
Perspective
Side View Two Corbel Column

Top View

Four Corbel Column Perspective


Side View

Fig. 1.6.10 - Forming Problems with Column Corbels

1. An uncoated electrode should be used when- 3. A welding process such as metal-inert gas
ever possible to prevent flux deposits. (MIG), tungsten-inert gas (TIG), or CO,
2. If coated electrode is used, it should provide shielded arc is recommended when possible
for self-slagging as recommended by weld- since they produce essentially no slag.
ing equipment suppliers. All welding flux It should be recognized that many parts of con-
residues must be removed by wire brushing, nectioncomponents are fabricated using cold rolled
flame cleaning, chipping, grinding, needle steel or cold working techniques, such as bending
gun or abrasive blast cleaning. This is neces- of anchor bars. In some instances, cold working
sary because welding flux residues are may cause the steel to become strain-age em-
chemically inert in the normal pickling solu- brittled. The embrittlement may not be evident until
tions used by galvanizers; their existence will after the work has been galvanized. This occurs be-
produce rough and incomplete zinc cover- cause aging is relatively slow at ambient tempera-
age. tures but is more rapid at the elevated temperature
of the galvanizing bath.

1-13
It is known that every form of cold working 1 1.7 Erect Ion Considerations
reduces the ductility of steel. Operations such as
punching holes, notching, producing fillets of small 1.7.1 General
radii, shearing and sharp bending may cause strain- Consideration should be given to erection proce-
age embrittlement of certain steels, particularily dures when designing precast concrete connec-
those with high carbon content. The following pre- tions. This is best done by consultation with the
cautions are recommended by the American Hot- Erector early in the selection and design process. If
Dip Galvanizers Association (13): more than one connection detail will satisfy struc-
tural requirements, the selected detail should be the
(1)Select steel with a carbon content below one that expedites erection. Details that are best
0.25% suited for field and erection conditions may require
(2) Choose steel with low transition temperature compromise of some production considerations. If
since cold working raises the ductile-brittle possible, the same connection methods should be
transition temperature and galvanizing (heat- used throughout a project. In other words, if some
ing) may raise it even further. spandrels are bolted to the columns, all spandrels,
(3) For steel having carbon content between loadbearing and non-loadbearing, should be
0.1% and 0.25%, a bending radius of at least bolted. Also the number of different sizes of field
three times the section thickness should be connection hardware and connection material
maintained. Otherwise, the material should should be minimized. Plate sizes, weld sizes, and
be stress relieved at 1lOOOF for one hour per bolt sizes should be standardized as much as pos-
inch of section thickness. sible. Connections should also be designed so that
(4) Holes should be drilled, rather than punched, a unit can be set and safely unhooked from the
in material thicker than 3/4 inch. If holes are crane in the shortest possible time.
punched, they should be punched under- The following items pertaining to erection should
sized and then reamed an additional l/8 in. be kept in mind when designing connections:
overall or drilled to size. a. Plan for the shortest possible hoist hook-up
(5)Steel sections thicker than 518 in. and de- time.
signed to carry tensile loads should be ma- b. Provide for field adjustment.
chine cut or their edges machined. c. Provide accessibility.
(6) In critical applications, the steel should be hot d. Use connections that are not susceptible to
worked above 1,200F in accordance with damage in handling.
the steel makers recommendations. Where
cold working cannot be avoided, stress re- 1.7.2 Typical Field Considerations
lieving as recommended in Item (3) above Connection details should be planned to ac-
should be done. commodate the possibility of bearing surfaces
being misaligned or warped from the desired plane
ASTM Recommended Practice Al43 Safe- as shown in Fig. 1.7.1. Adjustments can be pro-
guarding Against Embrittlement of Hot-Dip Galva- vided by the use of dry-pack mortar or non-shrink
nized Structural Steel Products and Procedure for grout. Soft pads will usually provide the necessary
Detecting Embrittlement (14) and CSA Specifica- adjustments at beam bearings.
tions G164 Galvanizing of Irregularly Shaped Ar- In establishing allowable tolerances, it must be
ticles (15), provide guidance on cold working and remembered that different suppliers or subcontrac-
stress relieving procedures. tors may produce the members meeting at a con-
Another area of concern is hydrogen embrittle- nection, orthatothertrades and materials (with their
ment. Hydrogen released during the pickling op- own tolerances) may be involved in the completion
eration, can be absorbed into the steel causing a of a connection. An example of two different trades
potentially significant loss in its ductility. Even being involved in a connection is the bolting of a
though hydrogen embrittlement is not common and precast column to a cast-in-place foundation as
the hydrogen absorbed during the pickling opera- shown in Fig. 1.7.1.
tion is generally expelled at hot-dip galvanizing Any joint that requires dry-pack or non-shrink
temperatures, it is recommended that for high grout for final completion should provide for at least
strength steels (ultimate strength higher than about 2 in. as the planned dimension between two sur-
150,000 psi) a different method, such as grit blast- faces. A 2-l/2 in. dimension is preferable, particu-
ing, should be used instead of acid pickling. larlyforgrouted base plates under precast columns.

1-14
Top of Dry-Pack
Footing
or Pier

Base Plate Elevation

Fig. 1.7.1 - Base Plate Details

1.7.3 Temporary Connections requires special erection procedures, a careful


During erection, loads may occur which will review of the drawings should be made to identify
control the connection design. These temporary conditions which might subject the connections to
conditions can result from wind, construction loads, loads greater than the service loads, and the Engi-
or impact, which may place a more severe demand neer should verify design for these special erection
on the connection than after it is completed and loads.
service loads are imposed. Also, certain elements
which complete a connection, such as cast-in-place 1.7.4 Field Welding
concrete, render a connection incomplete until the Where field welding is required it should meet
concrete is placed and cured. Therefore, temporary the procedures and qualification requirements of
erection connections may be required to ensure the American Welding Society( 16): AWS Dl .l for
stability of the structure during this phase. In fact, structural steel, AWS D1.4 for reinforcing steel and
certain connections may be required for erection AWS Dl .l (Section 7) for stud welding. Welding
purposes only. Whenever any special or unusual through hot-dipped galvanized material requires
erection conditions are encountered, the Engineer special care(see Sect. 1.6.8). Thorough pre-re-
should identify these and determine if the connec- moval of the galvanizing is necessary in weld
tions are adequate. Fig. 1.7.2 illustrates a typical, zones, otherwise contaminations can occur creat-
temporary, unbalanced loading condition on an in- ing poor weld quality. Cold galvanizing metal
verted tee beam which must be considered. spray should be applied over the welded joints to
A review of all phases of construction and erec- replace the removed galvanizing. Where only a few
tion may be necessary in order to identify required field connections are to be welded, it is usually more
temporary connection conditions. Such a review economical to use an alternate method.
may indicate, for example, that temporary guying, When making field welded connections, the
shoring, welding, bolting, or bracing the precast welding should be done in the down-hand position
units is a more economical solution than requiring whenever possible. Welding should be avoided in
the connection to carry the temporary erection confined places. This would ensure good quality
loads. If such temporary techniques are used, the welding and minimize the potential of injury due to
precast member should be provided with required toxic fumes. Welding should only be done as shown
inserts or weld plates for attachment. on the drawings. Providing more weld than shown
Normally, the Engineer cannot anticipate the on the plans is not necessarily better, since it may
method of erection during the design phase. Thus, result in not only unpredictable but also undesirable
the Engineer should require that the erection draw- behavior.
ings show the erection sequence. If a project When welding in cold temperatures, preheating

1-15
No Double Tee
in Place Here

Plan View

Overturning Torque

Column Top or
Column Bracket

Section A-A

Fig. 1.7.2 - Effect of Erection Loads

is required or special welding techniques such as with welded connections, potential damage to the
thermite welding should be used. Moreover, weld- concrete surrounding the connections must be
ing in cold temperatures should be done carefully to evaluated for possible effect on performance of the
prevent spalling of the adjacent concrete. In fact, connection.

1-16
Field welding for both temporary and final con- variations from planned positions, and completed
nections must be specified with consideration of architectural appearance. Connections completed
possible consequences. Fig. 1.7.3 illustrates a with cast-in-place concrete are more tolerant of
welded connection detail which may satisfy the member fabrication tolerances.
temporary loading conditions shown in Fig. 1.7.2,
but it does not provide relief of volume change 1.7.6 Additional Field Considerations
forces that may build up in the beams unless the op- Whenever possible, the connections should be
posite ends are free to move. Unless the Engineer completed to permit operations to take place on the
has fully considered the effect of field welding in re- top side of erected members ratherthanfrom below
straining rotations or preventing movements of the where ladders or scaffolds are required. In addition,
units, welding should be avoided or temporary the connection details should be standardized.
welds removed after erection, or the connection Repetition of the same connection improves quality
should be designed to yield before reaching the control in the field. Furthermore, standardization
critical load. facilitates selection and shipment of connection
items to the plant and to the project, resulting in
1.7.5 Site-Cast Concrete Connections fewer delays and added economies. An advantage
Connections requiring cast-in-place concrete for of standardized connections is that when erectors
their completion usually provide an excellent con- have experience with a typical connection, they are
nection method by allowing good load redistribu- in a better position to expedite proper placement
tion: with proper design they can match monolithic and connection of members.
joints in cast-in-place concrete in ductility and per- With bolted connections, 314 in. and 1 in. diame-
formance. Where possible, the connection detail ter bolts are most commonly used in the precast
should be self-forming as shown in Fig. 1.7.4. Such industry. It is important to consider the types of
details require adequate tolerances for rapid erec- threads being used in bolted connections and to
tion. select those that are considered to be standard. A
When it is impractical to develop a self-forming discussion of bolts and threaded connectors is
detail, the connection should permit easy forming given in Sect. 3.5.
and easy form removal. In dimensioning such a In design of connections, it should be recognized
detail, consideration must be given to the allowable that the field adjustments may cause shift in load ap-
tolerances in dimensions of members, possible plication positions from the design positions. An

Multi-Bay P/S
Ledger Beam

Remove Weld
After Erection
Is Complete

Fig. 1.7.3 - Utilization of Temporary Welds for


Erection Purposes

1-17
Fig. 1.7.4 - Example of Self- Forming Spaces for Cast-in-Place
Concrete Connections

Ledger Beam

Fig. 1.7.5 - Effect of Erection Variations on Load


Application Point on Connection

assessment of the shift must be made and the effect should have an understanding of how it will be made
accommodated in design, Fig. 1.7.5 illustrates a and whether the design can accommodate poten-
typical situation where the actual load position on a tial misalignments or construction irregularities
connection has shifted due to erection tolerance without impairing the integrity of the connection.
conditions. Another condition to be aware of is the
impact loading that mayoccurduring erection orthat 1.7.7 Cold Weather Considerations
may result from construction loads. Appropriate At times when erection of precast may take place
consideration of this potential impact loading should in subfreezing weather, consideration should be
be included in the design of connections. given to provision for drainage at the connection to
The Engineer cannot assume that the connec- prevent ice buildup which might cause damage to
tion will be made exactly as detailed. The Engineer the joint or the product in the vicinity of the joint.
1.8 Seismic Considerations 1. Design the system to resist elastic strength
demand (ESD) loads. The response modi-
1.8.1 General fication coefficient, R, is taken as 1 .O as illus-
Connections located in regions of the structure trated in Ref.5 This approach may be suit-
where large inelastic displacements are required to able for Zones 1 and 2.
develop during an earthquake are classified as 2. Design connections to be stronger than the
seismic connections. Design of structures for Uni- members joined. This requires the members
form Building Code (17) load levels in Zones 1 (rather than the connection) to develop the
through 4 assumes energy dissipation by theforma- inelastic deformation required for energy dis-
tion of plastic mechanisms. When these mecha- sipation. In most situations, a design of this
nisms occur at interelement joints connected by type is not feasible.
seismic connections, energy must be dissipated 3. Design the lateral load-resisting systems with
through inelastic deformations of the connections. a configuration which positions the connec-
PCI Technical Report No. 5(5) provides a rational tions outside the regions of the plastic
design approach and is the basis for information mechanisms. Frame configurations in the
presented in this Manual. shape of T or H, as shown in Fig. 1.8.1,
Earthquake engineering of structures may even provide connections in regions of smaller lat-
be necessary in regions of low seismic intensity eral load moments. It should be recognized
because significant lateral forces are generated that the inelastic response of the structure
due to the large mass of the concrete structures. may dramatically accentuate the connection
Proper design of seismic connections is required to forces evaluated based on the elastic state of
ensure satisfactory performance of most normally the structure. Reference18 gives a proce-
used lateral load resisting systems. dure for establishing loads which may be
If it is desired that non-seismic connections be anticipated in frames. Shearwalls, as shown
provided in buildings subjected to earthquake in Fig.l.8.2, require special consideration for
toads, one of the following three concepts may be seismic design. The flexural mechanism in
used: Fig. 1.8.2(b) is the accepted behavior mode

-Q- H - Frame -$

LI #

Ground Level

\ Cast-In-Place Footing
with Pedestal

(a) H - Frame Configuration (b) T - Frame Configuration

Fig. 1.8.1 - Frame Configurations to Place Connections


Outside of Plastic Regions
for concrete shear walls. Sliding shear, Tests on typical frame connections have been
Fig.l.8.2(c) must be avoided. Reference 18 conducted and the resulting information is available
suggests that a plastic region with height, H in Ref. 7. The use of monolithic connections, such
equal to width, W may be assumed and the asclosure pours, high strengthgrouted sleeves and
moment capacity at the base taken equal to pocket or coupling devices with mild or high
that at height H. Thus for design purposes, strength reinforcing steel, is suitable for zones of
the area H X W is assumed to be the plastic moderate to high seismic activity. The performance
mechanism region as shown in Fig. 1.8.2(d). of these connections is evaluated based on estab-
If seismic connections are to be avoided, the lished cast-in-place concrete technology.
lower portion of the wall can be cast-in-place
concrete, and the section of the wall above 1.8.2 Rational Seismic Design Methodology
height, H may be precast as shown in Fig. The simplified rational seismicdesign procedure
1.8.2(e). in Ref. 5 provides an approximate method for pre-
dicting the lateral displacement at the top of single
Special care is required in the design of vertical degree of freedom structures. Figure 1.8.4 shows
joints to achieve effective connection of shear wall the equal-energy principle used for this estimate.
panels. Interlocking joints as shown in Fig. 1.8.3 New response modification values, R, are available
can be readily designed to provide the load transfer in the Building Seismic Safety Council, National
capability, however the overall seismic perform- Earthquake Hazard Reduction Program provi-
ance of such interconnected walls, for both in-plane sions(19). Structure ductility, u for seismic loads is
and out-of-plane configurations, has generally not defined as the ratio of the inelastic displacement to
been verified by tests. first yield displacement at the top of the structure.
Research data on inelastic behavior of precast, Simple kinematic, post-yielding relationships, as
prestressed concrete connections is scarce. Most shown for a shear wall in Fig. 1.85 are used to ap-
bolted and welded connections have not been proximate the plastic displacement by assuming
tested for cyclic, inelastic performance. Therefore, rigid-body rotations. This analytical procedure
unless a connection is monolithic in nature or its provides the inelastic deformation required to de-
behavior can be evaluated by using acceptable en- sign seismic connections.
gineering techniques, the Committee recommends Required load transfer forces for connections
that the design of seismic connections should be are calculated in an elastic load analysis for lateral
based on appropriate tests. base shear loads using the selected R values.

7
-,I:a
4 -in
H
f u H

t---i
(a) Shear Wall (b) Flexure (c) Sliding (d) Plastic (e) Shear Wall with
Shear Mechanism Cast-in-Place
Bottom and
Precast Top

Fig. 1.8.2 - Design Considerations for Concrete Shear Wall


I
I
I

Fig. 1.8.3 - Vertical Joints in Shear Walls

ATC-3 Elastic Strength


Demand ( i.e. : R = 1 )

Design Yield Strength of


Elasto-Plastic System

-- 1.4 X UBC Load

Lateral Displacement
cture

Generalized Plastic
Displacement i_:-isep

Response Modification Factor Ductility Factor


6
RJSD P =-6ep
FY A, = A, Y

0, 1111 11.

pJ% 6, =sy(+J)
2

Fig. 1.8.4 - Equal Energy Principle for Estimating Maximum


Seismic Displacements of an Elasto-Plastic System

1-21
Connection loads are then modified by the appropri- eration in selecting appropriate seismic connec-
ate load factor to determine the design load for the tions. Reference 5 provides a table for estimating
seismic connection. The design load is assumed to the range of cycles for seismic connections for
correspond to the threshold of yielding for the con- different building periods, and the response modifi-
nection and any additional deformation to occur cation coefficients.
without increase in the load. As an illustration of the design using the con-
In reality, strain hardening of the yieldingcompo- cepts discussed, Fig. 1.8.6 schematically shows
nents of the seismic connections may occur and two welded wall panel to foundation seismic con-
could be considered. Other connections, as well as nections which are designed for different load lev-
the members in the lateral load resistant system, in- els. A detailed numerical example is given in Sect.
cluding the diaphragm, can also be designed using 4.18. The two connections shown in Fig. 1.8.6
strength design principles and a factor which ac- resist tension or compression which develops from
counts for the actual strain hardened capacity of the the seismic overturning moment. For each, the
yielding component. Two factors which must be angles were selected as the component of the
considered are the stability of the gravity support connection to yield. Welds and embedded plates
system when displaced to the inelastic level, and were designed to resist the strain hardened plastic
the redundancy of seismic connections. capacity of the angle. High strength grout provides
a uniform bearing surface to transfer the compres-
1.8.3 Seismic Performance sive loads. The inelastic deformation capacity of
Types of seismic connections, their design the angle was checked to ensure that the required
strengths, and the required inelastic deformation inelastic displacement at the top of the shear wall
capacity are discussed in Sects. 1.8.1 and 1.8.2. In was provided.
addition, cyclic inelastic performance is a consid-

"PLASTIC HINGE"
lumped at base of wall.

Wall assumed to
Vertical displacement equals rotate about corner.
predicted sum of plastic elongations
across horizontal joints which yield.

Fig. 1.8.5 - Kinematics of Isolated Wall Undergoing


Plastic Deformation

l-22
. .

d =- 1 f o r S h ims
& Grout Td

Foundation
Wall arm

(a)

DT Leg

DT Flange

Fig. 1.8.6 - Two Base Connections

1-23
CHAPTER 2

DESIGN CONCEPTS scribed below:


1. Beam to bearing area by shear in the beam.
2. Bearing areato bracketthrough compression
of the pad.
3. Bracket to steel plate through shear and
2.1 General flexure in the steel bracket.
This chapter discusses several concepts which 4. Through the plate via welds to embedded
are useful in visualizing connection behavior and in steel shape.
testing validity of the design. Because forces con- 5. From embedded steel shape to column
verge on connections and also because many concrete through bearing.
connection design equations are empirical in na-
ture, it is importantthat the Engineer focuson those The tensile force, T caused by restraint of volume
mechanisms which transfer the loads; to do this the change shortening follows these paths:
Engineer must first identify the path of load transfer. 6. Concrete beam to reinforcing bars by bond.
7. Reinforcing bars to bearing angle through
2.2 Load Transfer Paths weld.
The purpose of a connection is to transfer load 8 . Bearing angle to steel haunch through fric-
from one precast member to another, or from a tion on top and bottom of the bearing pad.
precast member to another element of the struc- Most of the volume change force is then
ture. In most cases, the load will be transferred relieved through deformation or slipping of
through several elements of the connection by the pad.
various mechanisms. 9. A small amount of tensile force is transmit-
As an example, considerthe steel bracket shown ted through the welds to the steel plate, and
in Fig. 2.2.1. To avoid penetration of the form, the then to the embedded structural shape.
exterior portion of the bracket was welded after the 10. Forces transmitted to the embedded shape
column was removed from the form. The load, w is are then resisted by bearing on the project-
transferred to the column by the mechanisms de- ing studs.

C o l u m n B e a m
b.. . 0I",-.
0 '.
A
., '.

Projecting
Studs

Fig. 2.2.1 - Load Paths on Connection

2-1
Each of these load transfer mechanisms yields the 2.3.1). This research dealt with diff erent reinforcing
forces to be used for designing the corresponding schemes of dapped-ends in thin web stemmed
element of the connection. It is usually more eco- members such as double tees. Typical cracks
nomical to use a connection alternate with the observed in the tests carried out under this study are
fewest loadtransfers. Also, thefewerthe number of shown in Fig. 2.3.2. Comparison of Figs. 2.3.1 and
load transfers, the less the chance for error. 2.3.2 show that, except for crack@ there is good
correlation between the assumed failure modes for
2.3 Analysis of Potential Failure Modes design and the observed cracking in the tests of
In a manner analogous to consideration of the Ref. 8 specimens.
load transfer paths, the Designer must examine Previous experience supplemented by this re-
each potential mode of failure in the connection cent research suggests that, by attention to mem-
including its component parts. In some of the simple ber size proportions and proper detailing, some of
connections, the critical failure mode will be quite the potential failures can be prevented. Design is
apparent. In others, it may not be as obvious, and then limited to considerationof the remaining poten-
laboratory testing may be required to determine tial failure modes. For example, by limiting the
behavior. average shear stress in the extended end, failures
An excellent example of a connection where one related to cracks@ and @can be prevented. Also,
of several potential failures is possible is that of the extending the horizontal leg of the hanger reinforce-
dapped-end of a beam. The PCI Design Hand- mentadistanceof 1.7timestheACl(6) specifiedde-
book(4) lists five potential failure modes which must velopment length, as shown in Fig. 2.3.2, ensures
be investigated in designing the dapped-end. The development of the hanger reinforcement yield
causes of these are described below and the typical strength and prevents occurrence of premature
cracks are shown in Fig. 2.3.1. failure due to the critical diagonal tension crack.
1. Flexure (cantilever bending) and axial ten- The force in the hanger reinforcement based on its
sion in the extended end --potential crack@. yield strength may then be used in conjunction with
2. Diagonal tension emanating from the reen- the ~~JSS analogyor the free-body equilibrium to
trant corner -- potential crack@. provide additional design information. A brief dis-
3, Direct shear at the junction of the dap and cussion of the truss analogy and the free-body
the main body of the member -- potential diagram concepts is given in Sects. 2.8 and 2.9.
crack@.
4. Diagonal tension in the extended end -- 2.4 Stress Relief Measures
potential crack@. In most cases, as long as structural integrity is
5. Diagonal tension in the beam -- potential ensured, the connections that allow some relative
crack@. movements between precast members are prefer-
Bearing on the extended end should also be checked. able to those that impose considerable restraint.
Recent PCI funded research (8) on dapped- The forces due to restraint can be quite large and
ends has generally confirmed the need for address- may add significant premium to the design of con-
ing the five types of cracks discussed above (Fig. nections and members. The relief of restraint is

Fig. 2.3.1 - Possible Failure Modes in a Dapped-End

2-2
Branch Crack Re-Entrant
Nib Inclined Crack Over Rebar Corner Crack

Critical Diagonal
Nib Flexure Tension Crack
Crack
,,bWeb Flexure

Flexural
Cracks- Bond Cracks

Hanger Reinforcement

Fig. 2.3.2 - Typical Cracks in Dapped-End (Ref. 8)

particularly desirable for loads due to volume 2.4.3 Slip


changes and earthquakes. Stress buildup can also be prevented if portions
Extreme care is necessary in designing connec- of the connections are allowed to slip to accommo-
tions which provide restraint relief but which must date volume changes. Some types of bearing
also resist lateral loads. In general, it is desirable to devices are designed with slip characteristics. The
rigidly connect to no more shear walls or frames most common are thin plastic or hardboard bearing
within the system than absolutely necessary to strips used under slabs. Tetrafluorethylene (TFE -
resist the lateral loads. All otherconnections should trade name Teflon) beating devices are also used
be designed to provide relief of restraint. where very low friction is desired.
It is common practice to use slotted holes in clip
2.4.1 Flexibility angles as shown in Fig. 2.4.2. When properly
Designed-in flexibility of selected components, placed, these allow some horizontal movement but
which allows elastic and inelastic deformations to will restrain torsional rotation. However, since the
take place, is also a useful concept for achieving slot is also used forfield adjustment during erection,
relief of stress. For example, in Fig. 2.4.1, because care is required so that the bolt does not bear
of the arrangement of welds the connection at the against the end of the slot, thus disallowing further
top of the beam would be effective in resisting movement in one direction. There is also a ten-
torsional rotation, but the angles would deform dency for the erection personnel to tighten the bolt
enough under gravity loads so that a large negative too much. If the purpose of the slot is to relieve
moment would not be produced. restraint, erection instructions should clearly indi-
cate this. Care must also be exercised in the design
2.4.2 Bearing Pads and fabrication to prevent rust buildup which can
To relieve restraint of volume changes and to progress to the point that the joint may become
minimize local spalling due to nonuniform bearing frozen. A smooth slip surface, such as the low-
conditions, flexible pads are recommended be- friction washer shown in Fig. 2.4.2, should be pro-
tween beams and stemmed deck members, and vided at the interfaces of a slotted connection.
their supports. These pads relieve restraint by
either deforming readily within their thickness or by 2.5 Expansion Joints
allowing slippage. The term expansion joint is applied to joints
There are several materials and combinations of which extend completely through the building, ef-
materials that are suitable as flexible bearing pads. fectively separating it into two or more structures.
These are discussed in Sect. 3.11. The PCI Design Handbook(l), Sect. 3.3.3, contains

2-3
Low-Friction
Washer

Column Corbel
Below

Fig. 2.4.1 - Flexible Top Fig. 2.4.2 - Slotted Connection


Connection

a discussion of the expansion joints in precast, 3. Whether or not the building is heated and/or
prestressed concrete structures. air conditioned.
A true expansion joint is only required if the 4. The base fixity condition of the columns.
movements resulting from temperature rise are 5. The relative stiffness against lateral displace-
greater than the shortening caused by creep and ment along the length of the building.
shrinkage. In precast concrete buildings, this rarely The report does not address precast concrete
happens, except in exposed components such as buildings with soft connections, i. e. those which
wall panels, or structures such as parking garages. employ bearing pads or other restraint relieving
Instead, joints that permit contraction are needed to measures. Experience has shown that if all or most
allow the shortening caused by the additive effects connections are soft, the distance between joints
of temperature drop, creep, and shrinkage. can be substantially increased over those recom-
There are differences of opinion regarding the mended in Ref. 20.
spacing of expansion joints. These joints are sources
of frequent problems and require maintenance. 2.6 Friction
Thus it is desirable to have as few expansion joints The static coefficients of friction for various inter-
as possible. face conditions commonly used in connections are
The National Academy of Sciences publication, given in Table 2.6.1. These values, which are
Expansion Joints in Buildings(20), providesguide- maximums, should be used for assessing the unde-
lines for expansion joint spacing and design. The sirable effects of friction, such as the restraint of
recommendations in that report are based on a volume changes.
study of government buildings and elastic analytical Friction may be depended upon to resist tempo-
study of the effects of uniform temperature change rary construction loads. In that case however, the
on typical two-dimensional frames. The report lists coefficients of friction shown in Table 2.6.1 should
several parameters that must be considered in the be divided by five.
design and spacing of expansion joints. These Friction may also be depended upon to contrib-
parameters are: ute to the resistance to design loads in specific
1. Framing materials -- concrete, steel. situations where appropriate analysis and/or test-
2. Configuration of the building -- rectangular, ing justifies its use. One such situation is the
L-shaped, T-shaped. horizontal joints of precast concrete wall panels.

2-4
Table 2.6.1 Static Coefficients of Friction
of Dry Materials
Material ps
Elastomeric to steel or concrete . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . See Fig. 4.4.2
Concrete to concrete . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.8
Concrete to steel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.4
Steel to steel (not rusted) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.25
TFE to stainless steel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . See Fig. 3.11.3
Hardboard to concrete . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.5
Multimonomer plastic (non-skid) to concrete . . . . . . . . 1.2
Multimonomer plastic (smooth) to concrete . . . . . . . . . 0.4

A reduction of 20% is recommended for wet conditions.

The total resistance to lateral wind or seismic loads This sliding friction resistance (Eq. 2.6.1) added
may be obtained by adding the sliding friction resis- to the shear resistance of the connection inserts in
tance at the interfaces, and the shear resistance of the joint yields the total shear resistance available at
the connectors through the joint. the joint.
The sliding friction resistance is calculated as: A minimum amount of connection inserts or ties
must be provided through the joint even where the
w, = @ yc, (Eq. 2.6.1) sliding friction resistance exceeds the applied lat-
eral shear force. This minimum tie requirement
where: ensures integrity of the structural system by provid-
ing tension continuity (see Sect. 4.16.3). As recom-
5 = nominal value of sliding friction resis-
tance. mended by the PCI Committee on Bearing Wall
Buildings (21), the minimum amount of ties should
hi = appropriatecoeff icient of friction obtained be such that, based on yield, their design strength
by tests. For non-platform type joints, a in tension is equal to a force of 3000 lb per lineal f oot
value of 0.6 and for platform type joints of wall.
with plastic strips a value of 0.4 may be
used. 2.7 Shear-Friction
c, = The net compression force perpendicu- Shear-frtction is an extremely useful tool in
lar to the joint. This net compression connection design and in certain other applications
force should be evaluated based on all in precast, prestressed concrete structures. Use of
applicable loads and appropriate load the shear-friction concept is recognized in ACI 316-
factors. In addition to the gravity loads, 63(6) which states that provisions of Sec.1 1.7 are
including those transferred from any in- to be applied where it is appropriate to consider
tersecting walls, the effects of post-ten- shear transfer across a given plane, such as: an
sioning, overturning moment, and verti- existing or potential crack, an interface between
cal seismic accelerations must be con- dissimilar materials, or an interface between two
sidered in evaluating the net compres- concretes cast at different times.
sion force. A basic assumption used in applying the shear-
o = strength reduction factor = 0.65 friction concept is that concrete within the direct
shear area of the connection will crack. Strength is
maintained by placing reinforcement across this
1 Platform type joints are typically used with hollow core anticipated crack so that the tension developed by
slab units wherein the hollow core is set on plastic the reinforcing bars will produce a compressive
bearing strips and the space between the ends of the force normal to the crack. The normal force in
hollow core units is filled with grout. If bearing strips are combination with friction at the crack interface pro-
not used, as in double tees bearing directly on ledges or vides the shear resistance. The shear-friction
in blockouts, the joint is refered to as the non-platform analogy can be adapted to designs for reinforced
type. concrete bearing, corbels, daps, composite sec-

2-5
Table 2.6.1 Static Coefficients of Friction
of Dry Materials*

...................
oncrete to concrete. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.8
Concrete to steel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.4
Steel to steel (not rusted) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.25
TFE to stainless steel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . See Fig. 3.11.3
Hardboard to concrete . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.5
........

The total resistance to lateral wind or seismic loads This sliding friction resistance (Eq. 2.6.1) added
may be obtained by adding the sliding friction resis- to the shear resistance of the connection inserts in
tance at the interfaces, and the shear resistance of the joint yields the total shear resistance available at
the connectors through the joint. the joint.
The sliding friction resistance is calculated as: A minimum amount of connection inserts or ties
must be provided through the joint even where the
Wf = 4wsc, (Eq. 2.6.1) sliding friction resistance exceeds the applied lat-
eral shear force. This minimum tie requirement
where: ensures integrity of the structural system by provid-
ing tensioncontinuity (see Sect. 4.16.3). As recom-
Y = nominal value of sliding friction resis-
tance. mended by the PCI Committee on Bearing Wall
= appropriate coeff icient of friction obtained Buildings (21), the minimum amount of ties should
k be such that, based on yield, their design strength
by tests. For non-platform type joints, a in tension is equal to a force of 3000 lb per lineal foot
value of 0.6 and for platform type joints of wall.
with plastic strips a value of 0.4 may be
used. 2.7 Shear-Friction
c, = The net compression force perpendicu- Shear-friction is an extremely useful tool in
lar to the joint. This net compression connection design and in certain other applications
force should be evaluated based on all in precast, prestressed concrete structures. Use of
applicable loads and appropriate load the shear-friction concept is recognized in ACI 318-
factors. In addition to the gravity loads, 83(6) which states that provisions of Sec.1 1.7 are
including those transferred from any in- to be applied where it is appropriate to consider
tersecting walls, the effects of post-ten- shear transfer across a given plane, such as: an
sioning, overturning moment, and verti- existing or potential crack, an interface between
cal seismic accelerations must be con- dissimilar materials, or an interface between two
sidered in evaluating the net compres- concretes cast at different times.
sion force. A basic assumption used in applying the shear-
$I = strength reduction factor = 0.85 friction concept is that concrete within the direct
shear area of the connection will crack. Strength is
maintained by placing reinforcement across this
1 Platform type joints are typically used with hollow core anticipated crack so that the tension developed by
slab units wherein the hollow core is set on plastic the reinforcing bars will produce a compressive
bearing strips and the space between the ends of the force normal to the crack. The normal force in
hollow core units is filled with grout. If bearing strips are combination with friction at the crack interface pro-
not used, as in double tees bearing directly on ledges or vides the shear resistance. The shear-friction
in blockouts, the joint is refered to as the non-platform analogy can be adapted to designs for reinforced
type. concrete bearing, corbels, daps, composite sec-

2-5
tions, and other connections. 1000 h.A,,u
The shear- friction method given in Sect. 11.74 I$ = s values in Table 2.7.1
of the ACI Code(G) is based on a simplified model Vu (Eq. 2.7.2)
which results in conservative designs. Other mod-
els which result in closer predictions of shear trans- x = 1 .O for normal weight concrete
fer strength to experimental information are avail- P (f,(6.7)/ c ) for sand-lightweight or all-
able and may be used. Two such methods men-
IightweigM concrete. lf f,* is unknown:
tioned in the Commentary to the ACI Code(G) are
the modified shear friction method(22,23) and the h = 0.85 for sand-lightweight concrete
and 0.75 for all-IightweigM concrete
effective shear friction method of the PCI Design
Handbook(4). It has been previously shown(24) fct = splitting tensile strength of concrete, psi
that these methods result in comparable designs. A P = value from Table 2.7.1
recent article(25) notes that the above two methods AC, = area of the assumed crack interface, sq.
yield somewhat conservative results for low rein- in.
forcement ratios and/or high concrete strengths
(5,000 - 9,000 psi range), and presents alternate When axial tension is present, additional rein-
equations for improved accuracy. The PCI Design forcement should be provided:
Handbook method(4) uses the procedure given in
Ref. 24. It is described below:
N
An effective shear-friction coefficient, p,, may A, = u (Eq. 2.7.3)
be used when the concept is applied to precast @Y
concrete connections. The shear-friction reinforce-
ment nominally perpendicularto the assumed crack where:
plane can be determined as:
A = area of reinforcement required to resist
axial tension, sq. in.
(Eq. 27.1) NU = applied factored horizontal tensile force
nominally perpendicular to the assumed
crack plane, lb.
where: $ = 0.85 (Note: Q, = 0.85 is used for consis-
$ = 0.85 tency with Eq. 2.7.1)
A,, = area of reinforcement nominally perpen-
dicular to the assumed crack plane, sq. in. All reinforcement should be properly anchored
= yield strength of Ati, psi (equal to or less on both sides of the assumed crack by providing
fY adequate development length (with or without
than 60,000 psi)
hooks), or by welding to angles or plates.
v u = applied factored shear force, parallel to
the assumed crack plane, lb. (limited by
the values given in Table 2.7.1)

able 2.7.1 Shear-Friction Coefficients


Crack Interface Recommended Maximum Maximum V, (I VU/ @ ), lb
Condition CL k
1. Concrete to concrete 1.4X 3.4 0.30 3L 2 fc A,, s 1000 X 2 A,,
cast monoHthically
2. Concrete to hardened 1.0X 2.9 0.251i2f,A, slOOOhA~
concrete with rough-
ened surface
3. Concrete to concrete 0.6 3, 2.2 0.20 h 2fc A,, s 800 h 2 Acr

4. Concrete to steel 0.7 h 2.4 0.20 3c 2f*c A,, s 800 h 2 Acr

2-6
2.8 Truss Analogy example, from photoelasticity tests(26) the stress
Truss analogy has been well established as a trajectories in a corbel and dapped-end are shown
basis for design of cracked concrete beams loaded in Figs. 2.8.1 and 2.8.2, respectively. The corre-
in bending, shear, and torsion. It has also been sponding truss analogies are shown in Figs. 2.8.3
successfully used to provide at least qualitative and 2.8.4. Another example of a truss model is
information for design of many connections in pre- given in Fig. 2.8.5 for a dapped-end with one of the
cast, prestressed concrete. If avalid truss model for reinforcement schemes in Ref. 8 study.
a connection can be developed, then the design of Recently, generalizations of the truss analogy
that connection would involve use of fundamental have been proposed(27) in theformof stmt-and-tie-
principlesof equilibriumandcompatibility,thuselimi- models. These models have the potential to lend
nating the need for much of the current empiricism themselves to design applications in regions of
in connection design. structures where discontinuities or load concentra-
The appropriate truss models can be developed tions exist, as in the connections of precast,
using analytical methods, such as the finite element prestressed concrete structures.
method, or may be based on laboratory tests. For

Tensile
Trajectories/

////
lressi o n
ector ties
0
q
Fig. 2.8.1 - Corbel Stress Fig. 2.8.2 - Dapped-End Stress
Trajectories Trajectories

Ineffective Area

/-

II
V~
- Tension

-ct- Compression

Fig. 2.8.3 - Corbel Truss Fig. 2.8.4 - Dapped-End


Analogy Truss Analogy

2-7
Fig. 2.8.5 - Assumed Truss-Action in Nib for a Double-Tee
Dapped-End (Ref. 8)

2.9 Free-Body Diagram As an illustration of the use of a free-body


The concept of free-body diagram should be diagram, Fig. 2.9.1 shows the free-body diagram of
used liberally to provide information regarding sta- a double tee dapped-end with respect to the re-
bility and equilibrium of the connection with respect entrant comer crack identified in Fig. 2.3.2, This
to the overall structure. It should also be used in free-body diagram can be used to calculate the
conjunction with equations of statics to evaluate tension forces, T and F, and the concrete compres-
and check forces in various components of a con- sion force, C.
nection.

Corner Crack

T = A&
""

Fig. 2.9.1 - Free-Body with Respect to the Re-Entran


Crack (see Fig. 2.3.2)

2-8
CHAPTER 3

tion hardware, their anchorage, and other related


CONNECTION MATERIALS considerations are discussed in this chapter.

3.2 Reinforcing Bars


Reinforcing bars used in connections usually
3.1 General conform to ASTM A615 or ASTM A706 specifica-
A variety of hardware including deformed bar tions although those conforming to ASTM A61 6 and
and headed stud anchors, plain wire and coil in- A61 7 are also occasionally used. Reinforcing bars
serts, structural shapes, bolts and threaded rods are anchored usually by bonding to the concrete.
and other materials is in use in connections of When there is insufficient length available to anchor
precast concrete structures; in order to achieve the bars, supplemental mechanical anchorage is
specified strength, these must be properly anchored required. Thiscan be accomplished by using hooked
in the concrete. The anchorage is achieved by bars, or by welding to structural steel shapes such
bond and/or bearing between the insert and the as plates and angles. Use of a welded cross bar to
adjacent concrete. For ductility, it is preferable to achieve anchorage, as shown in Fig. 3.2.1, is also
have the failure initiate in the steel ratherthan in the common practice. Load transfer between bars may
surrounding concrete. Consequently, anchorage be achieved by lap splicing, welding, orwith various
to concrete is a major consideration in connection types of couplers.
design. Some of the more commonly used connec- The development lengths, lap splice require-

Welded Cross Bar

Fig. 3.2.1 - Anchorage with Welded Cross Bar

3-1
men&, and material properties for reinforcing bars capable of developing 125% of the specified yield
are given in Tables A-l 0 through A-12 in Appendix A. strength of the bars.
A brief discussion of couplers, dowels, and welding
of reinforcing bars is given below. 3.2.2 Dowels
Reinforcing bars or steel rods are frequently
3.2.1 Couplers used as dowels to connect precast concrete com-
A variety of couplers, mostly proprietary in na- ponents. These dowels may be cast in one mem-
ture, is available for use in precast concrete connec- ber, and field placed and grouted into a preformed
tions(2629). Typical examples are shown in Fig. orpredrilled hole in another member, orthey may be
3.2.2. Some are suitable for compression splices field placed in both members. In many applications,
only, while otherscan be used fortension splices as these dowels are placed vertically and used only for
well. Most of the couplers available are not suitable alignment or to resist nominal shear loads, and thus
for connecting dowels projecting from adjacent may not require full tension strength development.
precast members. Designs using these devices Occasionally, a dowel will be required to resist
should be based on the manufacturers recommen- tension. In this case, the bar must be anchored to
dations. ACI 318-83(6) requires couplers to be develop the required tension strength. However,

Thread-Deformed Bar Coupler

Nan-Shrink Grout

-Tap Hole

Cold-Swaged
Steel Coupler
t- Reducer Insert
Metal-Filled Sleeve

Wedge-Locking Coupler Extruded


Tapered-Threaded Coupler Steel Coupler

Fig. 3.2.2 - Mechanical Couplers

3-2
the bond of the grout to the concrete may control the where:
embedment length. For most situations, ordinary
Fvl = design strength of weld
sand-cement grout in drilled holes is unreliable
under direct tension loads. Therefore, larger pre- 1, = unit design strength from Table A-13
& = length of weld
formed sleeves or special grouts such as epoxy
mixtures are required. L = effective throat thickness of weld
(Note: the t, values for ffare-V-groove and
3.2.3 Reinforcing Bar Welding flare-bevel-groove shown in Fig. 3.2.2 are
Welding of reinforcing bars is covered by applicable when the weld is filled flush to
AWS Dl.4-79, Structural Welding Code-Reinforc- the solid section of the bar.)
ing Steel(l6). Weldability of steel is determined by Table A-14 gives strength of commonly used sizes
its chemical composition which is typically expressed of fillet welds and Tables A-15 through A-17 show
in terms of carbon equivalent given by the following welding required to develop the full strength of
formula: reinforcing bars. Reinforcing bars should not be
weldedwithin 2 bardiameters, nor less than 2 in., of
a bar bend.
C.E. =%C+~+~+~+~-~-~ The welded cross bar detail shown in Fig. 3.2.1
is not included in AWS D1.4-79. However, it has
(Eq. 3.2.1) been validated by tests(30) and successfully used
in numerous structures. Table A-18 in Appendix A
gives design strength of connection with welded
where C.E. = carbon equivalent cross bar.
AWS D1.4-79 prohibits use of tack welds unless
The last three elements usually appear only as authorized by the Engineer. Where authorized,
trace elements, and thus are often not included in these should be made using the same preheat and
the mill reports. For bars that are to be .velded, the quality control requirements asthe permanent welds.
carbon equivalent should be requested from the mill
with the purchase order. 3.3 Welded Headed Studs - ASTM A108
AWS D1.4-79 indicates that most reinforcing Stud welding is a semi-automatic process of
bars can be welded. However, the preheat and welding certain types of fasteners. It is an efficient
other quality control measures that are required for and economical method by which anchorage of
bars with high carbon equivalent are difficult to steel shapes (plates, angles, etc.) to concrete can
achieve. Unless the welding quality control proce- be achieved. The process is schematically shown
dures are well established and meet AWS D1.4-79, in Fig. 3.3.1. Most precast concrete manufacturing
it is recommended that carbon equivalent be limited plants have stud welding capability.
to 0.45% for No. 7 and larger size bars, and 0.55% The most common type of fastener available for
for No. 6 and smaller size bars. use with this process is the headed stud. Headed
Most reinforcing bars which meet ASTM A615 studs are made from low carbon steel with a tensile
Grade 60, will not meet the above chemistry speci- strength of approximately 60,000 psi. The anchor-
fications. A615Grade 40 bars may or may not age to concrete is provided by concrete bearing
meet the above specifications. Bars which meet under the head of the stud. Several typical details
ASTM A706 are specially formulated to be weld- of application of the headed studs are shown in Fig.
able, and are now available in most parts of North 3.3.2. Table A-19 in Appendix A, contains informa-
America. tion on sizes commonly available, and Chapt. 4 in-
Fig. 3.2.3 shows the most common welds used eludes examples of connection designs using
with reinforcing bars. Full penetrationgroove welds headed studs.
can be considered to develop the same strength as
the nominal strengthof the bar. Thedesign strength 3.4 Deformed Bar Anchors - ASTM A496
of other types of welds can be calculated using Deformed bar anchors are made from the same
values from Table A-13 in Appendix A. The design type of steel as headed studs. They are welded to
strength of the weld is given by: steel plates and other shapes by the same semi-
automatic process that is used for headed studs.
F,= fwtvfw (Eq. 3.2.2) Anchorage to concrete is achieved by deformations

3-3
45O - 6O0 45 o - 60

Single-V-Groove Weld Double-V-Groove Weld

Full Penetration Welds


Nate: As shown for #9 and larger bars. #El and smaller bars require appropriate backing.

Fillet Welds

t, = 0.3d,

db/2

I Bars Same Size


Flare-V-Groove Welds

-3 db

t, = 0.2db

Flare-Bevel-Groove Welds

I Fig. 3.2.3 - Typical Reinforcing Bar Welds I

3-4
The stud tip is placed against the work surface. When the trigger
is pulled, the stud is raised. A welding arc burns off surface
contamination, melts the stud tip and a small area on the work sur-
face. The stud is forced into the molten area and is instantly
welded to the surface.

Fig. 3.3.1 - Stud Welding Process

Fig. 3.3.2 - Applications of Headed Studs

on the bar similar to reinforcing bars, except that the primary disadvantage is that close tolerances are
deformations are indentations rather than projec- required for the placement of the connector and its
tions. Bond properties of deformed bars are similar receptacle.
to those of reinforcing bars. Table A-20 in Appendix A In most connections, the bolts are shipped loose
lists the development lengths for commonly used to the site and are threaded into receptacles cast
sizes of deformed bar anchors. Fig. 3.4.1 shows into the concrete. Occasionally a precast concrete
typical applications. member will be cast with a threaded connector
Substitution of reinforcing bars for deformed bar projecting from the face. This is undesirable be-
anchors should not be allowed. Their weldability cause these items are vulnerable to damage during
characteristics are usually different, and also their handling. Also, unless the projection is from the top
strengths may not be the same. of the member as cast, stripping forms is usually
difficult.
3.5 Bolts and Threaded Connectors A majority of the connections of precast,
Various types of bolts and other threaded con- prestressed concrete structures tends to be of the
nectors are used in connections in precast con- bearing-type, wherein the load transfer is achieved
crete. The primary advantage of these devices is with fasteners acting essentially as dowels. On the
that they facilitate quick assembly and erection. The other hand, in the friction-type connections the load

3-5
Fig. 3.4.1 - Applications of Deformed Bar Anchors

transfer is provided by the friction between the loads as well as the nominal design strengths of
interconnected parts. The friction resistance capa- standard bolts are listed in Table A-22 in Appendix
bility is produced by the normal compressive force, A. These values are applicable when the tension or
which in turn is due to tensioning of the threaded the shear loads act alone. For bolts under simulta-
fasteners. neous tension and shear loads, adjustment in the
When threaded fasteners are tightened against values shown is required. This may be done in
concrete, there is the likelihood of minor crushing of accordance with the AISC(32) procedure which is
the concrete. For this reason, and also because of based on a straight line approximation of experi-
the creep of concrete, there is a degree of uncer- mental data. Alternatively, an elliptical interaction
tainty regarding the actual tension in the fasteners, curve, which correlates with the experimental data
and thus the resulting friction resistance. There- more closely, may be used. This elliptical interac-
fore, the friction-type connections are not com- tion, which is the same as the one used for design
monly used in precast concrete construction. of headed studs in this Manual (Sect. 4.11) except
The types of threaded connectors commonly in terms of stresses instead of forces, is given below
available are: 1) standard bolts; 2) high-strength for bolts in bearing-type connections:
bolts; 3) threaded steel rods; 4) coil bolts and coil
rods. Other proprietary connectors are also avail-
able. (g + (+.o (Eq. 3.51)

3.51 Standard Bolts


Standards bolts are defined here as those con- where:
forming to ASTM A307 specifications. Threads = nominal tensile stress due to applied loads
comply with the Coarse Thread Series specifica- f,
f = nominal shear stress due to applied loads
tion of ANSI B1.1(31), as detailed in Table A-21 in
Appendix A. Ft = allowable tensile stress in absence of shear
Standard bolts are designed in accordance with F, = allowable shear stress in absence of ten-
the AISC Specifications(32). The AISC design sion.
method is based on controlling stresses produced
by unfactored loads i.e., the working stress design 3.5.2 High-Strength Bolts
method. If it is desired that connection design be High strength bolts (ASTM A325 or A490) were
based on factored loads, i.e., the strength design developed primarily for friction-type connections
method, a reasonable approximation of the strength between structural steel members. They have
of standard bolts is obtained by multiplying the AISC more than two times the tensile strength of A307
allowable stresses by a factor of 1.65. bolts. Their application requires controlled tension-
The tension and the shear maximum service ing of the fastener to develop sufficient force to

3-6
prevent slipping of the connected parts. The ten- assumptiondoes not appearto have beenvalidated
sioning is done using calibrated torque wrenches or by tests.
load indicating washers(32). Coil bolts and coil rods (lengths up to 20ft.) range
As noted previously, because of the creep of indiameterfrom l/2 in. to l-1/2 in. and are available
concrete and the likelihood of crushing of concrete from several concrete accessories suppliers. Since
due to bolt tightening, the friction-type connections coil bolts and rods are not covered by standard
are not commonly used in precast concrete con- specifications, it is suggested that the manufactur-
struction. Furthermore, since for economy the high ers recommendations should be used in design.
strength bolts require tensioning, their use in the Manufacturers catalogs give maximum allowable
bearing-type connections is generally not neces- working load values which are based on strength
sary. The overall resuft is that high strength bolts tests under static loads, and typically a factor of
are used only infrequently in precast concrete safety of 4 to 5.
connections.
3.55 Post-Tensioning Rods
3.5.3 Threaded Steel Rods Post-tensioning rods (usually conforming to
Threaded steel rods of various sizes are also ASTM A-722 specification) are also used to connect
used in precast concrete connections. The most precast members. They can be used simply as
common application is for anchor bolts at column bolts, or preferably prestressed to resist uplift and/
bases. Allowable loads for rods of ASTM A-36 steel or shear forces created by lateral loads. The
are given in Table A-22 in Appendix A. prestressing is usually done by casting conduits into
shearwalls andvertically tensioning the shearwalls
3.5.4 Coil Bolts and Rods to the foundations.
Coil bolts and continuously threaded coil rods
(Fig. 3.5.1) are popular items for both temporary 3.6 Inserts
and permanent connections of precast concrete. A large variety of inserts are commercially avail-
The threads are designed to fit the contour and ableforuse in precast concrete construction. Some
diameter of a helically wound wire coil insert. are intended for transfer of design loads. Their
Because the threads are very coarse, they are not strengths and application procedures are generally
easily clogged or damaged. well defined. For the purpose of discussion here,
Coil bolts and coil rods are anchored by thread- these are referred to as primary inserts. Othertypes
ing into the wire coil insert which is embedded in of inserts are used for temporary conditions, such
concrete. The coil rod can also be anchored directly as lifting and handling, or light loads, such as
to concrete with threads serving the same function various shelf angle inserts including the commonly
as deformations on reinforcing bars. The develop- used wedge insert. These are labeled here as sec-
ment length of coil rods is assumed to be the same ondary inserts.
as that for deformed reinforcing bars, however, this Only a few examples are discussed and illus-

Coil Bolt Threaded Coil Rod

Fig. 3.51 - Coil Bolt and Coil Rod

3-7
trated in this Manual. Reference to manufacturers of tapped coils tends to be high. Thus, their
catalogs is suggested for many others that are use is infrequent.
available in the market. (c) Ferrule or Weld nut: This is for use with
bolts or rods with standard threads. The
3.6.1 Primary Inserts nuts are weldable and are of sufficient length
Basically these inserts include a receptacle to to ensure design load transfer to the anchor
engage a connector, such as a bolt, and an ele- wires. The wires provide for the anchorage
ment, such as a wire loop, for anchorage to con- to concrete. Design strengths of machine
crete. Examples of these inserts are shown in Figs. bolts are shown in Table A-23 in Appendix A.
3.6.1 and 3.6.2. For higher strength connections, the weld
These inserts use one of the following three nuts may be welded to plates rather than
basic types of receptacles (see Fig. 3.6.3): wires. The anchorage to concrete is achieved
(a) Standard coil: A helically wound coil of wire by wetding high capacity anchors, such as
which forms a nut into which a coil bolt or headed studs, to these plates.
rod is threaded. The anchorage of the wire inserts to concrete is
(b) Tapped coil: The standard coil may be achieved by engagement of the loop in concrete
tapped to accept standard machine bolts. (loop type inserts - Fig. 3.6.1) or by bond with
Such tapped coils will also accept coil bolts. concrete (open wire inserts - Fig. 3.6.2). Failure of
Because of the dual thread, care is needed an insert may be due to either concrete failure, or
in starting the coarse threaded coil bolt to due to the insert material failure. The lesser of the
prevent cross-threading. Due to difficul- two is taken as the in-place strength for design.
ties inherent in the tapping process, the cost If the insert is adequately anchored into the

Fig. 3.6.1 - Loop Type Wire Inserts

3-6
Fig. 3.6.2 - Open Wire Inserts

Standard Coil Tapped Coil Weld Nut (Ferrule)

Fig. 3.6.3 - Receptacles for Wire Inserts

concrete and the anchorage wires are properly 3.6.2 Secondary Inserts
welded to the receptacle, the in-place strength of A variety of inserts have been devised for lifting
the insert is governed by the strength of wires or the and handling of precast members, suspension of
receptacle capacity. Again, it is desirable to have ceilings and for attachment of shelf angles. These
the boltorthewiresgoverntheconnectionstrength, inserts are intended for temporary loads or for
because such failures are more predictable and supporting light permanent loads. Their use for
ductile. Strengths of the wires typically used in structural applications in primary connections is not
inserts are shown in Table A-24 in Appendix A. recommended.
For the open wire inserts, manufacturers data Because of the large variety available, it is not
including the recommended safety factors should feasible to include a comprehensive coverage in
be used in design. The loop type inserts may also this Manual. Reference to manufacturers catalogs
be designed using manufacturers data. Alter- is recommended for the various types and their
nately, the loop type inserts can be investigated in applications. It is also recommended that manufac-
a manner similar to that for the welded headed turers data should be used in estimating their load
studs, wherein the strength governed by concrete carrying capabilities and for installation procedures.
failure is based on the shear cone shown in Fig. One of the more commonly used inserts in this
3.6.4 (see Refs. 4 and 33 and Sect. 4.11). group is the wedge insert. It is discussed here as an

3-9
example to point out the care necessary in the use its unsuitability for cyclic loads, it is recommended
of many of the secondary inserts. that their use be restricted to light loads only.
The wedge inserts (two types are shown in Fig. Primary connections of cladding elements to the
3.6.5(a)) are used for attaching shelf angles to support structure should not be made with wedge
precast members to support light loads. A typical inserts.
installation schematic is shown in Fig. 3.6.5(b). The
insert includes a wedge shaped track and an inte- 3.7 Expansion Inserts
gral device for anchorage to concrete. The wedge Expansion inserts are devices placed into holes
shaped track allows for vertical adjustment of the drilled in hardened concrete. The insert develops
skew head bolt as shown in Fig. 3.6.5(c). tensile and shear capacity when expanding parts of
The successful use of wedge inserts depends the insert are forced against the sides of the hole.
on the full engagement of the skew bolt head in the This is usually done by tightening the connector bolt
wedge, the snug tightening of the nut and the full fit into the insert.
of the nut with the wedge surface. Otherwise, the All expansion inserts are proprietary. Examples
potential stress concentrations at the bolt head are shown in Fig. 3.7.1. The manufacturers have
would result in unpredictable behavior. The con- established the tensile and shear strengths of their
crete surface surrounding the wedge insert must be devices by testing. Typical ranges of tensile and
smooth and flat to ensure that the connection angle shear strengths, taken from manufacturers cata-
will bear against the concrete. To achieve this, it is logs are shown in Table A-25 in Appendix A. At the
recommended that the wedge insert body be re- minimum recommended embedment depth, the
cessed l/8 to l/4 in. below the concrete surface. tensile capacity agrees well with the shear cone
Care must be taken to prevent overtightening of the concept. However, because of slip of the anchor in
bolt so that the lips of the wedge do not tear, and in the hole, deeper embedment does not proportion-
installation of the wedge inserts in the right-side up ally increase the capacity. For small edge distances
position. and grouping of expansion bolts, reduction factors
Considering the above requirements, and the similar to headed studs may be used. The upper
limitations related to sensitivity of the connection limit of the capacity of the expansion inserts is the
strength to over and undertightening of the bolt and strength of the connector bolts, which are usually

Concrete Surface
Surface Area

Fig. 3.6.4 - Shear Cone Development


for Loop Inserts

3-l 0

/
(a) Two Types (b) Installation (c) Bolt
Schematic Adjustment

Fig. 3.6.5 - Wedge Inserts

standard bolts. 3.8 Resin Capsule Anchors


Since the expansion inserts thrust against the Resin capsule anchors or epoxy anchors are
sides of the installation hole producing lateral pres- also used for attachment to hardened concrete.
sures, the spacing between inserts and location Like expansion inserts (Sect. 3.7) they are placed in
with respect to edge(s) of the member are critical holes drilled in the hardened concrete.
factors in their load carrying capability. Manufactur- A resin capsule anchor consists of two parts:
ers recommendations should be used in this re- 1. A sealed glass capsule containing premeas-
gard. ured amounts of an aggregate suspended in
The advantage of expansion inserts is that they synthetic resin and a separate vial within the
can be placed in exactly the right position after the capsule containing the catalyst/hardener.
precast members are in place. They are often used 2. A threaded rod stud with washer and nut.
as corrective measures when cast-in inserts are During installation the capsule is inserted into a
misplaced or left out. Proper performance of the pre-drilled hole and the stud is driven into the
inserts is largely dependent on workmanship. The capsule thus breaking it. The resulting chemical
holes must be drilled straight, deep enough and of reaction between resin, aggregate, crushed glass,
the proper diameter and must be cleaned out. The and hardener forms a thick synthetic mortar which
bolts must be tightened to the recommended torque, bonds stud to the concrete.
sometimes requiring pneumatic impact wrenches. Since the pull-out strength is developed by resis-
Design of connections employing expansion in- tance along the entire depth of the anchor, the
serts is usually based on the working strength strengths of these anchors are typically higher than
values given by the manufacturers. Typically, a the strengthsof similarsize expansion inserts shown
working strength value not to exceed one-fourth of in Table A-25 in Appendix A.
the test strength value is recommended. It should, Also, because of the full depth bonding, the resin
however, be noted that the test strength values capsule anchors are less likely to %ork loose
usually correspond to monotonic load tests in un- under shock or vibration conditions than the expan-
cracked concrete. Cyclic loads and the extent of sion inserts. The synthetic resin is practically unaf-
cracking in concrete have been shown (34,35) to fected by water or corrosives and thus protects the
cause significant reduction in the strength of these stud. Like other epoxy compounds discussed in
anchors. Manufacturers recommendations should Sect. 3.12.3, the resistance and creep information
be sought in such applications. is not well established for these anchors.

3-11
Fig. 3.7.1 - Typical Expansion Inserts

3.9 Structural Steel tural steel used in precast concrete connections is


Structural steel plates, angles, wide-flange ASTM A-36, and thus is readily weldable with stan-
beams, channels, tubes, etc. are often used in dard equipment and procedures.
connections. When designed using factored loads, Stainless steel plates are weldable to other stain-
it is appropriate to use plastic section properties and less steelelementsorto low carbon steel. Forthese
yield strengths. Plastic section moduli and shape cases, the general procedure for welding low car-
factors are given in Table A-26 in Appendix A. The bon steel should be followed. Consideration of the
shear yield strength of structural steel is commonly stainless steel characteristics that differ, such as
taken as 0.55 times the yield strength in tension. higher thermal expansion and lower thermal con-
ductivity, is necessary (see Sect. 3.9.2). Reference
3.9.1 Welding of Structural Steel 16 contains detailed information on weldability of
Welding of steel plates, angles, and other shapes stainless steel.
should follow AWS Dl .l-86(16). Nearly all struc- Welding design procedures have been devel-

3-12
oped in conjunction with design of steel structures, foam, weather stripping or thick tape, also reduces
and are presently based on working stress levels. damage.
However, precast concrete structures, including the
connections, are usually designed basedon strength 3.10 Post-Tensioning Steel
design using factored loads. To facilitate connec- Post-tensioning is often used in connections,
tion design using factored loads, the weld strength particularly those which are subjected to high ten-
values based on working stress may be adjusted sile forces, such as the connections in moment-
using recommendations of either the AWS(16) or resisting frames. The post-tensioning is done
the AASHTO Specifications(36). In the AWS using either 7-wire strand (ASTM A416) or bars
Code(l6), the weld strength for use with factored (ASTM A722). The tensile strength of strand is
loads (i.e., the nominal strength) is taken as two either 250,000 or 270,000 psi, while for bars, it
times the weld strength for use with working loads. ranges from 150,000 to 160,000 psi. Table A-27 in
When a strength reduction factor, o is considered Appendix A lists selected design data for commonly
for concrete design and given a value of 0.85, the used sizes of prestressing strand and bar.
resulting multiplier (which includes I$ factor) is 1.7. In accounting for the effect of prestressing on
The AASHTO Specifications(36) suggest a net multi- connections due to post-tensioning, a reliable
plier (which includes a o factor) of 1.67. Table A-13 measurement of the prestressing force is neces-
in Appendix A gives the allowable working stress sary. Typically, 15 to 20 ft. length is desirable for this
and the design strengthvalues. Thedesign strength purpose, although shorter lengths can be used
values are basedon theAASHT0 Specifications(36) where anchor set is well defined and considered in
multiplier of 1.67. prestress loss calculations. Some designers dis-
Various types of welds are shown in Fig. 3.2.3. count the effect of prestressing when short tendons
The most commonly used are fillet welds and full are used and consider only the ductility and the
penetration welds of either the V-groove or bevel- tensile strength aspects of post-tensioning steel.
groove type. Properly made full penetration welds
are stronger than the base metal. Fillet welds are 3.11 Bearing Pads
usually made assuming a 45 fillet. Table A-14 in Bearing pads are used to provide for a more
Appendix A gives strength of fillet welds using these uniform distribution of loads overthe bearing areas,
assumptions, and Sect. 4.12 contains an example and to allow limited horizontal and rotational move-
of weld group design. ments (see Fig. 3.11.1) to provide stress relief.
Their use has proven beneficial, and is often neces-
3.9.2 Cracking In Concrete Around Welded sary for satisfactory performance of precast con-
Connections crete structures. A general discussion is presented
When welding is done on components that are here and the design is covered in Sect. 4.4. Refer-
embedded in concrete, thermal expansion and ence to PCI Technical Report No. 4, Criteria for
distortion of steel may destroy bond between steel Design of Bearing Pads (37), and a recent PCI
and concrete, or cause cracking or spalling in the Journal article(38) dealing with selected elastom-
surrounding concrete. Occasionally stainless steel eric bearing pads is recommended.
plates and assemblies are used for exposed con- Several materials are available and commonly
nections to minimize corrosion. Since stainless used in bearing pads:
steel requires higher heat for welding, a great deal 1. AASHTO-grade chloroprene pads are made
of care is necessary in its field welding to manage with 100 percent chloroprene (neoprene) as
the increased expansion and the resulting potential the only elastomer, and conform to the re-
cracking of anchorage concrete. quirements of the AASHTO Standard Speci-
The extent of cracking anddistortiondepends on fications for Highway Bridges(36). Inert fill-
the heat generated during welding and the stiffness ers are used with the chloroprene and the re-
of the steel member. Heat may be reduced by: sulting pad is black in color and of a smooth
I) use of low-heat welding rods of small size, 2) use uniform texture. While allowable compres-
of intermittent rather than continuous welds, or sive stresses are somewhat lower than other
3) use of smaller welds in multiple passes. pad types, these pads allow the greatest
Distortion can be minimized by using thicker freedom in movement at the bearing. NOTE:
steel sections--a minimum of 3/8 in. thickness is chloroprene pads which do not meet the
recommended for plates. Providing space around AASHTO Specifications are not recom-
the metal on the surface, and filling with sealing mended for use in precast concrete struc-
tures.

3-13
Fig. 3.11.1 - Deformations Corresponding to Shear (a),
Compression (b), and Moment (c)

2. Pads reinforced with randomly oriented fi- used in bridges, but seldom in building con-
bers (ROF) have been used successfully in struction. The AASHTO Specification(36)
recent years. These pads are usually black, also covers these pads.
and the short reinforcing fibers are clearly 5. A multimonomer plastic bearing strip is
visible. The reinforcement increases the manufactured expressly for bearing purposes.
vertical load carrying capacity, however It is a commonly used material for the bearing
these pads offer somewhat greater resis- support of hollow core slabs, and is highly
tance to rotations and horizontal movement suitable for this application. The material has
than the chloroprene pads. Some ROF a higher compressive strength than that of
pads possess different properties in different concrete typically used in precast construc-
directions in the plane of the pad. Therefore, tion.
unless proper planning and care is used in 6. Tempered hardboard strips are also used for
their installation, it may be desirable to spec- bearing of hollow core slabs. These pads
ify those pads that have been tested to should be used with caution when moisture
exhibit similar properties in different direc- conditions exist. In addition to the progres-
tions. There are no national standard specifi- sive deterioration of the pad, staining of the
cationsforthismaterial. Manufacturers have precast units may occur.
developed appropriate design and perform- 7. TFE (trade name Teflon) coated materials
ance documentation. are often used in bearing areas where large
3. Cotton-duck fabric reinforced pads are gen- horizontal movements are anticipated, for
erally used where a higher compressive example at slip joints or expansion joints.
strength is desired. These pads are often The TFE is normally reinforced by bonding
yellow-orange in color and are reinforced to an appropriate backing material, such as
with closely spaced, horizontal layers of fab- steel. Fig. 3.11.2 shows a typical bearing
ric, bonded in the elastomer. The horizontal detail using TFE, and Fig. 3.11.3 shows
reinforcement layers are easily observed at range of the friction coefficient that may be
the edge of the pad. A discussion of this used for design. Typical allowable stress is
material is included in the AASHTO Standard about 1000 psi for virgin TFE and up to 2,000
Specifications for Highway Bridges (36). psi for filled material with reinforcing agents
4. Chloroprene pads laminated with alternate such as glass fibers.
layers of bonded steel or fiberglass are often

3-14
3.12 Other Load Transfer Materials tion areas will be heavily congested with reinforce-
ment, thus it is advisable to use small size coarse
3.12.1 Cast-in-Place Concrete aggregate and concrete with relatively high work-
Many connections of precast structures are ability. Additional discussion on this topic is in-
completed in the field with cast-in- place concrete. cluded in Sect. 1.7.5 and design examples are
It is an effective way of providing for transfer of covered in Chapt. 4.
compressive and shear forces. Tension force
transfer capability can also be achieved by using 3.12.2 Grout
properly anchored reinforcement in the connec- Many connections require the use of grout. It
tion area in conjunction with the cast-in-place con- may be required for fire or corrosion protection, or
crete. This scheme enables design of connections for cosmetic purposes. In other situations, it is
forductilemoment-resistingframes,diaphragmcon- required to transfer compressive forces; in such
nections for lateral load transfer and, in general, cases, use of non-shrink grout (see Sect. 3.12.2.3)
achieving composite members. is recommended.
The generally accepted practice of mixing and
placing cast-in-place concrete should be used for 3.12.2.1 Sand-Cement Grout and Dry-Pack
field-cast concrete for connections. Often, connec- Most grout used in connections is a simple

Stainless Steel
Sliding TFE
Surface
Backing
Bond

I Fig. 3.11.2 - Typical TFE Bearing Pad Detail

s 0.30
-E
x 0.20
IL
6 0.10
E 0.08
.w
0
E 0.04

t?
0 0.02
0
*-
t;i 0.01
ti 10 20 50 100 200 500 1000 2000

Pressure, psi

Fig. 3.11.3 - TFE Friction Coefficients

3-15
mixture of portland cement, sand, and water. Pro- shrink grouts are primarily proprietary, their chemi-
portions are usually one part cement to 2 to 3 parts cal composition is usually not available to study
sand (by volume). The amount of water required their potential effects on the interfacing materials,
depends on the sizes of spaces to be filled, and the such as reinforcement and inserts in the connec-
method of placement. tion. Thus, it is advisable that manufacturers rec-
Masonry mortar is sometimes substituted for ommendations should be carefully followed. For a
grout indiscriminately. In mortar, about one half of general reference on the characteristics and meth-
the portland cement is replaced with lime. This ods of testing of non-shrink grouts, the Army Corps
improves its bonding characteristics but reduces its of Engineers Specification(39) is suggested.
strength. Thus, the Engineer is cautioned not to
allow the use of mortar in place of grout in a 3.12.2.4 Epoxy Grouts
structural connection. Epoxy grouts are mixtures of epoxy resins and a
If compressive forces are to be transmitted by filler material, usually sand. These are used when
the grout, then it should have a minimum compres- high strength is desired, or when improved bonding
sive strength equal to that of the concrete. Shrink- to concrete is necessary. Reference 40 is a com-
age of the grout, as it cures, can impede the ability prehensive report on the subject by Committee 503
of the connection to transfer compressive forces. of the American Concrete Institute.
Thus, the grout should be kept as dry as the place- The physical properties of epoxy compounds
ment procedures will permit. vary widely. Also, the epoxy grouts behave very
Quality control of grout is as important as that of differently than the sand-cement grouts. For ex-
concrete. Often this is not the case in practice. Site- ample, the thermal expansion of an epoxy grout can
mixed grout should be made and tested at regular be as much as 7 times the thermal expansion of
intervals according to ASTM C-1019 which paral- sand-cement grout. It is therefore important that
lels ASTM C-39 for testing of concrete. use of these grouts be based on a good base of
Dry-pack is the common term for a very stiff experience and/orappropriate tests. Recommended
sand-cement mix. Dry-pack is used when forming tests and methods are given in Ref. 40.
or other confinement is impractical, for example Several railroad agencies have used a different
under column base plates and horizontal panel method for epoxy grouting of shear keys in bridges.
joints. Compaction is attained by hand tamping with Instead of a pre-mixed mortar, awell-graded aggre-
a blunt instrument. gate is placed in the keyway, and then a low-
viscosity epoxy resin is poured on top. This results
3.12.2.2 Flowable Grout in a higher aggregate to epoxy ratio and is thus more
Flowable grouts are high-slump mixesused to fill economical. It is also easier to place and clean up.
small size voids that are either cast into the precast The coefficient of thermal expansion is somewhat
member or formed in the field. Since the water- more compatible, although still about twice that of
cement ratio is relatively high (typically about 0.50), concrete.
such grouts have low strength and high shrinkage.
These grouts also exhibit a tendency for the solids 3.12.3 Epoxy Compounds
to settle, leaving a layer of water on the top. Special Epoxy compounds are generally formulated in
admixtures or treatments are typically used to two or more parts commonly designated as A and B.
improve these characteristics, but add to the cost. Usually, Part A is the portion containing the epoxy
For very small spaces in confined areas, grout- resin and Part B is the hardener system. The epoxy
ing is sometimes done by pumping or the pressure compounds can be used to bond hardened con-
injection method. The confinement, such as ducts crete or other construction materials to hardened
for post-tensioning must be of sufficient strength to concrete. They can also be used for grouting or
resist the pressures produced by these methods. pressure injection of cracks to restore the tensile
strength of concrete and other materials. Epoxy
3.12.2.3 Non-Shrink Grout resins specially formulated to be moisture insensi-
Shrinkage can be reduced, or more appropri- tive can be used to bond plastic concrete to hard-
ately, compensated for by the use of commercially ened concrete orto repair concrete in wet condition.
available non-shrink, pre-mixedgrout. These mixes ASTM has a specification for epoxy bonding
expand during the initial hardening to offset the systems(41). The specification divides the systems
subsequent shrinkage of the grout. Since the non- into types, grades, and classes. Type I is to be used

3-16
for bonding hardened concrete and other materials in precast concrete connections, except for grout-
to hardened concrete. Type II is for use in bonding ing anchor bolts or dowels into pre-drilled holes.
freshly mixed concrete to hardened concrete. The They have also been used for repair or modification
term Grade is used to define viscosity. Grade 1 is of connections in the field. Care is advised in the
low viscosity and is used to fill fine cracks. Grade 2 use of epoxies since their properties including
is medium viscosity and Grade 3 has a non-sagging strength and deformation as well as fire resistance
consistency. The Class determines setting time, are not well established. Also, many of the epoxies
which is affected by ambient temperature. Class A degrade due to creep at temperatures in the 140 to
is to be used in applications below 40F, Class B 1 50F range. Such temperatures are readily expe-
between 40 and 60 F, and Class C is intended for rienced in warm climates particularly in facade
use above 60 F . panels with dark aggregates.
Epoxies are often considered, but sparingly used
CHAPTER 4

These values are:


DESIGN PROCEDURES AND
EXAMPLES V,, = 80 bvd (pounds), and
V,,, = 350 b,d (pounds)

4.1 General where:


The preceding chapters of this manual have b, = width of interface between precast and cast-
been devoted to general considerations, design in-place members, in.
concepts and materials for connections. In this d =distance from extreme compression fiber to
chapter, that information is used in conjunction with centroid of tension reinforcement, in.
applicable parts of ACI 318-83 (6) and current in-
dustry practice to developconnection design proce- Case 1: Vu I I$ (80 b,d)
dures for a variety of commonly used connections.
No ties are required if the precast beam top
Numerical examples are included to illustrate the
application of the design procedures. surface is intentionally roughened, otherwise mini-
mum ties (ACI Sect. 17.6) must be provided.
4.2 Horizontal Shear Transfer in Composite
Members Case 2: $ (80 b,d) c I, 5 e (350 b,d)
Composite behavior of a precast member and The precast beam top surface must be intention-
cast-in-place topping requires transfer of horizontal ally roughened to a full amplitude of approximately
shear forces at the interface between the two. The l/4 in. and minimum ties (ACI Sect. 17.6) must be
mechanism by which the horizontal shear transfer provided.
is achieved depends on the magnitude of the shear
force that must be transferred. ACI 318-83 (6) Case 3: VU > i$ (350 b,d)
permits design of horizontal shear transfer by two Design for horizontal shear must be done using
alternate methods. shear-friction analogy (ACI Sect. 11.7). Note: The
One method (given in ACI Sect. 17.5.2) uses the design for this case is the same in both design
factored vertical shear force as the basis for design, methods and is developed as part of Design
while the other method (given in ACI Sect. 17.53) Method 2.
is based on the horizontal shear force calculated
from the actual change in compressive or tensile Design Method 2 (AC1 318-83 (6), Sect. 17.5.3)
force in a beam segment. Both methods are de-
scribed below and either one may be used. How- Design Basis: F,, I cp F,,
ever, because of its more direct nature, the method
based on ACI Sect. 17.5.3 is preferred by the PCI where:
Committee on Connection Details. This method is F,, = factored horizontal shear force
illustrated with a numerical example. F,, = nominal horizontal shear strength
Design Method 1 (AC1 318.83 (6), Sect. 17.5.2) Q = 0.85
Note: In using this method, it is more convenient to
Design Basis: VU I Q V, carry out design directly in terms of the nominal
horizontal shear force, F,. Thus, calculation of the
where: facfored horizontal shearforce, F,,, is not required.
V = factored shear force at the section consid- The nominal horizontal shearforce, F,,, is calcu-
ered lated from the change in compressive or tensile
V,, = nominal horizontal shear strength force as shown in Fig. 4.2.1 The effective width of
@ = 0.85 the cast-in-place topping is calculated in accor-
dance with ACI Sect. 8.10.
For V,,, two threshold values are given which The design using this method follows the same
determine the type of interface preparation and steps as in Method 1 except that, in the nominal
amount of shear transfer reinforcement required. horizontal shear strength values, the term b,d is
Positive Moment Section:

~~h~~~~-~~-~~-~~

0 e-
c ,

Alo,, = effective area of the cast-in-place topping Case 1: Case 2:


Cc = Compressive force of the topping c c cc c>c,
= 0.85 fccA,OP F nh=CccT
F, = C = T
C = total compressive force
T = total tensile force I A,f, + A,,f,,

fcc = compressive strength of the topping


F nh = nominal horizontal shear force

Negative Moment Section:


0 0 l
I 3
4T

-I-

: ~
; Fnh=T=C

Fig. 4.2.1 - Horizontal Shear in Composite Members

- w
Simple Span Member $$Continuous Member
I 1

Moment Diagram Moment Diagram

I- 2Ch -

Fig. 4.2.2 - Shear Transfer Length

4-2
replaced with the area of the crack interface, A,,. where fc is the lesser compressive strength of the
This area is equal to the width of the interface, b,, precast member and the composite topping.
(see Fig. 4.2.1) times the horizontal shear length, It, Section 17.6.1 of ACI 318-83 (6) also requires
that ties, when required, should be spaced no more
(see Fig. 4.2.2). Thus: than fourtimes the least dimension of the supported
element, nor 24 in., and meet the minimum shear
Case 1: Fh 5 80 Uh reinforcement requirements of Sect.1 1.553.
No ties are required if the precast beam top
surface is intentionally roughened, otherwise mini-
mum ties (ACI Sect. 17.6) must be provided. (Eq. 4.2.4)
Case 2: 80 bJ,,, < F,, I 350 b&,,,
The precast beam top surface must be intention-
ally roughened to a full amplitude of approximately
l/4 in. and minimum ties (ACI Sect. 17.6) must be Example 4.2.1 - Horizontal Shear Design of a
provided. Composite Beam
Case 3: Fh ml w v h Given:
Design of horizontal shear ties based on shear- An inverted tee beam with composite topping
friction analogy is required. The design procedure, as shown.
based on ACI Sect. 11.7 and the effective shear
friction coefficient discussed in Sect. 2.7 of this
Manual, is given below:
The area of horizontal shear ties required in
length I,,,, may be calculated by:

(Eq. 4.2.1)

where:
Acs = area of horizontal shear ties, sq. in.
F = nominal value of horizontal shear force
fynh = yield strength of horizontal shear ties
&I = effective shear-friction coefficient as de-
fined in Section 2.7 Span length . . . . . . . . . . = 20-0
1000 hA,,u (simple span)
= Precast concrete, P, . . . . = 5000 psi
Vu (normal weight)
Topping concrete, f, . . . = 3000 psi
For composite deck members, u = 1 .O h , and A,, (normal weight)
= b,i$,, thus: Shear tie steel, f . . . . . . = 60 ksi
Prestressing St&d, f,, . . = 270 ksi, (14)-l/2
1000 L*b:&., < 2 9 diameter
P* = (Eq. 4.2.2)
+Fnh - * Strand stress at nominal strength, f, = 246 ksi
(Note: f, can be determined by strain compatibil-
(See Table 2.7.1 for u and maximum y values.)
ity or by Eq. 18-3 of ACI 318-83 (6))
The value of F,, is limited to:
Problem:
Determine the tie requirements to transfer hori-
F,,(max) = 0.25 h 2 f,b,I,,, I 1000 X2 bJvh zontal shear force using Design Method 2.
(Eq. 4.2.3)

4-3
Solution: 4.3 Diaphragm Design
b = 12 in. Horizontal loads from wind or earthquake are
usually transmitted to shearwallsor moment-resist-
ing frames through the roof and floors acting as
horizontal diaphragms.
Acr = b+,,,, = 12(120) = 1440 sq. in.
Atae= 3(60) + 2(12) = 204 sq. in. 4.3.1 Method of Analysis
cc = 0.85f, A,, = 0.85(3)(204) = 520.2 kips The diaphragm is analyzed by considering the
T = A,,f,s = 14(0.153)(246) roof or floor as a deep horizontal beam, analogous
= 527.0 kips > 520.2 to a plate girder or l-beam. The shear walls or
Therefore, structural frames are the supports for this analo-
gous beam and the lateral loads are transmitted to
F",, = 520.2 kips
these supports as reactions. As in a beam, tension
and compression are induced in the chords or
From Eq. 4.2.3: flanges of the analogous l-beam as shown in Fig.
F,,(max) = 0.25 X2ff6 A,, I 1000 h2A,, 4.3.1.
= 0.25(l)2(3)(1440) When precast concrete members which span
= 1080.0 kips > 520.2 parallel to the supporting shear walls or frames are
(Notes: f, is lesser of the strengths of precast used forthe diaphragm, the shear in the analogous
member and the composite topping; 0.25f, u 1000, beam must be transferred between adjacent
members and also to the supporting elements. The
ok; for normal weight concrete, h =1 .O)
web shear must also be transferred to the chord
elements. Thus, the design of a diaphragm is
80 AC, = 80(1440)/l 000 = 115.2 kips < 520.2 essentially a connection design problem.
Therefore, at least minimum ties are required.

350 A,, = 350(1440)/l 000 = 504.0 kips < 520.2 4.3.2 Shear Transfer between Members
Therefore, more than minimum ties are required. In floors or roofs without composite topping, the
shear transfer between deck members is usually
From Eq. 4.2.2: accomplished by weld plates or grout keys depend-
1000 h2Acl 1000(1)2(1440) ing on the member.
I$ = Weld plates may be analyzed as illustrated in
+Fh = 0.85(520.2)(1000)
Fig. 4.3.2. In addition to the hardware details
= 3.26 z 2.9, use 2.9 (see Table 2.7.1) shown, many others are used by precast concrete
manufacturers.
From Eq. 4.2.1: 6 For members connected by grout keys, a typical
value of 80 psi is used for the design strength of the
= 3.0 sq. in. grouted key. Excessive shrinkage may cause
degradation of the grouted key effectiveness. In
Check minimum requirements: that case, or when higher shear transfer strength is
required, reinforcement placed as shown in Fig.
From Eq.4.2.4: 4.3.3 can be used to transfer the shear. This steel
is designed by shear-friction principles discussed
A, (min) = 7 =w = 1.2 sq. in. < 3.0 in Sect. 2.7.
Y 9 In floors or roofs with composite topping, the
For #4 ties: area per tie, A,, = 2(0.2) = 0.4 sq. in.; topping itself can act as the diaphragm if it is ade-
quately reinforced. Reinforcement requirements
spacing, s = Z+,,A,JA, = 120(0.4)/3.0 -15.9 in.;
can be determined by shear-friction analysis.
max. tie spacing (AC1 Sect. 17.6.1) = 4(5) It should be noted that the connections between
= 20 in. < 24 members often serve functions in addition to the
Use #4 ties at 15 in. ox. transfer of shear due to lateral loads. For example,
weld plates in flanged members are often used to
(Note: Ties must be fully anchored into intercon- adjust differential camber and the grout keys facili-
nected elements in accordance with ACI Sect. tate distribution of concentrated loads.
12.13.)
Max. Shear Lateral Load, W = wl

Weld Plates Designed


Chord Force C = Mi b
for Shear Force

= Chord Force
Typical Double Tee Roof

Typical Hollow-Core Roof


Section A-A
Shear on Diaphragm

Moment on Diaphragm

Fig. 4.3.1 - Analogous Beam Design of a Diaphragm

with a t: 45 and

Plan Plan

Section Section

Fig. 4.3.2 - Typical Flange Weld Plate Details


Static friction as discussed in Chapt. 2 can be
used to transfer wind loads to walls. The static
coefficients of friction (Table 2.6.1) should be di-
vided by 5 when used for this purpose.
In bearing wall buildings higher than 3 stories, a
minimum amount of perimeter reinforcement is rec-
ommended for resistance to abnormal loads.
When design for abnormal loads is required by the
Grouted Shear Key -Ir building code or owner, these minimum require-
ments may be sufficient to resist the chord tension.

Example 4.3.1 -Design of Typical Connections


in a Roof Diaphragm

Glven:
A roof system as shown in Fig. 4.3.1 consisting
of 258~0 double tees and an inverted tee beam.
b = 70ft.
s, = 30 ft.
s2 = 40 ft.
1 = 200 ft.
Building height, h = 30 ft.
Wind pressure, p = 15 psf
Load factor for wind = 1.3
Concrete, fc = 5000 psi (normal weight)

Problem:
Design roof diaphragm connections.
Fig. 4.3.3 - Perimeter Shear-
Solution:
Friction Steel 1. Design flange-to-flange connection between
tees:
Connections which transfer shear from the dia- w = pN2 = (15/1000)(30)/2
phragm to the shear walls or moment-resisting = 0.225 kips/ft
frames are analyzed in the same manner as the W = w(Z) = 0.225(200) = 45.0 kips
connection between diaphragm members. V, = V, = 45.012 = 22.5 kips

4.3.3 Chord Forces Maximum shear between members:


Chord forces may be calculated as shown in Fig. v max = @a lf W,) .
4.3.1 I For roofs with intermediate supports as = (2 x 92/200)(22.5) = 20.7 kips
shown, the shear stress is carried across the beam Note: a = Z/2 -width of one tee
with weld plates or bars in grout keys as shown in = 20012 - 8 = 92 ft.
Section A-A. Bars are designed by shear-friction.
Stresses are usually quite low, and often minimum Try 3 connections in the 30 ft. long tees and 4
reinforcement is required. connections in the 40 ft. long tees.
In flanged deck members, the chord tension at Number of connections, N=7
the perimeter of the building is usually transferred V /connection = V,, /N = 20.7/7 = 2.96 kips
between members by the same type of connection VU /connection = V/connection x Load factor
used for shear transfer. Between connections, the = 2.96(1.3) = 3.85 kips
tension must be taken by lapped reinforcement Try #4 Grade 40 bars bent at 45O (see Fig. 4.3.2)
within the member flange unless the concrete ten- @Vn =10.2 kips z 3.85 kips, ok
sile strength is adequate with $I = 0.65.

4-6
7 connections are adequate Use R l/4 x 4 x 4

(Note: The bars must be of adequate length to Design weld - plate to plate:
ensure their development.) From Table A-l 4, design strength of 3/l 6 fillet
weld using E70 Electrode is 4.64 k/in
2. Design connection at end of tees for chord d, = T/Capacity = 20.9/4.64 = 4.5 in.
forces:
Use 5 in. weld each end of connector plate.
2-#4
K \\
Gr 60 Weldable Note: Temperature changes and shrinkage of con-
c crete produce stresses in the plate and may cause
minor cracking in concrete near the joint. This
likelihood of cracking should be checked. De-
----
------ bonding of bars for about 12 in. on each side of the
< joint usually alleviates this problem.
----
----- b -----
----- 3. Design connection at beam and column line
near center of building:

/. vc

Plan

Plan

Section

M = wZ*/8 = 0.225(200)*/8 = 1125 k-ft


M = L. F. x M = 1.3( 1125) = 1462.5 k-ft
T, = C, = MU/b = 1462.5170 = 20.9 kips
A,(w) = T, / + f, = 20.9/(0.9x60) = 0.39 sq. in.

Use 2-#4 bars, Gr 60,1.7$ = 20 in. (Table A-12)


if lapped wlth other reinforcement. Section

From Table A-l 7, minimum $, using E70 Electrode Shear at interior support, Vint = chord force(C, or TJ
is l-3/4 in. = 20.9 kips
Weld size is d,/5 = 0.5/5 = 0.10 in. (Note: See basis for Design Method 2 in Sect. 4.2.)

Use 3/W x 2weld on both sides of each bar. This total shear force must be transfered in one
half of the building length. Assume one connection
Design connector plate (A-36 steel): per tee:
A,@4 = T, 4 f, = 20.9/(0.9x36) =0.65 sq. in. Vu/connection = V,,/(No. of tees/2)
Assuming a 4 wide plate, t = 0.65/4 = 0.16 in. = 20.9/(25/2) = 1.67 kips

4-7
f&allowable) = o(0.55)f, = 0.85(0.55)(36)
= 16.83 ksi > 2.23, ok

Design plate in tee leg:

Mu = 1.67(4.5) = 7.52 k-in


V,(direct)/stud = VU/N = 1.67/2 = 0.84 kips
VJmoment)/stud = M, /s = 7.52/2 = 3.76 kips

Resultant VU/stud

From Table A-36(Appendix A),Case 5: =-&V,,/N)2 + (MJs)~


x = b*/(2b + d) = 42/(2(4) + 3) = 1.45 in.
I, = (8b3 + 6bd2 + d3)/1 2 - b4/(2b +d) =v(O.84)* + (3.76)2 = 3.85 kips
= [8(43)+ 6(4)(3*) + 33]/12 - 44/(2(4) + 3)
= 39.64 in4/in From Table A-35, for f, = 5000 psi,
MU= V, x e = 1.67(3.05) = 5.09 k-in h=l.O,andd,=4in.
= 1.67/l 1 -t 5.09 3/8 in. diameter headed studs have capacities as
fY = VU/L + MUc/I, follows:
(2.55)/39&l = 0.48 k/in
fX = MUc /I, = 5.09(1.5)/39.64 = 0.19 k/in Concrete: V, = 5.3 kips
Steel: Vs = 5.0 kips
f, = = 0.52 k/in Steel strength controls.
From Table A-14, design strength of 3/l 6fillet weld 5.0 kips > 3.85 kips, ok
using E70 Electrode is 4.64 k/in > 0.52.
Use (2) 318 in. diameter x 4 in. long headed
Therefore a 3/W fillet weld is adequate. studs
Design connector plate:
Mu = 5.09 k-in 4.4 BearlngPads
Z,W4 = M, / $ fy = 5.09/(0.9x36) = 0.16 in3 The bearing pads provide for a more uniform
distribution of load over the bearing area and also
Z, = td*/4 = t(s)*/4 = 2.25 t (Table A-26) facilitate relief of restraint. Recent research (37)
2.25t = 0.16, therefore, t = 0.07 in. indicates that much of the stress relief provided by
the elastomeric bearing pads (see Sect. 3.11, items
Use R 114 x 3 x 9 1 through 4) is due to slip ratherthan the pad defor-
mation. Other recent research (38) has shown that
Check shear in plate: pads with randomlyorientedfibers maintain their in-
f, = V,/td = 1,67/(0.25x3) = 2.23 ksi tegrity for cyclic loads even under simultaneous

4-8
high shear displacements (up to 0.7times the thick- and bearing conditions are shown in sketch(c).
ness) and high compressive stress with up to 0.03
radian pad rotation. Both studies (37,38) also show Span = 60-0
that the coefficient of lateral resistance (i.e., ratio of Precast dead load = 0.408 Mt
shear to compressive stress) reduces significantly Topping dead load = 0.375 k/ft
under slow cyclic movements, such as those pro- Sustained load = 0.783 kIft(11.75 k/leg)
duced by temperature variations. Live load (for stress and strength analyses)
The following recommendations, and Figs. 4.4.1 = 0.40 wft(6.0 k/leg)
and 4.4.2 can be used to design bearing pads: Live load (realistic estimate for deformation cal-
culation) = 0.180 Mt(2.7 Meg)
1. Use unfactored loads (i.e., service loads) for
design.
* 2. Under the maximum allowable compressive Problem:
Determine if the l/4 x 4.5 x 4.5, random fiber
stress, instantaneous vertical strains of 10 to
reinforced bearing pad is satisfactory.
20% can be expected. This strain may
double if the bearing surfaces are not parallel.
Solution:
In addition, time-dependent creep strains
Memberstress, strength and deformation analy-
may add another 25 to lOO%, depending on
ses may be carried out using procedures given in
the magnitude of the sustained load.
the PCI Design Handbook(4). Use of Refs. 42 and
3. The length and width of unreinforced pads
43 is also suggested. In typical applications, expe-
should be at least five times the thickness for
rience suggests that only reasonable estimates of
stability. member end rotations are required for bearing pad
4. A minimum thickness of l/4 in. for joists and design. The parameters and results pertinent to the
double tee stems, and 318 in. for beams is bearing pad consideration are:
recommended. Axial shortening per half span (30 ft.) after
5. Shear stress has been shown to be a function erection, 6, = - 0.290 in.
of slip in the chloroprene and random fiber re-
inforced pads (see Fig. 4.4.2).
6. It is preferable to size the bearing pad to be End rotation at release, 0, = +0.012 rad.
within the covered beating surface. In any End rotation at erection, 9, = +O.OlS rad.
case the portion of pad outside of the covered End rotation at 10 years(final), 6, = +0.005 rad.
bearing surface should be neglected in cal- Instantaneous rotation of the composite
culating pad stresses and movements. section under 0.18 k/ft load, 6, = - .0021 rad.
7. Shape factors, S, for unreinforced pads End rotation corresponding to the temperature
should be greater than 2 when used under
tee stems, and greater than 3 under beams. gradient of 45 (i.e. 125O - 80, see sketch(b)), 8, =
8. The sustained dead load compressive stress 0.007 rad.
on unreinforced pads should be limited to the Coefficient of thermal expansion of concrete,
range of 300 to 500 psi.
9. The volume change strains used in Sect. 1.4 oc = 6 x lu6 in/iWF
may be reduced by one half when calculating
horizontal movement because of compen- Values needed to check design are:
sating creep and slip in the bearing pad. 1. Change in end rotation between final (10
years)and erection conditions:
%-% = -0.014 rad.
Example 4.4.1 - Bearing Pad Design 2. Displacement due to end rotation change:
62 = (02 - B,)Y, = 0.014(21 .13) = +0.296 in.
Given:
A lightweight concrete double tee with 3 in.
normal weight concrete topping for a parking ga- 1 Outward displacement (i.e., corresponding to elonga-
rage roof as shown in sketch(a). Temperature tion), and clockwise rotation of the beam right end are
profile on a hot summer day is shown in sketch(b) taken as positive.

4-s
v
Shape Factor = S = *
2(w + b)t
7
D = Durometer (Shore A hardness)
~/I
A = Design horizontal movement at end of member
cwj/,

Allowable Shore A Recommended Recommended


Compressive Hardness Minimum Maximum
Pad Material Stress (psi) D Thickness Rotation

Unreinforced Chloroprene or 50 0.3t


Rubber (AASHTO Sect. 25) 4DS I800 through 1.4A borw
70

Random-Fiber Reinforced 1000 + 100s 0 3t


Elastomeric < 1500 8OklO 1.4A b

Cotton-Duck Fabric Reinforced Data Not 0.31


;AASHTO 2.10.3 (L)) 5 2000 9OklO Available borw

1 Movement and rotation that occur after erection. For movement or rotation in two directions, use the higher
value. The values in the table are based on sliding criteria. If sliding is not critical or testing indicates more
advantageous conditions, thinner pads may be used.

Fig. 4.4.1 - Single Layer Bearing Pads

B 250
3 On Concrete
g 200
On Steel
tf
0 - - - -
z 150 T

E - Random-Fiber Reinforced
2
2 100 -------FL-
_/--- c - - - - - - - - - -

0 e ,) - .----
3 50 - 4-y _----- - - -
17
si5 ccc .-- Chloroprene 1
z .
cr 0 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000
Compressive Stress, psi

1 Average values based on tests at 70% shear and slippage strain

Fig. 4.4.2 - Shearing Resistance of Bearing Pads


3. Displacement due to live load (0.18 Mft) end 7. Allowable compressive stress (Fig. 4.4.1):
rotation:
6, = 04 Yh = 0.0021(21.13) = +0.044 in. (Jmex =1OOO+lOOS=145Opsi

4. Displacement due to temperature change: 8. Recomended max. rotation (Fig. 4.4.1):


6, = 0, ybc + ~,U /2)( A -f-l
e mar = e = 0.3(0.25)
4.5
= 0,017 rad.
= -0.007(21.13) + 6 x 10+x 360 x 4 5
= -0.148 + 0.097 = -0.052 in.
Design Checks:
5. Max. uniform compressive stress under service
load: 1. The maximum displacement is:
f bc = (11,750 + 6,000)/(4.5 x 4.5) = 877 psi 6, = 0.052 in.
(Note: The net creep and shrinkage effect, 6, + 6,
6. Shape factor (Fig. 4.4.1): = 0.006 in., is negligible. The displacement due to
0.18 k/ft live load, S3 = 0.044 in. is smaller than and
sx wb (4.5)(4.5) = 4.5 opposite to 8,)
2(w + b)t = (2)(4.5 + 4.5)(0.25)

/- 3 Topping
/
fc----,r ----- - - - - c.g. Composite
27
ybc = 21.13
1 b b
L-- 120

(a) Roof Section (b) Temperature


Profile

Random Fiber Reinforced Bearing Pad


Elastomeric Pad
(c) Bearing Pad Geometry

4-11
From Fig. 4.4.1:
Min. pad thickness = 1.4 A = 1.4 6, = 1.4(0.052)
I
= 0.073 in. < 0.25, ok I---e--
I c / I
2. The maximum rotation is:
::.i#+::.zi ,$fi., Ci:;:.i,:;:. . fb :I
I 45 k
%-- 0, = 0.014 rad. < 0.017, ok
(Note: The rotation is less than 0.03. Therefore
:.:.y+$x::.. : j:..,>::..i:),:.. I II
n I
pad will maintain integrity under cyclic ioads(38))

3. Compressive stress:
877 psi c 1450, ok I-+,;
Thus l/4 x 4.5 x 4.5 bearing pad is ok
I
Note: The resistance to horizontal movement at
I Plan
contact surface can be obtained from Fig. 4.4.2.
Since in this case, the double tee stem includes a
l---l
steel bearing plate, the lesser of values of the on
concrete and on steel conditions is appropriate.
Thus, for a compressive stress of 877 psi, the result-
ing contact shear stress is 80 psi. A tension force
equal to 80 x 4.5 x 4.5 = 1.62 kips must be consid-
ered in designing the double tee.

4.5 Member End Design for Bearing


it is preferable that member ends include at least
a nominal amount of reinforcement for load transfer
in the bearing areas. However, in situations where
the bearing is uniform and the bearing stresses are
Fig. 4.5.1 - Bearing on
low -- as is typical in hollow core and solid slabs -- Plain Concrete
members without end reinforcement usually per-
form satisfactorily.
in thin stemmed members with bearing area +V,, = + C,(0.85fc A,)*, I 1.2f, A,
smaller than 20 sq. in., some reinforcement should (Eq. 4.5.2)
be provided for control of accidental spailing or
cracking of the member end. The recommended where:
amount of reinforcement (with one No. 3 bar as @In = design bearing strength
minimum) is: mT = ----
0.70
NJv
c,= -fg
(Eq. 4.51) ( >
= 1 .O when reinforcement is provided in the
where: direction of NU in accordance with Sect.
NU = factored horizontal force at the bearing 4.5.2, orwhen NU is zero. The quantity SW
fY = yield strength of steel should not be greater than 9.0 sq. in.
4 = 0.9 A, = loaded area
A, = maximum area of the portion of the sup-
4.5.1 Plain (Unreinforced) End Bearing
The design bearing strength of plain concrete porting surface that is geometrically
(Fig. 45.1) may be calculated as: similar to and concentric with the loaded
area.

4-12
shows that the assumption of 9 = 0 corresponds
Example 4.5.1 - Plain (Unreinforced) Member to a more probable failure mode. A procedure
End Design for Bearing based on this model has been successfully used by
several precast and prestressed concrete manu-
Given: (Refer to Fig. 4.51) facturers in the Colorado area for several years.
Vu = 70 kips; N, = 14 kips The procedure is given below:
= 5 in.; b x 8 in.; w = 6 in. 1. Assume the vertical crack at 6 = 0.
, = 5000 psi: normal weight concrete 2. Use an additional load factor of 1.15. This
load factor is in addition to ACI 318-83(6) load
factors and primarily accounts for uncenain-
Problem:
Determine if reinforcement for bearing is re- ties related to the effects of load eccentricity
and concentration of reinforcement across
quired.
the shear transfer interface.
3. Calculate the nominally horizontal reinforce-
Solution:
S W = 5(6) = 30.0 sq. in. > 9.0, Use 9.0 ment, A, as:
Vu N
SW N JVu A, = A, + A, = - + -
4+Jy WY
(Eq. 4.5.3)
cr =-z%i
( >
= 19 1
200
14170
= 0.54 where:
At = nominally horizontal reinforcement for
A, = 6(8) = 48 sq. in. shear force (A,) and direct tension (A,).
A, = (6 + 4)(8 + 4) = 120 sq. in. (Note: Inclinationof this reinforcement up
to 15with the horizontal produces negli-
From Eq. 4.5.2: gible error.)
= factored shear force
QV = oCJO.85 :A,)\/-, vu
= 0.7(0.54)(0.85)(5)(48)~ N = factored tension force
= 121.9 kips lOOOhA,,u
P* = I values in Table 2.7.1
Maximum $Vn = 1.2 fc A, =1.2(5)(48) Vu
=288kips>121.9,ok AC, = area of the vertical creek plane = bh
b = average width of the beam web
Since +Vn > V, (Le. 121.9 kips 3 70), no h = height of the beam
bearing reinforcement is required. fY = yield strength of A, reinforcement
= 1.4 (See Table 2.7.1)
= 0.85 for A,, 0.9 for A,
4.5.2 Reinforced End Bearing
If the factored shear force in the bearing area, V, 4. Calculate reinforcement, A,,, for the horizon-
exceeds the design bearing strength, eV, as calcu-
tal crack: (Note: Field experience suggests
lated by Eq. 4.52, reinforcement for bearing is
that that occurrence of the horizontal crack is
required in the member end. The reinforcement,
unlikely. However, until analysis or tests
calculated using shear friction analogy, is provided
conclusively validate this experience, rein-
to intercept the potential vertical and horizontal
forcement calculated based on Eq. 4.5.4
cracks shown in Fig. 4.5.2.
should be provided).
The PCI Design Handbook(4) uses a 20 orien-
tation (i.e, 6 = 20in Fig. 4.5.2) fortheverticalcrack.
A
At fy (Eq. 4.5.4)
While this assumption produces reasonable design sh= I$
results, laboratory tests (44) have shown that the
cracks at the reinforcement location form in a more
nearly vertical position (i.e., 0 = 00). where:
A parametric study (45) of the analytical equa- Ash = vertical reinforcement across the potential
tion based on exact statics of the bearing end also horizontal crack

4-13
h

Fig. 4.5.2 - Reinforced Concrete Bearing

A, = nominally horizontal reinforcement from


Eq. 4.5.3 Example 4.5.2 - Reinforced End Bearing
lOOOhA,,u
Ire= Af I values in Table 2.7.1 Given:
t Y PCI standard rectangular beam 16RB28
= yield strength of A,, reinforcement
YS = 115 kips
Au = 1.7 $, b, sq. in. NU = 25 kips (based on all load factors)
4 = development length of A, bars, in. Bearing Pad = 4 x 14
b = width of beam at the potential horizontal fy (all reinforcement) = 40,000 psi
crack location, in.
fc = 5000 psi (normal weight concrete)
P = 1.4 (see Table 2.7.1)

(Note: stirrups or mesh used for diagonal tension Check of Eq. 4.5.2 indicates that reinforcement
reinforcement can be considered to act as Ash rein- is required.
forcement.)
5. Ensure proper anchorage of A, and A,, rein- Problem:
forcements on both sides of the corresponding Design reinforcement for bearing.
cracks.
6. Members subjected to bearing stresses in ex- Solution:
cess of the limits indicated in Sec. 10.15 of ACI Check ACI 318-83(6), Sect. 10.15:
318-83(6) may require confinement reinforce- (LAX = o = $J (0.85flc A,)
ment in all directions. Behavior of member ends = 0.7(0.85 x 5)(4 x 14)
with such high stresses is not well understood. = 166.6k> 115, ok

With reference to Fig. 4.5.2:


For 6 = O*, A,r = bh = 16(28) = 448 sq. in.

4-14
Calculate A, reinforcement (Eq. 4.5.3): librium concepts are developed and their use illus-
trated in the report(8). Since these concepts offer
p = 1OW4WU .4 = 5 g4> 3 4 good potential for improvement in the state-of-the-
e
115(1000) * . art of connection design, it seems appropriate to
Use 3.4 (See Table 2.7.1) include a design procedure based on these con-
cepts and its application in this Manual. Reinforcing
A,, = ~ = 115 = 0.99 sq. in. scheme 1 and the corresponding design procedure
Q cl, y 0.85(3.4)(40) from Ref. 8 is selected for this purpose and covered
in Sect. 4.6.2.
An = 0.69 sq. in.
4.6.1 Design Procedure Based on PCI Design
Handbook(4)
Therefore, A, = 0.99 + 0.69 = 1.68 sq. in. The provisions of this section are appropriate for
cases where shear span-to-depth ratio (a/d in Fig.
Use 4- #6 (At q 1.76 sq. in.) 4.6.1) is not more than 1 .O. The Committee plans to
develop provisions for dapped-ends in which a/d
Calculate A,, reinforcement (Eq. 4.5.4): exceeds 1.0. In the interim, use of Ref. 46 is
From Table A-l 2: suggested.
1.7 Z,for#6 bar=31(2/3)(1.68/1.76)= 19.7in. > The design equations for this procedure are
based on consideration of various potential failures
24d, and 12 in. , ok
associated with the dapped-end. These potential
AC, = 1.7 Zd b = 19.7(16) = 315.2 sq. in. failure modes (shown as resulting cracks) and the
reinforcement required for each are listed below
P, = ooo(315*2)(1 e4) = 6.6 > 3.4, Use 3.4 and shown in Fig. 4.6.1.
1.68(40,000)
1. Flexure (cantilever bending) and axial ten-
Ash = m = 0.49 sq. in. sion in the extended end. Provide reinforce-
ment, As, consisting of At (for flexure) and A,
(for axial tension).
Use 2 - #4 stirrups (A,,, = 0.8 sq. in.) 2. Direct shear at the junction of the dap and the
main body of the member and axial tension.
(Note: Anchorage of A, and A,, must be ensured.) Provide reinforcement, A,, consisting of a
part (2/3) of A,, (for shear-friction) and An (for
4.6 Dapped-End Connections axial tension). Note: The remaining A, must
Precast and prestressed concrete beams are be distributed across crack @ and is auto-
often dapped at their ends to reduce overall depth matically considered in the requirement for
of floors and roofs. However, dapping of the beam A,, reinforcement given in step 4 below - See
end results in a complex force transfer mechanism ACI Commentary(G), Sect. 11.9 for deriva-
necessitating consideration of several possible fail- tion.
ure modes. 3. Diagonal tension emanating from the reen-
These possible failure modes are discussed in trant corner. Provide reinforcement, A,,.
Sect. 2.3 and form the basis for the design proce- 4. Diagonal tension in the extended end. Pro-
dure in the PCI Design Handbook(4). As noted in vide reinforcement composed of A, and A.
Sect. 2.3, there is a reasonable correlation between
these failure modes and the typical cracks found in 5. Diagonal tension in the undapped portion.
This is carried for by A,, reinforcement in
test specimens of PCI Research Study(8). How-
ever, the Ref. 8 study has brought into focus some combination with A, reinforcement.
additional considerations which are taken into ac- 6. Bearing of the beam at the dapped-end must
count in the design procedure given here in Sect. also be checked - See Sect. 4.5.
4.6.1. Each of these potential failure modes should be
Reference 8 study covered five different rein- considered separately. However, the reinforce-
forcing schemes (Table 4.6.1) suitable for thin ments required for modes 1 and 2 are not additive
stemmed members such as double tees. Design i.e., A, is taken as the greater of that required for
methods based on truss action and free-body equi- considerations 1 and 2.

4-15
4.6.1.1Flexure and Axial Tension in the Ex- 4.6.1.2 Direct Shear
tended End The potential vertical crack, crack @ in Fig.
The horizontal reinforcement is determined as: 4.6.1, is resisted by a combination of A, and A,.
This reinforcement can be calculated by Eqs. 4.6.2
A, = A, + A, through 4.6.5.

= + [Vu (f) + N, (:)I (Eq. 4.6.1)


2V
A, = (Eq. 4.6.2)
3 4 $ I-+ + A
where:
$ = 0.85 (use of I$= 0.85 compensates for use (Eq. 4.6.3)
of d in place of j,d.)
a = shear span, in., measured from load to
center of A,,, A,, = O.S(A, -An) (Eq. 4.6.4)
h = depth of the member above the dap, in.
d = distance from top of beam to center of the where:
reinforcement, A,, in. = 0.85
= yield strength of the flexural reinforcement,
fY 1, = yield strength of A,, A,, A,,, psi
psi
1000hbhu I values in Table 2.7.1
h= ,v
U (Eq. 4.6.5)

Vua + N&h -d)

/T;J

Welded
Anchor 4l
VU

I - - a

Note: Flexure andshear


reinforcement omitted
for claritv

Fig. 4.6.1 - Reinforcement in Dapped-End Connections

4-16
The shear strength of the extended end is limited minimum of 1.7 L, past the end of the dap and
by (see Table 2.7.1): ld past crack@ , and anchored at the end of
V, I 0.3 X2 f,bd < 1000 h* bd (Eq. 4.6.6) the beam by welding to cross bars, angles or
plates.
The reinforcements from Eqs. 4.6.1 and 4.6.2 2. Horizontal bars A, should be extended a
are not additive; only the greater of the two should minimum of 1.7 Zd past the end of the dap and
be provided.
anchored at the end of the beam by hooks or
4.6.1.3
Diagonal Tension at Reentrant Corner other suitable means.
The
reinforcement required to resist diagonal 3. The extension at the beam bottom of the bent
tension
cracking starting from the reentrant corner hanger reinforcement, A,,, or the separate
can be calculated from: horizontal reinforcement, A,,, must be at
V least 1.76 beyond crack@. The A,, rein-
Ash=g (Eq. 4.6.7) forcement may be anchored on the dap side
by welding it to a cross bar (as shown in Fig.
where: 4.6.1) or to an angle.
+ =o.as 4. Vertical A, bars should be properly anchored
VU = applied factored load, lb by hooks as required by ACI 31683(6).
f, = yield strength of A,,, psi 5. Welded wire fabric in place of bars may be
used for reinforcement and should be an-
4.6.1.4 Diagonal Tension in the Extended End chored in accordance with ACI 31683(6).
Additional reinforcement is required in the ex-
tended end, as shown in Fig. 4.6.1, such that: 4.6.1.7 Other Considerations and Recommen-
dations
eVn = o (At, + AhfY + 2 X& bd) (Eq. 4.6.8) 1. The depth of the extended end should not be
less than one-half the depth of the beam,
At least one half of the reinforcement required in unless the beam is significantly deeper than
this area should be placed vertically. Thus: necessary for other than structural reasons.
2. The hanger reinforcement, Ash, should be
placed as close as practical to the reentrant
corner. This reinforcement requirement is
(A,)m,n = + [ + - 2 k< bd ] (Eq. 4.6.9) not additive to other shear reinforcement
Y
requirements.
4.6.1.5 Diagonal Tension at Undapped Beam 3. If the flexural stress, calculated for the full
Corner depth of section using factored loads and
The vertical reinforcement, ASh may be bent and gross section properties, exceeds Se im-
extended at the bottom of the beam to ensure its mediately beyond the dap, longitudinal rein-
development and thus guard against failure due to forcement should be placed in the beam to
develop the required flexural strength.
crack@. Abetteralternative, however, isto provide 4. In Ref. 8 study, it was found that, due to
separate horizontal reinforcement, A,, (as shown formation of the critical diagonal tension
in Fig. 4.6.1). The amount of the AShreinforcement crack (crack@ in Fig. 4.6.1), it was not pos-
must be at least equal to the A,, reinforcement. sible to develop a full depth beam shear
Thus: strength greater than the diagonal tension
cracking shear in the vicinity of the dap. It is
therefore suggested that for a length of the
!sh sh
(Eq. 4.6.10)
beam equal to the overall depth, H, of the
beam, the nominal shear strength of con-
4.6.1.6 Anchorage of Reinforcement crete, V,, should be taken as the lesser of Vci
With reference to Fig. 4.6.1: and V, calculated at H/2 from the end of the
1. Horizontal bars A, should be extended a full depth web.

4-17
2. Direct shear:
Example 4.6.1 - Dapped - End Design 1OOOhbhu = 1000(1)(16)(16)(1.4)
b= v 100,000
u
Given:
The 16RB28 beam with a dapped-end as shown. = 3.58 > 3.4, Use 3.4 (Table 2.7.1)

5 = 100 kips By Eqs. 4.6.2 and 4.6.3:


N,= 15 kips
:: = 5000 psi (normal weight) A, = 2v N
1, for all reinforcement = 60 ksi (weldable) WyPe + -q-

2(100) 15
Problem:
= 3(0.85)(60)(3.4) + 0.85(60)
Determine the required reinforcements, A,, A,,,
A,,, As,, and A,.
= 0.38 + 0.29 = 0.67 sq. in. c 1.10,
Solution: Use 1.10 sq. in.
Assume: Shear span, a = 6 in., d = 15 in.
Provide 445, A, = 1.24 sq. in.
1. Flexure in extended end (Eq. 4.6.1):
By Eq. 4.6.4:
A,, = 0.5(A, -A) = 0.5(1.10 - 0.29) = 0.41 sq. in.
As = $- [V ($1 +%($I ]
Y
Use 2-##3 U-bars, A,, = 0.44 sq. in.

Check shear strength, Eq. 4.6.6:


* = 1.10 sq. in. V, = (1000h2bd) = (1000)(1)2(16)15/1000
= 240 kips

l-
1
d= 15

H - 2-4

sh

/ lexural Reinforcement
/
8
I
1

4-18
oVn = 0.85(240) = 204 kips > 100, ok Ash bars(#4):
1.7 I, = 20 in. (say 24 in. beyond dap).
3. Diagonal tension at reentrant comer:

By Eq. 4.6.7:
V 4.6.2 Design Procedure Based on Truss Action
A =-u= 100 = 1.96 sq. in. and Free-Body Equilibrium(8)
sh + fy 0.85(60) As noted previously, the PCI research on dap-
ped-ends (8) included testing of five different rein-
Use 5#4 closed ties, A, = 2.00 sq. in. forcing schemes (Table 4.6.1) suitable for thin
Use A, =lO-#4 stemmed members. Based on results of these
tests, the report(8) gives design procedures for
4. Diagonal tension in the extended end: each of the five schemes. These procedures use a
Concrete ca acity = 2 h q bd combination of modeling of the dapped-end as a
= 2(l) +
5000 (16)(15)/1000 = 33.9 kips truss and free-body equilibrium. Even though the
design procedures are reinforcing scheme spe-
By Eq. 4.6.9: cificand there are some differences between them,
the general ideas follow the same methodology.
(Av),,,in = 5 [ f - 2 hsCi;, bd ] Therefore, only one of the reinforcing schemes
Y (Scheme 1) and the corresponding design proce-
dure is covered in this section.
m - 33.9 ) = 0.70 sq. in. The details of the specimens using reinforcing
= & 0( . 8 5 scheme 1 are shown in Fig. 4.6.2 and the corre-
Try 2-#4 = 0.80 sq. in. for A,, sponding truss action4assumed) is shown in Fig.
4.6.3. By reference to these figures, the following
and 2-#3 = 0.44 sq. in. for A,, design procedure is established:
Check Eq. 4.6.8:
+vn = Cp (AJy + A,f, + 2 hflc bd) 1. General Requirements:
= 0.85[0.80(60) + O&(60) + 33.91 (a) Use an additional load factor of 1.15 i.e., ad-
= 92.1 kips < 100, ok ditional to ACI 318-83(6) load factors.
(b) The inclination of the hanger reinforcement
Change A,, to 2-#4 to the vertical must be within 28 and 45O.
The centerline of the hanger reinforcement
% = 110.4 kips > 100, ok should be as close to the centerline of the
web as possible.
5. Check anchorage requirements:
(c) The shearspan-to-depth ratio (a/d) should
not exceed 1 .O.
A, bars: (d) Requirements 1 and 3 of Sect. 4.6.1.6 and
From Table A-l 2: requirements 2 and 4 of Sect. 4.6.1.7 also
apply.
for f, = 60,000 psi, fc = 5000 psi, #5 bars (e) It is recommended that, if at all possible, at
c = 15 in. past 45 diagonal crack from least one half the prestressing strands should
corner pass through the nib (i.e., portion of the
Total = 28 in. - 15 in. + $, = 28 in., beam above dap). Ref. 8 study found that
or 1.7 Zd = 26 in. beyond dap the test specimens which met this require-
ment exhibited considerably improved serv-
iceability because of the reduced extent of
A, bars:
cracking and the width of cracks.
From Table A-l 2 for #4 bars:
1.7 Z,, = 20 in. beyond dap

4-19
Tahla
.UY*-
AR
-7..
I -
I
Ct~mmarv
VY,..**,Ya,
nf . Tact
-. w-s
Prnnram__ \-,
. . 3---
181

/
I
Specimen Type

Bar B

2. Calculate V, and N,: I V, I (0.2 - 0.07 a/d,)f,b,d,


= 1.15VJ i$, N, = 1.i5NU/~ (Eq. 4.6.11) < (1000 - 350a/d,)b,d, (Eq. 4.6.12b)
Where, VU and NU are calculated using ACI 318-
83(6) load factors. 1 The difference in the maximum nominal shear strength,
Vn,values between this procedure and the one based on
The nominal shear strength is limited to: the PCI Design Handbook procedure should be noted.
The PCI Design Handbook procedure uses the effec-
For normal weight concrete: tive shear-friction model and the limits for V, are con-
V, I 0.2f,b,d, I 800b,d, (Eq. 4.6.12a) sistent with that model (see Table 2.7.1). The limiting
values for V, used here are the same as given in Ref. 8
For sand-lightweight concrete: which forms the basis for Sect. 4.6.2 design procedure.

4-20
I -d--5/8"

Specimen Bars A Length L


- -
1A 2-#4 13"

1B l-#4+ 1-U 22-114"

1C l-#4+1-#3 1 22-114"

I Fig. 4.6.2 - Details of Specimens Using Reinforcing Scheme 1

where:
I - c l e w - b, = length of the upper anchorage angle
* ; : d b, = average width of nib
See Fig. 4.6.3 for other terms

A 3. Calculate A,,, choose bar size and calculate y


/-s
(see Fig. 4.6.3):
V
A s h = (Eq. 4.6.13)
f, cosa

4. Assume a value for x and calculate e:


Bar
Y e=Z,+y/cosa -(h,-x)tana (Eq. 4.6.14)

5. Calculate A,:
V,e + N&h, - x)
Fig. 4.6.3 - Assumed Truss- A, = (Eq. 4.6.15)
fy (dd - x)
Action in Nib
6. Calculate k and compare with assumed value
in step 4. Iterate if necessary,
For all-lightweight concrete:
V, I (0.2 - 0.07 a/d&b,d, % (Eq. 4.6.16)
(Eq. 4.6.12~) = 1.7f,b,
I (800 - 280a/d,)b,d,

4-21
where: C, = A& + A,,f,sin a - N, Solution:

7. Calculate tan y and compare with 0.15: 1. Assume:


(a) 3/8 in. thick bearing plate
tan y = e/(d, - x) (Eq. 4.6.17) (b) #4 reinforcing bar for A,, therefore d, = 7.38
in.
a. If tan y c 0.15, design is satisfactory (c) Distance from the centerline of hanger rein-
forcement to end face of web, y, is 1 .O in.
b. If tan y > 0.15, provide a cross bar, diameter
d,,, length L,, welded to bearing plate, so 2. Calculate nominal forces from Eq. 4.6.11:
that:
4 = 1.15 VU/o = 1.15(15)/0.85 = 20.3 kips
0.85f,d,L, 2 V,e/(d, - x). N, = 1.15 N,/o = 1.15(4)/0.85 = 5.4 kips

Check maximum V, from Eq. 4.6.12a:


Since 0.2f, = 1000 psi > 800, ok
Example 4.6.2 - Dapped-End Design Based V I 800 bddd I 800(5.3)(7.38)/l 000
on Truss Action and Free-Body Equilibrium = 31.3 kips > 20.3, ok
(Ref. 8)
3. Calculate A,, (Eq. 4.6.13):
Given:
Dapped-end for a double tee(8DT20) as shown A sh
Vi7 LXQ- = 0.39 in*
in Fig. A. = fy = 6O(cos30)

Use 2-#4, Grade 60 (weldable)


IX
4. Determine horizontal extension of A,, in beam:
------__ Stranc Id for #4, (Grade 60, f6 = 5000 psi) = 12 in.
______._ StGha 4 1.7 Z,, = 20.4 in.
- - - e - - eStrandz---
--- (Alternately from Table A-l 2, 1.7 Id = 20.0 in.)

Extend A., bars 21 in. as shown in Fig. B

5. Calculate A,:
1 i i I 1 )2.0:{ j i i t With 3/4 in. cover to #4 bar, distance y (Fig.
4.5---+ 5.77 I- 4.6.3) = 1 .O in. Assuming distance x = 0.7 in., from
j20.27 HQ = lo.07 x Eq. 4.6.14:
e = ZP + y/cos a - (hd - x)tan a
Fig. A - Dapped End of 8DT20 = 4.5 + l/cos30 - (8.0 - 0.7) tan30
= 1.44 in.
fc = 5000 psi (normal weight concrete) From Eq. 4.6.15:
V,e .+ N,( h, - x)
A, =
f, (dd - xl
f sB = 150 ksi (transfer length = 36 in.)
= 20.3(1&I) + 5.4(8.0 - 0.7)
Yl = 15 kips/web
60(7.38 - 0.7)
N = 4 kips/web
average width of stem above dap, b, = 5.3 in. = 0.17 sq. in.

Problem: Verify x (Eq. 4.6.16):


Design reinforcement for the dapped-end - rein- C, = A& + A,,f,sin a - N,
forcing scheme 1 (see Fig. 4.6.2).

4-22
4 314 x 6 x 318
c
l-y-- 21*-----l

Fig. B - Example Design Using Reinforcing Scheme 1

= (0.17)(60) + 0.39(60)sin30 - 5.4 I Use #&I cross-bar, 3 in. long (L,d,, = 1.5 sq.
= 16.5 kips in.)

X 16.5 = 0.65 in., Provide lineal total of l/4 in. E70 flare bevel
=1.7(5)(3) groove weld to attach cross bar to bearing plate.
close to and less than assumed value, ok Weld to carry 0.216(20.3) = 4.4 kips.

Use 2-#3 for A, (0.22 sq. in.) 8. Determineupperanchorageof hangerreinforce-


ment:
6. Determine extension of A, in beam:
For a 2 in. vertical leg, the length of anchorage
As should project into the beam web the further
angle is:
of:
(a) 1.7 td beyond the reentrant corner bcl = C, /(0.85f,(2)] = 16.5/[0.85(5)(2)]
= 1.94 in.
(b) distance from end face of nib equal to transfer
length of strand Use L 2 x 4 x 114 in., length = 3 in.

(a) For #3, 60 ksi, f, = 5000 psi, Zd = 12 in., Weld #4 hanger bars to opposite faces of
1.7 Zd = 20.4 in. 1-314x 3-314 x 5/8 in. plate welded inside the anchor
(b) For transfer length of 36 in., and nib length of angle. Length of 114 in. E70 flare bevel groove weld
6 in., projection beyond reentrant corner is30 between each bar and the 5/8 in. plate (See Table
in. Use 30 in. A-l 7) = l-314 in.

Providel-1/4of3/16In.E70flarebevelgroove Length of 114 in. E70 fillet weld between plate


weld to attach each #3 bar to 6 x 3/8 x 4-3/4 in. and angle:
bearing plate. L,,, = C, /(weld strength/in.)
= 16.5/6.19 (Table A-14) = 2.7 in.
7. Calculate tan y (Eq. 4.6.17):
tan y = e/(d, - x) = 1.44/(7.38 - 0.7) Provide l-1/2 in. of 114 in. fillet weld each side
= 0.216 > 0.15, of plate.
therefore cross bar is needed.
Minimum Lbcdbc = [V,e/(d, - x)]/(0.85f,)
= (20.3)(0.216)/(0.85)(5)
= 1.03 sq. in.

4-23
4.7 Beam Ledges factor of a minimum of 1.3 for its calculation (see
The design of ledger beams, in particular the Eq. 4.7.5).
spandrel ledger beams, continues to be a contro- The design shear strength of continuous beam
versial topic in the precast prestressed concrete ledges supporting concentrated loads, as shown in
industry. There is no uniformly accepted procedure Fig. 4.7.1 can be determined as:
for design of such members particularly for the
design of the beam end, the beam ledge, and For s > b + h, use lesser of Eqs. 4.7.1 and 4.7.2
attachment of the ledge to the web through hanger values:
steel.
While the design of the overall member is out- +V, = 3 $Afic h(22, + b + h) (Eq. 4.7.1)
side the scope of this Manual on connections, pro-
cedure for design of the beam ledges is given in this +V, = @Cc h(2i$ + b + h + 2dJ (Eq. 4.7.2)
section. This procedure, which is the same (with
some additional recommendations given here) as
For s < b + h, and equal concentrated loads, use
included in the PCI Design Handbook(r)), has gen-
the lesser of Eqs. 4.7.la, 4.7.2a, and 4.7.3
erally proven satisfactory. However, to address the
values:
still remaining uncertainties with respect to design
of the hanger steel, the PCI Committee on Connec-
tion Details recommends use of an additional load @In = e 1.5 hflc h(2\ + b + h + s) (Eq. 4.7.la)

@In = ~+kfi~ h(b + y+ d, + s) (Eq. 4.7.2a)


1 Recent PCI funded research(g) indicates that the cur-
rent PCI Design Handbook procedure may be uncon- where:
servative for certain ledge configurations. The addi-
h. = depth of the beam ledge, in.
tional load factor of 1.3 recommended here for the
I, =
design of hanger steel is judged to address this mn- ledge projection, in.
tern. Alternatively, the design procedure given in Ref. b = width of bearing area, in.
9 may be used. S = spacing of concentrated loads, in.

Note: Main reinforcement for


L-Beam not shown.
Closed ties required
when torsion is critical.
,

-I d,+ y L- Cb+hJ

Fig. 4.7.1 - Design of Beam Ledges


4-24
d, =distancefromcenterof load to the endof the
beam, in. Example 4.7.1 - Design of a Beam Ledge

If the ledge supports acontinuous load or closely Given:


spaced concentrated loads, the design shear 8 ft. wide double tees resting on a standard L-
strength is: beam similar to that shown in Fig. 4.7.1. Layout of
tees is irregular so that a stem can be placed at any
@I,, = (b24h c (Eq. 4.7.3) point on the ledge.
V, per stem = 18 kips
If the applied factored load exceeds the strength N, per stem = 3 kips
asdetermined by Eqs. 4.7.1,4.7.2,4.7.3, the ledge h = 12 in., b = 3 in., s = 48 in.,
should be designed in accordance with Sect. 4.6. d = 11 in., I p= 6 in.
Flexural reinforcement, A, computed by Eq.
C = 5000 psi (normal weight)
4.7.4 should be provided in the beam ledge, and = 40 ksi
hanger steel, A,,, computed by Eq. 4.7.5 should be fY
(Note: The loads V, and N, are based on ACI
provided in the beam web. These equations are 318-83(6) load factors.)
given below:
Problem:
Investigate shear strength and determine rein-
forcement for the ledge.
(Eq. 4.7.4)
Solution:
(Eq. 4.7.5) Min. d, = b/2 = 1.5 in.
Since s > b + h and d, < (22,, + b + h), use Eq.
4.7.2:
where:
+ = 0.85 (Note: Use of o = 0.85 rather than 0.9 eVn=oh+~h(2$+b+h+2d,)
in Eq. 4.7.4 compensates .for using d in
place of the actual lever arm j,d). = 0.85(l)- (12)[2(6)+ 3 +12 e 2(1.5)]
/1000=21.6kips>18
= yield strength of the particular reinforce-
fY
ment
See Fig. 4.7.1 for other terms. Shear span, a = 31,/4 + 1.5
= 3/4(6) -I- 1.5 = 6.0 in.
The flexural steel, A, and the hanger steel, A,,
may be uniformly spaced over a width of 6h on By Eq. 4.7.4:
either side of the bearing, but not to exceed l/2 the
distance to the next load. Bar spacing should not A, = A, + A, =&pq$)+%($-)]
exceed the ledge depth, h, or 18 in. No less than Y

one half of the A,, reinforcement should be placed


within the width of the assumed failure surface (b +
= o 8;(40) [18(6/l 1) +3(12/l 111
h). A,, need not be additive to shear and torsion = 0.39 sq. in.
reinforcement designed in accordance with Sect.
4.3 and 4.4 of the PCI Design Handbook (4). 6h=6ft.>s/2=2ft.
Longitudinal reinforcement, calculated by Eq. Therefore distribute reinforcement avers/2 each
4.7.6 should be placed in both the top and bottom of side of the load.
the ledge portion of the beam (see Fig. 4.7.1): (s/2)(2) = 4 ft.
Maximum bar spacing, h = 12 in.
A, =(200Z,d)/fY (Eq. 4.7.6)
#I3 @ 12 in. = 0.44 sq. in. in each 4 ft.
Place 2 additional bars at the beam end to
provide equivalent reinforcement for stem placed
near the end.
By Eq. 4.7.5: 4.8 Concrete Bracket3 and Corbels
Concrete brackets and corbels are short cantile-
As h = +&= %%& = 0.69 sq. in.14 ft. vers with shear span-to-depth ratios (a/d in Fig.
Y -
4.8.1) less than unity. The failure mechanisms of
such members are usually different than cantilevers
Provide 743 in every 4 ft. width, with 4-#3 in with a/d larger than unity. Therefore, ACI 318-83
a width b + h = 15 in. (6) based on references 30 and 47, includes spe-
cial provisions in Sect. 11.9 for the design of brack-
Note: For placing convenience, the fabricator ets and corbels. The design procedure given below
follows these recommendations in conjunction with
may elect to place A, at the same spacing as Ash.
use of the effective shear friction analogy of PCI
Design Handbook (4) and the following limitations
By Eq. 47.6:
(see Figs. 4.8.1 and 4.8.2):
A, = 200$ d ify = 200(6)(11) /40,000 1. aIds
= 0.33 sq. in.
2. NusVu
Use 2 -##4 top and bottom = 0.40 sq. in. 3. e = 0.85 for all calculations
4. Anchorage at the front face of the corbel must
be provided by welding or other positive
Note: Also check shear and torsion require- means.
ments, per Sects. 4.3 and 4.4 of the PCI Design
5. Concentrated loads on continuous corbels
Handbook(4).
may be distributed as for the beam ledges in
Sect. 4.7.

A, (Main Reinf.)
/A,, (Stirrup Reinf.)

Free-Body Force Reinforcement

h/2
11
L Anchor Bar
Hanger Fieinf .
A, (Main Reinf.)
Panel Reinf.

Free-Body Force Reinforcement

Fig. 4.8.1 - Corbel Force Diagrams and Typical Reinforcement

4-26
2/3d
(Max.)

ith Deformed Bar

Deformed Bar

Alternate Anchorage

Fig. 4.8.2 - Design of Concrete Corbels

1 3y +N 1
The area of primary tension reinforcement, A, 2v,
is the greater of (A1 + .A) as calculated below, or As =k (Eq. 4.8.5)
(2A,/3 + A) where AVr is the shear-friction rein-
forcement discussed in Sect. 2.7:
(A& = O.O4(f,/f,)bd (Eq. 4.8.6)
VUa + N&h - d)
A, = (Eq. 4.8.1)
@ fyd Additional reinforcement, A,, calculated by Eq.
4.8.7 is also required and, as shown in Fig. 4.8.2, it
(Eq. 4.8.2) should be placed within 2d/3 of the primary tension
reinforcement, A,.

(Eq. 4.8.3) A,, 2 0.5(A, - An) (Eq. 4.8.7)

The nominal shear strength of a corbel is limited


For convenience, the equations can be rewritten by (see Table 2.7.1):
so that A, shall be the greaterof Eq. 4.8.4 and4.8.5,
1 The difference between the limiting value of nominal
but not less than (A&, from Eq. 4.8.6: shear strength given here and the ACI 318-83 (Sect.
11.9) is noted. The value given here (Eq. 4.8.8) is
A, = + [v(f) + N($)] (Eq. 4.8.4) consistentwith useof theeffectiveshear-friction model
discussed in Sect. 2.7.

4-27
V, I 0.3 X2 f,bd I 1000 h* bd (Eq. 4.8.8) By Eq. 4.8.6:

Table A-28 in Appendix A lists design shear (AJtnin


= O.O4bd(f,/f,) = 0.04(14)(13)(5/60)
strength values for a wide range of corbel sizes. = 0.61 sq. in. < 1.04

Provide 247 bars = 1.20 sq. in.

Example 4.8.1 - Reinforced concrete corbel (Note: The AS reinforcement could also be esti-
mated from Table A-28 in Appendix A:
Given: For b = 14 in. and , = 8 in., the table shows that
A concrete corbel similar to that shown in Fig.
4.8.2 for h = 14 in., the come1 would have a strength of 89
V, = 80 kips kips with A, = 2 - #7.)
Nu=15kips
By Eq. 4.8.7:
fY = Grade 60 (weldable)
C = 5000 psi (normal weight) A, = 0.5(A, - An) = 0.5[1.04 - 15/(0.85(60)]
Bearing pad: 14 in. x 6 in.
= 0.37 sq. in.
b = 14 in.; ZP = 8 in.
h = 1.0; f.l=l.4 Provide 2 - #3 closed ties (A,, = 0.44 sq. in.) in top
(2/3)d = 8.7 in. of corbel.
Problem:
Determine corbel depth and reinforcement.
Check maximum shear strength of corbel:
From Eq. 4.8.8:
Solution:
Try h = 14 in., d = 13 in. 0.3 h*f,(bd) = 273 kips
Assume load Vu eccentricity, a = 3/4 $ = 6 in. 1000 h2(bd) = 182 kips
V
A.-- - 80 = 94.1 kips c 182.0, ok
By Eq. 4.8.4: I$ 0.85

A, = & /j,(2)+ Nu(ff)] Design anchorage of A, reinforcement:


(Note:The size of the welded cross bar used for
anchorage should be the same or somewhat larger
= : [80(G) + 15(g) ] than the size of the bars to be anchored)
0.85(60)
= 1.04 sq. in. Force to be developed in one #7 bar
= e (O.S)(SO) = 31.2 kips
By Eq. 4.8.5:
1000 h bh u ,1000(1)(14)(14)(1.4) FromTable A-l 8, it is seen that it would require
%3= v 80,000 a cross bar larger than #lo.
U
Try 3-#7 for A, to reduce the force to be devel-
= 3.43 > 3.4, Use 3.4 (Table 2.7.1)
oped in each bar.

Force to be developed
+ N 1 = ?$ (0.6)(60) = 20.8 kips

From Table A-18, #I9 cross bar provides a design


strength = 22.3 kips> 20.8, ok
= 0.60 sq. in. < 1.04
Use 3-#7 for A, with 1-#9 welded cross bar
(E90 electrode)

4-28
4.9 Structural Steel Haunches
Structural steel shapes, such as wide flange (Eq. 4.9.2)
beams, double channels, tubes and vertical plates
are frequently incorporated in precast concrete
columns to serve as haunches or brackets. Design Vr (the nominal strength of reinforcement welded
of the steel shapes is done in accordance with to steel section; As = A, is assumed)
accepted methods of structural steel design. The
concrete strength including contribution of any rein- (Eq. 4.9.3)
forcement welded to the embedded shape and
appropriately developed in the concrete may be
calculated using principles of statics supplemented
e = a + lJ2
by guidelines given in this Manual and ACI 318-
a = shear span
83(6).
The design procedure given below is based on 4 = embedment depth
Ref. 48. Using the relationships and assumptions b = effective width of compression block
shown in Figs. 4.9.1 and 49.2: S = distance between A, and A,
4.1 = 0.85
1. The concrete based design strength is:
2. The design strength of the steel section is:
fvf,= 4wc+Vr) (Eq. 4.9.1)
Based on flexure:
where:
Vc (the nominal strength of concrete)
4 qy
wn = a + VU/(0.85fCb) (Eq. 4.9.4)

h
e
$/2 x-9
0

h
VA

L-,-l ---A

Xl
%; I- -ri
Strains 0.003
f - - q - J $ o.oo3
-:
PIXb
-I r JPXY
Stresses ~ +fj r, -i
5 0.85 f: afc7- nm &f:
7 -T-
(a) Pure Shear (b) Pure Moment (c) General Loading

Fig. 4.9.1 - Stress-Strain Relationships - Steel Haunches

4-29
for Moment on
Embedded Section

Column
Reinforcement 7

1
cc-s-4 ---/ bs2.5w L

Fig. 4.9.2 - Assumptions and Notations-Steel Haunch Design

Based on shear: 1. In a column with closely spaced ties above


and below the haunch, the effective width, b,
4% = $ (0.55fyh t) can be assumed as the width of the confined
region, or 2.5 times the width of the steel
where: section, whichever is less.
2, = plastic section modulus of the steel section 2. For thin-walled members, such as the tube
(see Table A-26) shown in Fig. 4.9.2, the inside should be filled
with concrete to prevent local buckling.
fY = yield strength of steel 3. When the supplemental reinforcement, A,
h,t = depth and thickness of steel section web,
respectively and AS, is anchored both above and below
0 = 0.9 (Note: Plastic design criteria for struc- the members, as in Fig. 4.9.2, it can be
tural steel do not require the use of o counted twice.
factor. However, the load factors used are 4. The critical section for bending of the steel
1.7 (D + L). Therefore, when using plastic member is located a distance V,/(0.85fCb) in.
steel design with concrete load factors from the face of the column.
(1.4D + 1.7L), the use of 9, = 0.90 is 5. If the steel section projects from both sides,
suggested in order to provide approxi- as in Fig. 4.9.1(a), minimum eccentricity
mately the same overall factor of safety.) corresponding to e/g = 0.5 is recommended
in Eq. 4.9.1.
The design strength, o V, is taken as the least of 6. Horizontal forces, NU, are resisted by bond on
the values obtained from Eqs. 4.9.1, 4.9.4 and the perimeter of the section. If the bond
4.95, and the design based on cp V, 2 VU. stress resulting from factored loads exceeds
250 psi, headed studs or reinforcing bars can
The following recommendations should be used be welded to the section.
in conjunction with the design procedure given
above.

4-30
From Eq. 4.9.1:
Example 4.9.1 - Design of structural steel @In = 0.85(80.2 + 29.2) = 93.0 kips
haunch
Alternate solution using Tables A-29 and A-30:
Given:
The structural steel haunch shown. For b=8 in., a = 4 in., il, = 10 in.,
CpV, = 68 kips
4X6X l/2
Steel Tube For A, = 2 - #4, anchored 2 sides, I = 10 in.,
V, = 2(14) = 28 kips
I
I
I
I W = oVC + $Vr = 68 + 0.85(28) = 92 kips
Steel shear capacity:
I
.I
I
f
I
From Eq. 4.9.5:
I +V = C$ (0.55f,ht) = 0.9(0.55)(36)(6)(2)(0.5)
i = 106.9 krps

--i 8 i-- Steel flexure capacity(Table A-26):


Column Reinf.

Vu = 85.0 kips
c = 5000 psi +ql+y) (,-L/i)]
f, (reinforcement) = 60,000 psi (weldable)
f,, (structural steel) = 36,000 psi = 17.25 in.3

Problem: For V, = 85 kips, V, i0.85fC b = 2.50 in.


Check whether the design shown is adequate. From Eq. 4.9.4:
+ q, = 0.9(17.25)(36)
Solution: W = a + VJ(0.85f,b)
Effective width is lesser of b = confined area (8 4 + 2.50
in.) or 2.5~ = 2.5(4) = 10 in. = 86.0 kips
Use b = 8 in.; e=4+10/2=9in.
Design Strength Summary:
From Eq. 4.9.2: @V, (concrete) = 93.0 kips
0.85 fCbZ, = OW5)(8)(10) $V, (steel) = 86.0 kips
vc = t 80.2 kips
1 + 3.6 e/ii, 1 + 3.6(9)/( 10) Steel flexure controls.

Since 41 Vn :, VU (i.e., 86.0 kips B 85.0), the


Since the A, bars are anchored above and design is adequate.
below, they can be counted twice.
A, (2 - #4) = 2(2)(0.2) = 0.80 sq. in.

From Eq. 4.9.3: 4.10 Connection Angles


2A,f Angles used to support precast members can be
vr = X 2(0.80)(60) designed by statics as shown in Fig. 4.10.1. in
6el2, , + WM1O) addition to the applied vertical and horizontal loads,
I+ 4.8(slZ,) - 1 4.8(7/l 0) - 1 the design should include all loads induced by
= 29.2 kips restraint of relative movement between the precast

4-31
(a) Bolted Without (b) Bolted With (c) Welded
Gusset Gusset

Note: 2 s 1 for all cases.


I

Fig. 4.10.1 - Design Parameters for Connection Angles

member and the supporting member. The mini- where:


mum thickness of non-gusseted angles loaded in I) = 0.90
shear as shown in Fig. 4.10.2 can be determined by: b = net length of the angle taking into account
holes
design e, o actual 8, + l/2 in.
(Eq. 4.10.1) (Note: For welded angles (see Fig. 4.10.1 (c)),
design e, may be taken as actual 8, - k)

(See Table A-31 for values) The tension on the boit can be calculated by:

r See Fig. 4.10.1 (Eq. 4.10.2)

For angles loaded axially, Fig. 4.10.3 either in


tension or compression, the minimum thickness of
non-gusseted angles can be calculated by:

(Eq. 4.10.3)

(See Table A-32 for values)


The tension on the boit can be calculated by:
Surface of C&-l Connection to the
P r e c a s t Unit--j 1%fppo;ructure P = N(l + $) (Eq. 4.10.4)

where:
6) = 0.90
Fig. 4.10.2 - Vertical Load g = gage of the angle (see Fig. 4.10.3)
on Angle b P net length of the angle
I,-cl
r See Fig. 4.10.1 With e, = 2 - -6- =2- 2 =1.67in.
6
/-Low-Friction
Washer 6.00 kips
7 Vert. Slot
1 2 1125

Example 4.10.2 -Connection Angie Design for


Horizontal Load

Given:
Surface of 1 (see Fig. 4.10.3)
Precast Unit-H Connection to the
N, = 4 kips; g = 3 in.; f, = 36 ksi
Support .Structure
angle size = 5 x 4 x v-5
Pu = NJ1 + g/e,) I not Shown
5/8 bolt hole

Problem:
Fig. 4.10.3 - Horizontal Load Determine the angle thickness required.
on Angle
Solution:
b = 5 - 0.625 = 4.375 in.
Example 4.10.1 -Connection Angie Design for From Eq. 4.10.3:
Vertical Load
Given:
(see Fig. 4.10.2) = 0.582 in.
VU = 4 kips; e, = 2 in.; f, = 36 ksi
angle size = 4 x 4 x w-4 Use L 5 x 4 x 518
543 bolt hole, g = 2 in.
From Table A-32; fort = 5/6 in., L,= 5 in., g = 3 in.
Problem:
Determine the angle thickness required. oNn ZI 1055 lb/in. > 4w = 914, ok
Solution: Tension in the bolts (From Eq. 4.10.4) with
Design e, = 2 + 0.5 = 2.5 in.
ei -2-t =1.67in:
b = 4 - 0.625 = 3.375 in.
(1 +$> =4(1 + l$&)=11.20kips
From Eq. 4.10.1: P = N

4.11 Welded Headed Studs


Welded headed studs are designed to resist
use L 4 x 4 x 38 direct tension, shear or a combination of the two.
Either the strength of the concrete or of the steel
may be critical, and both must be checked. The
From Table A-31 ; for t = 5/8 in., e, = 2.5 in., design procedure given below and also used in the
I@/, = 1266 Jb/in of width > E5 =1185, ok PCI Design Handbook(4) is based on Ref. 33 and is
applicable to studs which are previously welded to
Tension, P, in the bolts is calculated using Eq. steel plates or members and embedded in uncon-
4.10.2: fined concrete. Confinement of the concrete, either

4-33
from applied compressive loads or from reinforce- of aconcrete member, Eq. 4.11.4 should be applied
ment is known to increase the capacity however, twice, once for each edgedistance. Table A-33 lists
due to limited research, acceptable design equa- design tensile strength values.
tions which include confinement are not available. For a group of studs, the concrete failure surface
may be along a truncated pyramid, as shown in Fig.
4.11 .l Tension 4.11.2 rather than separate shear cones.
The design tensile strength governed by con-
crete failure is:

(PP, = 41 A&2.8 3L K) (Eq. 4.11.1)

where:
@ = 0.85
A,= areaoftheassumedfailuresurfacewhich,
for a single stud not located near a free
edge, is taken to be that of a45 truncated
cone as shown in Fig. 4.11 .l Fig. 4.11.2 - Truncated Pyramid
Failure
For this case, the design tensile strength is:

#PC = G-& WA,,,, + 4AAat 1 (Eq. 4.11.5)

where:
Surface Area: Aslope = area of the sloping sides
A,=%l,(I,+d,) A+,at = area of the flat bottom of the truncated
pyramid
For stud groups in thin members, the failure
surface may penetrate the thickness of the member
as shown in Fig. 4.11.3. This type of failure is likely
Fig. 4.11.1 - Shear Cone Failure when the thickness of the member is less than a
certain minimum thickness, h,i,, given in Fig. 4.11.4
and tabulated inTable A-34 in Appendix A. The pull-
Using the45O cone area and o = 0.85, Eq. 4.11 .l
out strength corresponding to h c h,i, is then based
may be written as:
on area of the sloping sides only.
Nominal pull-out strengths for both conditions
oPc = 10.72&l, + d,,) V+& (Eq. 4.11.2)
(i.e., h 2. h,i, and h c h,,,J for different edge vicinity
Or, for simplicity, conservatively neglecting the cases aregiven in Fig. 4.11.4. The values obtained
diameter of the head: fromFig.4.11.4equationsshould becomparedwith
the sum of the strengths based on separate cone
(PP, = 10.71** h fit (Eq. 4.11.3) failures and the lesser of the two used for design.
Figure A-3 in Appendix A can be used to calculate
For a stud located closer to a free edge than the design strength values for the six cases in Fig.
embedment length, 1 e, the design tensile strength 4.11.4 corresponding to both h 2 h,i, and h c h,,,i,
given by Eqs. 4.11 .l, 4.11.2 or 4.11.3 should be conditions.
reduced by multiplying it with C,: The design tensile strength per stud as gov-
erned by steel failure is:
C 3 11.0 (Eq. 4.11.4)
*s Ie 1 The minimum tensile strength of steel for studs, f, is
typically 60,000 psi. The yield strength in tension may
where, de is the distance measured from the stud be taken at 0.9 f, and the yield strength in shear may be
axis to the free edge. If a stud is located in the corner taken at 0.75 f,.

4-34
I
Section A-A

Fig. 4.11.3 - Pull-out Surface Areas for Stud Groups in


Thin Sections

+Ps = $A& = A,(O.gf,) = 54,000 A, (Eq. 4.11.6) 2. Strength based on the d, of the weakest row
of studs times the number of rows, and
where: 3. Strength based on the d, of the row of studs
4 = 1.0 farthest from the free edge.
f, = 60,000 psi (Note: The above conditions were developed by
consensus within the PC/ Committee on Connec-
Table A-33 lists the design strength values from tion Details due to lack of research data. Currently,
the above equation. research under two PCI Fellowships is being car-
ried out. The results of these studies may suggest
4.11.2 Shear changes in this recommendation and other aspects
The design strength governed by concrete fail- of concrete based design strength calculations.)
ure should be taken as lesser of the values given by
the following equations: The design shear strength per stud as governed
by steel failure is:
$V, = +800A, hflc, if d, 2 1 Od, (Eq. 4.11.7)
+V, I cp%fY = A&0.75f,) = 45,00OA, (Eq. 4.11.9)
rjN,=~2zd,*Xfl~, ifd,<lOd, (Eq. 4.11.8)
where: where:
= 0.85 4 = 1.0
k = area of the stud shank The design strength values determined from Eq.
d, = edge distance
4.11.9 are listed in Table A-35.
d, = diameter of the stud shank
4.11.3 Combined Shear and Tension
Table A-35 in Appendix A gives design strength The design strength for studs under combined
based on the above equations. tension and shear should satisfy the following inter-
For groups of studs, the design shear strength, action equations:
based on concrete , should be taken as the least of:
1. Strength of the weakest stud, based on the Concrete: l-[(!Ly+(xL)] 11.0
above equations, times the number of studs,
(Eq. 4.11 .lO)

4-35
Case 1: Not Near a Free Edge

h 2 h,,,,* i$ P, * q 4 n-q (x + 21,) (y + 2tJ

h < hnl, ~P,I~~~~~[(x+~~,)(~+~Z,)-A,~I

Case 2: Free Edge on One Side

h hmin
t) P, I I$ 4 1% (x + 1, + d,,) (y + 21,)

h < hinin 4~ P, - Q 4 q [(x +l, + de,) (Y + 21,) - A, 1


Case 3: Free Edges on 2 Opposite Sides

3 01bx4ci 02 I--

h hrnin
@ f, - Q, 4 Aflc (x +d,, + d,J (Y + 2V

h < hnll + P, - cp 4 nGc W +d,, + d,J (Y + 21,) - A, I

1 Near a free edge implies d, < t,.


2 hmin = (t + 2&)/2, where t is lesser of x and y (see fable A-34)
3 AR e (x c 25 - 2h)(y + 2$ - 2h)

Fig. 4.11.4 - Design Tension Strength of Stud Groups

4-36
4 t-x-4 I -
d 81 d 02

Fig. 4-l 1.4 - Design tension Strength of Stud Groups (C


where: d, > $, d, = 6 in., d, > $
t$ = 0.85
Thus effects of vicinity to two edges apply (Case
4 in Fig. 4.11.4).
Steel:
t[(%,+(%J] yfq 4,, ,,)
. . . 2. Check for member thickness (see Fig. 4.11.4 or
Table A-34):
where: h & = (2 + 21,)/2
I$ El.0
where z is lesser of x and y
P, and Vu are the factored tension and shear loads. h,i, = [8 + 2(8)]/2 = 12 in. (Note: Same result
can be read from Table A-34.)
4.11.4 Plate Thickness
Thickness of plates to which studs are attached
Since h (= 10 in.) c hmin, failure surface is likely
should be at least 2/3 of the diameter of the stud.
Bending in plates anchored with headed studs to penetrate through the slab.
should also be investigated whenever moments are
induced in them. 3 . Calculate tension strength based on concrete for
the studs as a group:
(Note: For this purpose, Equation in Fig. 4.11.4
(Case 4, h c h,,J or Fig. A-3 in Appendix A may be
Example 4.11 .l - Tension strength of a stud used. The latter is illustrated here.)
group
With reference to Fig. A-3 (p. A-30):
Given:
A base plate with four headed studs embedded k, = (x + d,, + de21
= (16+4~8)=28 (Note:d,,>I,,thus
in corner of a foundation slab.
d e2 = l, = 8 in.)
kz? = (Y + d,, + de4)
1 4 t- 16,--- = (8 + 6 + 8) = 22 (Note: de4 > Z,, thus
d 84 = Z, = 8 in.)
k, = (x + 21e - 2h)
= 116 + 2(8) - 2(10)] = 12

k; = (y + 2Z8 - 2h)
= [8 + 2(8) - 2(10)] = 4

From Fig. A-3, for k, = 28, 4 122, h = 1 .O, and


I I
2
I r, = 4000 psi:

(4)-3/4 in. diam. headed studs +pc, = 138 kips


embedment, Ze = 8 in.
slab thickness, h = 10 in. and for k, = 12, k; = 4, h = 1 .O, and fpc = 4000 psi:
c = 4000 psi (normal weight) @PC2 = 18 kips
Problem:
Determine the tension (pull-out) strength of the Thus, oPc = $Pc, - eP& = 138 - 18 = 120 kips
stud group.
4. Checksum of individual stud concrete failure ca-
Solution: pacities:
1. Check for edge effect:
For the given problem (see Fig. 4.11.4): For no edge effect, stud capacity is obtained
from Eq. 4.11.2, or Table A-33. Using Eq. 4.11.2:
x = 16 in., y = 8 in., d,, = 4 in.,

4-38
opt = 10.7 Z& + d,,) Xpc

where: d, = diameter of stud head = 1.25 in.

w, = 10.7(8)(8 + 1.25)(l) v4000 /lOOO


= 50.0 kips

Adjusting for edge effects (Eq. 4.11.4):


Stud 1: $P, = 50.0(4/8)(6/8) = 9.8 kips
Stud 2: #PC = 50.0(6/8) = 37.5 kips
Stud 3: i$P, = 50.0(4/8) = 25.0 kips
Stud 4: @P, = 50.0 kips

Thus, total capacity is:


Section A-A
@PC = (9.8 + 37.5 + 50.0 + 25.0)
= 122.3 kips > 120; stud group
failure is more likely.

5. Check capacity based on steel failure:

From Table A-33, for 3/4 in. diam. stud: (lO)- 1/2"4l
4q = 23.9 kips/ stud Studs

Total $Ps = 4(23.9) = 95.6 kips < 120

Thus the tension strength of the group = 95.6 Section B-B


kips

For Row 2, d, = 6> 10d = 5, use Eq. 4.11.7:


Example 4.11.2 - Shear strength of a stud f$vc = $800A, n?(vc
group = 0.85(800)(0.2)(l)+%% /lOOO
= 9.62 kips/stud
Given:
A plate with studs embedded in a column sub- For Row 3, d, =9>lOd=5, useEq.4.11.7:
jected to shear. @I, = ct, 800A, Xc = 9.62 kips/stud

c = 5000 psi (normal weight),h = 1 .O Maximum capacity of the group (based on con-
fs = 60,000 psi crete):
(10)-l/2 diameter studs, A, = 0.20 sq. in./stud, 1. Strength of the weakest stud times no. of studs:
10d = 5.0 in. QVc = 3.4(10) = 34.0 kips

Problem: 2. Strength of the weakest row times no. of rows:


Determine the shear strength of the group. $V, = 3.4(4)(3) = 40.8 kips, or
+V, = 9.62(2)(3) = 57.7 kips
Solution:
ForRowl,d,=3<10d=5, useEq.4.11.8: 3. Strength of the row of studs farthest from free
$Vc = i$2 xd,* lific edge:
= 0.85(2)(3.14)(3*)(1~/1000 eVc = 9.62(4) = 38.5 kips
= 3.40 kips/stud

4-39
Condition (1) controls concrete strength, Vu = 75 k, N, = 12 k (all load factors included)
(pV, = 34.0 kips column size 16 in. x i 6 in.

Check steel strength, use Eq. 4.11.9: Problem:


Determine if the studs are adequate for the
oVs = (0.75f,AJ = (0.75)(60)(0.2)
connection.
= 9.0 kips/stud

For 10 studs: Solution:


oVs = 1 O(90.0) = 90.0 kips 1. Strength based on concrete:
a. Tension (group of top six studs)
The plate studs shear capacity Is governed (1) Strength based on individual cones
by the concrete strength: (Eq. 4.11.2 and 4.11.4):
QV = 34.0 klps 0 PC = 10.71,( Ze + d,,) h qc (d&J
= 10.7(6)(6 + 1.25)($5)(5/6)
= 27.4 k/stud
Example 4.11.3 - Design of headed studs for (Alternately, the value may be obtained from
combined loads Table A-33)
For six studs:
Given: oP, = 6(27.4) = 164.4 kips
A plate with headed studs for attachment of a
steel bracket to a column as shown in the figure. (2) Strength based on truncated pyramid fail-
ure (Fig. 4.11.4):
Assumed railure Surface hmi, = (3 + 2(6))/2 = 7.5 in. < 16
t--'6"l Use Case 3 in Fig. 4.11.4 corresponding to
h > hmi,.
\ -F---i l--+-T- 4q = $4 X q (x + d,, + d,,Ny + 2!J
?a 0.85(4)(1 .O)N5000 )(6 + 5 + 5)
(3 + 2(6))
= 57.7 kips
or, P, = 57.710.85 = 67.9 kips

(3) Required tension strength, P, for group of


top six studs:
Direct tension, N, = 12 kips
Tension due to moment:
l- 518 Studs MU = 75(6) = 450 k-in.
>T,(jd) = TJd - (a/2)] = 450

T,d - T = 450
0 . 8 5 flcb(2)

T2
Tu (*) - 0.85(5;(10)(2)= 450

T = 42.9 kips

Therefore, P, = T, + N, = 42.9 + 12.0


= 54.9 kips
c = 5000 psi (normal weight), h = 1 .O
(12)- 5/8 in. diam. studs; %/stud = 0.307 sq. in. b. Shear (all 12 studs)
4 = 6 in. From Eq. 4.11.7 (de > 1 Od):
d, = 1.25 in.
4% = 0.85(800)(0.307)m)I1000
fs = 60,000 psi = 14.7 k/stud

4-40
(same value is obtained from Table A-35 ford, 2
9 in.)
For the 12 studs: (a) Shear and
I@/, = 12(14.7) = 176.4 kips or, Torsion
V, = 176.410.85 = 207.6 kips

c. Combined tension and shear


Using Eq. 4.11.10:

$[(?):(+)I s1.0
(b) Torslon

& [(~S+(&ji-j]
= 0.92 <l .O, ok
2. Strength based on steel:
a. Tension (group of top six studs)
Using Eq. 4.11.6:
+Ps = P&since 4 = 1 .O) = 54,000(0.307)/l 000
- 16.6 k/stud
(same value is obtained from Table A-33)
(c) Shear and
For the six studs, +P, = P, = 6(16.6)
Bendlng
= 99.6 kips
b. Shear (all 12 studs)
Using Eq. 4.11.9:
$V, = V&since $ = 1 .O) = 45,000(0.307)/l 000
= 13.8 k/stud
(same value is obtained from Table A-35)
For the twelve studs: Fig. 4.12.1 - Eccentric Loads
#V, -V, = 12(13.8) = 165.6 kips on Weld Groups
c. Combined tension and shear
Using Eq. 4.11 .l 1:

ast into Column

&i [(E>: <%>3


I 0.51 < 1 .O ok

Thus the connection Is adequate.

4.12 Weld Groups


Welds in groups are more efficient than line
welds in resisting bending and torsional moments
produced by eccentric loads. Examples of this type
of loading are shown in Fig. 4.12.1. Design of weld
groups may be done as given below with nomencla-
ture shown in Fig. 4.12.2.
The combined shear and torsion stresses in Fig. 4.12.2 - Welded Bracket
horizontal and vertical directions are given by Eqs. Connection
4.12.1 and 4.12.2 respectively:

4-41
(Eq. 4.12.1)
n Embedded Plates

(Eq. 4.12.2)

The resultant stress on weld is given by:

f, =qlpqF (Eq. 4.12.3)

where:
P, = applied force in x direction
P, = applied force in y direction
Y = vertical distance from c.g. of weld group to
point under investigation
X = horizontal distance from c.g. of weld group Connection
to point under investigation Angle 1
I,v = polar moment of inertia
= I, -I. I, = I: I,, + cAj* + c l,, + cAwy2
(Eq. 4.12.4)
M, = torsional moment = P,eY + Pyex F, = 36 ksi, E70 electrodes
t, = effective throat thickness of weld Factored load, VU = P, = 49.8 kips
A,= area of weld = weld length x t,
Problem:
w,, = moment of inertia of weld segment with Determine required weld size.
respect to its own axes
Solution:
For computing nominal stresses, the locationsof Find c.g. of weld group:
the lines of weld are defined by edges along which
the fillets are placed, rather than to the center of the jl=: 2(2)(1) + 14to) = 0 22 in
effective throat. This makes negligible difference, 14+2(2) * *
since the throat dimension is usually small. By by symmetry, jT = 7 in.
treating the welds as lines with t,,, = 1, the physical
properties of weld groups are simplified. The most A,= [2(2) + 141 t,,, = 18 t,
commonly occurring weld groups are listed in Table
A-36 along with their section moduli and polar
moments of inertia. Polar moment of inertia (Eq. 4.12.4):
The equations given above are for elastic sec-
tion properties, which is inconsistent but conserva- = Cl,, + XAj 2 + Cl,, + wl,Y
IP
tive when used with factored loads and design =2[tJ2)3/1 2 + 2tw(0.78)2 + 2(tJ3/1 2 + 2(t,J7)2]
strength of weld material. The plastic section prop- + t,( 14)3/1 2 + 1 4(t,J3/1 2 + 1 4(t,J(0.22)2
ertiesoftheweldgroupcan becalculatedor, if a less = 429.j t, + 1 .50(tw)3
conservative solution is acceptable, the properties
Since second term is small, it may be neglected.
may be derived from the appropriate shape factor
from Table A36. Methods given in Ref. 32 may also Alternatively, using Table A - 36, case 5:
be used. b = 2 in., d = 14 in.
x = b2/(2b + d) = 4(4 +14) = 0.22 in.
Example 4.12.1 - Design of a weld group For f- 1.0:

Given: I, = 8b3 + f;bd2 + d3 b4 2b +d


Corner angle connection as shown
Angle size = 4 x 4 x l/2 x l-2

4-42
= 8(2)3 + 6(2)(14)* + l43 _ 24 where:
12 2(2) + 1 4 0 = 0.90
= 429.1 in4/in xc, b from Fig. 4.13.1
e = 1 + 4 - 0.22 = 4.78 in. fY = yield strength of the base plate
ir = P e = 49.8(4.78) = 238 in-kips CF=greatest sum of anchor bolt factored forces
X = 2y- 6.22 = 1.78
on one side of the column

If the analysis indicates the anchor bolts on one


From Eq. 4.12.2: or both sides of the column are in tension, the base
plate thickness is determined from:
fY +! +!)fW P

= 49.8/l 8t, + 238( 1.78)/429.1 (t,,,) t = (Eq. 4.13.2)


= 2.77/t,,, + 0.99/t, = 3.76/t,
where:
From Eq. 4.12.1:
x, from Fig. 4.13.1
fx ++!p
Under loads which occur at service, the base
W P
plate thickness may be controlled by bearing on the
= 0 + 238(7)/429.1(L) =3.88/t, concrete or grout. In this case, the base plate
thickness is determined from:
From Eq. 4.12.3:
(Eq. 4.13.3)
f , = /(fx)* + (f,)* = /(3.88&J* + (3.76/t,)*
= 5.40/t, or t, = 5.401 f,
where:
From Table A-l 3: x, from Fig. 4.13.1
design strength of E70 weld = 35 ksi f bu = bearing stress on concrete or grout under
tW
= 5.40/35 = 0.154 in. factored loads I$ (0.85 fJ, where o = 0.7.
See ACI 318-83(6) -- Sect. 10.15.
For a 45O fillet weld:
leg size = 0.154/0.707 = 0.218 in. Table A-37 may be used for base plate design.
Nominal base plate shearing stresses should not
Use l/4 in. fillet weld (E70 electrode) exceed 0.55 fy.
The anchor bolt diameter is determined by ten-
sion or compression on the area of the threaded
4.13 Column Base Plates portion of the bolt. Anchor bolts may be either
Column bases must be designed for both erec- ASTM A307 bolts or threaded rods of ASTM A36
tion loads and loads which occur in service; the steel.
former often are more critical. Several examples of In most cases, both base plate and anchor bolt
column to foundation connections are included in stresses can be significantly reduced by using
Chapter 5 (Sect. 5.2.1). Two commonly used base properly placed shims during erection.
plate details are shown in Fig. 4.13.1 although other When the bolts are near a free edge, as in a pier
details are also frequently used. or wall, the buckling of the bolts before grouting may
When all the anchor bolts are in compression be aconsideration. Confinement reinforcement, as
(typically the case under erection loads prior to shown in Fig. 4.13.1, should be provided in such
placement of the grout under the plate), the base cases. A minimum of 4 No. 3 ties at about 3 in. on
plate thickness required for bending can be deter- centers is recommended for confinement.
mined from: The in-place tension strength of the bolt should
be taken as the lesser of the strengths calculated
based on concrete failure and steel failure (typically
t =: (Eq. 4.13.1) yield). The calculation of concrete based strength

4-43
2 Min. Grout Space

(a) Oversized Base Plate

2 Min.

I-----l

(b) Flush Base Plate

Fig. 4.13.1 - Column Base Connections

4-44
will depend upon the type of anchor bolt used. F o r Solution:
anchor bolts with headMasher of adequate stiff-
ness, similar to headed studs, the strength can be From Eq. 4.13.1:
determined by assuming a shear cone pull-out
failure described in Sect. 4.11. Otherwise, and for t = 1.24 in.
hooked anchor bolts, the strength should be deter-
mined by adding the bond resistance of the bolt
shank and the bearing resistance of the bolt head or Use Rl-114 x 16 x 16
the hook. If necessary, the bearing area of the bolt
head can be increased by welding a washer or steel Note: Compression on anchor bolts during erec-
plate. Nominal bond stress on smooth anchor bolts tion can be substantially reduced by the use of steel
should not exceed 250 psi. The confined bearing shims. The required area of the shims can be de-
stress on the hook or bolt head should not exceed termined by the concrete allowable bearing stress.
cp (0.85 f,) q as per ACI 318-83(6) -- Sect.
10.15. Typically,$@, will be larger than 2.0 in
such cases, thus the limiting value for design bear-
Example 4.13.2 - Column base plate - anchor-
ing strength of 0.7(0.85 fJ x 2.0 = 1.2 P, may be
bolts in tension
used.
The bottom of the bolt should be a minimum of 4 Glven:
in. above the bottom of the footing, and also above A 16 in. square column as shown.
the footing reinforcement.

16" x 16" Column


Example 4.13.1 - Column base plate - anchor T
bolts in compression

Given:
A 16 in. square column as shown.

Total tension on one side of column,


XF = 50 kips.
f,=4ksi, b=l6in., x,=3in.
1, = 36 ksi (bolt and base plate)
Allowable bond stress on bolt,
f, = 250 psi
P, = 200 kips
Compression on one side of column, Problem:
ZF = 100 kips Determine the following:
b=16in.,x,=2in.,fY=36ksi 1. Required base plate thickness, t
2. Size (diameter) of anchor bolts, D
Problem: 3. Embedment length of bolt, c
Determine the required base plate thickness, 1.
4-45
P, = 400 kips

I.
c = 5 ksi (concrete or grout)
fY = 36 ksi, x, = 4 in.
t =dT =dx =l.O8in.
Problem:
Determine the required base plate thickness, t.
Use RI-l@ x 16 x 16
Solution:
2. t/bolt = 50/2 = 25 kips P
f = u s2s = 0.694 ksi
b A Plate
From Table A-22, select l-114 in. diameter
A-36 rod
@T, = o(34.88) = 0.9(34.88) (fbu)rnax = +(0.85 J = 0.7(0.85 x 5)
= 2.98 ksi > 0.694, ok
= 31.4 kips @ threads > 25, ok
From Eq. 4.13.3:
3. Hook bearing capacity, $T,,r= (dia.)(length)( 1.2fJ
=I (1.25)(4)(1.2 x 4) = 24.0 kips

Remaining capacity to be developed by bond.


+Tb = +$ - 4$ x 31.4 - 24.0 = 7.4 kips UseRl**x24x24

Using a bond stress, f,, of 250 psi,


T,/in. = f,(x)(dia.) = 0.25(3.14)(1.25) = 0.98 k/in 4.14 Moment-Resisting Connections
When lateral stability of precast, prestressed
$T,/in. = 0.7(0.98) = 0.69 k/in
concrete buildings is achieved by frame action or
Embedment length,
by a combination of shear wall and frame action,
Ze = oT,,/($T,/in.) = 7.4/0.69 = 10.7 in. the connections to develop frame action must be
designed for appropriate moment transfer capabil-
Use 1 - 0 embedment ity.
The tension force for the moment resistance within
a connection can be provided by properly anchored
Example 4.13,3 - Column base plate - bearing headed studs, deformed bar anchors, orothertypes
on concrete or grout of inserts. Post-tensioning can also be used to
develop moment resistance at joints between inter-
Given: connected members. Where a high degree of
A 16 in. square column as shown. moment resistance and ductility are required,
composite construction is frequently used to
achieve connections that are similar to monolithic
Yl6x 16 Column joints in their behavior.
Several examples of connections with varying
potentials of moment resistance are included in
Chapt. 5. The composite connections are shown in
Sect. 5.2.3.3and the post-tensioned connections in
Sect. 5.2.3.4.
Achieving fully rigid connections can be costly.
In most cases, it may not even be desirable to build-
in a high degree of fixity, since the restraint of
volume changes could result in large forces in the
connections and the members. It is therefore pref-
erable that the design of moment-resisting connec-
tions be based on the concept of partial fixity,
wherein the desired moment resistance is achieved

4-46
with some deformation/rotation at the connection. with varying levels of end fixity including the
The deformation should be controlled to provide for limiting conditions of full fixity - zero rotation
the desired ductility. and zero fixity - maximum possible rotation.
While the moment-curvature analysis of precast 2. Select a connection scheme and draw
and prestressed concrete members is readily done moment-curvature diagram of the connec-
based on established analytical methods, connec- tion.
tions generally require testing for their behavior. 3. Obtain the allowable moment capacity of the
Recently completed PCI Funded Research (7) and connection and the corresponding end rota-
other previous research (49), as well as consider- tion by reading coordinates of the point of
able research in progress, are expected to lead to intersection of the two curves obtained in
adequate knowledge base on moment-resisting steps 1 and 2.
connections and enable formulation of rational 4. The allowable moment capacity obtained in
analytical procedures. step 3 must exceed the actual connection
In this section, a scheme is proposed and illus- moment calculated from frame analysis, but
trated which may be used to assess the moment must be less than the beam-end moment
resistance and curvature of partially fixed connec- strength. This check should be made for both
tions. While the scheme is given with reference to the service load and the factored load states.
a beam-column connection, the methodology is 5. The end rotation values corresponding to the
general and may be used for other types of connec- allowable moments should be used in as-
tions: sessing the connection ductility.
With reference to Fig. 4.14.1 (the numerical val- The above scheme is used in Example 4.14.1
ues in Fig. 4.14.1 pertain to Example 4.14.1): related to a beam-column connection.
1. Draw moment-curvaturediagramforthe beam

60.0 , I I I I

0:001 I 0:002 I 0:003 01004


0.00182 0.0028

END ROTATION (rad)

Fig. 4.14.1 - Moment-Rotation Diagrams


(The Numerical Values Shown are for Example 4.14.1)

4-47
Solution:
M = w&l2 where, w = D + L
Example 4.14.1 - Beam-column moment con-
nection = 0.5 + 1.5
=2kKt
Given: = 2( 14)2/l 2 = 32.67 k-ft
8RB16
Beam clear span,Z = 14 ft. MU= ~$12 where, w, = 1.40 + 1.7L
16 in. square Column = 1.4(0.5) + 1.7(1*5)
= 3.25 Wft
C = 5000 psi (normal weight)
Reinforcement, f, = 60 ksi = 3.25( 1 4)2/12 = 53.08 k-ft
E, = 4.3 x 1 O3 ksl; E, = 29.5 x lo3 ksi
Applied service loads: D= 0.5 Wft, Design moment strength based on yield strength
L=lSWft of top bars,
e = $ P,f,d)
Problem: = 0.9(2 x 0.44)(60)(14)/l 2 = 55.44 k-ft
Determine moment capacity of the beam-col-
umn connection shown in the figure. Determine end rotation, 0, @ + M, = 55.44 k-ft
8 = (A H)/d = [(f,lE,)(Z )] /d
where:
A H = elongation of the top bars at yield.

Grout Pocket-\ I L-l Assuming fixity of bars at column center line,


1 =8+0.5+4=12.5in.
9 = 60(12.5)/(29.5 x lo3 x 14) = 0.00182 rad.

Note: In the above calculation, it is assumed that


the beam will rotate about the bottom weld. In
reality, the location of pivot point will depend on the
relative stiffness of connecting parts.

I Maximum beam end rotation, 9, assuming zero


fixity is:
13, = wl 3/24E,l
6"x 16"~ 14'-0"
where:
w = 2.0 wft
I = pd3/1 2 = 8( 1 6)3/l 2 = 2 7 3 1 in4

0, = 2(14)(14 x 12)2/(24x 4.3 x lo3 x 2731)


= 0.0028 radians

Plot gM, vs 9 curve (connection), and M vs


8 and M, vs 0 curves (beam) - see Fig. 4.14.1

Calculate allowable service and ultimate mo-


ments for the connection:

M(allow)= 0.0028 = 23.62 k-ft


0 00182
( 55.44 +32.67o*oo28 >
. ,.,,, .. . . .
23.62 k-ft c 32.67 k-ft, ok
I

4-48
0.0028 = 32.76 k-ft foilows(Fig. 4.15.2(b)):
Mu (allow) =
1. The cantilevered bar is usually proportioned
( O.OO1
55.4482 +53.08
0.0028 >
so that the interior reaction from the concrete is 0.33
32.76 k-ft < 53.08 k-ft, ok VU. The hanger strap should then be proportioned
to yield under a tension of 1.33 VU.
Note: The rotations corresponding to the above
1.33v
moments can be readily determined and adjust- =u (Eq. 4.15.1)
ments can be made to ensure desired design duc- As
+Y
tility.
where:
Design welds:
fY = yield strength of the strap material
Top: To ensure ductility, design weld to develop t$ = 0.90
the strength of a #6 Grade 60 reinforcing bar.
2. VU may be assumed to be applied 0.5 in. from
From Table A-17, minimum length required for the face of the seat. The remaining part of the
E70 electrode is 2 l/2 in. for angle leg thickness of moment arm is the width of the joint, g. It is therefore
5/16 in. or larger. important that the joint width used in analysis is not
exceeded in the field.
Bottom: C, = MU/d
= 55.44(12)/l 4 = 47.52 kips I 3. The moment in the cantilevered bar is then
given by:
From Table A-14, the design strength of l/4 in. MU = V&O.5 + g + 0.375s)
fillet weld is 6.19 k/in. (Eq. 4.152)
I $fybd2/6
Weld length required,
& = C, /strength
where:
= 47.526.19 = 7.67 in.
fY = yield strength of the bar material
@ = 0.90
Notes: Other notation is shown in Fig. 4.15.2(b)
a. It is desirable to have the top and bottom
welds in the same vertical plane to minimize If the bar is proportioned to carry this moment at
shear forces on top anchorages, thus mini- the yield stress, but using elastic section properties,
mizing the possibility of theirpremature yield- the shear and tensile forces can usually be neg-
ing in flexure. lected.
b. If there is transfer of moment through the
4. The bearing pressure creating the interior re-
column, it will cause shear in the connection.
action may be calculated as in Sect. 4.5. If the width
The connection then must be designed for
both tension and shear. of the member in which the hanger is cast = b,, then:

f ,, = $0.85 Q&i6 (Eq. 4.15.3)


I
4.15 Hanger Connections where:
Hangers are similar to dapped ends, except that 4 = 0.7
the extended or bearing end is steel instead of
concrete. They are used when it is desired to keep The bearing length, &, is then given by:
the structural framing depth small. Four examples
of hanger connections are included in Chapter 5, v t3
b =b$-- (Eq. 4.15.4)
and are reproduced in Fig. 4.15.1 for convenience
bu
of reference.

4.15.1 Cazaly Hanger(50) The exterior cantilever should have a minimum


The Cazaly hanger has three basic components length of (g + 1) in. Most hangers in practice have
(Fig. 4.15.2(a)). Design assumptions are as cantilever lengths of 2 l/2 to 3 l/2 in.

4-49
GC17 GC18

BG3 SB7

Fig. 4.151 - Hanger Connections

Cantilever Bar
Cantilever Bar

(a) Basic Components (b) Design Assumptions

Fig. 4.152 - Cazaly Hanger

4-50
5. To maintain the conditions of equilibrium as- Design weld, strap to cantilever bar:
sumed, the interior cantilever must have a length:
2 = (1.5 + 3g + s + 0.5$ ) in. From Table A-14 for E70 electrode, design
strength for 3/l 6 in. weld is 4.64 k/in
6. The minimum total length of bar is then: 1 .33vu
Z,,,i, = (2.5 + 4g + 2s + 0.5&) in. (Eq. 4.155) I, = S(d esign strength) al.330
2(4.64)
I 3.44 ii.

7. Longitudinal dowels, A,, are welded to the


Weld 2 In. across top 3/4 In. down sides,
cantilevered bar to transmit the axial force, N,:
Weld length = 3.5 in.
(Eq. 4.15.6) By Eq. 4.15.2:
Mu = Vu(0.5 + g + 0.375s)
where: = 24(0.5 + 1 + 0.375(2)) = 54 k-in
fy = yield strength of the dowel
(I = 0.90 z MU
54 =1.67in3 =.b$!
wd. = c = 0.9(36)
8. The lower dowel, A,,, and the area confined Try 2 in. wide bar:
within the strap can be conservatively proportioned
using shear-friction described in Sect. 2.7: d =dv = 2.24in.

(Eq. 4.15.7) Use 2 x 2 114 in. bar

where: By Eqs. 4.15.3 and 4.154:


@ = 0.85 fbu - -1$O.S5f~v= (0.7)0.85(5)$% = 5.15 ksi
fY = yield strength of lower dowels, psi JU I3 2413 = 0.78 in.
=-
k
b fbu 2(5.15)
h?= 1000 1 bh u I value in Table 2.7.1
U (Eq. 4.15.8) Min. interior cantilever length
=1.5+3g+s+o.52,
= 1.5 + 3(l) + 2 + 0.78/2 = 6.89 in.
Min. total length (Eq. 4.15.5)
Example 4.15.1 - Design of a Cazaly Hanger =2.5+4g+2s+o.51,
= 2.5 +4(l) + 2(2) + 0.5(0.78) = 10.89 in.
Given:
Hanger similar to that shown in Fig. 4.15.1 fSB7) Use bar 2 x 2 l/4 x 12 in.
c = 5000 psi (both member and support)
fy (reinforcing bars) = 60 ksi By Eq. 4.15.6:
f, (structural steel) = 36 ksi N
VU = 24 kips; N, = 4 kips AlI &c)
4t
= 0.07 sq. in.
b, = 6 in., g = 1 in. (see Fig. 4.15.2)
Use 1 - #3 dowel; provides 0.11 sq. in.
Problem: From Table A-l 2: 1.7 Zd = 15 in.
Size the hanger components.
Try h = 16 in.; by Eqs. 4.15.7 and 4.158:
Solution:
1000 h bh u JOOO(1)(2)(16)(1.4~
Determine area of strap (Eq. 4.15.1): k3= v
U
24,000
1.33v
A, (strap) = U ef = .33(24)= 0.99 in2. = 1.87 < 3.4, ok
Y
0.9(36)
A, r\/U, 24 = 0.25 sq. in.
0 y &3 0.85(60)( 1.87)
j Use l/4 x 2 in. strap; A, = 0.25(2)(2) = 1.00 in2

4-51
Use 1 - #5 dowel; A, = 0.31 sq. in.
(Eq. 4.15.10)
Alsocheckdowelwelding requirementsperTable
A-l 7. where:
I$ = 0.90
f* = yield strength of A,
4.152 Loov Hanger(51)
The steel bar is proportioned so that the bearing
The hanger illustrated in Fig. 4.15.3 is designed strength of the concrete is not exceeded and to
using the following equations: provide sufficient weld length to develop the diago-
nal bars. Bearing strength is discussed in Sect. 4.5.
(Eq. 4.15.9) However, if the bar is at the top of the member as in
Fig. 4.153, there is no geometrically similar area
where: larger than the edge of the bar, and with o = 0.7:
I) = 0.85
f, P o 0.85 fC = 0.6 fC (Eq. 4.15.11)
fY = yield strength of As,,

7 Steel Bar

(a) Basic Components

,tana+N, (h
d-al2

(b) Design Assumptions

Fig. 4.15.3 - Loov Hanger

4-52
The connection should be detailed so that the By Eq. 4.15.11:
reaction, the center of compression and the center f bu = 0.6 fc = 0.6(5)= 3.0 ksi
of the diagonal bars meet at a common point, as C = V,,tan a = 24 tan 30 = 13.9 kips
shown in Fig. 4.15.3(b). The compressive force, C,
is assumed to act at a distance a/2 from the top of Assume b, = 1 in.
the bearing plate. Thus:
a = & = 13.9 = 4.66 in.
(Eq. 4.1512) l(2.98)
al2 = 2.33 in.

where: Min. weld length, #5 bar, E70 electrode (Table A-


17) = 2-l/4 in. Use 2-l/2 in.
C =V,tana+ t(ha;z)
- (Eq. 4.1513)
Provide end bearing plate as shown below.
For most designs, the horizontal bars, A,, are
placed very close to the bottom of the steel bar.

---
Thus, the term (h - d) can be assumed equal to zero,
simplifying Eqs. 4.1510 and 4.1513. 2x5xl R
Tests have indicated a weakness in shear in the
vicinity of the hangers, so it is recommended that \
stirrups in the beam end be designed to carry the
total shear.

Example 4.152 - Design of a Loov Hanger

Glven:
Hanger similar to that shown in Fig. 4.153.
Design for the same data as in Example 4.15.1
a = 30.

Problem:
Size the hanger components.
End of Member
Solution:
By Eq. 4.15.9:

A Vu 2
sh = $f,coSo? = 0.65(6Oy!ios 30 4:16 Connection of Load Bearing Wall Panels
Connections for load bearing wall panels are an
= 0.54 sq. in. integral part of the structural support system: care in
their design is essential in ensuring the overall
Use 2 -#5 bars, A,, = 0.62 sq. in. stability of the structure. In addition to the weight of
the panels, the connections must resist and transfer
Detail A, so it is near the bottom of the steel bar dead, live, wind and earthquake loads, and effects
i.e., h - d = 0 of volume changes.
Erected load bearing walls may have both hori-
By Eq. 4.1510: zontal and/or vertical joints across which forces
must be transferred. Fig. 4.16.1 indicates, for
separate cases, the principal exterior forces and the
A, +A = 0.07 sq. in.
y 0.9(60) resulting joint forces. In buildings, all forces and
various combinations of panel and joint assemblies
Use l- #3 dowel, A, = 0.11 sq. in. must be considered.

4-53
Distribution of lateral forces to shear walls de- Sound and waterproofing details may also have to
pends largely on adequate connections of floors to be considered.
walls. In addition to the transfer of vertical shear
forces due to lateral loads, vertical joints may also 4.16.1.2 Grooved Joint Connection
be subject to shear forces induced by differential Grooved joints are continuous and usually filled
loads on adjacent panels. Joint and connection with grout. The minimum groove dimension should
details of exterior bearing walls are specially critical be 1 l/2 in. deep and 3 in. wide (Fig. 4.16.3). The
since the floor elements are usually connected at joint strength can be evaluated by shear-friction
this elevation and a waterproofing detail must be even if shrinkage, creep, and temperature move-
incorporated. ments have caused a crack at the wall-grout inter-
face.
4.16.1 Vertical Joints
Vertical joints may be designed so that the wall 4.16.1.3 Mechanical Connection
panels form one structural unit, or act independ- Mechanical connections consist of anchorage
ently. devices cast into the wall panels and steel sections
(plates, angles, bars, etc.) crossing the joint. The
4.16.1.1 Hinge Connection strength is usually controlled by the capacity of the
A hinge connection transfers compression and cast-in anchorage (Fig. 4.16.4); connection of the
tension forces but not moments. This is usually steel section to the anchorage device can be made
done at floor levelsthroughfloordiaphragms and tie by bolting, welding, or grouting.
beams. The joint between floor levels usually is Tie beam connections at floor levels may pattici-
open so the panels resist lateral loads independ- pate with the mechanical connections. The relative
ently according to their relative rigidity (Fig. 4.16.2). participation in resisting applied forces depends on

Vertical Shear at
Vertical Joint
0 I V I Vrigid

Reaction at
Horizontal Joint

v = r i g i d

(a) Lateral Loads in (b) Lateral Loads out of (c) Differential Gravity
Plane of Walls Plane of Walls Loads

Fig. 4.16.1 - Exterior Forces and Joint Force Systems


(a) Angle-Bolt

(b) Plate-Bolt
Fig. 4.16.2 - Wall to Wall Hinge
Connections at
Floor Levels

t-(hi., 1 (c) Thru-Bolt

.---- w--w-
- -----~yLT-
- ---=

:,I 01 t

-----.-A-/L.---,,,
- ----,- s-----.
-.t-

(d) Direct Welding


Y
m--w--.
-m----v,
4 7 ~.#z~~=
TV=
--------. v
se- - - ---.
h (e) Welding with Make-up Pieces

Fig. 4.16.3 - Grooved Joint Fig. 4.16.4 - Mechanical


Connections Connections
forced (Fig. 4.16.5). Test results indicate substan-
their force-deformation characteristics. The ulti- tially similar load-deformation behavior, but also
mate capacity is the sum of the strength of the tie show that the reinforced joints are stronger and
beams and the mechanical connections. possess higher ductility. Reinforcement is required
Once the connection forces have been estab- in high seismic zones.
- lished, evaluation of connection strength is made As shown in Fig. 4.16.6, the resistance of a
using appropriate strength of the materials and the keyed joint can be limited by:
principles developed in other sections of this Man- (a) cracking of grout parallel to joint,
ual. (b) diagonal cracks across joints,
(c) crushing of key edges or joint concrete at key
4.16.1.4 Keyed Joint Connection edges, or
Keyed joints can either be reinforced or nonrein- (d) slippage along contact area.

4-55
For (a) the shear-friction concept applies (Sect.
2.7). For (b),(c) and (d), the strength of the connec-
tion is usually a function of the compressive strength
of the grout, the bond strength of the grout to the
precast concrete, and the profile of the keys. As
shown in Fig. 4.16.5, the vertical shear force can be
resolved into tension and compression compo-
nents with o as the apparent friction coefficient and
a the angle of the key.
Depending on the number of keys per floor, the
unit forces per key resulting from the vertical shear
force V are:
J = V sin a
C = Vcos a
The joint force J is resisted by the shear-friction
force R developed in the plane of J, with:
R =Ctano
Assuming a conservative value of tan o = 0.60,
sliding along J will not occur if:
R>J
J>R J< R which is the case for a 530.
For a z 30 and R <J, a tension force T develops
which must be taken by horizontal reinforcement in
Fig. 4.16.5 - Keyed Joint the joint. According to Fig. 4.16.5:
Connections A T ;osBa
_ AJ _ V(sn *;;; a tan o)
cos a
= V(tan a - tan o) (Eq. 4.16.1)

The sum of the unit tension forces at each floor


level can be taken by horizontal ties or by uniformly
t-Compression distributed horizontal reinforcing bars protruding
from the wall.

4.16.2 Horizontal Joints


Horizontal joints in load bearing wall construc-
tion occur at floor levels and at the foundation or
transfer beams. The principal forces to be trans-
ferred are vertical and horizontal loads from panels
above and from the diaphragm action of floor slabs.
I
Section A The resulting forces are:
(a) normal to joint - compression or tension,
(a) Diagonal Tension (b) horizontal to joint - horizontal shear,
(c) vertical to joint at face - vertical shear, and
(d) perpendicular to joint - compression or ten-
sion from floor to diaphragm (Fig. 4.16.7).
;lill~~~/IB!I Because of the limited frame action that can be
developed perpendicularto awall, moment stresses
in the joint are normally only of minor importance.
The following procedure, based on Ref. 52, may
(b) Shearing (c) Crushing- (d) Dislocation be used to design for axial load transfer through
Shearing horizontal joints:
Fig. 4.168 shows three joint details used in
Fig. 4.16.6 - Forces in Keyed multistory load bearing buildings with hollow core
slabs used for the floors. For the condition of Fig.
Joint 4.16.8 (a), the joint strength is:

4-56
e = eccentricity of load(occurswhenfloorspans
or loads on either side of wall are unequal,
and at end walls)
h = slab thickness
C = design concrete strength of slab
ij = 0.7
When the space between slab ends is grouted,
load is shared by the slab ends and grout columns
according to their stiffnesses. The splitting strength
of the wall may also limit the joint capacity. The
effect of grout flowing solidly into the slab ends is to
confine the grout column. If the space between slab
ends is less than about l-1/2 in., an unconfined
grout column will add little strength. The strength of
the connection can be determined by:

4P = cb t, lfueR* (Eq. 4.16.3)

where:
= grout thickness
iI
1 = length of joint (parallel to wall) being con-
sidered
f = equivalent bearing strength from Table
ue 4.16.1. Accounts for distribution of load
between grout column and slab ends
Re = 1 - (2e/h)
Fig. 4.16.7 - Typical Interior
Horizontal Joints Table 4.16.1 - Equivalent bearing strength,
fueW)
oP, = (PO.85A$,R, (Eq. 4.16.2) Grout strength, psi
where: 3000 4000 5000
P, = nominal strength of the joint Slab cores not filled 4.5 5.9 5.9
A, = effective slab bearing area = 2 w b,
w = bearing length (Fig. 4.16.8) Slab cores filled 5.8 6.5 7.1
b, = net web width of slab Valid for slab f, = 5000 psi or higher with slabs
R, = reduction factor for eccentricity of load supported on multimonomer plastic bearing
= 1 - (2e/h) strips. For other conditions see Ref. 52.

Fig. 4.16.8 - Typical Joints in a Bearing Wall Building

4-5
Evaluate capacity of ungrouted joint:
Example 4.16.1 1 Design of grouted horizontal Assume the ratio of webwidth to total width of the
joint slab = 0.3; from Eq. 4.16.2:
P = 4)0.85A$,(,,,$,
Given:
An I&story bearing wall building with 8 in. pre- = 0.7(0.85)(3 + 3)(0.3 x 12)(5)(1 - y )
cast concrete walls and 8 in. hollow-core floors and = 64.26 kips/ft
roof. Floor slabs span 28 ft and bear on muitimon-
omer plastic bearing strips. Adequate for floors 8 through roof.
V&precast concrete) = 5000 psi
Loads: Evaluate capacity of grouted joint:
Roof: DL = I5 psf; LL = 30 psf Try f, of grout = 3000 psi
Floors: DL = IO psf ; LL = 40 psf use t, = 2 in., R, = I .O as above
Hollow core = 60 psf \
Walls = 800 plf/story From Table 4.16.1:
No LL reduction
Slab cores not filled, fue 2: 4.5 ksi
Problem: From Eq. 4.16.3:
Find grouting requirements for interior joint. 4Pn = + t, 1 fueR,
= 0.7(2)(12)(4.5)(I) = 75.6 kips/ft
Solution:
Loads: Adequate for floors 6 and 7.
Roof: W = 28[1.4(60 + 15) + I .7(30)1/I 000 Slab cores filled, fue = 5.8 ksi
= 4.37 klf $P, = 0.7(2)(12)(5.8)(I)
Floors: wU 2: 28[1.4(60 + IO) + 1.7(40)1/I 000 = 97.4 kips = 97.81, say ok (may choose to
= 4.65 kif specify a slightly higher grout strength.)
Walls: w, = 1.4(800)/l 000 = 1. I2 klf/story

Accumulate loads above floor noted: Notes:


I. Typical examples of other connections
through horizontal joints are shown in Chapter 5.
Floor w CW 2. When forces are concentrated at a few
points, they must be redistributed into the panels
I8 4.37 + I.I2 5.49
above and below.
17 4.65 + I.I2 II.26
3. The connection should have more ductility
16 5.77 17.03
and strength than the vertical ties fastened to it.
I5 5.77 22.80
I4 5.77 28.57 4.16.3 Structural integrity(21)
I3 5.77 34.34 For precast concrete load bearing wall struc-
I2 5.77 40.1 I tures higher than 3 stories, minimum tensile ties
II 5.77 45.88 should be provided at the joints to resist the follow-
IO 5.77 51.65 ing forces (Figs 4.16.9 and 4.16.10):
9 5.77 57.42
T, u 2 1500 Ib/ft x span of floor slabs (ft) -- cross
8 5.77 63.19
7 5.77 68.96 tie
6 5.77 74.73 T2 u 116,000 lb -- peripheral tie
5 5.77 80.50 Ts 1 2 l/2% of service load on wall
4 5.77 86.27 11500 ib/ft x length of wall (ft) -- iongitudi-
3 5.77 92.04 nai tie
2 5.77 97.81 T4 u 2 3000 Ib/ft x length of wall (ft) -- vertical tie
where subscript u denotes factored load.

4-58
.
/

/
T*

Fig. 4.16.9 - Recommended Tie Forces in Precast Concrete


Bearing Wall Buildings

Fig. 4.16.10 - Typical Tie Arrangement


4.17 Non-Load Bearing Wall Panel Connec-
tions
The design of connections of non-load bearing
architectural wall panels follows the same prin-
ciples as structural connections, except the loads
are generally lighter. Usually, the connections are - 3 314
detailed to minimize the volume change forces and Knife Plate
/-
thus, are primarily designed for the self-weight of Tie-Down Plate
the panel and lateral loads. Example 4.17.1 illus-
trates use of this scheme in the design of load
bearing and tie-back connections for an architec-
tural wall panel.
Attention to details and proper protection of any

r
exposed hardware are most important to ensure
satisfactory performance of the connections for the
service life of the structure. Several examples of
typical details are shown in Chapt. 5 (Sect. 5.3).

Example 4.17.1 - Design of Architectural Wall 2'-10"


Panel Connections

Given:
6 x 7-O x 20*-O long architectural panel
There are two load bearing and two tie-back
connections per panel
Distance between connections = 14-O
Estimated volume change strain = 0.0003
Wind load = 30 psf
Plates: fy = 36 ksi; Anchors: fy = 60 ksi;
Reinforcement: f, = 60 ksi (weldable)
Concrete: f, = 5000 psi (normal weight)
Beam width: b = 8 in.

Problem:
Design load bearing (at top) and tie-back (at
bottom) connections -- See Fig. A
Fig. A
Solution:
It is noted that the connection reactions (see Fig.
B) are statically indeterminate and the exact solu- will be assumed at center of the tie-down
tion would require consideration of the rigidity of plate since the plate is assumed to be thin.
various components including weld sizes and con-
figurations. In typical situations however, such 3. In calculation of the horizontal reaction, H,, it
exact solution is not necessary. By making simpli- is assumed that the shim reaction is zero.
fying assumptions, a conservative but reasonable This would produce the largest value of reac-
solution can be obtained. For this problem, the tion H, under wind suction and panel dead
following assumptions are made (see Fig. B). load. It will also produce the largest compres-
1. The tie-down plate is thin and flexible, thus sion force on the tie-back connection under
M = 0. wind pressure and panel dead load. The
shim reaction C, however, is calculated and
2. For design of the tie-down plate, the hold- considered in the design of knife plate.
down force, T, is applied at the outside edge
where most of the weld is located. However, Using the above assumptions, the reactions
for overall equilibrium purposes, the force T shown in Fig. B are calculated as follows:
the shims as well as the knife plate are rigid and the
shims are installed tightly. With these assumptions,
the tie-back connection will carry only the wind load
and thus, He = 1.05 kips.

Using Fig. B and summing moments about the


bottom of the tie-down plate:

(0.03)(10)(7)(18) + 6.82(10) - 1.05(36)


- C(2.5) = 0

m--
C = 27.3 kips
Therefore,
T = 27.3 - 6.82 = 20.48 kips

2. Design Knife Plate and its Anchorage:

J He=H,-Hz With reference to the knife plate free body dia-


gram in Fig. C, and summing moments about the
left end:

n wP

Fig. B

1. Determine Loads:
(a) Horizontal load due to wind per connection:
H, = (20)(7)(.030)/(4) = 1.05 kips

(b) Horizontal load due to panel eccentricity:


W,,= panel weight/connection
= (1.3)[(20)(7)(.075)/2)] = (1.3)(5.25)
Fig. C
= 6.82 kips

(Note: 1.3 load factor is used in the above calcu- M + 2.94(2.5) + 27.3(4.5) - 20.48(7) = 0
lation recognizing the sensitivity of the connection M = 13.16 k-in
to tolerances with respect to the gravity load. Maximum moment in the plate:
M max = 6.82(4.5) + 13.16 = 43.85 k-in
(c) Horizontal reactions due to eccentric panel
weight are obtained by summing moments Try 1 x 4 Knife Plate:
about the bottom of the tie-down plate (M = 0, A = 4 sq. in.
c = 0):
S = (1)(4)*/S = 2.67 in3
6.82 (10) - H,(36) =O
(a) Checkfortension and bending (Ref. 32,Sect.
H, = 1.89 kips
1.6.1):
Thus, the maximum horizontal reactions are:
HA=H,+H,=1.05+1.89=2.94kips
He = 1.05 kips (tension) and
= 2.94 kips(compression)
where:
(d)The shim reaction, C, and the hold-down
force, T, are determined as follows: f&l = 2.9414 = 0.74 ksi
f b = (43.85)/2.67 = 16.4 ksi
Note: The maximum reaction C would occur 0.6 F, = 0.6(36) = 21.6 ksi
underwind pressure and underthe assumption that 0.66 FY = 0.66(36) = 23.76 ksi

4-61
Required area of steel,
Thus0.-/4 +a=0.72<1.0, ok
21.6 23.76
(b) Check volume change forces:
As=* = 16.4/0.9(60)

= 0.30 sq. in.


Volume change at each end,
6 = 20(12)(.0003)/2 = 0.036 in/end Use 2-#3 on each side of plate (Refer to Table
Corresponding force, A-17 for welding requirements)
p = 3EI (6)
i3 A, (provided) = 2(0.1 l)(2) = 0.44 sq. in.
where:
(Note: Since the bars are provided both above
E =29x103ksi
and below the plate, they are counted twice - see
I = (4)(1)3/12 = 0.33 in4 Sect. 4.9.)
Therefore, 3. Design of Tie-Down Plate:
P = [(3)(29 x 10)(0.33)(0.036)] /(7)3 Assume a 314 x 5 x 5 plate.
= 3.0 kips A = (3/4)(5) =3.75 sq. in.
S = (0.75)(5)*/S = 3.125 in3
Stress in plate (assumingfixity at panel face and
neglecting any horizontal reaction at shim), (a) Check plate for bending and tension:
f = M/Z = 3(7)/[(1/4)(4)(1)*] Summing moments about the plate centroid
= 21 .O ksi e 36, ok (see Fig. E),

(c) Design anchorage of knife plate:


Taking moments about F, (see Fig. D):
II20.4ak

Tie-Down Plate
13.16 in-k

Fig. E

M = 20.84(0.75) - 2.94(2.5) = 8.01 k-in


f a = 20.4813.75 = 5.46 ksi
Fig. D
1, = 8.01/3.125 = 2.56 ksi
f fI.J 5.46 2.56
a
FJ3.75) = 6.82(4.5) + 13.16 0.6 FY +mFy = 21.6 - +23.76
Therefore,
= 0.36 < 1 .O, ok
F, = 43.85/3.75 = 11.7 kips
(b) Design weld to knife plate (See Fig. F,
With ACI 318-83(6) load factor of 1.4: Sect. A-A)
(F,) = (F2) = 11.7(1.4) = 16.4 kips A,,, = 9.0 sq. in./in

4-62
Fillet Weld -, Fillet Weld

Section B-B

Fig. F

SW= [(4)* + (2)(4)]/(3) = 8.0 in3/in


f , = 20.4819.0 = 2.28 Win
f = 2.94/9.0 = 0.32 k/in Shims Bearing Reinforcement
fL* = 8.01/8.0 = 1 .O Win
f reqd = d (1 .O + 0.32)* + (2.28)*
= 2.82 Win

Use l/4 in., E70 Electrode


Max. allowable stress (Table A-14)
= 3.71 k/in > 2.82, ok

(c) Design weld to plate embedded in supporting


structure (See Fig. F, Sect. B-B)
Fig. G
f , = 20.4819.0 = 2.28 Win
f v 2 = 2.94/9.0 = 0.32 Win
f reqd = X/ (2.28)* + (0.32)* = 2.30 Win Use p, = 3.4

Use l/4 in., E70 Electrodes A,=/!L= 44.0


4 fyhl 0.85(60)(3.4)
4. Design Embedded Plate in Supporting Structure = 0.25 sq. in.
(see Sect. 4.5):
With reference to Fig. G: 3 82
=-=~=0.07sq.in.
Vu = 1.15(1.4)(C) = 1.15(1.4)(27.3) 0.9(60)
= 44.0 kips AS =AvfiAn= 0.25 + 0.07 = 0.32 sq. in.
N 1.15[0.75(1.4 H, + 1.7 H,)]
=
= 1.15[0.75( 1.4( 1.89) + 1.7( 1.05))] Use 2-#4, A, = 0.40 sq. in.
= 3.82 kips

(Note: The load factor of 1.15 is recommended For tension in the vertical direction:
in Sect. 4.5 as an additional load factor) Pu = 1.4(T) = 1.4 (20.48) = 28.7 kips
From Table A-33: ford, = 2, fc = 5000 psi,
Ooo A Acr p = lOOO(l.O)(8)(34)(1.4)
CL,= v 44.0 b = 6 in.,
U

= 9.7 > 3.4 (Table 2.7.1) Select (3) - l/2 in. diameter x 6 in. studs

4-63
Pull-out capacity = 3( 10.6) 4.18 Seismic Connections
= 31.8 kips > 28.7, ok Special considerations related to strength and
ductility requirements for seismic connections are
5. Design of Tie-Back Connection at Bottom: discussed in Chapt. 1 (Sect. 1.8). The following
example illustrates use of that methodology in the
design of a non-load bearing wall panel to founda-
tion connection for a building located in a region of
low seismicity.
Review of Ref. 5 is suggested for additional
information and design examples.

Example 4.18.1 - Wall Panel to Foundation


Seismic Connection

Given:
1. Aone-story warehouse with non-load bearing
8 ft. wide double tee wall panels (see Fig. A). The
Fig. H vertical connections between wall panels are for
alignment only. Thus eachdouble tee panel may be
assumed to act independently to resist lateral loads.
With reference to Fig. H: 2, The total dead load of the warehouse is 2770
kips. The wall panel dead load is38 psf, or DL = 6.38
M = (2.94)(2) = 5.9 k-in kips per panel. There is a total of 32 wall panels.
S reqd. = 5.910.66 f, = 5.9123.76 = 0.25 in3 3. Using a response modification factor, R = 5.5
(Ref.fj), the lateral seismic shear is calculated to
Use L 4 x 6 x 3/8 x V-4 bel.42 kips per panel.
4. The same connection is provided between
Toallowforpanel movementforvolumechanges, each double tee stem and the foundation.
provide oversize hole in the angle. 5. Use ACI 318-83(6) load factors.

Use 112 in. diameter A-307 bolt with standard Problem:


washer and nut. Perform the following five tasks:
1. Design the seismic connection at the founda-
From Table A-22: tion to yield in tension.
Capacity = 2.84 kips > 1.05, ok 2. Check the connection to determine if it will
deform inelastically providing the structural energy
Design weld: dissipation required for the assumed response
f = 2.9414 = 0.73 Win modification factor.
3. Check stability of the building under inelastic
fI= 5.9/[(2)(1)(3)2/6] = 1.97 Win dynamic P-A effects.
f reqd. = d(0.73)2 + (1 .97)2 = 2.10 Win 4. Determine the controlling ultimate shear in
the wall and the ultimate tensile force necessary to
Use 3/16 in. E70 weld design the elastic components of the foundation
connection.
From Table A-l 4: 5. Design weld and the stiffeners for the vertical
capacity = 2.78 Win > 2.10, ok leg of the erection angle to remain elastic for the
load in task 4 above.

Solution:
1. Design the seismic connection at the founda-
tion to yield in tension:

4-64
of the angle under a tensile load of 7.0 kips.

Using k = 1 in. (See Fig. C):


c==J
V M = T&4.0 - k) = 7.0(4.0 - 1 .O) = 21 .O k-in
For f, = 36 ksi, 2, = 0.25bt2 and b =6 in,
M, = f,(Z,) = fY(0.25bt2) = 21 .O k-in

Therefore,

HP 19-6
t=l/$GY =vzG
= 0.624 in (say, 5/8 in)

Use L 4 x 4 x 58 x 06

v
I
1
-Concrete
Footing x 4 x t x 6 Long

cr-D-4
a T
k = In--/ &3.---d

Fig. A - Wall Panel Elevation


From ACI 318-83(6) Sect. 9.2.3,
Load factor = 1.1 x 1.3 t 1.43 Fig. C - Forces on Angle
Factored tension load per connection:
i = 1.43V(H/D) - 0.9(DU2) 2. Check the connection to determine if it will
= 1.43( 1.42)( 19.5/4) - 0.9(6.38/2)
= 7.0 kips deform inelastically providing the energy dissipa-
tion required for the assumed response modifica-
For the connection shown in Fig. B, the thick- tion factor. Use the conservative equal energy
ness, t of the angle is determined based on yielding approach.

, (a) The required structural ductility (see Fig. 1.8.4)


II
-,;a\I 7- F - 8DT12
Wall Panel
P = (R2 + 1)/2 = (5S2 + 1)/2 = 15.6

where:
P = structural ductility factor (Fig. 1.8.4)
R = response modification factor

I I Grout (b)The wall displacements (see Fig. D) are re-


lated as:
Stiffener f -f
All = A H/D = A ( 19.514) = 4.9 A v
*Concrete (c) Using the idealized stress-strain diagram in
F o o t 1i n g Fig. E, determine the corresponding moment -cur-
vature diagram (see Fig. F). The calculations re-
Fig. B - Foundation Sectlon quired are given below:

4-65
H

Curvature ($I)

Table
Point/Momentlvature 1C o m m e n t -
Fig. II - Kinematic Mechanism for 1 14.1 k-in 0.00384 First Yield -
Wall Panel 2 21.1 k-in 0.00575 Full yield
3 21.1 k-in 0.64 Fracture

Fig. F - M-4 Diagram

At point 2:
Moment: MY = fyZ, = 36.0(0.586)
= 21.1 k-in
Curvature: 3 = SF($) = 1 .5( .00384)
/ = 0.00575 in-
Strain (E)
At point 3 (see idealized curve in Fig. F):
Moment: M, = fyZ, = 21.1 k-in
Curvature: 4+= E, /(t/2) = 0.2/(0.625/2)
Table - - - - = 0.64 in-
(d) For calculation of the vertical displacement of
the angle, the horizontal leg of the angle is modeled
as a cantilever beam of length = 3 in. (see Fig. G),
i.e., the plastic hinge is assumed to initiate at a
distance% from the angle heel.
The vertical displacement of the angle and the
Fig. E - Idealized Stress-Strain corres$onding horizontal displacements at the top
Diagram for A36 Steel of the wall (A,, = 4.9A,) are estimated as:

S = bt2/6 = (6.0)(0.6252)/6 = 0.391 in3 Max. elastic:


Z, = bt2/4 = (6.0)(0.6252)/4 = 0.586 in3 A * = $,( Z2/3) = 0.00575(3.02/3)
= 0.0173 in.; (A,,, = 0.0847 in.)
The shape factor, S, = f = m= 1.5
Max. plastic (Ref. 18):
At point 1: A p = ($ - 4p)U - w
Moment: M, = fyS = 36.0(0.391) = (0.64 - 0.00575)(0.625)(3.0 - 0.625/2)
= 14.1 k-in = 1.07 in.; (A,,P = 5.22 in.)
Curvature: $, = &y/(t/2) = 0.0012/(0.625/2) Total elastoplastic:
= 0.00384 in- A
hep = he + hp
= 0.0847 + 5.22 = 5.30 in.

4-66
is evident from the pinching of hysteresis loops in
laboratory tests. Reduction factors to account for
the loss in energy absorption capacity, particularily
for precast connections, have not been well de-
fined.
For this connection with yielding in the angle leg,
a range of 2 to 5 for the reduction factor would be
considered reasonable. Since the structure is lo-
cated in a region of low seismic activity, the margin
on structural ductility (62.6versus 15.6) is assessed
to be adequate.

3. Check stability of the building under inelastic


dynamic P-A effects:
(a) Angle Leg The stability of the building may be checked by
considering one wall panel and the model from Ref.
54 shown in Fig. H.

(b) Idealization

--I 0.65"

(c) Moment Fig. H - P - A Moment Structural


Stability
0.64 in- Dead load of the building per wall panel:

,1
P = (2770)/32 = 86.5 kips
A,.,*= 0.0847 in.
sH = 19.5 ft.
Vu = 1.43 (V) = 1.43(1.42) = 2.03 kips
0.00575 in- The stability coefficient(54):
0 = P&J /Vu U-4

(d) Curvature 86.5(0.0847) xo 0154


=2.03(19.5 x 12) .
Fig. G - Cantilevered Horizontal Leg of If 8 I emax, no amplification is required.
the Erection Angie
where:
The corresponding maximum structural ductility 8 =0 . 0 5
is 5.3/0.0847 = 62.6. This is much larger than 15.6 may R-0.4
required for R = 5.5. However, it should be noted
(Note: The 6,,, value is obtained by simplify-
that members subjected to inelastic cyclic loads
progressively lose capacity to absorb energy. This ing Ref. 54 equations)

4-67
M, = fyZ, + S@, - by)
0 = 0.05 = 0.0098 < 0.0154, = 30.4 + 0.5625(58 - 36) = 42..8 k-in
max 5.5 - 0.4
therefore, amplification is required. M/My = 42.8130.4 = 1.4

The amplification factor, Tension: T, = 1.4(8.59) = 12.0 kips


Shear: V, = [Tu + O.S(DL)](D/H)
ad = 1 + 2(R - 1)e = 1 + 2(5.5 - 1)(0.0154) = [12.0 + 0.9(6.38/2)](4.0/19.5)
l-0 1 - 0.0154 = 3.05 kips
= 1.16
i.e. Tu = 12.0 kips, Vu = 3.05 kips
Use thisfactorto revisethe reponse modification
factor and Tasks 1,2 and 3. Since calculations are 5. Determine weld and the stiffeners for the
based on the equations used previously, only the vertical leg of the erection angle to remain elastic for
important results are given below: the load determined in Task 4 above.
(a) Weld size:
R(new) = R (s) = 4.75
Use the weld configuration shown in Fig. I:
V&new) = V&1.16) = 2.03(1.16)
= 2.35 kips Section properties of the weld are:

for task 1: A = 3(2) + 6 = 12 in*/in


$= 8.59 kips DAY
yt,= cA= 2(3)(1.5) + 6(3) =L 2 25 in
Mu= 24.7 k-in 12
t = 0.68 in.
-yT = 3 -ys = 3 - 2.25 = 0.75 in.
Use L 4 x 4 x 314 x W-6 I = l/l2(2)(l)(3)3 + 2(3)(2.25 - 1.5)*
+ (6)(3 - 2.25)2 = 11.25 in4/in
for task 2:
u(new) = 11.8 s,= -=& =$j-$j- =5.0in3/in
My= 30.4 k-in
$= 0.0048 in-
4j = 0.533 in- S, = +- = g = 15.0 in3 /in
4, = 0.0648 in.
= 4.85 in.
Shear stress in the weld due to T,:
>:p = 4.85 + 0.0648 + 4.92 in.
T
Maximum Structural Ductility, f, =* 2 =y = l-Ok/in

= L4 92 = 75.9 > 11.8, ok


0.0648 Tension stress in the weld due to Mu:
for task 3: Mu = Tu(3.5) = (12.0)(3.5) = 42.0 k-in.
8 = 0.010, 6,,, =O.O12>6,ok

4. Determine the controlling ultimate shear in


the wall and the uftimate tensile force necessary to
design the elastic components of the foundation Resultant stress in the weld:
connection:
Design forces for the elastic components of the f m a x = Y/m = v(l .O)* + (8.4)*
foundation connection including strain-hardening = 8.46 k/in
effects are:

4-68
(a) Weld Configuration (b) Free-Body Diagram

Fig. I - Weld Configuration and Free-Body Diagram

Use 3/8 fillet weld, E70 A = 6(0.75) + 2(0.75)(1.5) = 6.75 in*

From Table A-14, design strength 6(0.75)(0.75/2) + 2(0.75)(1.5)(1.5)


iT, = 6.75
= 9.28 Win > 8.46, ok
(b) Vertical stiffeners:
= 0.75 in.
Try 3/4 x 1-l /2 x 04 stiffeners: iq = 1.5 in.
I = (6)(0.75)3/12+ 2(0.75)(1.5)3 /12
Section properties for the vertical leg with two + 6 (0.75)(0.75/2)* + 2.25(1 Z/2)*
stiffeners are (see Fig. J): = 2.53 in4

S, = -& = oT = 3.38 in3


r Vertical Stiffener

S,= k= e=1.69in3

Maximum compressive stress,

= 23.1 ksi c 36.0, ok

Maximum tensile stress,

= 14.2 ksi < 36.0, ok

Fig. J - Stiffener Details Use (2) 3/4 x l-1/2 x V-4 Stiffeners

4-69
CHAPTER 5

. Column to Foundation. . . . . . CF
TYPICAL CONNECTION DETAILS
l Column to Column. . . . . . . . . CC
. Girder to Column . . . . . . . . . . GC
. Beam to Girder. . . . . . . . . . . . BG
5.1 General . Beam to Beam.. . . . . . . . . . . BB
This chapter includes examples of connection . Slabto Beam.. . . . . . . . . . . . SB
details for structural as well as architectural precast, . Slab to Slab.. . . . . . . . . . . . . SS
prestressed concrete products. The details in- . Slabto Wall.. . . . . . . . . . . . . SW
cluded are neither exhaustive nor necessarily the
. Beam to Wall.. . . . . . . . . . . . BW
best possible arrangements. The purpose in includ-
ing these details is to present ideas and show some . Wall to Wall . . . . . . . . . . . . . . WW
common schemes. The Connection Details Com- . Wall to Foundation . . . . . . . . WF
mittee hopes that these ideas and schemes would . Stairs to Landings. . . . . . . . . SL
lead to yet other ideas and schemes to enhance
the state-of-the-art of precast, prestressed con- 5.2.1 Column to Foundation Connections (CF)
crete connection technology. There are four basic types of column to founda-
Selection of a connection detail for a particular tion connections:
situation requires consideration of strength require- l Column Size Base Plates
ments and load transfer paths. It should also . Oversize Base Plates
include consideration of production, erection, serv-
iceability and durability. Chapters 1,2 and 3 of this . Socket Base
Manual cover details related to these considera- Grout-Sleeve Base
tions. Common practice by precast, prestressed ;ypically, these connection details are concealed
concrete manufacturers in a given area may also by placing them below the finished floor level. The
influence the final selection of details on a particular selection of a particular connection detail for a given
project. project usually depends upon whether the column
Consistent with the purpose of this chapter, is: (a) prestressed or non-prestressed; (b) cast
which is to present ideas and possibilities, detailed individually or in a long-line form; and (c) pinned or
design information is not given on the sketches. restrained.
Sizes of components such as, plates, bars, welds,
and other details such as, joint spaces, bearing pad 5.2.1 .l Column Size Base Plates (CFl, CF2 and
thicknesses have been purposely omitted. CF3)
The column is cast with pockets and a base plate
5.2 Structural Precast Concrete Details the same size or slightly smaller than the column.
The following sections present several typical Pockets may be either in the corners (CFl), cen-
structural details. These particular details were tered in the sides of the column (CF2), or on two
selected by the PCI Committee on Connection sides (CF3). The column is erected over anchor
Details from a large inventory on the basis of their bolts protruding from the foundation. The pockets
more common use. A sufficient variety is included and space between the column and foundation are
to illustrate the various concepts discussed in pre- filled with dry-pack or non-shrink grout. Temporary
vious chapters. support and leveling are accomplished by tighten-
The details are arranged in groups according to ing down on the nuts with the column resting on a
the products they are designed to connect. Within center stack of shims or by a double nut arrange-
each category, the description of the details, includ- ment as shown in the sketches.
ing features and disadvantages, is given followed
by sketches for the details. The details included Features:
cover the following categories: 1. Corner pockets allow easy wrench access.
2. Side pockets allow comer column bars to
1To facilitate recording of different ideas and details, a be welded to the base plate.
blank page is provided at the end of details shown within 3. Holes in base plates are oversized to mini-
each category of connections. mize tolerance problems.

5-.
4. Column size base plate does not require plate has to penetrate column form or project
form penetration and permits use of thinner beyond end of form. Thus, the connection is
base plates. rarely used when columns are prestressed or
5. Pocketed anchor bolts are concealed and cast in long-line forms.
protected from corrosion after grouting. 4. Stiffeners may have to be installed after
6. Bolting allows quick and easy erection in any casting.
weather. 5. Projecting bolts are susceptible to damage.
7. Column can be prestressed with tendons
passing through holes in the base plate. 5.2.1.3 Socket Base (CF8)
The socket base connection involves setting a
Disadvantages: column into a relatively rigid base and filling spaces
1. Difficult to achieve moment resistance. between the column and the base socket with
2. Corner pockets prevent attachment of col- structural grout. The socket may be formed above
umn comer reinforcing bars to base plate. the foundation or into the foundation. Shims and
3. Individual side pockets (CF2) restrict wrench wedges are typically used for temporary support
movement and provide less effective place- and alignment. The connection is much stiffer than
ment of anchor bolts for moment resistance. the steel base plate type connections and can be
4. Projecting bolts are susceptible to damage. designed to provide substantial moment resistance
at the column base.
5.2.1.2 Oversized Base Plates (CF4, CF5, CF6
and CF7) Features:
The common characteristic of these column 1. Quick, easy erection in any weather, how-
bases is the oversized plate which has at least one ever follow-up grouting is weather sensitive.
dimension larger than the corresponding columns 2. Moment resistance at column base.
dimension. The base plate may be cast with the 3. The socket connection results in simplified
column as one unit or the oversized plate may be column casting with minimum tolerance prob-
attached by welding later. Typically, four anchor lems.
bolts are used to connect the column to the founda-
tion and may be located in the corners or at the Disadvantages:
centers of the sides of the column. Column rein- 1. The socket connection requires expensive
forcement is sometimes welded to the base plate, foundation work.
but it is more common to lap deformed bar anchors 2. It is difficult to ensure good grouting in the
with the main column reinforcement. socket under the column.
3. It is difficult to achieve tension reinforcement
Features: continuity between the column and the foun-
1. Wrench movements are not restricted. dation.
2. Column corner reinforcing bars can be welded
to the base plate for anchorage. 5.2.1.4 Grout-Sleeve Base (CF9, CFl 0, CFll
3. The larger base plate increases effective and CF12)
bearing area and, with stiffeners on base Grout-sleeve connections require special care
plate, large moment resistance can be during layout due to close tolerance requirements.
achieved. Grout-sleeves can be cast into the column or the
4. Oversized holes in base plates help minimize foundation. The sleeves fit over reinforcement
tolerance problems. projecting from the mating part. Sleeves are grouted
5. Bolting allows quick easy erection in any and reinforcing bars are developed by bond strength.
weather. The gap under the column is filled with dry-pack or
non-shrink grout.
Disadvantages:
1. Oversized base plates are usually thicker Features:
than column size base plates and thus are 1. Moment resistance at column base can be
more expensive. readily achieved.
2. Connection may not be concealed or pro- 2. Connection is concealed after grouting.
tected from corrosion. 3. Can be used for architectural columns where
3. When cast with concrete as one unit, the base is exposed.

5-2
4. Difficulties due to close tolerance require-
ments are minimized by using larger sleeves.

Disadvantages:
1. Sleeve length for larger bars can be quite
long and special commercial high strength
couplers (typically proprietary) might be
necessary.
2. Requires temporary bracing during grout
curing.
3. Protruding reinforcement, either in the col-
umn or the foundation, is susceptible to
damage before column is placed or during
erection.
4. Weather can affect grouting process.
5. Precautions must be taken to keep sleeves
free of water and debris.

5-3
CFI CF2

CF3 CF4

CF5 CF6

5-4
52.2 Column to Column Connections (CC) Features:
Selection of the appropriate connection is based 1. Moment resistance can be provided.
upon: (a) column reinforcement (prestressed or 2. Field fitting problems are minimized if car-rectly
conventionally reinforced); (b) the degree of mo- match cast.
ment transfer required; (c) final exposure of con- 3. Immediate full bearing results, so erection can
nection; and (d) required erection sequence. The proceed to upper levels without delays for
most common column to column connections are: grouting.
. Bolted 4. The connection is protected from corrosion
. Welded Plates after concealment.
. Tube to Tube Disadvantages:
l Grouted Sleeves 1. Match casting requires special care in the
. Welded Lap Bars plant.
. Tube Sleeves 2. A significant amount of welding is required.
. Post-Tensioned Splice 3. Crane must support column until welding is
done.
5.2.2.1 Bolted Connections (Ccl, CC2 and CC3)
5.2.2.3 Tube to Tube Connections (CC6)
Thecolumniscast inoneofthreeways: (a) flush,
or slightly undersized base plate with four corner Tube to tube connections minimize field adjust-
mentsand are suitable where limited moment trans-
pockets; (b) flush, or slightly undersized base plate
with four side pockets; (c) dapped sideswith angles; fer is required. The tubes, which may be round or
square, are in a male-female arrangement with the
the angles are anchored by welded bars.
The column is then set over anchorbolts protrud- smaller tube extending either from the bottom or the
top column. The columns are match cast and the
ing from the column below. The space between the
columns is filled with dry-pack or non-shrink grout. tubes may be grouted when erected.
Temporary support and leveling are accomplished
by tightening the nuts with the column resting on a Features:
center stack of shims, or by use of double (leveling) 1. Field fitting problems are minimized if cor-
nuts. rectly match cast.
2. The connection is concealed and protected
from corrosion.
Features:
1. Oversized holes for bolts reduce tolerance
Disadvantages:
problems.
1. Tubes must be very accurately placed in
2. Connection is concealed and protected from
the plant.
corrosion after the pockets are grouted.
2. Correction of errors can be diff icutt.
3. Boning allows quick, easy erection in any
3. Entire column must be stripped as a unit.
weather.
5.2.2.4 Grouted Sleeve Connections (CC7, CC8
Disadvantages:
1. Due to limited moment capacity, the con- and CC9)
Sleeves are placed in either upper or lower
nection is suitable for locations near inflec-
tion points. column to accept projecting reinforcement from the
2. For the connection with angles (CC3), more mating column. After alignment, the sleeves are
grouting is required. Also, the axial tensile grouted. The space between the column sections
strength is limited by the thickness of the is filled with a non-shrink grout. Temporary support
angle. and leveling must be provided by guying or other
3. Projecting bolts are susceptible to damage. means until the grout in the sleeves is cured.

Features:
5.2.2.2 Welded Plate Connections (CC4 and
1. Moment transfer can be achieved through
CC5)
Welded plate connections are commonly used the connection.
2. Concealed connection when grouted.
when moment transfer is required. The columns
3. Tolerance parameters can be adjusted by
are match cast with top and bottom plates which are
changing sleeve size.
welded during erection.

5-7
Disadvantages:
1. Sleeve length for large bars can be quite long. Disadvantages:
2. Requires temporary bracing during grout 1. Reinforcement must be placed accurately to
curing. accomplish welding.
3. Good weather or auxiliary heating is required 2. Reinforcement must be of a weldable grade
for grouting. steel.
4. Main reinforcement may require bending to
accommodate sleeves. 5.2.2.6 Tube Sleeve for Composite Beam (CC1 1)
5. Protruding bars are susceptible to damage This connection may be used when fully continu-
during handling. ous, composite ductile frames are required. It
6. Sleeves must be kept free of water and de- allows the placement of column ties for confine-
bris. ment. Beam reinforcement is placed through the
joint and the assembly is completed with cast-in-
Several proprietary devices for splicing bars are place concrete.
available in the market and have received increas- If required, temporary support is provided by a
ing acceptance. Many of these devices include sleeve-in-sleeve connection. A pipe or tube (struc-
special features to aid in placement and erection tural) protruding from the upper section fits into a
(see CC9). Leveling is accomplished by shims or by slightly larger pipe or tube in the lower section. A
use of a bolt in threaded insert. small weld holds the assembly in place. No weld is
With some systems the grout is pumped into the required if the fit is snug.
lower part of the sleeve until it comes out the top
part. In others, the bars project from the upper Features:
column section and the grout is then placed in the 1. Moment transfer capability is achieved for
sleeves and the shim space, prior to placing the top both beam and column.
column. 2. The connection has good ductility.
3. The connection is concealed.
Features: 4. With proper design, the next level can be
1. Moment transfer capability is achieved. erected before concrete is placed.
2. Special installation devices reduce tolerance
problems, and no post-erection grouting is Disadvantages:
required. 1. Sleeves must be accurately placed.
2. The connection is congested, so care is
Disadvantages: necessary to avoid honeycombing in cast-in-
1. Additional means of bracing must be pro- place concrete.
vided until grout in sleeves has set. 3. Requires much field labor.
2. Proprietary devices may add to the cost.
5.2.2.7 Post-Tensioned Splice Connection
5.2.2.5 Welded Lap Bar Connection (CClO) (CC1 2)
This connection is only used when full moment This system uses post-tensioning bars for the
transfer is desired in large, heavily reinforced col- column reinforcement and for splicing column sec-
umns. Both column sections are cast with rein- tions. Post-tensioning ducts are cast in the columns
forcement protruding from the ends. The reinforce- at the plant. The tendons (usually bars) are at-
ment is welded together during erection. Tempo- tached to an anchor (at the bottom floor) or a coupler
rary support and leveling are accomplished by (at intermediate floors). The upper column is then
resting the column on a center stack of shims and threaded over the next lift of bars. The bars are
welding only selected bars. After proper alignment tensioned and anchored, leaving enough projection
is achieved, the remaining bars are welded and the toattachacouplertoreceivethe barsforanotherlift.
connection is grouted.
Features:
Features: 1. Provides aductile, moment resisting connec-
1. Moment resistance is developed at the con- tion.
nection with relatively short lap lengths. 2. Post-tensioning reduces drift in high-rise
2. The connection is concealed and protected buildings.
from corrosion after grouting.

5-8
3. Good corrosion protection with dry-packed or
grouted pockets.

Disadvantages:
1. Erection procedure is more complex and
requires special inspection.
2. Alignment of post-tensioning ducts is critical.
3. Requires supplemental reinforcement or pre-
tensioning for handling.
4. Post-tensioning is an added operation.
5. Vertical post-tensioning ducts may be re-
quired to be grouted.
I I
I I

CC6

5-10
5.2.3 Girder to Column Connections (GC) ends to the support, the forces resulting from re-
Since girder-column framing in precast concrete straint to volume changes can be quite large.
structures is very common, there are many and Welding of girder bottom at one end only can also
varied types of connections for joining these ele- cause problems particularly where curvature caused
ments. The type of connection that is appropriate by the thermal gradients is restrained. When weld-
for a particular application depends primarily upon ing is used, the top connection should allow some
load and geometry conditions. Some other consid- rotation to minimize negative moments at the girder
erations are: ends. Thus, when the angle connection is used,
only the toes are welded. A flat bar can be used if
. Girder bearing condition: At roofs, girders the joined plates in the column or girder are de-
may bear directly on column tops, or the signed to flex, or the bar itself is sufficiently flexible.
column may extend to the top of the girder. I n In order to prevent restraint when using the dowel-
the latter case, and also at floors, the girders sleeve system, the bottom of the sleeve should be
usually bear on corbels protruding from col- filled with compressible material such as sand,
umn faces. vermiculite, or asphalt. The remainder is then filled
with grout. It should be noted that vermiculite could
. Floor and ceiling heights: Building height intermingle with very wet grout.
consideration may necessitate dapping of In the dowel-sleeve method, a sleeve in the end
of the girderfits over a dowel which is threaded into
girder ends, use of knife or other hidden
corbels, or use of hanger connections. either an insert in the support or a ferrule welded to
the underside of the bearing plate. To prevent
damage in handling, the dowel is inserted just prior
. Lateral force resistance: If the frame is to to erection. The sleeve should be 3 or 4 times the
resist lateral loads, the connections must be size of the dowel to minimize field tolerance prob-
capable of the required moment transfer. On lems.
the other hand, if a shear wall is incorporated The schematics show several variations of con-
in the structure as the primary lateral load re- nections which use structural steel members pro-
sisting element, flexible connections may be jecting from the column to support the girders. In
used between girders and columns. general, steel corbels are smaller in size than con-
crete brackets which can be an important consid-
. Load type and magnitude: Corbel sizes and eration when head room is critical. Fireproofing
girder bearing plates depend on vertical and may be necessarywhen projecting steel shapes are
horizontal (e.g. volume change) forces. Ec- used. Several methods of dapping and pocketing
centric loading may necessitate torsion re- are shown to reduce depth of structure.
straint in the connection. Special situations,
such as a cantilever girder, may require the Features:
girder to pass through the column thereby 1. These connections allow quick, easy erec-
requiring special connections. tion with few tolerance problems.
2. Volume change restraint is minimized.
In addition to the above considerations, local plant 3. Steelcorbelsprovide reducedstructuraldepth
preferences may dictate welding, bolting, doweling, compared with concrete corbels.
grouting, or field concreting and post-tensioning. 4. Clean looking, concealed connections are
possible.
5.2.3.1 Simple Welded, Bolted or Doweled
Connections (GCl - GC16) Disadvantages:
The girder usually sits on a bearing pad which 1. Limited moment capacity and limited tor-
provides uniform bearing and permits small move- sional restraint.
ments for accommodating the effects of shrinkage, 2. Dowel-sleeve connections provide no lat-
creep and temperature changes. The top connec- eral restraint until sleeves are grouted. They
tion transfers horizontal forces between the girder can be weather sensitive and the sleeve can
and column, provides erection stability, and braces fill with water or debris during erection.
the column, but may not provide rotational restraint. 3. Many of the steel embedments in columns re-
Welding of girder bottom to the column requires quire form penetrations causing production
utmost care. If the girder bottom is welded at both problems in the plant. Alignment of hard-

5-13
ware during casting is critical. place concrete work is completed.
4. Exposed steel may require encasement for 5. Connections are concealed.
fire and corrosion protection.
5. Some hidden connections require dapped Disadvantages:
girder designs. Pocketing can necessitate 1. Temporary shoring may be required.
field grouting. 2. Routing negative reinforcement steel through
the column can cause alignment problems.
5.2.3.2 Hanger Connections (GC17 and GC18) 3. During construction, connections may be
Two variations of hanger connections are shown weather sensitive.
in the schematics. Hanger connections are stable 4. Conflicts can arise between precaster and
upon erection, although without a bottom stop, may field concreting personnel. Who does and
roll when loaded eccentrically. Hanger connec- provides what?
tions are acceptable for special situations where
head room is limited. They are not commonly used 5.2.3.4 Special Applications (GC21 - GC24)
in typical precast construction. Post-tensioning can be used to provide negative
moment resistance as shown in GC21 and GC22. A
Features: post- tensioning tendon is fed through a duct in the
1. They provide quick, easy erection with vari- girder and an oversized sleeve in the column. An
ous degrees of erection stability. anchorage plate is attached in the pocket and the
2. Volume change restraint is minimized. tendon is tensioned from the other end and an-
3. Connection is generally concealed and pro- chored in the recessed pocket provided. The pock-
tected after topping is placed. ets should be sized to accomodate jacks. Prior to
tensioning, the space between the girder and col-
Disadvantages: umn is filled with dry-pack grout.
1. Connection hardware is expensive and more In other applications, post-tensioning strands or
difficult to cast properly in the product. bars can be used to develop continuity of columns
2. Welding of reinforcement is critical. where the columns are interrupted to allow the
3. Alignment of the embedded corbel is criti- girder to pass through (GC23 and GC24). The
cal. girder is erected over post-tensioning tendons which
4. Girder rolling can occur without proper stops. have been placed in conduits in the column and
coupled to the tendons from the lower level in the
5.2.3.3 Composite Moment Connectlons (GC19 pocket provided. The girder is set on shims and
- GC20 also CC1 1) then grouted underneath. When the grout has set,
Composite connections are most commonly used the tendons are tensioned and anchored. The next
in moment resisting frames. In some versions, the column is then erected and grouted.
girders bear on a hammerhead column. Other
versions require the girders to be shored in place Features:
until field concreting is cured. Continuity of girder 1. Moment resistance at connection is achieved
reinforcement is attained by lapping, welding, or for negative moment.
hooking depending on dimensions available. The 2. Girders or columns can pass through uninter-
negative moment steel is often placed through rupted.
sleeves in the column or adjacent to the column in 3. Connection is concealed and protected from
composite topping. In soffit girder designs, it is corrosion after grouting.
sometimes possible to provide sufficient strength
so that shoring is not required. Disadvantages:
1. Anchorage bearing stresses must be consid-
Features: ered in the girder and/or column design.
1. Full moment resistance at the connection 2. There is no erection connection until tendons
can be achieved. are jacked. Other means of bracing may be
2. Field adjustments can be easily accommo- necessary.
dated. 3. Post-tensioning requires special erection and
3. Good ductility and performance. inspection procedures.
4. In some variations, multi-story columns can 4. Possible alignment problems can occur with
be used with economy. In these instances, conduits.
the next floor can be erected before cast-in-

5-14
GCl
GC7

GC9 GCIO

7 -J
GCII GC12

5-16
GC13
GC14

GC17 SC18

5-l i
5-18
READERS IDEAS
52.4 Beam to Girder Connections (BG)
These types of connections are required when
precast beams are supported by girders. They may
be used for framing openings and other special
applications.
The first two (BGl and BG2) depict cases where
the beam sits on a bearing pad on a ledge in the
lower portion of the girder. Depending upon the
relative depths of the beam and girder, the beam
may need to be dapped as well (See BG2). The
beams and girders are often used in conjunction
with a floor system having a composite topping. If
there is no topping, a top connection may be re-
quired.
Connection BG3 shows a hanger connection
concept similar to those shown in the beam to
column connections. The dowel-sleeve joints (BG4)
are also used when there is sufficient depth to allow
placement of beams on top of the girders.

Features:
1. Girders with ledges to support beams allow
quick, easy erection with a minimum of vol-
ume change restraint. Beams have immedi-
ate stability and crane time is short.
2. Grouted sleeves allow quick erection with a
positive connection. When the beams are
placed on top of girders the full section of the
girder is effective.

Disadvantages:
1. The dowel system, with beam placed on top
of the girder, increases height of the building.
2. Dowel alignment is critical and sleeves must
be protected from water and debris. Cold
weather precautions are needed for grouting.
3. Dapped ends cause congestion of reinforce-
ment and increase fabrication time. Only
limited moment capacity is available in the
connection.
4. Some of the connections are not easy to
conceal and protect from corrosion or fire.
5.2.5 Beam to Beam Connections (BB)
These types of connections are used in special
framing where it is desired to have the connection
away from the column. Examples are tree columns
with drop-in beams, cruciform beam-columns with
connections at mid-span, or systems which use
story-high columns and continuous beams.
The first illustration (BBl) requires dapping of
ends on both beam segments. Modifications of
hanger connections shown in the beam to column
section can also be used. The top connection
should be designed to allow longitudinal movement
to prevent volume change force buildup.
The second example of beam to beam connec-
tions (BB2) utilizes embedded steel supports form-
ing a cradle. Bearing pads and top connections are
required and the hardware can be recessed and
grouted if desired.
The connection BB3 shows the use of special
splice sleeves to achieve beam connection. Conti-
nuity of reinforcement is achieved which facilitates
moment transfer.

Features:
1. Longer clear spans can be achieved, allow-
ing greater flexibility in framing.
2. Beam to beam connections allow quick, easy
erection with minimum volume change re-
straint. Beams have immediate stability and
crane time is short.

Disadvantages:
1. Dapped ends cause congestion of reinforce-
ment and increase fabrication time.
2. Some of the connections are not easy to
conceal and protect from corrosion or fire.

5-23
BBI BB2

BB3
52.6 Slab to Beam Connections (SB) 5.2.6.2 Double Tee Connections (SB7-SB12)
These connections are most frequently made to Tee stems are suspended (SB7) or sit on bear-
join floor or roof members to precast concrete ing pads and a top connection is made as shown.
beams (inverted tee, ledger, rectangular), or steel Although one top connection per double tee end will
beams. Often, the slab functions as diaphragm and usually suffice for erection stability and diaphragm
the connections must transmit diaphragm shear forces, two may be required in some situations.
and chord forces. In cases where cast-in-place Experience has shown that in most stemmed
topping is planned, it may be necessary to provide members, a welded top connection will not cause
connections to ensure stability during erection. volume change restraint problems if the bottom of
the stem is not restrained. It is recommended that
5.2.6.1 Hollow-Core and Solid Slab Connec- fhebottomofteestemsnotbe wekfedatthebearing
tions (SW-SB6) to their supporting strf.cture.
Precast slabs (voided or solid) bear on high
density plastic, hardboard or neoprene bearing Features:
strips. Connection choice depends upon: (a) the 1. The connection provides erection stability
magnitude of lateral forces in the diaphragm, and and shear transfer capability.
(b) whether or not the member has composite top- 2. Connections are simple and allow adequate
ping to transfer the forces. Some types of hollow- tolerances.
core are produced with extruding equipment that 3. Usually, there are no volume change re-
will not permit plates or other hardware to be cast straint problems unless the stem bottom is
integrally into the product. In these cases, the welded at the bearing.
hardware must be installed subsequently. 4. When hangers are used to minimize struc-
tural depth, there is no need for pockets or
Features: ledges on beams.
1. When a mechanical tie from slab to support is
not required: Disadvantages:
a. Quick easy erection is accomplished with 1. Embedded plate locations in beams require
adequate tolerances. pre-planning and accuracy.
b. Volume change restraint is minimized. 2. Hangers are limited in load capacity and
2. When a mechanical tie from slab to support is hardware may be expensive and thus they
required: should be used only when other solutions are
a. A positive connection to the beam is not feasible.
achieved for shear transfer or torsion re-
straint.
b. When welding is used, cast-in-place con-
crete may not be required.

Disadvantages:
1. When a mechanical tie from slab to support is
not required:
a. Without topping, there is no positive tie to
beam for shear transfer or torsion re-
straint.
2. When a mechanical tie from slab to support is
required:
a. When cast-in-place concrete is used to
complete the connection, placement of
longitudinal bars along top of beam re-
quires threading through the beam stir-
rups. Also, there is no positive tie until
joints are grouted and field concrete is
cast and cured.
b. When welding is used, accurate pre-
planned placement of beam hardware
(embedded plates) is necessary.

5-26
SBI SB2

SB3

SB5 SB6
SB7 SB8

SB9

SBII SB12
5.2.7 Slab to Slab Connections (SS)
Adjacent slabs are connected to transfer dia-
phragm shear loads, for vertical load distribution,
and for alignment purposes. Slab thicknesses vary
from 2 in. for double tee members to 12 in. and
greater for hollow-core or solid slabs.
The standard connection used between the
hollow-core slabs and the solid slabs is the grouted
shear key (SSl). The size and shape of the key vary
with the product type. The key is usually filled with
a sand-cement grout. This connection distributes
vertical loads and provides horizontal shear trans-
fer for moderate loads for the deck to function as a
diaphragm.
Mechanical connections use anglesorflat plates
with deformed bar anchors and/or headed anchor
studs embedded in the concrete (SS2 - SS6).
These connections can be recessed if the slab is
thick enough to accommodate the hardware. A
plate or bar is welded to the embedded items to
complete the connection. If topping is used in the
flooror roof system, the connections are hidden and
protected from corrosion.

Features:
1. There are no embedded items required in the
grout key, thus no corrosion.
2. Properly spaced connections distribute verti-
cal loading and transfer diaphragm forces.
The connections can help the erector even
out differential camber.
3 All connections are simple and allow quick,
easy erection.

Disadvantages:
1. Grout keys are susceptible to damage from
debris and freezing of water.
2. Mechanical connections must be carefully lo-
cated during detailing.
3. If reinforcing bars are used, they must be
weldable.
4. Connections in 2 in. double tee flanges have
limited capacity to resist vertical forces. Their
effectiveness in evening out differential
camber between adjacent slabs is also lim-
ited.

5-30
L-------y,,

ss3
5.2.8 Slab to Wail Connections (SW) 5.2.8.2 Stemmed Member Connections (SW5 -
Flat or stemmed slabs interface with several SW1 2)
types of walls. Some walls can be hollow (ma- Normally, double tee walls are arranged with
sonry), others are solid (precast shear walls or cast- their stems placed outward from the walls so that
in-placefoundationwalls), andstillothersareribbed the flange provides a smooth wall inside the struc-
or stemmed (double tees). Connections joining the ture. Occasionally however the double tees will be
slabs and walls may require load transfer for bear- placed with stems inside the building.
ing or diaphragm action, or they may require move- The wall panel has either a continuous rein-
ment accommodation such as needed when long forced concrete ledge or individual corbels. The
roof members are joined to non-load bearing walls. roof or floor tee sits on a bearing pad and has a top
connection which can take a variety of configura-
5.2.8.1 Hollow-Core and Solid Slab Connec- tions. In roofs usually a top connection over each
tions (SW1 - SW4) stem is used while in floors one top connection
Precast slabs are erected on high density pias- midway between stems is used. When roof slabs
tic or hardboard bearing strips, leaving a 2 to 3 in. cantilever over the wall panels, the stem of the wall
gap end to end. If the wall is concrete masonry, the panel is blocked back and the flange notched so
cores are filled in the last 2 or 3 courses and vertical that the roof tee may pass through. The roof
reinforcing bars are embedded at approximately member bears on a pad on the top of the stems and
32 in. on center. Longitudinal reinforcement is cantilevers out. A plate cast in the bottom of the
added in the joint to tie the connection together. A stem of the roof member iswelded to an angle at the
composite topping, reinforced with welded wire support. Again, welding at bearing should be
fabric, is placed and the next level of wall is con- avoided, unless relief of restraint is provided for by
structed. A regular masonry bond beam can be other means, such as in SW7 where the flexibility of
used in lieu of the filled courses. Bars or strands are the wall provides the relief.
located in grout-key spaces to satisfy minimum tie in non-load bearing applications (SW8), a loose
requirements. In end bearing conditions, the bars in angle with avertical slot is bolted into an insert in the
the grout keyscan be welded to plates in the exterior panel and welded to a plate in the slab. The slot
walls. Threaded inserts can also be used. allows for vertical movement, but enables transfer
of diaphragm forces.
Features:
1. Tolerance problems are minor because of Features:
the wider grout joints inherent in hollow-core 1. Quick, easy erection is accomplished, and
and solid slab construction. the slabs brace the wall panels.
2. Diaphragm forces can easily be accommo- 2. Connections are protected when roofing or
dated and transferred to the walls. topping is placed.
3. Usually, there are no embedded items, thus 3. When slabs cantilever over wall panels, no
eliminating corrosion problems. haunch is required.
4. Grouted shear key operations are not compli- 4. Adequate strength can be developed to resist
cated and do not require extensive training. diaphragm shear and chord forces.

Disadvantages: Disadvantages:
1. Placement of concrete topping may delay 1. Special forming is required for a continuous
wall construction and precast erection. ledge or corbel.
2. Dowels embedded in masonry must be 2. Wide tee slabs do not align with narrow panel
aligned with notches or joints in slabs. tees which necessitates a continuous ledge.
3. Coordination is required to clarify which trade It is preferred that the roof tee width matches
is responsible for providing the hardware. the wall panel width.
4. Often, multiple move-ins are necessary for 3. When wall panel stems are turned inside,
the precast concrete supplier because of the detailing is more difficult and the quality of the
slower masonry construction. exterior building finish is limited to as-cast top
surface unless additional finishing is used.
Also, the top connection is exposed and may
require protection. Eccentricities are larger
and extra reinforcement may be required.
Finally, the narrowness of the wall panel
stems may limit the types of connections that
can be used.
4. Cantilevered roof panel connections may
require overhead welding. Such connections
are difficult and may require workers to oper-
ate on ladders which can be a safety hazard.
Wall panel flanges require additional rein-
forcement when stems are blocked out.
5. The bolt sometimes hangs up in the slotted
connection used in non-load bearing condi-
tions. Also, flatness of embedded plates is
critical to avoid binding of the bolted connec-
tions.

Stemmed roof and floor members also com-


monly bear on masonry or solid walls (SW9 -
SW1 2). Precast tees are set on bearing pads with
flanges blocked back when walls need to continue
through. Either filled masonry cores or bond beams
are necessary to resist member loadings. Care
must be taken to avoid loading the face shell of bond
beams as this will cause spalling or cracking of the
block to occur. Longitudinal and vertical reinforce-
ment in the wall is routine. Diaphragm forces are
easily transferred to walls through dowelsorwelded
top connections at tops of tee stems. Again, cafe
is necessary when considering welding of tee stem
bottoms. In general, it should be avoided.
SW1 - SW2
SW5 SW6

A
SW8

5-36
SW11

SW12
5-3:
5.2.9 Beam to Wall Connections (BW) beam can swing into place. It is recom-
Various types of beam to wall connections in mended that this connection not be used at
common use are: both ends of a beam.
. On corbel with top connection
5.2.9.3 Sleeve and Dowel Beam to Wall Connec-
. In pocket
tion (BW4)
. With sleeve and dowel A sleeve in the end of the&earn fits over a dowel
. With bottom connection protruding from the bearing, shown as a bond beam
or grouted masonry core. The sleeve should be 3
All of the connections in this group are intended or 4 times the size of the dowel to minimize field
forvertical load transferonly and are not suitable for tolerance problems. In order to prevent restraint,
resisting moments. The beams shown are rectan- the bottom few inches of the sleeve should be filled
gular but the connections can be used with other with a compressible material such as sand, ver-
shapes. Different wall construction, such as pre- miculite, or asphalt. The remainder is filled with
cast double tees, cast-in-place concrete and ma- grout.
sonry are illustrated but, in some cases, the connec-
tions are interchangeable. Features:
1, Quick, easy erection.
5.2.9.1 Beam to Wall Corbel Connection (BWl 2. Volume change restraint is minimized.
and BW2) 3. Provides shear resistance and some tor-
The beam sits on a bearing pad suppoited by a sional restraint after grouting.
concrete or steel corbel, projecting from the wall
panel. The top connection transfers horizontal Disadvantages:
shear forces between the beam and panel, pro- 1. No lateral connection until sleeves are
vides erection stability and braces the panel. grouted.
2. No reliable moment capacity.
Features: 3. Sleeve can fill with water during erection and
1. Quick, easy erection. freeze and crack the beam, unless precau-
2. Few tolerance problems. tions are taken.
3. Braces the wall panel.
5.2.9.4 Beam Bottom lo Wall Connection (BW5
Disadvantages: and BW6)
1. No moment capacity. This connection is used primarily when the beam
2. Special forming required for corbel. is required to provide lateral restraint to the wall.
3. Design of wall must consider eccentricity of This detail requires bearing plates installed in the
the loads. wall.

5.2.9.2 Beam to Wall Pocket Connection (BW3) Features:


A pocket iscast into thewall to receive the beam. I. Positive tie to the wall.
The beam sits on a bearing pad inside the pocket.
A top connection may be used. Axial shortening of Disadvantages:
the beam due to volume change should be consid- 1. Requires close coordination with masonry
ered when designing depth of the recess. This trades.
connection is more commonly used with cast-in- 2. Level placement of bearing plate difficult.
pace walls, but can also be used with precast 3. Volume change shortening of the beam must
panels. Ample tolerances are required. be considered in design of the wall.

Features:
1. Minimum of embedded hardware for light
loads.
2. Clean, concealed connections.

Disadvantages:
1. Pocket dimensions must be planned so that

5-39
BW3

5-40
5.2.10 Wail to Wail Connections (WW) welded to shim inserted between the two plates.
There are two configurations of wall to wall During erection, the panel is shimmed to the proper
connections: horizontal joints, usually in combina- elevation and the joint dry-packed after the connec-
tionwithfloorconstruction,andverticaljoints. These tion is completed.
can be further identified as:
Features:
, Horizontal - bolted 1. Positive connection between walls.
. Horizontal - welded 2. Connection is concealed and protected after
. Horizontal - sleeve grouting.
, l
Horizontal - post-tensioned 3. Continuous vertical tie through connection.
. Vertical - bolted
. Vertical - welded Disadvantages:
1. Plate alignment in the walls is critical.
The connections from wall to wail are primarily
intended to position and secure the walls although, 5.2.10.3 Horizontal - Sleeve Wail to Wail Con-
with proper design and construction, they are ca- nection (WW4)
pable of carrying loads from uplift, shear wall or The sleeve connectors shown receive reinforc-
frame action. Solid wall panels are shown but many ing bars and are later filled with a non-shrink grout
of the connections could also be used with double to achieve continuity. The sleeves are capable of
tee or hollow-core wall panels. developing full strength of the bars.

5.2.10.1 Horizontal - Bolted Wall to Wail Con- Features:


nection (WWl) 1. Continuity through the connections.
A threaded bolt or continuous rod extends out of 2. Connection is concealed and protected.
the top of the lower panel and bolts through a
member cast in the bottom of the upper panel. The Disadvantages:
strength of the elements in the connection can be 1. No connection between wails until splice
developed by bond and lap with panel reinforce- sleeves or ducts are grouted.
ment or by continuity through the panel. Proper 2. Sleeve connections and sleeve grout may be
vertical elevation is obtained with shims or leveling proprietary.
nuts. The joint is later dry-packed or filled with non- 3. Hardware placement is critical.
shrink grout.
5.2.10.4 Horizontal - Post-Tensioned Wail to
Features: Wail Connection (WW5 and WW6)
1. No welding required. Vertical post-tensioning bars are field installed in
2. Connection is concealed and protected after ductscast in the wall panels. The bars may be made
grouting. continuouswith a couplerand post-tensioned (WW5)
3. Vertical uplift capacity can be developed. or they may be simply connected with a threaded
coupler (WW6).
Disadvantages:
1. Requires accurate placement of hardware. Features:
Cast-in connection should include oversized 1. Vertical post-tensioning can be used to with-
hole or slot. stand uplift forces.
2. if projecting bolts are used, they are suscep- 2. Connection is hidden and protected.
tible to damage. 3. Welding is not required.

5.2.10.2 Horizontal - Welded Wail to Wail Con- Disadvantages:


nection (WW2 and WW3) 1. Duct and hardware placement in walls is
The upperwall is cast with an embedded plate in critical.
a recessed pocket. The lower wall is cast with an 2. Connection is not developed until tensioning
angle. A plate or round bar is then welded to the is completed.
embedments in both the upper and lower walls.
Alternately, the lower wall may also incorporate an
embedded plate and the two wall panel plates are

5-42
5.2.10.5 Vertical - Bolted Wall to Wall Connec-
tion (WW7 and WW8)
Inserts, or bolts welded to steel plates are cast
into panels. The loose plate or angle has slots in
opposite directions on each side to allow both
vertical and horizontal adjustment. If properly placed,
the bolts will allow some movement for volume
changes. If a rigid connection is desired, the plates
can be later welded.

Features:
1. Quick erection.
2. Volume change movement is accomodated.
3. When recessed, connectioncan beconcealed
and protected.

Disadvantages:
1. Limited field adjustment.
2. Shear transfer between panels unreliable
without welding.

5.2.10.6 Vertical - Welded Wall to Wall Connec-


tion (WW9 - WWl2)
Plates or angles are cast in the wall panels and
are anchored with studs and/or welded reinforcing
bars. A loose plate, angle or bar is welded across
the joint.

Features:
1. Ample adjustment allowance.
2. When recessed, connectioncan be concealed
and protected.
3. Good shear transfer.

Disadvantages:
1. Rigid, unyielding connection.
2. Possible volume change problems except in
WW12.
WWI ww2

ww3 ww4

s-44
ww5 WW6
ww9

WWII
5.2.11 Wail to Foundation Connections (WF) ment and the bolt heads welded to a plate cast in the
The types of wall to foundation connections foundation wall. The space under the panel is
commonly used are: usually filled with dry-pack or non-shrink grout.
. Welded
. Bolted Features:
1. A commonly used variation of this type in-
. Grouted cludes the connection angle or plate bolted to
. Moment Resistant the foundation and welded to the wall panel.
. Post-Tensioned 2. Bolting allows quick easy erection in any
weather.
Ail of the types can be used with double tee wall 3. Drilled-in expansion bolts eliminate the need
panels, hollow-core wall panels or solid wall panels for any hardware to be accurately located in
with the exception of vertical post-tensioning which the foundation.
is suitable for solid wails only. The wall panels may
be load bearing or non-load bearing. Combination Disadvantages:
of welding, bolting, etc. is also used in some con- 1. Anchorage of the cast-in insert near the bot-
nections. tom of the wail panel may be difficult.
2. if not installed properly, drilled-in expansion
5.2.11.1 Welded Wail to Foundation Connec- bolts are not as reliable as cast-in inserts.
tion (WFl)
The wall panel and the foundation have weld 5.2.11.3 Moment Resistant Wall to Foundation
plates cast into them. The wall panel is set on Connections (WF5 and WF6)
shims. Loose angles or plates are welded to the These connections are used when cantilever
embedded plates. Generally, two connections per moments must be developed. One type develops
panel are provided. The space under the wall is moment resistance at the base with a welded and/
usually filled with dry-pack or non-shrink grout. or bolted connection on each face of the wall panel.
Another type includes a connection to the founda-
Features: tion and a connection to the interior floor slab. The
1. Connection allows quick, easy erection. floor slab connection can be made with coil rods
2. There are few tolerance problems. threaded into inserts in the wall panel and cast into
3. When the footing is not wide enough, the the floor slabs. An alternate uses the strand lifting
bottom leg of the angle can be turned under loops in conjunction with bent reinforcing bars to
the panel. accomplish the tie to the floor slab.
4. When the face of the panel is in line with the
face of the foundation, or grade wail, a plate Features:
can be welded between vertical plates in the 1. Moment resistance at the base is provided.
wail and foundation.
Disadvantages:
Disadvantages: 1. Par base connection, anchorage within wall
1. When the connection is below grade, the panel is critical.
welding may be difficult. 2. For base connection, moment must be re-
2. if the connection is on the exterior face of the sisted by the foundation.
panel, it is susceptible to corrosion unless 3. For slab connection, location of insert verti-
protected with mastic or grout. cally is critical. Moment resistance is not de-
veloped until slab connection is complete.
5.2.11.2 Bolted Wail to Foundation Connec- 4. For slab connection, slab construction re-
tions (WF2 - WF4) quires care to ensure that the bars are prop-
in WF2 and WF3, an angle or plate is attached to erly embedded and that there is no slab
the wail panel and foundation wail. A cast-in insert settlement.
is commonly used in the wall panel and a drilled-in
expansion bolt may be used in the foundation. The
wall panel is set on shims and two connections per
panel are made. in place of shims, round head
leveling bolts (WF4) can be used for panel align-

5-48
5.2.11.4 Grouted Wall to Foundation Connec-
tion (WF7)
The foundation is cast with corrugated steel
sleeves to receive projecting reinforcing bars from
the wall panel. The sleeves are filled with grout just
prior to erection of the panels, which are shimmed
to correct elevation and later dry-packed under-
neath.

Features:
1. Quick, easy erection.
2. No tolerance problems.
3. Shear resistance perpendicular to wall is
achieved.

Disadvantages:
1. No connection for wall panel during erection.
2. Projectingdowelsfromwallpanelscancause
difficulties during fabrication.

5.2.11.5 Post-Tensioned Wall to Foundation


Connection (WF8)
Vertical post-tensioning bars are installed in the
foundation and continue through ducts in the wall
panels. The bars may be coupled at the top of the
foundation depending on erection considerations.

Features:
1. Vertical post-tensioning can be used to resist
uplift forces.
2. Moment resistance is achieved.

Disadvantages:
1. Bar, duct and hardware placement accuracy
in foundation and wall panels is critical.
2. There is no positive connection until the bar is
tensioned.

5-49
WFI

WF3

5-50
WF7
5.2.12 Stair to Landing Connections (SL)
Precast concrete stairs can be produced with
integral landings orthey may require separate land-
ings. When landings are integral with the stairs,
connections from the landing to supports are nec-
essary. Generally, the support is a bearing wall,
either precast or cast-in-place. Embedments or
corbels are provided in the wall and attachment
hardware is cast into the edge of the landing (SLl-
SL2). Connections are designed to minimize crane
setting time and are completed with field welding. A
thin topping may be placed to obtain a good walking
surface.
When landings are separate, they must be joined
to the stair sections. The top stair may be recessed
so that connections will be hidden when a topping
slab is cast (SL3SL4). The bottom stair usually
rests on a footing so that the stair is simply set on
shims with no welding required (SL5). When the
lower floor slab is cast, the stair is securely posi-
tioned.

Features:
1. Quick, easy erection is attained, tolerances
are adequate.
2. Joints can be located either at wall junctions
or on continuous walls.

Disadvantages:
1. Connections are exposed to view from un-
derneath unless special grouting is done.
Fireproofing may be required.
2. Plate locations in supporting structure are
critical.
3. A thin topping may be necessary.
4. Stairs with integral landings require special
formwork.
TOP OR BOTTOM LAND

TOP OR BOTTOM LANDING TOP OF STAIR AT


SL2 AT WALL JOINT SEPARATE LANDING

BOTTOM OF STAIR BOTTOM OF STAIR


SL4 AT SEPARATE LANDING AT FOOTING OR LANDING
5.3 Architectural Precast Concrete Connec- path with a minimum number of connections
tions per panel, and a minimum number of load
The versatility of architectural precast concrete transfer mechanisms within a connection. A
has led to its rapid growth, not only as an enclosure connection system which renders the panel
material (cladding) where shape and finish are of to be statically determinate is preferable
primary consideration, but also as a structural because the forces can be reliably calcu-
material where attractive appearance is combined lated. It also facilitates accomodation of
with load bearing function. It has also been effec- volume change movements. A discussion of
tively used as shear walls for resisting lateral loads load transfer mechanisms within a connec-
and as beam struts between lateral load resisting tion is given in Chapt. 2 (Sect. 2.2).
elements. (2) Provide sufficient ductility in the connections
Regardless of whether an architectural precast to preclude brittle failures.
element is used in a load bearing or a non-load (3) Recognize the interdependency of behavior
bearing function, various forces must be consid- of panel connection and the supporting frame.
ered in its design. In non-load bearing applications, (4) Standardize connection details as much as
a cladding panel must resist its self weight and all possible. Standardization not only facilitates
other appropriate forces, such as earthquake forces, production and erection but also reduces the
forces due to restraint of volume changes and sup- chance for error.
port system movement, as well as forces due to (5) Protect connections from corrosion and fire.
wind, snow and construction loads. If the panel is (6) Provide for adequate tolerances and clear-
load bearing, then in addition to the above, it must ances (see Sect. 1.5).
also resist and transferdead and live loads imposed (7) Plan for the shortest possible crane hook-up
on it by the supported structural members. These time.
forces are transferred by the architectural precast
element through its connections to the supporting These design requirements pose aconsiderable
structure. challenge in that all of these must be considered
Once the loads are established and load trans- separately as well as interactively to arrive at the
fer path identified, the design of the connections is best possible solution. It is not uncommon that a
based on concepts and design procedures given in great deal of attention is paid to the consideration of
earlier chapters of this Manual. However, there are loads while other factors, such as volume change,
several considerations which are unique to the compatibility with frame movements, ductility and
design of architectural precast concrete connec- tolerances receive inadequate attention.
tions. Thus, even though there is some duplication In high seismic areas, the most common appli-
of previously covered material, a general discus- cation of architectural precast concrete is as clad-
sion is given in the following paragraphs which ding panels. The Uniform Building Code(17) re-
attempts to bring together the various items perti- quires that Precast or prefabricated non-bearing,
nent to the architectural precast concrete connec- non-shearwallpanelsorsimilarelementswhichare
tions. This general discussion is followed with attached to or enclose the exterior shall be de-
typical details for various applications. These signed to resist the forces and shall accommodate
applications include the following broad categories: movements of the structure resulting from lateral
. Bearing (Direct and Eccentric) - DB, EB forces or temperature changes.
. Tie-Back (Bolted and Welded) - BT, WT For seismic forces, the Uniform Building Code
requires that the body of the connector be designed
. Alignment (Bolted and Welded) - BA, WA for a force equal to 1.33 times the required panel
. Column and Beam Cover - CC, BC force and that it be ductile. Furthermore, to ensure
. Soffit Hanger - SH that failure would initiate in the body of the connec-
. Masonry Tie-Back - MT tor and thus be ductile, the Uniform Building Code
. Seismic Shear Plate - SP requires that all fasteners of the connection system
be designed for a force equal to four times the
Unique Conditions and Solutions - UCS required panel force. Design for such elevated
Some of the fundamental points that should be loads requires careful consideration of anchorage
considered in the design of architectural precast of the connectors to concrete to avoid premature
concrete connections are: and sudden failures. This generally leads many
(1) Provide for a simple and direct load transfer Designersto specify confining hoops (such as shown

5-56
in detail UC%), deformed bar anchors, or reinforc- beam. This torsion must be considered in the
ing bars welded to plates rather than headed studs design of the beam and may require use of stiffen-
or other similar inserts. Headed studs can be used, ers and/or beam bottom flange braces. For seismic
however the Designer must ensure that sufficient forces in the plane of the panel, anchorage of the
anchorage is provided to preclude concrete fail- bracket to the panel can become quite difficult as
ures. In certain situations, such as when studs are the seismic forces must be combined with gravity
near an edge of concrete and loaded toward that loads. If a shear transfer plate is added to the
edge, auxiliary confinement steel may be neces- system, such as in detail SPl, the bracket anchor-
sary. age becomes more manageable.
It is preferable that the architectural precast be When possible, it is advantageous to arrange
connected to the structural frame with the fewest concrete anchor studs so that the same ones that
possible connections. If the connection scheme carry tension due to gravity do not have to carry
supports the precast element in a staticallydetermi- tension due to seismic forces. For example, if the
nate mode, the connection forces are easily and horizontal leg of the angle bracket in EB6 and EB7
accurately determined. Furthermore, the fewer the were welded (via shear plate) to the structure plate
connections, the easier it is to provide for the to carry seismic load perpendicularto the panel, the
various movements required to accommodate vol- bracket/stud arrangement of EB7 would be pre-
ume changes, drift, etc. If a connection scheme ferred. In detail EB6 the lower studs would be in
renders the supported element statically indetermi- tension due to gravity loads as well as seismic
nate, it is generally not feasible to determine with forces while in detail EB7, the lower studs would
certainty individual connection forces and thus all carry the gravity tension and the upper studs the
connections may need to be designed for higher seismic tension. Shear would be carried by all studs
loads to overcome uncertainties. in either case.
It is recommended that the weight of the precast In considering movement accommodation in
panel be carried by no more than two load bearing connections, the story drift allowance can be 2 in.
connections. That would facilitate accurate calcu- or more from one floor to the next and may present
lation of connection forces as well as provide for greater challenge than the forces. Spandrel panels
ease of design for movement accomodation. On usually have load bearing connections at the floor
the other hand, if a wall panel had a load bearing level with the tie-back (also known as push-pull or
connector at each corner and one at the center, stay) connections located below, attached to the
depending on howitwasshimmed,theweightofthe same floor beam. In this instance, the tie-backs are
panel could be shared by the three connectors, or not affected by drift since the top and bottom of the
almost the entire weight could be carried at the floor beam move together. In the case of floor to
center. Additional connections could be provided to floor wall panels or column covers, if the panel is
carry subsequent loads, such as wind or earth- wide it is usually rigidly fixed to and moves with the
quake, but the gravity load typically remains on the floor beam nearest the panel bottom. In this case
initial connections. If leveling bolts are used, such the upper attachments become isolation connec-
as in EBl, the final weld plates are proportioned for tions to prevent the building movement forces from
all lateral loads. The leveling bolt is usually left in being transmitted to the panel thus the panel trans-
place and carries the vertical load. If shims are used lates with the load supporting beam. Some design-
instead of leveling bolts and lateral loads are to be ers prefer to support the panel at the top and put the
carried, a weld plate is recommended since welding isolation connections at the bottom. The isolation
of shim edges is usually unreliable for transmitting (movement) is facilitated by the use of slots, or more
significant forces. Use of shims or bolts for leveling often with long rods which flex. The rods usually
is a matter of individual preference; properly used, have to be designed to also carry tension and
both work well. compression, in addition to the induced flexural
In cladding steel frame structures, it is generally stresses.
preferable that the cladding panels are supported If the panel or column is narrow, the connection
either directly on the columns or at the centerline of system is sometimes selected to have both the top
perimeter steel beams. In many cases however, and bottom of the element move with their respec-
the wall panels are mounted to the steel frame with tive floors and force the panel to rotate on one of the
outriggers off the frame or long panel brackets. In two load bearing connections. Since the movement
these cases, weight of the panels is eccentric with occurs in both directions, each load bearing con-
respect to the steel beam causing torsion in the nection must have the capacity to carry the full

5-57
weight of the element and also not become a tie For economy, the connection scheme selected
down. Vertical movement must be allowed, for should provide for rapid release of the crane hook
example with slots, as the panel rocks back and during erection. In most situations this can be
forth. accomplished by using temporary ties for stability
These movement capabilities must not be com- and completing permanent connections after final
promised with the need for adequate production alignment. In some cases this course of action is
and erection tolerances. If combined tolerances even necessary since adjacent panels may have to
were +1 in. and drift allowance were +2 in., a slot be aligned simultaneously.
length of 6 in. plus the bolt diameter would be The following pages show a number of typical
required. details of some of the commonly used connections
It is essential that the types of movement (e.g., for cladding panels, and certain other connections
translation or rotation) be studied and coordinated that may be useful in special applications. The
not only with the connection system but also with details should not be considered as standard, but
the wall joint locations and joint widths. For ex- are presented as ideas on which to build. Also, two
ample, if a rotating column cover is between trans- or more details may have to be combined to accom-
lating spandrel panels the joint width must accom- plish the intended purpose. For example, DBl and
modate the amount of rotation that would occur in DB2 are often combined. As noted previously,
their common height. Such considerations may detailed design information, such as component
govern the connection system or the location of the sizes, weld sizes and details of anchorage, etc., is
wall joints. purposely omitted.
At the isolation connections, movement must be The details included in this section were se-
available. If it is to be accomplished with sliding, lected by the Architectural Precast Concrete Con-
matching surfaces must not lockupdue tocorrosion nections Committee which elected to have the text/
or binding. This can sometimes be prevented with commentary incorporated side-by-side with the cor-
low-friction washers, or sleeves slightly longer than responding schematics. Thus, only a brief descrip-
the slotted receiver. Long or medium length rods or tion of the various categories is given below fol-
bolts can bind when load is applied at the far end. If lowed by compilation of the schematics.
nuts are used at sliding connections, they must be
prevented from tightening or loosening with move- 5.3.1 Bearing (Direct and Eccentric) Connec-
ment. This can be done with, for example, jamb tions ( DB, EB)
nuts, patent nuts, punched threads, or by tack Bearing connections are intended to transfer
welding the nut to the tie-back rod (not at the vertical loads to the supporting structure or founda-
stressed side), to a square plate washer large tion. Bearing is provided at two points per panel
enough to have its rotation limited by an adjacent either directly in the plane of the panel along the
return or to a separate stub bar which would hit a bottom edge or eccentrically located by casting
stop if it turned too far. Long rods which flex with drift integrally with the panel a continuous or localized
are more reliable and thus more commonly used. corbel, or by anchoring a rigid structural steel sec-
A conscious recognition of the difference be- tion into the panel. Lateral load transfer capability
tween required adjustment for tolerance, and the can be provided by various tie-back arrangements.
need to prevent or allow subsequent movement is Tolerances in the support system generally neces-
necessary. This sometimes appears to present sitate the use of shims, leveling bolts, bearing
conflicting requirements, but they can be provided padsand oversized or slotted holes.
for when treated individually. For example, adjust- Direct bearing connections are used primarily for
ment can be accomplished with an oversized hole panels resting on foundations or rigid supports
and then movement controlled with a plate washer where movements are negligible. This includes
welded over it. If the washer is slotted, it can take cases where cladding panels are stacked and self-
load on one axis and allow movement on the other. supporting for vertical loads with tie-back connec-
The washer could be welded under the piece with tions to the structural frame to resist forces perpen-
an oversized hole to reduce bending in the bolt. A dicular to the panel.
hole off center both ways in a plate washer allows Eccentric bearing connections are usually used
maximum adjustment in a minimum space since it for panels above the first support level where move-
can be rotated as necessary. Washers used for ments of the support system are possible. Cladding
these purpose can usually be welded on any two panels are fastened to and/or supported by a struc-
sides. ture located in a different plane. Practically all loads

5-58
from the cladding react eccentrically on the support ments are used, a lateral brace in the form of a tie-
structure. According to the type of connection and back or cross brace to the support structure is
load transfer details, bending, combined tension necessary to provide horizontal stability.
and shear, and torsion must be resisted by the
connection. 5.3.6 Masonry Tie-Back Connections (MT)
Concrete cladding panels covering masonrywalls
5.3.2 Tie-Back Connections (Bolted and Welded) commonly use direct tie connections with an adjust-
W, WT) able anchorage element cast into the panel and a
Tie-back connections keep the precast panel in bolt or strap anchor mortared or grouted into the
a plumb position as well as resist wind and seismic masonry
loads perpendicular to the panel. Nearly every pre-
cast panel requires tie-back connections in addition 5.3.7 Seismic Shear Plates (SP)
to the bearing (support) connections. The important In many cases, use of long cantilevered eccen-
characteristic of tie-back connections is their ability tric bearing connections to transfer both vertical and
to carry tension and/orcompression forces perpen- horizontal loads results in difficult embedments and
dicular to the panel. They may take forces or allow proves to be costly. In such cases, use of weld
movement both vertically or horizontally in the plane plates (or angles) is usually a better solution. Al-
of the panel. though weld plates primarily serve as shear plates
to resist forces in the plane of the panel, they also
5.3.3 Alignment Connections (Bolted and carry loads perpendicular to the panel and thus act
Welded) (BA, WA) as tie-back connections. Since seismic force is the
Alignment connections are used to adjust rela- most common in-plane force, these plates are often
tive position with respect to adjacent elements and refered to as seismic shear plates. Details SPI
do not usually transfer design lateral loads. Out-of- throughSP4 illustrate the use of these plates.
plane alignment of panels is often necessary, espe-
cially if they are very slender, or if prestressing or 5.3.8 Unique Conditions and Solutions (UCS)
storage has caused warping or bowing. UCSl through UCS7presentsolutionsforunique
connection situations. Since each of these is a
5.3.4 Column and Beam Cover Connections special situation, description of each is given along
(CC, BC) with the corresponding detail.
Precast concrete panels when used as covers
over steel or cast-in-place concrete columns and
beams are generally supported by the structural
column or beam, and are themselves designed to
transfer no vertical load otherthan their own weight.
The vertical load of each length of column or beam
cover section is normally supported usually at one
elevation, and the panel is tied back at top and
bottom for lateral load transfer and stability. Con-
nections need sufficient adjustability to compen-
satefordeviations of the structural system. Column
cover connections are, by their location, off en diff i-
cult to reach and once made, difficult to adjust.
When access is available, consideration should be
given to providing an intermediate connection for
lateral support and restraint of bowing. Blind con-
nections made by welding into joints between the
precast elements are sometimes used to complete
the final enclosure of these elements.

5.3.5 Soffit Hanger Connections (SH)


Any of the tie-back connections previously dis-
cussed could be modified to become soffit hanger
connections. However, if flexible long hanger ele-
Direct Bearing (DB)
Design
. simple
l lateral restraint not provided

Production
l simple

Erection
l simple
l does have large tolerance 4 .
l joint may be caulked or dry-packed .Q .
Shim
Stack
. b
\
h *

2 shim stacks / panel

DBI
Design
l more detailing

9 provides lateral restraint


l shims must be placed to hold vertical align-
ment until grouting or dry packing is done
l realignment is not possible once connection
has been completed

Production
0 more measuring
l reasonable tolerance each way

Erection
0 wet placement requires care
l grout problem in cold weather or Sleeve
l may be best to field drill oversized hole into
foundation

Variation
. grout could be injected through tubes allow-
ing more time for alignment

Shim stacks occur at 2 points per


panel adjacent to connection

DB2
5-60
Direct Bearing (DB)

Design
. preferable for bracket to be on contract draw-
ing and shop installed
l may require restraint for shim stack

Production
l cost substantially more if column bracket field

installed

Erection
l reasonable, if column bracket already there
l layout crew required if bracket not shop in-
stalled

Variation
l leveling bolt may be used in lieu of shims

. . . *
4 *

DB3
Eccentric Bearing (EB)
Design
l weld all around may not be required
0 keep bearing at centerline of beam to avoid
torsion
l safety and sequence may dictate blockout to
embed bracket in floor slab

Production
l simple
l substantial shop fabrication
l leveling bolt is costly

Erection
l simple

l leveling bolt saves time

Variations
l different tieback connection may be used in
lieu of weld plate
l shims may be used in lieu of leveling bolt
l location and configuration of weld plate may
vary

EBI
Design
l hardware layout drawing required for G.C.
l consider torque on projecting element if un-
symmetrical section used

Production
l simple
l requires early coordination with G.C.
l requires additional space for storage and

shipping

Erection
0 simple

Variations
l W, I, channel, ST, flat bars, angle or TS may
be used

5-62
Eccentric Bearing (EB)

l coordination drwg. for G.C.


consider anchorage in concrete
l

. preferable for column bracket to be on con-


tract drwg. and shop installed
l accommodates column size variation with
same size panel bracket

Production
l simple
l requires early coordination with G.C.
l requires additional space for storage and

shipping

Erection
l simple
l layout crew required if bracket not shop in-
stalled

Variations
l leveling bolt can be used by providing two
projecting bars and welding a coupling nut
between bars or at end of bracket
l panel bracket may be W,I channels, TS or ST
Works with column rotated 90'

l hardware layout drwg. required for G.C.


l eliminates or reduces moment in panel
0 simple reinforcement
. ~a
Production .) * .
l simple
l requires early coordination with G.C.
.A
Erection ,. . .
. . *.
l difficult
l requires layout crew before erection
l panel must be removed to change shims

Variations
l bracket may be another structural shape
* .

. ..* .

l-1/2" Minimum

EB4
Eccentric Bearing (EB)
Design Oversize Hole or
l hardware layout dtwg. required for G.C. Vertical Slot
l complex haunch reinforcement
. :,
. . .*
Production
l involved
l extra forming, or haunch made separately

and set in form


l proper location of reinforcing steel in haunch
is critical
l requires early coordination with G.C.

Erection
l simple

Variation
l plate or angle may be used in haunch
l welded plate or insert is optional
l haunch may be continuous or intermittent
l plate washer may require welding for seismic
load conditions

rdware layout drwg. required for G.C.

Production
l simple
l requires early coordination with G.C.

Erection
. simple

Variations
l leveling bolt may be used in lieu of shims
l weld plate may be used in lieu of Separate
tieback connection

5-64
Eccentric Bearing (EB)

l confinement steel around studs in panel may


be required

Production
l simple
l requires early coordination with G.C.

Erection ,: **
l simple ,. .I.

Variations

tieback connection

l important for shaped panels; can eliminate


overturning moment from dead load when
centerline of shim is at c.g. of panel

Production
l complex forming especially if location of

haunch changes

Erection
l simple

Variations
l forming made easier by substituting a bolt-on
steel bracket especially if haunch location
changes

5-6
Bolted Tie-Backs (BT)

l slenderness ratio must be considered for


compression load
Threaded Insert
Production

Erection

lease from crane

Variations
l if threaded insert is used, the in-plane move-
ment may be achieved by flexibility of the rod,
or by an oversized hole at the opposite end
l field weld angle to structure
0 bolt angle to structure

Design
. simple
l edge distance must be considered
\
Production
l simple

Erection
l simple
l must coordinate with steel in foundation
l accommodates large tolerance with exp. an-
chor

Variations
. if pre-set insert is used in place of exp. bolt, a
slotted hole is necessary in the horizontal leg
of the angle
Bolted Tie-Backs (BT)
Design
l slotted hole or oversized hole may be used to

accommodate erection tolerance and any


required movement
l consider clearances

Production
l simple

Erection

not be overtightened
l shims may be required

Variations

be achieved by another connection


l use threaded rod as in BTl

5-68
Welded Tie-Backs (WT)

l volume change of panel a n d live load deflec-


tion of steel beam must be considered
l consider staggering studs to minimize mag-
nification of the force on headed stud due to
misalignment of plate
l rigid connection

Production
l simple

Erection

b e achieved by another connection


l ample adjustment allowance

Design
. rigid connection
l possible volume change restraint problems
l connection is difficult to inspect

Production
l simple

Erection
l requires bracing until welded; bracing may be

achieved by another connection


l ample adjustment allowance
l alignment and welding must be completed
before panel above is erected
Welded Tie-Backs (WT)
Design
l if strap is used, volume change restraint in the

plane of panel must be considered


* slenderness ratio must be considered for
compression load

Production . a..
l simple Plain rod with thread
at one end or strap
Erection
l requires bracing until welded; bracing may be

achieved by another connection


l threaded rod should not be overtightened if
future movement at slotted insert is expected

WT:
Design
l live load deflection of superstructure must be
considered
l if bracing angle is designed as axial member,
then the vertical component of force must be
accounted for in the design of other connec-
tions on the same panel

Production
l simple
. .
Erection
9 slots and bolts are used for temporary erec-
tion connection
l weld after final alignment * * . .

WT4
5-70
Welded Tie-Backs (WT)
Design
l good solution to avoid problems caused by
superstructure deflection

Production
l simple

Erection
. if hardware is assembled prior to erection,
oversized holes and plate washers are re-
quired

Variations
l use stiffervertical members and eliminate the
diagonal

Oversized Hole

WT5
Design
l a minimum bolt penetration into insert should
be specified and ensured

Production
l simple

Erection
9 quick
l adjustment allowance limited by ferrule and
bolt lengths
l must have adequate clearance for welding

Variations
. weld may not be required if connection trans-
fers only compression
. could be reversed
Welded Tie-Backs (WT)

l good for seismic parallel and perpendicular


forces

Production
. simple

Erection
l tolerances require various diameter rods

Variations
l angle in panel may be used for ease of

welding
l anchorage of plates may vary
.* -. .
b. . * *

Design
l good for seismic parallel forces
l hardware layout drwg. required for G.C.

Production
. simple
l requires early coordination with G.C.

Erection
l simple
l considerable adjustment

Variations
l forseismicpetpendicularforces,maychange
weld plate to angle

5-72
Bolted Alignment (BA)

Design
l can also serve as a tie-back connection for
light loads

Production
l simple

l requires close thickness tolerances

Erection
l quick

not be overtightened
l may require horseshoe shim spacers

Slotted Plate

Design
. volume change relief is provided unless nec-
essary to weld plate washers for specific
loads

Production ..a. ...


.Q., .:
0 simple

Erection
l quick
l good adjustment allowance
l to avoid volume change restraint bolts should
not be overtightened

I BA2
5-74
Welded Alignment (WA)
Design
l can also serve astie-backconnectionfor light
normal load

Production
l simple
l face of panel to face of plate dimension is
critical

Erection
l quick
l good solution when connection is not acces-
sible after erection

may be governed by this connection

WA1
Design
l good shear transfer
l rigid connection
l possible volume change restraint problems

Production
l simple
l face of panel to face of plate dimension is
critical

Erection
l quick, easy
. ample adjustment allowance

Variations
. various embedded plates or shapes may be
welded together
l one side could be bolted with slotted or over-

sized hole

WA2
Welded Alignment (WA)
Design
l rigid connection
l possible volume change restraint problems

Production
l simple and relatively inexpensive
l unusual mounting or attachment to side forms

l inexpensive hardware

Erection
l quick

l requires close joint tolerance


l different size bars required to accommodate
different joint widths

Variations
l angles may be eliminated and field weld

made directly to U shaped panel bar as shown

Variation

I WA:
5-76
Column Cover Connection (CC)
Design
. provides a rigid connection between column
cover segments
l can be used where connection to column Or
beam would be difficult due to limited access
l WI minimum joint size is recommended

Production Plate Cast in *. :


l allows reasonable tolerance for alignment Column Cover
l if the column section is thin, placement and
coverage of plate is difficult

Erection
. panel joint must be sufficient to allow forweld-
ing
0 care must be taken in preventing welding
stain on exterior concrete
l care must be taken not to apply excess heat
that would crack the concrete

l can carry horizontal tie back forces


l requires sufficient clearance between col-
umn and cover
. preferable for bracket to be on contract drwg.
and shop installed

Production
inserts must be attached to the back form for
l

casting accuracy

Erection
alignment must be done when erecting first
l

column section
l oversized holes allow for adjustment and
alignment

Variations
l can be used on any shape column covers
. can be used for connecting both half column Threaded Rod or
covers if near top and accessible Coil Rod with
Nut and Washer

Inserts Cast in Panel

5-78

/
Column Cover Connection (CC)
Design
l can be used only at top of column cover

where access is available for welding


used for lateral stability and alignment

M
l

Typical
Production
l the weld plates must be placed on the end
form r
* .
.
Erection b.
* .
l need access to top of column cover to make
* .
connections
* .
* .
Variations * .
l can be used on any shape column cover 4
-+
l can be changed to bolted . .
.
.

cc3
Design
. can be used for both vertical and tie-back
loads with welded washer
l can be used where access is difficult

Production
l requires that the angle bolt assembly be cast
in a manner so as to keep the bolt parallel to
the face of the panel

Erection
l requires bracing until welded Plan View
l requires that the panel be properly aligned
and set prior to welding and setting of the
panel above

Varlatlons
l use insert and bolt in lieu of bolt welded to
angle
* use bolt cast close to C.G. of panel instead of
bolt welded to angle

Section View

cc4
5-79
Beam Cover Connection (BC)
Design
l beam must be designed to prevent excessive
rotation during erection
l rigidity provided by welded connections must ,- Place 3rd
be considered

Production
l requires careful casting to match finishes on
faces
l requires a close casting tolerance on the
S e e DB2--/
doweled connections for the cap piece

Erection
l requires that the erector place pieces in proper

sequence
l may require a combination of bolting, welding
and grouting
l care must be taken to prevent staining of ex-

posed surface during welding

Variations
l alternate top conditions are shown but only
one type should be used

Notes
l refer to EBl ,BTl and CC1

- Place 2nd

7-k L- P l a c e 1 s t

BCI
5-80
Soff it Hanger (SH)

Design
. allows for adjustment and movement
Oversized holes with
l may require additional bracing for lateral loads
plate washers and nuts
Production
l ease in casting inserts into panel

Erection
l allows for final alignment after panel is re-
leased
l may be difficult to get to areas requiring

bolting

Variations
l angles or other shapes maybe used instead
of threaded rods

Precast Soffit Panel

SHI

5-82
Masonry Tie-Back Connection (MT)

l the masonry may need to be reinforced

Production

erance

Erection

braced prior to layup of masonry


l temporary bracing is required

Variations

slots may be used in lieu of strap anchors

5-83
Seismic Shear Plate (SP)
Design
l normally one used at centerline of panel
l takes seismic force parallel to panel to mini-
mize lateral load on bearing connections
l assume fixed at beam, pinned at panel
l particularly advantageous when panel to

beam dimension is large


l also takes force perpendicular to panel
l thin plate allows some vertical movement

Production
0 panel plate tolerance large

Erection
l welding required
l cannot be installed until panel fully aligned
0 large tolerance

Variations
l connection to panel can be made with angle
and slot perpendicular to panel to allow
movement perpendicular to panel
l is sometimes accomplished with a pair of

angles or flat bars


l could be changed to bolted fastenings
. simplest version is small rectangular plate to
floor slab embedment when panel is close to
slab edge

SPI
5-84
Seismic Shear Plate (SP)
Design
l similar to SPl except combined with bearing
connector rather than separate
l takes seismic force parallel and normal to
panel to minimize requirements on bearing
connector
l also takes perpendicular force so bearing

connector need not be welded


l see also SPl

Production
l panel embedment serves dual purpose: so
an additional one is not required

Erection
l since shear plate cannot be installed until
panel is fully aligned, a temporary safety tie-
back may be required during erection
l welding required
l large tolerance

Variations
l could be welded to outstanding arm of bear-
ing connector

SP2
Seismic Shear Plate (SP)
Design
l at mid-height of column covers to eliminate
inertial overturn
. if not welded to column, must be used in pairs
and column cover rotates in plane of wall with
story drift so bearing connections must allow
lift off
l if welded to column, the column cover trans-
lates in plane of wall which otherconnections
must tolerate
l items above require careful integration of

entire connection system and panel joint


widths for interstory displacements

Production
l panel plate tolerance large

Erection
l welding required
l large tolerance
l can not be installed until panel fully aligned

SP3
5-66
Seismic Shear Plate (SP)
Design
l shims carry full panel weight
l shims should be immediately adjacent to

welded angle
l can not be installed until unit fully aligned so
temporary tie may be required during erec-
tion
l orientation of angle provides maximum ca-
pacity both parallel and perpendicular to wall

Production
l simple
l large tolerance ,t-Temporary Ti
l separate embedment may be required for
temporary tie

Erection
l can not be installed until panel fully aligned

Variations
l any type of plate, angle or T may be used for

field plate
l leveling bolt could be recessed in sill for ease

of alignment in lieu of shims

I-- Shim

SP4
5-87
Unique Conditions & Solutions (UCS)
Design Blind Multi-Story Cladding Connection
l shims transferweight to bottomof vertical run
in stacked panel situations
l weld can only be achieved on upper part of
bolt head - see variation
l creep (including of shims) will transfer some
indeterminate load to bolt

Production
l dimension from face of panel to embedded
angle is critical

Erection
l alignment can not be adjusted after upper

panel is placed
l shims must be placed in joint
l requires care, not safe to install shims with
fingers

Variations
l shop weld a plate to bolt head forgreaterfield
weld length
. provide through bolt from wall insert and
grout face pocket to eliminate weld
Note
l this is an example of how connections can be
combined (WT6 and WAl) and adapted to
different conditions
Unique Conditions & Solutions (UCS)
Design Tie-Back @ Limited Access Around Beam
l requires oversize hole in beamwebandangle
l use to limit unsupported length of rod
I
0 preferable for angle and holes to be on Con-
tract drwgs. and shop installed
l may have to allow for beam deflection
b* .
4. *
Erection

allow reaching around beam flange to install


nut at web

Design
Tie-Back with No Access
l use when tie-back well above beam bottom
Between Panel & Beam
l requiresoversize hole in beamweb and chan-
nel
l preferable for channel to be on contract drwg.

and shop installed


. Production
I . insert location and beam bracket can be held
at constant distance to floor (greater panel
standardization)

Erection

panel

Variations
l use MC, L or split TS
Unique Conditions & Solutions (UCS)

uires oversize hole in beam web and angle Between Panel & Beam
l preferable for angle to be on contract drwg.
and shop installed

Production
l insert location must vary with beam depth

Erection
l use where no access between beam flange
and panel

Variations
l use MC,C or TS

s very high load capacity when it engages Embedment Anchorage


and confines panel reinforcement
l good for dynamic loads, i.e. seismic
l size variability makes it adaptable to many
panel configurations

Production
l expensive fabrication but alternates for equal
capacity may be more costly

iariations
l bearing lug may be desirable to reduce shear
on loop anchors
Unique Conditions & Solutions (UCS)
lesign Cast-In-Place or Masonry Wall -
l need for blind connection to precast panel
l allow for tolerance P/C Panel -
l requires lay-out drawing to be provided to h
G.C. :. . . a.-. .2 . .
* . - * : * .
l face of panel needs no patching ** . 9 :.
*q-*-.
. *
. Pa
* .
3oduction * * . * 'b . . .b
l no special production problems .I- . . * . ..*
D * .
. . *
frection . b
l requirestemporary bracing if angle notwelded *. * ..
until after alignment
l simple, welded slotted tie-back connection

lariations
. insert could be slotted

Angle with Oversized


Hole and Plate Washers

5-92
Unique Conditions & Solutions (UCS)
Design
l tolerates high seismic drift without complica- Articulated Tie-Back
tions of sliding or flexing of rod
l intermediate length rods often bind rather
than slide -
l length/diameter ratio of rod may not take ade-
quate compression or allow sufficient flexing
l wave washer flattens under nominal move-
ment; prior to that rod is pinned both ends,
subsequently pinned left end only

Production
. simple
l economical flat bar embedment

Erection
l fast; carries load immediately yet allows sub-
sequent alignment
l wave washer (spring, etc.) must be installed
on side which is not loaded under dead load Pre-Welded to
only but should not be over tightened Beam or Column
l wave washer is standard off the shelf hard-
ware
l ample tolerance

Variations
l forfull pivot at beam end, seevariation sketch.
l coil spring or neoprene washer could be sub-
stituted for wave washer
l compression capacity can be increased with
loose pipe over rod since it limits rod buckling
Detail

Flat Bars

Section A-A

ock
Nut or Tack Weld
to Allow Pi oting

Variation
ucs7
5-93
APPENDIX A

DESIGN AIDS A-l 6 - Size of fillet weld required to


develop full strength of bar,
welded both sides . . . . . . . , . . . . . A-l 2
Figures A-l 7 - Minimum length of weld to develop
A-i - Maximum seasonal climatic full strength of bar, weld parallel
temperature change, deg. F. . . . . . A-2 tobar....................... A-13
A-2 - Annual average ambient relative A-18 - Design strength of connection with
humidity, percent. . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-2 welded cross bar(kips) . . . . . . . . . A-14
A-3 - Design pull-out strength of stud A-19 - Dimensions of headed studs. . . . . A-15
groups (including edge and mem- A-20 - Development length for deformed
ber thickness effects). . . . . . . . . . . A-30 bar anchors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-l 5
A-21 - Screw thread, bolt head and nut
Tables standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-l 6
A-i - Creep and shrinkage strains A-22 - Strength of bolts and threaded rods A-l 7
(millionths) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-3 A-23 - Nominal strength of machine bolts
A-2 - Correction factors for prestress in ferrules or weld nuts . . . . . . A-17
and concrete strength (creep only) A-3 A-24 - Strength of wires/rods used in
A-3 - Correction factors for relative concrete inserts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-l 7
humidity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-4 A-25 - Range of expansion bolt strengths
A-4 - Correction factors for (from manufacturers catalogs) . . . A-17
volume/surface ratio . . . . . . . . . . . A-4 A-26 - Plastic section moduli and shape
A-5 - Design temperature strains factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-l 8
(millionths) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . A-4 A-27 - Prestressing steel (ASTM A41 6)
A-6 - Volume change strains for typical properties and allowable design
building elements (millionths) . . , . A-5 loads. . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-19
A-7 - Volume change strains for typical A-28 - Design strength of concrete
building elements (millionths) . . . . A-5 brackets, corbels, or haunches . , . A-20
A-8 - Equivalent volume change strains A-29 - Design strength of structural steel
for typical continuous building haunches - concrete . . . . . . . . . . A-25
frames (millionths) . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-6 A-30 - Design strength of structural steel
A-9 - Equivalent volume change strains haunches - reinforcement . . . . . , . A-26
for typical continuous building A-31 - Shear strength of connection
frames (millionths) . . . . . . . . . . . , . A-6 angles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . A-27
A-l 0 - Reinforcing bar data . . . . , . . . . . . A-7 A-32 - Axial strength of connection
A-l 1 - Required embedment length for angles. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-27
standard end hooks on Grade 60 A-33 - Tensile strength of welded headed
bars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-8 studs and bolts (see Fig. 4.11 .l) . . A-28
A-l 2 - Required development and lap A-34 - Stud groups: Minimum thickness
lengths for Grade 60 bars . . . . . . . A-9 of member for truncated pyramid
A-l 3 - Allowable working stress and failure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-29
design strength of welds . . . . . . . . A-10 A-35 - Shear strength of welded headed
A-14 - Strength of fillet welds for building studs and bolts . , . , , . . . . . . . . . . . A-31
construction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-l 0 A-36 - Properties of weld groups treated
A-15 - Size of fillet weld required to aslines(t,=l) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-32
develop full strength of bar, A-37 - Column base plate thickness
welded onaside . . . . . . . . . , . . . , . A-l 1 requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-33

A-l
75

A-2
Table A-l -Creep and shrinkage strains (millionths)
Concrete Release Strength q 3500 psi
Average Prestress = 600 psi
Relatfve Humidity = 70%
Volume/Surface Ratio = 1.5 in.

Time
Creep T- Shrinkage

Ways) Normal Weight Lightweight Accelerated Cure Moist Cure


1 29 43 10 14
3 51 76 29 40
5 65 97 47 64
7 76 114 63 85
9 86 127 79 104

10 90 133 86 113
20 118 176 149 185
30 137 204 198 235
40 150 224 236 272
50 161 239 267 300
60 169 252 292 322
70 177 263 314 340
80 183 272 332 355
90 188 280 348 367
100 193 287 361 378
I
200 222 331 439 434

1 Yr 244 363 487 465

3 Yr 273 407 533 494


5 Yr 283 422 544 500
Final 315 468 560 510

Table A-2 - Correction factors for prestress and concrete strength (creep onl!
Release Strength, f,l (psi)
Avg. PIA -
(psi) 2500 3000 6000
0 0.00 0.00 0.00
200 0.39 0.36 0.25
400 0.79 0.72 0.51
600 1.18 1.08 0.76
800 1.58 1.44 1.02

1000 1.97 1.80 1.27


1200 2.37 2.16 1.53
1400 2.76 2.52 1.78
1600 2.88 2.04
1800 3.24 2.29
2000 2.55
2200 2.80
2400 3.06
2600 3.31
2800 3.56
3000 3.82
Table A-3 - Correction factors for relative humidity
Avg. Ambient R. H.
(from Fig. A-2) Creep Shrinkage
40 1.25 1.43
50 1.17 1.29
60 1.08 1.14
70 1.00 1.00
80 0.92 0.86
90 0.83 0.43
100 0.75 0.00

Table A-4 - Correction factors for volume/surface ratio


Creep ShrinkaQe

Time V/S
- v ;
Idays ) 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6
1 1.30 0.78 0.49 0.32 0.21 0.15 1.25 0.80 0.50 0.31 0.19 0.11
3 1.29 0.78 0.50 0.33 0.22 0.15 1.24 0.80 0.51 0.31 0.19 0.11
5 1.28 0.79 0.51 0.33 0.23 0.16 1.23 0.81 0.52 0.32 0.20 0.12
7 1.28 0.79 0.51 0.34 0.23 0.16 1.23 0.81 0.52 0.33 0.20 0.12
9 1.27 0.80 0.52 0.35 0.24 0.17 1.22 0.82 0.53 0.34 0.21 0.12
10 1.26 0.80 0.52 0.35 0.24 0.17 1.21 0.82 0.53 0.34 0.21 0.13
20 1.23 0.82 0.56 0.39 0.27 0.19 1.19 0.84 0.57 0.37 0.23 0.14
30 1.21 0.83 0.58 0.41 0.30 0.21 1.17 0.85 0.59 0.40 0.26 0.16
40 1.20 0.84 0.60 0.44 0.32 0.23 1.15 0.86 0.62 0.42 0.28 0.17
50 1.19 0.85 0.62 0.46 0.34 0.25 1.14 0.87 0.63 0.44 0.29 0.19
60 1.18 0.86 0.64 0.48 0.36 0.26 1.13 0.88 0.65 0.46 0.31 0.20
70 1.17 0.86 0.65 0.49 0.37 0.28 1.12 0.88 0.66 0.48 0.32 0.21
80 1.16 0.87 0.66 0.51 0.39 0.29 1.12 0.89 0.67 0.49 0.34 0.22
90 1.16 0.87 0.67 0.52 0.40 0.31 1.11 0.89 0.68 0.50 0.35 0.23
100 1.15 0.87 0.68 0.53 0.42 0.32 1.11 0.89 0.69 0.51 0.36 0.24

200 1.13 0.90 0.74 0.61 0.51 0.42 1.08 0.92 0.75 0.59 0.44 0.31

1 Yr 1.11 0.91 0.77 0.67 0.58 0.50 1.07 0.93 0.79 0.64 0.50 0.38

3 Yr 1.10 0.92 0.81 0.73 0.67 0.62 1.06 0.94 0.82 0.71 0.59 0.47

5 Yr 1.10 0.92 0.82 0.75 0.70 0.66 1.06 0.94 0.83 0.72 0.61 0.49

Final 1.09 0.93 0.83 0.77 0.74 0.72 1.05 0.95 0.85 0.75 0.64 0.54
- -

Table A-5 - Design temperature strains (millionths)


Normal Weight Lightweight
Temperature Zone
(from Fig. A-l) Heated Unheated Heated Unheated
10 30 45 25 38
20 60 90 50 75
30 90 135 75 113
40 120 180 100 150
50 150 225 125 188
60 180 270 150 225
70 210 315 175 263
80 240 360 200 300
90 270 405 225 338
100 300 450 250 375

1 Based on accepted coefficients of thermal expansion, reduced to account for thermal


lag (see Ref.53).
A-4
Table A-6 -Volume change strains for typical building elements (millionths)
Prestressed Members (P/A = 600 psi)
Normal Weight Concrete Lightweight Concrete

Heated Buildings
0 584 533 483 432 382 617 564 512 459 407
10 614 563 513 462 412 642 589 537 484 432
20 644 593 543 492 442 667 614 562 509 467
30 674 623 573 522 472 692 639 587 534 482
40 704 653 603 552 502 717 664 612 559 507
50 734 683 633 582 532 742 689 637 584 532
60 764 713 663 612 562 767 714 662 609 557
70 794 743 693 642 592 792 739 687 634 582
80 824 773 723 672 622 817 764 712 659 607
90 854 803 753 702 652 842 789 737 684 632
100 884 833 783 732 682 867 814 762 709 657

Unht lted SI lcture


0 584 533 483 432 382 617 564 512 459 407
10 629 578 528 477 427 654 602 549 497 444
20 674 623 573 522 472 692 639 587 534 482
30 719 668 618 567 517 729 677 624 572 519
40 764 713 663 612 562 767 714 662 609 557
50 809 758 708 657 607 804 752 699 647 594
60 854 803 753 702 652 a42 789 737 684 632
70 899 848 798 747 697 a79 827 774 722 669
80 944 a93 843 792 742 917 864 812 759 707
90 989 938 888 837 787 954 902 849 797 744
100 1034 983 933 882 832 992 939 887 834 782

Table A-7 - Volume change strains for typical


- . building elements (millionths4
Non-Prestressed Members
Normal Weight Concrete Lightweight Concrete
Temp. Zone Avg. R. H. (from Fig. A-2) Avg. R. H. (from Fig. A-2)
(fromFig.A-1) 401 501 601 701 80 401 501 601 701 80
Heated Buildings
0 269 242 215 188 161 269 242 215 188 161
10 299 272 245 218 191 294 267 240 213 186
20 329 302 275 248 221 319 292 265 238 211
30 359 332 305 278 251 344 317 290 263 236
40 389 362 335 308 281 369 342 315 288 261
50 419 392 365 338 311 394 367 340 313 286
60 449 422 395 368 341 419 392 365 338 311
70 479 452 425 398 371 444 417 390 363 336
80 509 482 455 428 401 469 442 415 388 361
90 539 512 485 458 431 494 467 440 413 386
100 569 542 515 488 461 519 492 465 438 411

Unheated Structures

!
0 269 242 215 188 161 269 242 215 188 161
10 314 287 260 233 206 306 279 252 226 199
20 359 332 305 278 251 344 317 290 263 236
30 404 377 350 323 296 381 354 327 301 274
40 449 422 395 368 341 419 392 365 338 311
50 494 467 440 413 386 456 429 402 376 349
60 539 512 485 458 431 494 467 440 413 386
70 584 557 530 503 476 531 504 477 451 424
80 629 602 575 548 521 569 542 515 488 461
90 674 647 620 593 566 606 579 552 526 499
100 719 692 665 638 611 644 617 590 563 536

A-5
Table A-8 - Equivalent volume change strains for typical
-_ continuous
bbilding frames (millionths)
Prestressed Members (P/A = 600 psi)
Normal Weight Concrete Lightweight Concrete
Avg. R. H. (from Fig. A-2) Avg. R. H. (from Fig. A-2)
Temp. Zone -
(from Fig. A-l) 40 50 60 70 80 40 50 60 70 80
Heated Buildings
0 117 107 97 86 76 123 113 102 92 81
10 137 127 117 106 96 140 130 119 109 98
20 157 147 137 126 116 157 146 136 125 115
30 177 167 157 146 136 173 163 152 142 131
40 197 187 177 166 156 190 180 169 159 148
50 217 207 197 186 176 207 196 186 175 165
60 237 227 217 206 196 223 213 202 192 181
70 257 247 237 226 216 240 230 219 209 198
80 277 267 257 246 236 257 246 236 225 215
90 297 287 277 266 256 273 263 252 242 231
100 317 307 297 286 276 290 280 269 259 248
Unheated Structures
0 117 107 97 86 113 102 92 81
10 147 137 127 116 138 127 117 106
20 177 167 157 146 163 152 142 131
30 207 197 187 176 188 177 167 156
40 237 227 217 206 213 202 192 181
50 267 257 247 236 238 227 217 206
60 297 287 277 266 263 252 242 231
70 327 317 307 296 288 277 267 256
80 357 347 337 326 313 302 292 281
90 387 377 367 356 338 327 317 306
100 417 407 397 386 363 352 342 331

Table A-9 -Equivalent volume change strains fol1 :ypical continuous


building frames (millionths)
Non-Prestressed Members
Normal Weight Concrete Lightweight Concrete
Temp. Zone - Avg. R. H. (from Fig. A-2) Avg. R. H. (from Fig. A-2)
(from Fig A - l ) 40 50 1 60 1 70 / 80 40 / 50 1 60 1 70 / 80
Heated Buildin!
0 54 48 43 38 32 54 48 43 38 32
10 74 68 63 58 52 70 65 60 54 49
20 94 88 83 78 72 a7 82 76 71 66
30 114 108 103 98 92 104 98 93 88 82
40 134 128 123 118 112 120 115 110 104 99
50 154 148 143 138 132 137 132 126 121 116
60 174 168 163 158 152 154 148 143 138 132
70 194 188 la3 178 172 170 165 160 154 149
a0 214 208 203 198 192 187 182 176 171 166
90 234 228 223 218 212 204 198 193 188 182
100 254 248 243 238 232 220 215 210 204 199

0 54 48 43 38- 32 54 48 43 38 32
10 a4 78 73 68 62 79 73 68 63 57
20 114 108 103 98 92 104 98 93 88 82
30 144 138 133 128 122 129 123 118 113 107
40 174 168 163 158 152 154 148 143 138 132
50 204 198 193 188 182 179 173 168 163 157
60 234 228 223 218 212 204 198 193 188 la2
70 264 258 253 248 242 229 223 218 213 207
80 294 288 283 278 272 254 248 243 238 232
90 324 318 313 308 302 279 273 268 263 257
100 354 348 343 338 332 304 298 293 288 282

A-6
Table A-10 - Reinforcing bar data

#9 3.400 1.128 1 .oo 3.544


#lO 4.303 1.270 1.27 3.990
#ll 5.313 1.410 1.56 4.430

#14 7.65 1.693 2.25 5.32


#18 13.60 2.257 4.00 7.09

STANDARD HOOKS STIRRUP AND TIE-HOOKS 1

Hook

46,or 4 L
2-1/2" Min.

IL Beam C, Beam

90" 135"

Bar 180 d e gree 90 deg 90 deg 135 degree


Size D A or G J AorG D A or G A or G H
#3 2-114 5 3 6 l-112 4 4 2-112
#4 3 6 4 8 2 4-112 4-ll2 3
#5 3-314 7 5 10 2-112 6 5-1R 3-3t4
#6 4-ll2 8 6 12 4-112 12 7-314 4-112
#7 S-114 10 7 14 5-114 14 9 5-114
#8/ 6 ll ( 8 16 6 16 10-114 6
# 9 1 g-1/2 15 1 ll-314 / 19
Note: All dimensions (D,A or G,J and H)
are in inches

A-7
Table A-l 1 - Required embedment length for standard end hooks on Grade 60 bar9
Multiply table value by:

z dh = 1200 db/ K; min. 8d, or 6 in. 0.7 for side cover r 2.5 in. and end
cover (90 hook only) 12 in.
where: 0.8 for tles or stlrrups spaced 2 3d,
d, = diameter of bar, in. 1.3 for llghtweight concrete
A
LY!ZQL for excess reinforcement
A s provd

1 for Grade 40 bars, embedment lengths


are two-thirds of the table values,
but not less than the minimum Id,,

For limitations, see ACI 318.83(6), Sect. 12.5

Y
2-1/2 Min.
h XP

Standard 90 Hook Standard 180 Hook

Embedment length, Id,, (in.)


Normal wefght concrete, fe (psi)
Bar Min.
Size 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 1 dh
#3 8 7 7 6 6 6 6
#4 ll 10 9 8 7 7 6
#5 14 12 ll 10 9 9 6
#6 17 14 13 12 ll 10 6
#7 19 17 15 14 13 12 7
#8 22 19 17 16 15 14 8
#9 25 22 19 18 16 15 9
#lO 28 24 22 20 18 17 10
#ll 31 27 24 22 20 19 12

A-8
Table A-l 2 - Required development and lap lengths for Grade 60 bar9
Multiply table values by:
Tension:
1.4 for top reinforcement
1,= 2400 A,/Jf;c; min. 24d, or 12 in. 1.33 for all-llghwelght concrete
1.18 for sand-lightwelght concrete
0.8 for bar spacing 6 or more (3 from
Compression development length: member face)
t,= 1200 A,,/q; mln. 18d, or 8 In. As reqd
for excess relnforcement
Ao provd
Compresslon spllce length:
compression t d; min. 30d, or 12 In.

where:

Ab = area of Individual bar, sq. in.


d, = dlameter of bar, In. 1 for Grade 40 barwequired lengths are
two-thirds of the table values, but not less
than the required minimum lengths.

For llmitations, see ACI 31&83(6), Chapter 12.


- Development and lap lengths (In.)
l- fc = 3000 psi l- fe = 4000 psi fe P 5000 psi T
1renslon Com- Tenslon l- Com- t Tenslon T-Com- Mln.
pres- pres- pres- fZomp
Bar slon slon slon !8pllce
Size 1.3 Zd 11.75 6 1.3 ld 1.7 I,, Id ld 1.3 Id 1.7 Zd ld
#3 12 8 12 12 15 8 12 12 15 8 12
#4 12 ll 12 16 20 9 12 16 20 9 15
#5 15 14 15 20 26 12 15 20 26 ll 19
#6 19 16 18 23 31 14 18 23 31 14 23
#7 26 19 23 30 39 17 21 27 36 16 26
#8 35 22 30 39 51 19 27 35 46 18 30
#9 44 25 38 49 65 21 34 44 58 20 34
#lO 56 28 48 63 82 24 43 56 73 23 38
#ll 68 31 59 77 101 27 53 69 90 25 . 42

T
fe = 6000 psi
Tenslon -r pres-
Com- F f, = 7000 psi
enslof T Com-
pres-
fc = 8000 psi
renslo Com-
pres-
Min,
Zomp
Bar 1 sion slon l- slon Splfce
ldSlze ! 1.3 Id 1.7 ld Id 1.3 ld 1.7 ld 1.3 Zd 1.7 Id ld
12 15 8 12 12 15 8 12 12 15 8 12
16 20 9 12 16 20 9 12 16 20 9 15
20 26 ll 15 20 26 11 15 20 26 ll 19
23 31 14 18 23 31 14 18 23 31 14 23
27 36 16 21 27 36 16 21 27 36 16 26
32 42 18 24 31 41 18 24 31 41 18 30
40 53 20 29 37 49 20 27 35 48 20 34
51 67 23 36 47 62 23 34 44 56 23 38
63 82 26 45 58 76 26 42 54 71 26 42

A-9
Table A-13 - Allowable working stress and design strength of weldsl
Allowable Design
Electrode Working Stress (ksi) Strength* (ksi)
E60 18 30

E80 24 40
E90 27 45
El00 30 50
1 Based on AISC Spec. for Buildings(32). For bridges, use 90% of values.
2 Use factored loads and @ = 1 .O with these values.

Table A-14 - Strength of fillet welds for building construction


Fillet E60 Electrodes E70 Electrodes
Weld Working Design Working Design
Size Stress (k/in) Strength (Min) Stress (Min) Strength* (Min)
I 1/8 I 1.59 I 2.65 I 1.86 I 3.09 I
3116 2.39 3.98 2.78 4.64
II4 3.18 5.30 3.71 6.19
5116 3.98 6.63 4.64 7.73

I 3J6 I
l 7ll6 I 5.57 l 9.28 I 6.50 I 10.38 I
ll2 6.36 10.61 7.42 12.37
9116 7.16 11.93 8.35 13.92
518 7.95 13.26 9.28 15.47

1 Use 90% of values for bridges. Assumes 45 fillet.


2 Use factored loads and $ = 1 .O with these values.
Table A-15- Size of fillet weld required to develop full strength of bar, welded
one side

Bar perpendicular lo plate,


welded one side

Plate f, q 36 ksi

Grade 40 Bar
E70 Electrode E80 Electrode E90 Electrode
Bar Nominal Weld Mln. Plate Nominal Weld Mln. Plate Nominal Weld Mln. Plate
Slze Slze (In.) Thlckness (In.) Slze (In.) Thickness (In.) Slze (In.) Thlckness (In.)

#3 118 ll4 118 Il4 ll8 ll4


#4 3116 lf4 3116 ll4 3116 ll4
#5 ll4 5116 306 5116 3116 5116
#6 ll4 5116 ll4 5116 ll4 318
#7 SI16 318 5116 318 ll4 318
#8 318 7116 5116 7116 5116 7116
#9 7116 ll2 318 ll2 5116 ll2
#lO 7116 9116 318 9116 318 9116
#ll ll2 518 7116 518 318 518
Grade 60 Bar

#3 3116 ll4 3116 ll4 3116 ll4


#4 ll4 5116 114 5116 ll4 5116
#5 5116 318 5116 318 ll4 318
#6 318 7116 5116 ll2 5116 ll2
#7 7116 9116 318 9116 318 9116
#8 1/2 5i8 7116 518 318 518
#9 9116 11116 ll2 ll/16 7116 ll/16
#lO SI8 314 9116 314 ll2 13116
#ll ll/16 1306 518 13116 9116 718

A-ll
. Table A-l 6 - Size of fillet weld required to develop full strength of bar, welded
both sides

Bar perpendicular to piate,


weided both sides
/

Piate fy = 36 ksi

Grade 40 Bar
E70 Electrode E80 Electrode E90 Electrode
I
Bar Nominal Weid Min. Piate Nominal Weid Min. Piate Nominal Weidl Min. Piate
Size Size (In.) Thickness (In.) Size (in.) Thickness (In.) Size (In.) Thickness (n.:
#3 va 306 va 3116 lia 3116
#4 l lia ll4 ll8 114 ll8 ll4
#5 lla 5116 ll8 5116 lia 5116
#6 3116 318 lia 318 lia 318
#7 3116 7116 3116 7116 lia 7116
#a 3116 ll2 * 3116 ll2 3116 ll2
#9 ll4 ll2 3116 9116 3116 9116
#lO ll4 9116 ll4 518 3116 518
#ll ll4 518 114 518 ll4 11116
Grade 60 Bar
1
J
I
#3 ll8 ll4 ll4 va ll4
#4 3116 318 318 ll0 3/6
#5 3116 7116 7116 3116 7116
#6 114 1R ll2 3116 lf2
#7 ll4 518 518 3116 518
#a 5116 11116 11116 ll4 ll/16
#9 5116 314 314 ll4 314
#lO 318 13116 718 5116 716
#ll 3i6 15116 15116 5116 15116
I /

A-12
Table A-17 - Minimum length of weld to develop full strength of bar,
weld parallel to bar

Elec- Bar
r I
Min. plate thickness for weld length (In.)
I
I
spllce
Min.
Bar
trode size ll4 5116 318 7116 ll2 9116 518 length (In.) slze
#3 l-1/4 l-114 l-114 l-114 #3
#4 l-314 l-314 l-314 l-ll2 #4
#5 2-114 2-114 2-114 : 2 #5

#6 2-314 2-112 2-112 2-ll2 2-ll4 #6


E70 #7 3 3 3 3 2-112 #7
#8 3-112 3-112 3-112 3 #8

j l
#9 4 4 4 4 4 3-114 #9
#lO 4-114 4-114 4-114 4-114 3-314 #lO
#ll 5-l l4 4-314 4-314 4-314 4 #ll

#3 l-ll4 l-114 l-114 1 #3


#4 l-ll2 l-ll2 l-1/2 l-ll4 #4
#5 2 2 2 l-314 #5

#6 2-314 2-114 2-114 2-ll4 2 #6


E80 #7 3 2-314 2-314 2-314 2-114 #7
#8 3-114 3 3 2-112 #8

31112

/ 1
#9 4 3-112 3-112 3-l 12 3 #9
#lO 4-114 3-314 3-314 3-314 3-114 #lO
#ll 5-114 4-ll2 4-114 4;ll4 3-112 #ll

#3 1 1 1 1 #3
#4 l-112 l-112 l-ll2 l-114 #4
#5 2 l-314 l-314 l-ll2 #5
I I
#6 2-314 2-114 2 2 l-3/4 #6
E90 #7 3 2-112 2-112 2-112 2 #7
#8 3-114 2-314 2-314 2-114 #8

-L-LL
#9 3-112 3 3 3 2-112 #9
#lO 4-ll4 3-314 3-112 3-112 3 #lO
#ll 5-114 4-ll2 4 3-114 3-114 #ll

1 Table is based on reinforcing bar fv = 60 ksi. Plate shear yield -19.8 ksi

A-13
Table A-18 - Design strength of connection with welded cross bar (kips)
I

Bars Same Size

Grade 40 Reinforcing bars; E70 weld electrodes

#3 #4 #5 #6 #7 #8 #9 #lO #ll
#3 2.5 3.3 4.1 4.9
#4 3.3 4.4 5.5 6.6 7.7
#5 4.1 5.5 6.9 8.2 9.6 11.0

#6 4.9 6.6 8.2 9.9 11.5 13.2 14.9


#7 7.7 9.6 ll.5 13.5 15.4 17.4 19.6
#8 11.0 13.2 15.4 17.6 19.8 23.3 24.8

#9 14.9 17.4 19.8 22.4 25.2 28.0


#lO 19.6 22.3 25.2 28.4 31.5
#ll 24.8 28.0 31.5 35.0

Grade 60 Reinforcing 1 Irs; E90 weld electrodes I

#3 #4 #5 #6 #7 #8 #9 #lO #ll
#3 3.2 4.2 5.3 6.4
#4 4.2 5.7 7.1 8.5
#5 5.3 7.1 8.8 10.6

#6 6.4 8.5 10.6 12.7 14.8 17.0 19.1


#7 9.9 12.4 14.8 17.3 19.8 22.3 25.1
#8 14.1 17.0 19.8 22.6 25.5 28.7 31.9

#9 19.1 22.3 25.5 28.8 32.4 36.0


#lO 25.1 28.7 32.4 36.5 40.5
#ll 31.9 36.0 40.5 45.0

A-14
Table A-1 9 - Dimensions of headed studs

Shank Head Head Stock Lengths (In.)


Diameter Diameter Thickness (Nominal Dimensions)
d, (in.) d, Un.1 t, Un.1

114 ll2 3116 1,2-lR,4

3/8 3/4 9/32 3,4,6

ll2 1 5/16 2,3,4,5, 698

518 l-l/4 5116 2,4,6, 8

314 l-114 3f8 3,3-l&?, 4, 4-112, 5, 6,7, 8

718 l-318 318 3-112, 4, 5, 6, 7,8

Table A-20 - Development length for deformed bar anchorsls*


I Normal Weight Concrete ( h = 1.0) 1 Sand-Lightweight Concrete ( li = 0.85)
Concrete
Bar Diameter (In.) Bar Dlameter (In.)
Strength
fc 114 318 112 518 314 ~ Il4 318 112 518 314

3000 12 12 16 21 25 12 15 19 24 29
4000 12 12 14 18 21 12 13 17 21 25
5000 12 12 13 16 19 12 12 15 19 23
6000 12 12 12 15 17 12 12 14 17 21
7000 12 12 12 13 16 12 12 13 16 19
8000 12 12 12 13 15 12 12 12 15 18

1 f, = 60,000 psi; for values above 60,000 psi, multiply by (2 - 6otpoo )


Y
2 For top bars, multiply by 1.4

A-15
.--*- __ -- -- __.__... --.-I -- .
TahlA A-21- Screw thread. balt head and nut standards

Bolt head dimensions, rounded to nearest 1/16 Inch, are in


accordance wlth ANSI 818.2.1-1972 (Square and Hex)
Standard Dimensions for Bolt Heads
Diam. Square Hex Heavy Hex
of Bolt Width Width Height Width Width Helght Width Width Height

(Ll.) ,,n,
ll2 314 l-1/16 5116 3/4 718 318 718 1 318
SI8 15116 l-5116 7116 15116 l-1/16 7116 l-106 l-1/4 7116
314 l-118 l-9116 ll2 l-va l-5/16 1/2 l-114 l-7116 ll2
718 l-5/16 l-718 518 l-5/16 l-112 9116 l-711 6 l-11116 9116
1 l-1/2 2-118 ll/16 l-112 l-314 ll/16 i-518 l-718 11116
l-114 i-718 2-518 718 i -718 2-1116 718 2 2-5116 718

1 r-N

Square
Nut dlmenslons, rounded to nearest 106 lnch, are In accordance with ANSI B18.2.2-1972
Dimensions for Nuts
Square Hex Heavy Square Heavy Hex
Nut Wldth Width Height Width Wldth Height Wldth Width Helght Width Width Height
Size F C N F C N F C N F C N
(in.) (In.) (In.) (In.) (In.) (In.) (In.) (In.) (In.) (In.) (tn.) (In.) (In.)
112 13116 l-va 7116 314 718 7116 718 l-114 lf2 718 1 ll2
518 1 l-7116 9116 15116 l-1116 9116 l-1116 l-112 518 l-1/16 l-114 518
314 l-lia l-9116 11116 l-lia l-5116 518 l-114 l-314 314 l-114 l-7116 314
718 l-5116 l-718 13116 l-5/16 l-1/2 314 l-7116 2-1116 718 l-7116 l-11116 718
1 l-1/2 2-lla 718 l-112 l-314 718 i-cija 2-5116 1 i-518 i-718 1
1l-1/4 l-718 2-518 l-1/8 l-718 2-3116 ll16 2 2-13116 l-114 2 Z-5116 l-114

Length of Bolt 112 518 314 718 1 l-114


314 .627 .442 .302 .334 10
718 ,739 ,601 .419 .462 9 fo 6 inches l-1/4 l-112 l-314 2 2-l 14 Z-314
1 .a3a .7a5 551 .606 8
l-114 1.075 1.227 .a90 .969 7 Over 6 inches l-112 l-3/4 2 2-114 2-112 3

A-16
Table A-22 - Strength of bolts and threaded rods

r- r
!I
r
l- Threaded A-36 Rods
l-
ASTM A-307 Bolts
T-
i-
rensile Ter lon SI 9ei w Ten on L. She ir
Bolt Nominal ;tress Nominal Servlce Nomina Setvice Uomlnal jervlce INominal 4Sewice
Iiametel Area Area itrength Load Strengtl Load ;trength Load ! Strength Load
(in.) (sq. In.) (sq. in. (kW3 (kW (kW4 (kW4 (kW (kW) WW (kW4
ll2 0.196 0.142 5.11 3.12 3.88 2.12 4.69 2.84 3.56 1.96
518 0.307 0.226 8.14 4.97 6.08 3.32 7.46 4.52 5.57 3.07
314 0.442 0.334 12.02 7.36 8.75 4.77 11.02 6.69 8.02 4.42

I
718 0.601 0.462 16.63 10.16 11.90 6.49 15.25 9.23 10.91 6.01
1 0.785 0.606 21.82 13.33 15.54 8.48 20.00 12.11 14.25 7.85
l-114 1.227 0.969 34.88 21.32 24.29 13.25 31.98 19.38 22.27 - 12.27

Table A-23 - Nominal strength of machine bolts in ferrules or weld nuts


Tenslle Shear Ferrule Data
Bolt Dla. Bolt Grade Strength Strength
Un.1 (ASTM) PS (Ib) J, (Ib) Threads/in. Bolt Length
ll2 A307 4820 3330 13 1
518 A307 7680 5220 ll l-116
314 A307 11,360 7510 10 l-118
1 A307 20,600 13,350 8 l-114

Table A-24 - Strength of wireskods used in concrete inserts


Wlre/Rod AISI or ASTM Approx. Min. Approx. Mln. Approx. Mln.
Nominal Dam. Number Ultimate Strength Yleld Strength Shear Strengtl
Un.) Classlflcatlon (Referente) (Ib) (Ib) (Ib)
.218 LowCarbon 1008 2,800 6,400 1,850
.223 Medium High Carbon 1030 4,500 3,800 3,000
.240 Low Carbon 1008 3,100 2,500 2,050
.243 Medium High Carbon 1038 7,000 6,000 4,650
.262 Low Carbn 1008 4,100 3,200 2,750
.306 LowCarbon 1008 4,200 3,300 2,800
.306 Medium High Carbon 1038 7,400 6,500 4,950
.375 Medium Low Carbon 1018 9,500 7,300 6,350
.440 Medium High Carbon 1038 16,000 13,500 10,650

Table A-25 - Range of expansion bolt strength&* (from manufacturers catalogs)


Bolt Dlameter(ln.) Tensile Strength (Ib) Shear Strength (Ib)
114 1,500 - 3,600 1,200 - 3,500

318 3,200 - 6,000 2,500 - 8,500

7300-15200

I l-114 I 34,000 -40,000 I 40,000 - 63,000 I

1 Strengths vary wth concrete strength. Concrete strengths range from 3500 to 5500 psi.
2 All values are at minimum recommended embedment.
Table A-26 - Plastic section moduli and shape factors
Section Plastlc Section Modulus, Z1, in3 Shape Factor

1. bh2 1.5
4
Ab!-

x-x axis:
bt (h -t) + f (h - 2Q2 1.12 (approx.)

2.
y-y axis:
& + (h - 2t)w2 1.55 (approx.)
2 4

t(ave.)
3. w(h - 2t)2
bt (h -t) + 4 1.12 (approx.)

b74

4. h3 1.70
-iii-

16
5. $[1-(1-h)3] cc

th2 for t << h 1.27 for t h

7
6. F[l- (l.$y (l-h)] 1 .12 (approx.) for thin walls
W

I-bd

h
7. 2

A-18
Table A-27 - Prestressing steel properties and allowable deslgn loads
Ultimate Ultmate Yield Prestress Load
Prestressing_ SMI Strength Area Load Load 0.8 Pu 0.7 Pu
(ksi) (sq. in.) (kW (kW (kW (kW
0.5 In. Strand 1 250 j 0.144 1 36.0 / 30.6 1 28.81 / 25.2 1

0.6 in. Strand 250 1 0.216 1 54.0 1 45.9 1 43.0 1 37.6 1

0.5 in. Strand 1 270 I 0.153 ( 41.3 1 35.1 1 33.0 1 28.9 1

0.6 In. Strand 270 1 0.217 / 58.3 1 49.8 / 46.9 / 41.0

l-
5/8 in. Diam. Bar I 157 0.28
I 44.0 ( 36.0 1 35.2 1 30.8 1

l in. Dlam. Bar I 150 0.85 1 127.5 1 104.6 / 102.0 / 89.3 1

l-1/4 In. Dlam. Bar / 150 1.25 1 187.5 1 153.8 1 150.0 1 131.3 1

l-3/8 In. Dlam. Bar 1 1501 1.58 1 237.0 1 194.3 1 189.6 1 165.9
Table A-28 - Design strength of concrete brackets, corbels, or haunches

\ Design strength by Eqs. 4.8.4or 4.8.5


for following criteria:
AS
fY = 60,000 psi
Nu= 0.2 V"
b = width of bearlng, n.
d = h - 1.25(h In inches)
$Vn 5 ~1000 h2bd (The design strength value listed
in the table above a blank entree corresponds to
this limit. The blank entree in a given COlUmn will
have the same value as the last llsted entree.)

Values of +Vn (klps)

75 85 96106

19 32 46 55 62 65 69 72 26 35 42 49 55 60 65 69
60 73 82 86 90 32 46 60 70 79 86 90 94 40 49 58 65 72 79 84 90

2227 0 0 0 0 0 1822 0 0 0 0 0 0
2-#5 23 35 46 55 62 69 74 77 26 35 42 49 55 60 65 0 28 34 40 45 50 55 0 0
2-##6 40 57 74 84 89 94 98 38 50 61 70 79 86 93 99 40 49 58 65 72 79 84 90
10
2-#7 91108 114119 40 57 74 91 io ll9124 54 67 78 89 98107 115122
2-##8 125140 108125 140146 57 74 91108125140 146152
2-H 142 142159 142 159175

4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22
2-#4 142329 0 0 0 0 0 1722 0 0 0 0 0 0 18 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
2-#5 23 35 46 55 62 69 0 0 26 35 42 49 55 0 0 0 28 34 40 45 0 0 0 0
2-##6 28 48 66 79 90 96100 105 38 50 61 70 79 86 93 99 40 49 58 65 72 79 84 90
2-#7 69 89109 ll6122 128 48 68 83 96107 117127133 54 67 78 89 98 107115122
2-#8 110 130144 151 69 89110 130 144151 157 69 88103 116128 140150160
2-#9 150 171 150171 181 89110 130150 171 181 188
12
34 22 34 44 53 60 66 0 0 25 33 40 47 52 0 0 0 27 33 38 44 0 0 0 0
3.#5 28 48 69 82 93 98103 107 39 52 63 73 82 90 97104 42 51 60 68 75 82 88 94
3-##6 89110 123130 136 48 69 89105 118 129136141 60 74 87 98108 118127135
3-#7 130150 164 110130 150164171 69 89110 130148 161 171177
3-#8 171 171 191 150 171 191 209
3-#9 212

A-20
Table A-28 - Design strength of concrete brackets, corbels, or haunches (continued)
lD (in.) 10 12 14

h
\
4 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28

2-#4 1822252830 0 0 0 19222427 0 0 0 0 192224 0 0 0 0 0


2+5 29 34 39 43 47 51 55 58 30 34 38 42 45 48 52 55 30 34 37 40 44 47 49 52
2-#6 42 49 56 62 68 73 79 83 42 49 54 60 65 70 74 79 43 49 54 58 63 67 71 75
2-#7 45 55 65 75 85 96106 109 55 65 74 82 88 95101 107 59 66 73 79 85 91 97102
248 116 75 85 96106 116126 65 75 85 96106 116126133
2#9 136
h
\
AS 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28

2-#4 182225 0 0 0 0 0 1922 0 0 0 0 0 0 19 0 0 0 0 0 0 0


2-#5 29 34 39 43 47 51 55 0 30 34 38 42 45 48 0 0 30 34 37 40 44 0 0 0
2-##6 42 49 56 62 68 73 79 83 42 49 54 60 65 70 74 79 43 49 54 56 63 67 71 75
8
2-#7 56 67 76 85 93100 107113 58 66 74 82 66 95101107 59 66 73 79 85 91 97102
2-##8 60 73 87100 114128139144 73 87 97 106116124132140 77 86 95 104112119126133
2-##9 141 155 100 114128141 155168 87100 114128141 151 160 168
h
b \
As 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28

2-##4 18 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
245 29 34 39 43 47 0 0 0 30 34 38 42 0 0 0 0 30 34 37 0 0 0 0 0
2-##6 42 49 56 62 68 73 79 83 42 49 54 60 65 70 74 79 43 49 54 58 63 67 71 0
10
2-#7 56 67 76 85 93100 107113 56 66 74 82 88 95101 107 59 66 73 79 85 91 97102
2-##8 74 87 99 110121 131 140148 76 87 97106 :16124132140 77 86 95 104112119126133
2-##9 91108 125142159175181 91108123135146157167177 97 109120131 141 151 160168

b 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28

2-#4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
26 29 34 39 0 0 0 0 0 3034 0 0 0 0 0 0 30 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
2-#6 42 49 56 62 68 73 79 0 42 49 54 60 65 70 0 0 43 49 54 58 63 0 0 0
247 56 67 76 65 93100 107113 58 66 74 82 88 95101 107 59 66 73 79 65 91 97102
2-#8 74 87 96 110121 131 140 1 48 76 87 97106116 1 24132 140 77 86 95 104112119126133
2-##9 89110126140153165177 1 88 96 110123135146 1 57167177 97 109120131 141 151 160168
12
3-#4 28 33 37 0 0 0 0 0 28 32 0 0 0 0 0 0 29 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
3-#5 43 51 58 65 71 77 82 0 44 51 57 62 68 73 0 0 45 51 56 61 65 0 0 0
3-#6 62 73 84 93102110118 1 25 64 73 82 90 97 1 05111 118 65 73 80 87 94101 107112
3-#7 85100114127139150160 1 70 87 99 111 122133 1 42152160 88 99109119128137145153
3-##8 69 110130150171 191 209216 110130145160173186198209 1 115129143155167179189200

3-#9 212232 150171 191212232252 1 130150171 191 212226240253


Table A-28 Design strength of concrete brackets, corbels, or haunches (continued)
.
$ (in.) 4 6 8

4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22
244 142329 0 0 0 0 0 1722 0 0 0 0 0 0 18 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
2-#5 23 35 46 55 62 0 0 0 26 35 42 49 0 0 0 0 28 34 40 0 0 0 0 0
2-#6 33 51 66 79 90 99106 110 38 50 61 70 79 86 93 0 40 49 58 65 72 79 0 0
2-##7 57 80 104116123129135 51 68 83 96 107117127135 54 67 78 89 98 107115122
2-#8 128145153160 57 80104125140153160166 71 88103 116128140150160
152176185 128152176185192 80104128147163177190199
14 344
2-##9 2i 34 44 53 60 0 0 0 25 33 40 47 0 0 0 0 27 33 38 0 0 0 0 0
35 33 53 69 82 93103 109113 39 52 63 73 82 90 97 0 42 51 60 68 75 82 0 0
3* 57 80 104123131 137143 56 75 91 105118129140149 60 74 87 98 108118127135
37 128152166174 57 80104128152166174181 80 101 118133148161 173184
98 176199 176199213 104128152176199213222
3-#9 223 223 247

4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22

2-#6 33 51 66 79 90 99107 0 38 50 61 70 79 86 0 0 40 49 58 65 72 0 0 0
2-#7 37 65 90 107122129136141 51 68 83 96 107117127135 54 67 78 89 98 107115122
2-##8 92 119144153161 168 65 89108125140153166174 71 88103116128140150160
2-##9 146173186194 92119146173186194202 90111 130147163177190202
3-#6 130137144151 75 91 105118129140149 60 74 87 98108118127135
16 347 146166175183 92 119143161 175183190 82 101 118133148161 173184
348 173 201 216 146173 201 216225 92119146173193210225233
3-#9 228 228255 201 228 255 269
4-#6 164173181 140157173181188 80 99 115131 144157169180
47 201 219 146173201 219228 92119146173197214228236
4-#t8 228 228 255 201 228255278
4-##9 282

4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22

26 33 51 66 79 90 99 0 0 38 50 61 70 79 0 0 0 40 49 58 65 0 0 0 0
2-#t7 42 69 90 107122135141 147 51 68 83 96107117127135 54 67 78 89 98 107115 0
2#8 73 103134151 116168175 67 89 108125 140153166177 71 88103116128140150160
2-#9 164185194203 73103134158177194203211 90 111 130147163177190202
3-##6 99 118135143151 157 56 75 91 105118129140149 60 74 87 98108118127135
18 347 103134164174183191 73 102124143161 176190199 82 101 118133148161 173184
3-#8 195216 226 103134164195216226235 103131154174193210225240
3-##9 226256 226256272 134164195226256272282
4-##6 162172181 189 100121140157173186196 80 99 115131 144157169 180
4-#7 164195219229 103134i64195219229238 103134157178197214230245
48 226256 226256 281 164195226256281291
, 4-#9 1 287 287317

4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22

2-#6 33 51 66 79 90 0 0 0 38 50 61 70 0 0 0 0 40 49 58 0 0 0 0 0
2-##7 44 69 90 107122135146153 51 68 83 96 107117127 0 54 67 78 89 98107 0 0
2-#8 47 81115140157166174182 67 89108125140153166177 71 88 103116128140150160
2-##9 149181 192202211 81 112136158177194210220 90 111 130147163177190202
3-#6 76 99 118135149156163 56 75 91 105118129140 0 60 74 87 98108118 0 0
20 3-#7 81 115149171 181 190199 77 102124143 161 176 190203 82 101 118133148 161 173184
3-#8 183213225235 81 115149183210225235245 107131 154 174 193210225240
3-#9 217251 272 217251 272283 115 149183217244265283294
4-#6 169179188196 75 100121140157173186199 80 99 115 131 144157169180
447 183216228238 81 115149183214228238248 109134157178197214230245
4-#8 217251 281 217251 281 292 115149183217251 280292303
4-#k9 285 285319 285 319330

A-22
Table A-28 - Design strength of concrete brackets, corbels, or haunches (continued)
1, (W 10 12 14

10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28

2-#4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
2-##5 2934 0 0 0 0 0 0 30 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
2-#6 42 49 56 62 68 0 0 0 42 49 54 60 0 0 0 0 434954 0 0 0 0 0
2-#7 56 67 76 85 9310~107113 58 66 74 82 88 95101 0 59 66 73 79 85 91 0 0
2-#8 74 87 99 110121 131 140148 76 87 97 106116124132140 77 86 95 104112119126133
2* 93110128140153165177188 96110123135146157167177 97 109120131 141 151 160168
14 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
3-##4 2833 0 0 0 0 0 0 28 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
3-#5 43 51 58 65 71 0 0 0 44 51 57 62 0 0 0 0 455156 0 0 0 0 0
3-##6 62 73 84 93 102110118125 64 73 82 90 97105111118 65 73 80 87 94101 107112
3-#7 85100114127139150160170 87 99 111 122133142152160 88 99109119128137145153
3-#8 104128149166181196210222 113130145160173186198209 115129143155167179189200
3+9 152176199223247265 128152176199219236253265 146164181197212226240253

10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28

2* 42 49 56 62 0 0 0 0 42 49 54 0 0 0 0 0 4349 0 0 0 0 0 0
247 56 67 76 85 93100107 0 58 66 74 82 88 95 0 0 59 66 73 79 85 0 0 0
28 74 87 99 110121 131 140148 76 87 97 106116124132140 77 86 95 104112119126133
27 93110126140153165177188 96 110123135146157167177 97 109120131 141 151 160168
3-#6 62 73 84 93102110118125 64 73 82 90 97105111 0 65 73 80 87 94101 0 0
3-##7 85100114127139150160170 87 99 111 122133142152160 88 99109119128137145153
16
348 110130149166181196210222 113130145160173186198209 115129143155167179189200
3-#9 119146173201228248265279 143164184202219236251265 146164181197212226240253
83 98112124136147157167 85 97109120130140149157 86 97107117126134142150
ti7 113133152169185200214227 116133148163177190202214 118132146159171182193204
48 119146 173201 228255278288 146173194213231 248264279 154173190207223238253266
4-#9 282309 202228255282309337 173201 228255282302320337

10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28

2-#6 42 49 56 0 0 0 0 0 4249 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
2-#7 5667768593100 0 0 58 66 74 82 88 0 0 0 59 66 73 79 0 0 0 0
28 74 87 99 110121 131 140148 76 87 97 106116124132140 77 86 95104102119126 0
2-#9 93 110126140153165177188 96110123135146157167177 97 109120131 141 151 160168
3-#6 62 73 84 93 102110118 0 6473829097105 0 0 65 73 80 87 94 0 0 0
37 85100114127139150160170 87 99 111 122133142152160 88 99 109119128137145153
18 111130149166181196210222 113130145160173186198209 115129143155167179189200
38
3-##9 134164188210229248265281 143164184202219236251265 146164181197212226240253
3-##6 83. 98 112124136147157167 85 97109120130140149157 86 97107117126134142150
4-#7 113133152169185200214227 116133148163177190202214 118132146159171182193204
48 134164195221 242261 279296 151 173194213231 248264279 154173190207223238253266
4-#9 226256287317348 164195226256287314334353 194218241262282302320337

10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28

2* 4249 0 0 0 0 0 0 42 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
2+7 56 67 76 85 93 0 0 0 58 66 74 82 0 0 0 0 59 66 73 0 0 0 0 0
248 74 87 99110121131140 0 76 87 97106116124 0 0 77 86 95104112 0 0 0
2-#I9 93 110126140153165177188 96110123135143157167177 97 109120131 141 151 160188
3-##6 62 73 84 93 102 0 0 0 64 73 82 90 0 0 0 0 65 73 60 0 0 0 0 o
3-#7 85100114127139150160170 87 99 111 122133142152160 88 99109119128137145 0
20
348 111 130149166181196210222 113130145160173186198209 115129143155167179189200
3-#9 140165188210229248265281 143164184202219236251265 146164181197212226240253
4-#6 83 98112124136147157167 85 97109120130140149157 86 97 107117126 134142 0
4-#7 113133152169165200214227 116133148163177190202214 118132146159171182193204
48 148174198221 242261 279296 151 173194213231248264279 154173190207223238253266
4-#9 149183217251285319350362 183217245270292314334353 194218241262282302320337
Table A-28 - Design strength of concrete brackets, corbels, or haunches (continued)
2, (in.) 4 6 8
-,--LS
h
b %
\ 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22
2-H 33 51 66 79 90 0 0 0 38 50 61 70 0 0 0 0 40 49 58 0 0 0 0 0
2-#7 44 69 90 107122135146 0 51 68 83 96 107117 0 0 54 67 78 89 98 0 0 0
2-#8 51 89118140159172180188 67 89108125140153166177 71 88 103116128140150 0
249 126164188199210219 84 112136158177194210224 90 111 130147163177190202
3-##6 49 76 99 118135149161 168 56 75 91 105118129140 0 60 74 87 98108118 0 0
37 51 89 126161 177188197206 77102124143161176190203 82101118133148161 173184
22
348 164201 222233244 89 126162187210230244253 107131154174193210225240
3-#t9 238269282 164201 238269282 294 126164195220244265285303
4-#6 158175185195203 75 100121 140157173186199 80 99 115131144157169180
4-#7 164201 224236247 89 126164191 214235247257 lo9134157178197214230245
448 238276 291 201 238 276 291 303 126164201 232257280 300315
4-#9 313 313350 238276313350364
h
b \
4 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22
2-#6 33 51 66 79 0 0 0 0 38 50 61 0 0 0 0 0 4049 0 0 0 0 0 0
247 44 69 90 107122135 0 0 51 68 83 96 107 0 0 0 54 67 78 89 0 0 0 0
2-#8 56 91118140159176186194 67 89 108125 140153166 0 71 88 103116128140 0 0
2-#9 97138177194206216226 84 112136158177194210224 90 111 130147163177190202
3-#6 49 76 99118135149161 0 56 75 91 105118129 0 0 60748798108 0 0 0
3-#7 56 97 135 161 183194203212 77 102124143161 176190203 82 101 118133148161 173184
24
348 138179216229241 252 97133162187210230248262 107131154174193210225240
3-#9 219260279292 138179219260279292304 135166195220244265285303
132158179191 201 209 75 100121140157173186199 80 99 115 131 144157169180
4-#7 138179219232244255 97 136165 191 214235254265 109 134157178197214230245
4-#8 260288301 138179219260 288301 314 138175205232257280300320
301 342 301 342362 179 219260301 342 362376

10 12 14
-.-.-.-
h
b %
\ 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28

2-#6 4249 0 0 0 0 0 0 42 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
27 56 67 76 85 0 0 0 0 58 66 74 0 0 0 0 0 5966 0 0 0 0 0 0
248 74 87 99 110121 131 0 0 76 87 97106116 0 0 0 77 86 95 104 0 0 0 0
2-#i9 93110126140153165177188 96110123135146157167177 97109120131141151 160 0
3-##6 62738493102 0 0 0 64 73 82 90 0 0 0 0 65 73 80 0 0 0 0 0
37 85100114127139150160170 87 99 111 122133142152 0 88 99 109119128137 0 0
22
3-#8 111 130149166181 196210222 113130145160173186198209 115129143 155 167179189200
3-#i9 140165188210229248265281 143164184202219236251 265 146164181 197212226 240253
83 98112124136147157167 85 97 109120130140149 0 86 97107117126134 0 0
4-#7 113133152169185200214227 116133148163177190202214 118132146159171182193204
4-##8 148174198221 242261 279296 151 173194213231 248264279 154173190 207223238 253266
164201 238276306331 354375 191 219 245 270292314334353 194218241 262 282302320337
h
b % 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28
\
2-#6 420 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
2-#7 56 67 76 0 0 0 0 0 5866 0 0 0 0 0 0 59 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
28 74 87 99110121 0 0 0 76 87 97106 0 0 0 0 77 86 95 0 0 0 0 0
2-#7 93110126140153165177188 96110123135146157167 0 97 109120131 141 151 0 0
3-M 62 73 84 93 0 0 0 0 64 73 82 0 0 0 0 0 6573 0 0 0 0 0 0
347 85100114127139150160 0 87 99111 122133142 0 0 88 99 109119128 0 0 0
24 111 130149166181 196210222 113130145160173186198209 115129143155167179189200
3-#8
3-#9 140165188210229248265281 143164184202219236251 265 146164181197212226240253
4-#6 83 98 112124136147157 0 85 97109120130140 0 0 86 97107117126 0 0 0
4-#7 113133152169185 200214227 116133148163177190202214 118132146159171 182193204
48 148174198221 242261 279296 151 173194213231 248264279 154173190207223238253266
4-#9 179219251 280306331 354375 191219245270292314334353 194218241 262 282 302320337

A-24
Table A-29 - Design strength of structural steel haunches - concrete

Values are for design strength of concrete by


Eq. 4.9.1 for the following crteria:

c = 5000 psi; for other concrete strengths


multiply values by fJ5000

Adequacy of structural steel section should


be checked.

Additlonal design strength, +Vt can be obtained


with reinforcing bars -- See Table A-30

-4 l,-3 l-
4 = 0.85
Values of +VC (klps)

ihear span, tZmbedment,


-T- Effective Width of Sectlon (In.)
a (in.) 1, (in.) 6 7 8 9 10 ll 12 13 14 15 16 17
6 33 38 43 49 54 60 65 70 76 81 87 92
8 47 55 62 70 78 86 94 102 109 117 125 133
10 62 72 82 92 103 113 123 133 144 154 164 174
12 76 89 102 115 128 140 153 166 179 191 204 217
14 92 107 122 137 153 168 183 198 214 229 244 259
16 107 124 142 160 178 196 213 231 249 267 285 302
18 122 142 163 183 203 224 244 264 284 305 325 345
20 137 160 183 206 229 252 274 297 320 343 366 389
22 152 178 203 229 254 280 305 330 356 381 407 432
6 25 29 33 38 42 46 50 54 58 63 67 71
8 38 44 50 57 63 69 75 82 88 94 101 107
10 51 60 68 n 85 94 102 111 119 128 136 145
12 65 76 87 98 108 119 130 141 152 163 173 184
14 79 92 106 119 132 145 159 172 185 198 211 225
16 94 109 125 141 156 172 187 203 219 234 250 266
18 108 126 145 163 181 199 217 235 253 271 289 307
20 123 144 164 185 205 226 246 267 287 308 328 349
22 138 161 184 207 230 253 276 299 322 345 368 391
6 20 24 27 30 34 37 41 44 47 51 54 58
8 32 37 42 47 53 58 63 68 74 79 84 89
10 44 51 58 66 73 80 87 95 102 109 117 124
12 57 66 75 85 94 104 113 123 132 141 151 160
6 14 70 82 93 105 116 128 140 151 163 175 186 198
16 84 97 111 125 139 153 167 181 195 209 223 237
18 98 114 130 146 163 179 195 211 228 244 260 276
20 112 130 149 168 186 205 223 242 261 279 298 317
22 126 147 168 189 210 231 252 273 294 315 336 357
6 17 20 23 26 29 31 34 37 40 43 46 48
8 27 32 36 41 45 50 54 59 63 68 72 77
10 38 45 51 57 64 70 76 83 89 95 102 108
12 50 58 67 75 83 92 100 108 117 125 133 142
8 14 62 73 83 94 104 115 125 135 146 156 167 177
16 75 88 101 113 126 138 151 163 176 188 201 214
18 89 103 118 133 148 163 177 192 207 222 236 251
20 102 119 136 153 170 187 204 222 239 256 273 290
- 22 116 135 155 174 193 213 232 251 271 290 309 329

A-25
Table A-30 - Design strength of structural steel haunches - reinforcement

Values are for addifonaldesign strength


obtained from refnforcement by Eq. 4.9.3
for following criteria:

As = 2 bars welded to steel shape


A*=A.
Relnforcement anchored In oniy one dlrectlon.

When relnforcement, A, and A., ls anchored


both above and below steel shape, lt can be
counted twlce (values may be doubled).

For design strength of concrete, e Ve ,


see Table A-29 -4-I l,-3 L-
Values of Vr (kips)
Relnforclng bar slze Relnforcing bar slze
f,, = 40 ksl fY = 60 ksl
Shear span, Embedment,
a (in.) Ie (in.) #BI #5 #/6 #7 #8 #9 #4 #5 #/6 #7 #8 ##9
6 7 ll 15 21 27 35 10 16 23 32 41 52
6 10 15 22 30 39 49 14 23 33 44 58 73
10 ll la 25 35 45 57 17 26 38 52 68 86
12 12 19 28 38 50 63 19 29 42 57 74 94
2 14 13 21 30 40 53 66 20 31 44 60 79 100
16 14 21 31 42 55 69 21 32 46 63 82 104
18 14 22 32 43 57 72 21 33 48 65 85 107
20 14 23 33 44 58 73 22 34 49 67 87 110
22 15 23 33 45 59 75 22 35 50 68 89 112
6 5 8 12 16 21 27 8 12 18 24 31 40
8 8 12 18 24 31 40 12 18 27 36 47 60
10 10 15 21 29 38 48 14 22 32 44 57 73
12 ll 17 24 33 43 54 16 25 36 49 64 82
4 14 12 18 26 36 47 59 17 27 39 53 70 88
16 12 19 28 38 49 62 la 29 42 57 74 93
18 13 20 29 39 51 65 19 30 43 59 77 98
20 13 21 30 41 53 67 20 31 45 61 80 101
22 14 21 31 42 55 69 20 32 46 63 82 104
6 4 7 10 13 17 21 6 10 14 19 25 32
8 7 10 15 20 26. 33 10 16 22 30 40 50
10 8 13 19 25 33 42 12 19 28 38 50 63
12 9 15 21 29 38 48 14 22 32 44 57 72
6 14 10 16 23 32 42 53 16 24 35 48 63 79
16 ll 17 25 34 45 57 17 26 38 51 67 85
18 12 18 27 36 47 60 la 28 40 54 71 89
20 12 19 28 38 49 62 18 29 41 56 74 93
22 13 20 29 39 51 64 19 30 43 58 76 96
6 4 6 8 ll 14 18 5 a 12 16 21 27
8 6 9 13 17 23 29 9 13 19 26 34 43
lo 7 ll 16 22 29 37 ll 17 25 34 44 55
12 9 13 19 26 34 43 13 20 29 39 51 65
a 14 9 15 21 29 38 48 14 22 32 43 57 72
16 10 16 23 31 41 52 15 24 35 47 61 78

/ 20 2 18 / l 111
2 1i9
7la 26 27 24 3 35 36 46 47 43 58 5 60 18 16 17 28 25 27 40 37 39 50 52 5 68
65 71 90 83 87

A-26
rable A-31 - Shear strength of connection angles

t = 4% =,
Q, fY b ()

@ = 0.90

b = width of angle (in.)

= yleld strength of angle steel


$
= 36,000 psi

+Vn. . (Ib per lnch of wldth)


Angle
Thlckness e, = 3W e, = 1 e, = l-1/2 e, I 2 e, = 2.1/2
t (in.)
SI16 1055 791 527 396 316
318 1519 1139 759 570 456
7116 2067 1550 1034 775 620

ll2 2700 2025 1350 1013 810


9116 3417 2563 1709 1281 1025
518 4219 3164 2109 1582 1266

Table A-32 - Axial strength of connection angles

t =

@ = 0.90

b = wldth of angle (In.)

f Y = yleld strength of angle steel N


= 36,000 psl

+Nm. . (Ib per lnch of wldth)


Angle
Thlckness Zp!Y z, q 6 z, = 7 Z, = 8
t (in.) g q 3 g = 4 g = 5 g = 6
5116 264 198
318 380 285 228
7116 517 388 310 258

1/2 I 675 / 506 405 I 338


I
9116 854 641 513 427
518 1055 791 633 527

A-27
Table A-33 - Tensle strength of welded headed studs and bolts (see Fig.- 4.11 .l)
Maximum Design Tensile Strength, $P,, Limited by Concrete Strength (klps)
Normal Welght Concrete Sand-Llg htwelg ht Concrete
Edge Stud Diameter, d, (In.) Diameter, d, (in.)
Dist., Length,
d, (in.) 1 B (n.) 114 310 ll2 518 314 710 114 3/8 ll2 518 314 718
2.5 4.5 4.9 5.3 5.7 5.7 5.9 3.9 4.2 4.5 4.8 4.8
4.0 6.8 7.2 7.6 7.9 7.9 8.1 5.8 6.1 6.4 6.8 6.8 ;.; .
2 5.0 8.3 8.7 9.1 9.5 9.5 9.6 7.1 7.4 7.7 0.; 9.; "9.5
6.0 9.8 10.2 10.6 11.0 11.0 ll.2 8.4 8.7 9.0
7.0 ll.3 ll.7 12.1 12.5 12.5 12.7 9.6 10.0 10.3 10:s 10:6 10:s
8.0 12.9 13.2 13.6 14.0 14.0 14.2 10.9 ll.3 ll.6 ll.9 ll.9 12.1
2.5 5.7 6.1 6.6 7.1 7.1 7.3 4.8 5.2 5.6 6.0 6.0 6.2
4.0 10.2 10.8 ll.3 11.9 11.9 12.2 8.7 9.2 9.6 10.1 10.1 10.4
3 5.0 12.5 13.1 13.6 14.2 14.2 14.5 10.6 11.1 ll.6 12.1 12.1 12.3
6.0 14.8 15.3 15.9 16.5 16.5 16.7 12.5 13.0 13.5 14.0 14.0 14.2
7.0 17.0 17.6 18.2 18.7 18.7 19.0 14.5 15.0 15.4 15.9 15.9 16.2
8.0 19.3 19.9 20.4 21.0 21.0 21.3 16.4 16.9 17.4 17.8 17.8 18.1
2.5 '5.7 6.1 6.6 7.1 7.1 7.3 4.8 5.2 5.6 6.0 6.0 6.2
4.0 13.6 14.4 15.1 15.9 15.9 16.3 ll.6 12.2 12.9 13.5 13.5 13.8
4 5.0 16.6 17.4 18.2 18.9 18.9 19.3 14.1 14.8 15.4 16.1 16.1 16.4
6.0 19.7 20.4 21.2 21.9 21.9 22.3 16.7 17.4 18.0 18.7 18.7 19.0
7.0 22,7 23.5 24.2 25.0 25.0 25.3 19.3 19.9 20.6 21.2 21.2 21.5
8.0 25.7 26.5 27.2 28.0 28.0 28.4 21.9 22.5 23.2 23.8 23.8 24.1
2.5 5.7 6.1 6.6 7.1 7.1 7.3 4.8 5.2 5.6 6.0 6.0 6.2
4.0 13.6 14.4 15.1 15.9 15.9 16.3 ll.6 12.2 12.9 13.5 13.5 13.8
5 5.0 20.8 21.8 22.7 23.6 23.6 24.1 17.7 18.5 19.3 20.1 20.1 20.5
6.0 24.6 25.5 26.5 27.4 27.4 27.9 20.9 21.7 22.5 23.3 23.3 23.7
7.0 28.4 29.3 30.3 31.2 31.2 31.7 24.1 24.9 25.7 26.5 26.5 26.9
8.0 32.2 33.1 34.0 35.0 35.0 35.5 27.3 28.1 28.9 29.7 29.7 30.1
2.5 5.7 6.1 6.6 7.1 7.1 7.3 4.8 5.2 5.6 6.0 6.0 6.2
4.0 13.6 14.4 15.1 15.9 15.9 16.3 ll.6 12.2 12.9 13.5 13.5 13.8
6 5.0 20.8 21.8 22.7 23.6 23.6 24.1 17.7 18.5 19.3 20.1 20.1 20.5
6.0 29.5 30.6 31.8 32.9 32.9 33.5 25.1 26.0 27.0 28.0 28.0 28.5
7.0 34.0 35.2 36.3 37.5 37.5 38.0 28.9 29.9 30.9 31.8 31.8 32.3
8.0 38.6 39.7 40.9 42.0 42.0 42.6 32.8 33.8 34.7 35.7 35.7 36.2
2.5 5.7 6.1 6.6 7.1 7.1 7.3 4.8 5.2 5.6 6.0 6.0 6.2
4.0 13.6 14.4 15.1 15.9 15.9 16.3 ll.6 12.2 12.9 13.5 13.5 13.8
7 5.0 20.8 21.8 22.7 23.6 23.6 24.1 17.7 18.5 19.3 20.1 20.1 20.5
6.0 29.5 30.6 31.8 32.9 32.9 33.5 25.1 26.0 27.0 28.0 28.0 28.5
7.0 39.7 41.0 42.4 43.7 43.7 "44.4 33.8 34.9 36.0 37.1 37.1 37.7
8.0 45.0 46.3 47.7 49.0 49.0 49.7 38.3 39.4 40.5 41.6 41.6 42.2
2.5 5.7 6.1 6.6 7.1 7.1 7.3 4.8 5.2 5.6 6.0 6.0 6.2
4.0 13.6 14.4 15.1 15.9 15.9 16.3 11.6 12.2 12.9 13.5 13.5 13.8
'8 5.0 20.8 21.8 22.7 23.6 23.6 24.1 17.7 18.5 19.3 20.1 20.1 20.5
6.0 29.5 30.6 31.8 32.9 32.9 33.5 25.1 26.0 27.0 28.0 28.0 28.5
7.0 39.7 41.0 42.4 43.7 43.7 44.4 33.8 34.9 36.0 37.1 37.1 37.7
8.0 51.4 53.0 54.5 56.0 56.0 56.7 43.7 45.0 46.3 47.6 47.6 48.2

Maximum Design Tensile Strength3, PS Dlameter(ln.) ll4 318 112 510 314 718
of Studs, Limlted by Steel Strength (klps) P* 2.7 6.0 10.6 16.6 23.9 32.5

1 f', = 5000 psi; for other strengths multiply by Jf,


2 For stud groups, also check value from equations in Fig. 4.11.4 or Fig. A-3
3 See Table A-22 for bolt strengths

A-28
Table A-34 - Stud groups: Minimum thickness of member for truncated
pyramid failure

h m, = (2 + 2 1,)/2

where: g
z = lesser of the spacing x and y
Y -
2, = stud embedment length
i- @ 41
Note: If h 2 hmln, truncated pyramld
I:1
failure will occur (see Fig. 4.11.2. l--X4
If h * hmln> fallure wlll penetrate
through the member (see Flg.
4.11.3)
Mlnlmum Thlckness, hmin (In.)

10 9 10 ll 12 13 13 13 13 13
12 9 10 ll 12 13 14 14 14 14

0 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
2 11 11 ll ll ll ll ll ll ll
4 ll
10 6 ll
8 ll
10 ll
12 ll

A-29
Fig. A-3 - Design pull-out strength of stud groups (including edge and
member thickness effects)

36

27

21 k,
1 8 and
1 5 k,
12
9
6
3
2
10 20 30 40 50
k, and k,

The following nomenclature is required for use


of Fig. A-3 (Example 4.11 .l illustrates its use):

Design pull-out strength (see Fig. 4.11.4 - Case


61,

@PC = WC, - @PC*

where:
9 = 0.85
P = 4L$7 k,k,
k, = (x + d,, + d,,)*
k* = (Y + d,, + d.J
P = 4h \I;i kl,kl*
kq = (x + 21e - 2h)**
k2
= (y + 2$ - 2h)*
4 = stud embedment length
h = member thickness

* For d,, >Ze, d,, = le; i = 1,2,3,4


** For h 2 h,,,, k, = k, = 0 (hmin is given in
Table A-34)
A-30 U
Table A-35 - Shear strength of welded headed studs and bolts

Maximum Design Shear Strength, @Vc, Limited by Concrete Strength (kips)

c
(psi)
Edge
Dist.,
de
F l/4
Normal Weight Concrete ( h = 1 .O)

318
Diameter, d, (in.)
l/2 518 314 718
f
II4
Sand-Lightweight Concrete ( h = 0.85)

318
Diameter, d, (in.)
112 518 314 718

2 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1
3 2.1 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 1.8 2.6 2.6 2.6 2.6 2.E
4 2.1 4.7 5.4 5.4 5.4 5.4 1.8 4.0 4.6 4.6 4.6 4.E
5 2.1 4.7 8.4 8.4 8.4 8.4 1.8 4.0 7.2 7.2 7.2 7.:
4000 6 2.1 4.7 8.4 12.2 12.2 12.2 1.8 4.0 7.2 10.3 10.3 10.:
7 2.1 4.7 8.4 13.2 16.5 16.5 1.8 4.0 7.2 11.2 14.1 14.1
8 2.1 4.7 8.4 13.2 19.0 21.6 1.8 4.0 7.2 11.2 16.1 18.~
9 2.1 4.7 8.4 13.2 19.0 25.8 1.8 4.0 7.2 11.2 16.1 22.t
or more
2 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.3 -1.3 . 1'.
3 2.4 3.4 3.4 3.4 3.4 2.0 2.0 2.9 2.9 2.9 2.9 2.!
4 2.4 5.3 6.0 6.0 6.0 6.0 2.0 4.5 5.1 5.1 5.1 5.'
5 2.4 5.3 9.4 9.4 9.4 9.4 2.0 4.5 8.0 8.0 8.0 8.f
5000 6 2.4 5.3 9.4 13.6 13.6 13.6 2.0' 4.5 8.0 11.6 11.6 1 1.f
7 2.4 5.3 9.4 14.7 18.5 18.5 2.0 4.5 8.0 12.5 15.7 15.'
8 2.4 5.3 9.4 14.7 21.2 24.2 2.0 4.5 8.0 12.5 18.0 20.!
9 2.4 5.3 9.4 14.7 21.2 28.9 2.0 4.5 8.0 12.5 18.0 24.1
or more

2 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.4 1
3 2.6 3.7 3.7 3.7 3.7 3.7 2.2 3.2 3.2 3.2 3.2 3:;
4 2.6 5.8 6.6 6.6 6.6 6.6 2.2 4.9 5.6 5.6 5.6 5.1
5 2.6 5.8 10.3 10.3 10.3 10.3 2.2 4.9 8.8 8.8 8.8 8.1
6000 6 2.6 5.8 10.3 14.9 14.9 14.9 2.2 4.9 8.8 12.7 12.7 12.'
7 2.6 5.8 10.3 16.2 20.3 20.3 2.2 4.9 8.8 13.7 17.2 17.:
8 2.6 5.8 10.3 16.2 23.3 26.5 2.2 4.9 8.8 13.7 19.8 22.!
9 2.6 5.8 10.3 16.2 23.3 31.7 2.2 4.9 8.8 13.7 19.8 26.!
or more
- - I

Maximum Design Shear Strength, $V,, , of Diameter ( in.) I/4 3/8 l/2 518 314 71
Studs Limited by Steel Strength (kips); 41 = 1.0 % 2.2 5.0 8.8 13.8 19.9 27

1 See Table A-22 for bolt strengths

A-31
b = width; d = depth I about Center of Gravity

b(3d2 + b2)
P- 6

%(bd:d)
4bd + d2 ,, = (b +d)4 - 6b2d2
4. s= 6 12 (b+d)

---It- b2
ST= ~ 8b3 +6bd2 + d3
I, =
2b + d 12
5. s=bd+ $
!I I: -AL
2b + d
-Ibl--

P-b-l
7. j$- s=bd+y-d2
L cl

2bd+d2 b3 +8d3 d4
s= 3 Ip = ,2 --
b + 2d

t--b-I
9. r I, = b3 + 3b2 + d3
6
L

r
J- I, = 27c?

A-32
Table A-37 - Column base .date thickness reauirements
.
Thickness Required for Concrete Bearing (in.)
f
(;;I) x, q 3 x0 = 4 x0 = 5

500 518 314 1


1000 314 1 l-318
1500 1 l-3/8 i-98
2000 l-1/8 l-1/2 l-718

2500 5-l/4 l-518 2


3000 l-318 l-718 2-l/4
3500 l-1/2 2 2-l/2
4000 l-5/8 2-118 2-98 -r 1
b f

I
External Anchor Bolts Internal Anchor Bolts

Thickness Required for Bolt Loading (In.)

A-33
APPENDIX B

9. Klein, G. J., Design of Spandrel Beams, PCI


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Specially Funded Research and Development
Program - Research Project No. 5, Presrressed
Concrete Institute, Chicago, Illinois, 1986, 104
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Prestressed Concrete (MNL 124-82),
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Prestressed Concrete, First Edition, Prestfessed nois, 1982.
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3. Marlin, L. D., and Korkosz, W. J., Connections Production of Precast and Prestressed Con-
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4. PCI Design Handbook - Precast and nal, V. 30, No. 1, January-February 1985, pp.
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Presrressed Concrete Institute, Chicago, Illi-
nois, 1985. 13. The Design of Products to be Hot-Dip
Galvanized after Fabrication (MA-35 Ml 184)
5. Clough, D. P., Design of Connections for Pre- American Hot-Dip Galvanizers Association,
cast Prestressed Concrete Buildings for the Washington, D. C., 1984
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Bars, Carbon, Cold-Finished, Standard
7. Stanton, J. F., Anderson, R. G., Dolan, C. W., Quality
and McCleary, D. E., Moment Resistant Con- l Al 43-84-Recommended Practice for Safe-
nections and Simple Connections, PCI Spe- guarding Against Embrittlement of Hot-
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Funded Research and Development Program- Strength Bolts for Structural Steel Joints
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B-l
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Tensile Strength
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Wire, Deformed,forConcrete Reinforce- Having Reinforcement at an Angle to the Shear
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Concrete Reinforcement
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15. CSA Specification G164, Galvanizing of Ir- Milwaukee, Unpublished Report, 1979.
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29. ACI Committee 439, Mechanical Connections
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J 30. Kriz, L. B., and Raths, C. H., Connections in
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20. Expansion Joints in Buildings, Technical 31. Screw Threads - ANSI B1.l - 1974; Bolt
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National Academy of Sciences, 1974. - ANSI 818.2.1 - 1972, American National
Standards Insitute, New York, N. Y.
21. Speyer, I. J., for PCI Committee on Precast
Concrete Bearing Wall Buildings, Considera- 32. Manual of Steel Construction, Eighth Edition,
tions for the Design of Precast Concrete Bear- American lnsritufe of Steel Construction, Chi-
ing Wall Buildings to Withstand Abnormal cago, Illinois, 1980.

B-2
33. Shaikh, A. F., and Yi, W., In-Place Strength of 44. Reinforced Bearing Connections for Precast
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14.

B-3
APPENDIX C

LIST OF APPLICABLE CONVERSIONS BETWEEN


US CUSTOMARY (USC) UNITS AND SI UNITS

USC to SI
1 in = 0.0254 m Length and Displacement 1 m = 39.37 in
1 ft = 0.3048 m

1 in* = 6.452 x 1C4 m* Area


1 ft* = 9.290 x lo-* m2

1 in3=1.639x10-5m3 Section Modulus and


1 ft3 = 2.832 x lo-* m3 Volume

1 in4 =4.162x1V7m4
1 ft4 =8.631 xlQ3m4

1 lb = 4.448 N Force and Force per 1 N = 0.225 lb


1 k=4.448kN Unit Length 1 kN = 0.225 k
1 lb/in = 1.751 x 1 O* N/m 1 N/m = 5.711 x lo lb/in
1 Ib/ft = 14.59 N/m 1 N/m = 0.0685 Ib/ft
1 wft = 14.59 kN/m 1 kN/m = 0.0685 k/ft

1 lb-in = 0.1130 N-m Bending Moment 1 N-m = 8.850 lb-in


1 lb-ft = 1.356 N-m 1 N-m = 0.737 lb-ft
1 k-in = 0.1130 kN-m 1 kN-m = 8.850 k-in
1 k-ft = 1.356 kN-m 1 kN-m = 0.737 k-ft

Stress and Modulus of 1 kPa I= 0.145 psi


Elasticity 1 MPa = 0.145 ksi
1 Pa = 0.0209 psf

Tt = 1.8 T, + 32 Temperature T, = (T, -32)/l .8

c-1