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Unit 7 Innovation

6 I won't need to include some facts and figures.

7 I will need to find simiiarities and differences between nations in their approach to helping
b Do you agree with Jun's analysis of the essay title? Is there any part of it he has not

2.2 a The following extract from a book on International business contains relevant Information for
the essay. Gist read it and answer the questions.
1 Does the writer believe that innovation onty occurs inside companes?
2 . Does she think there is only one factor that helps crate innovation?
3 What one factor does she suggest is clear evdence of innovation?

Innovation in the national environment

We tend to think of innovation, especally technological breakthroughs, as the product
of talented individual inventors or dynamic firms, which stand out from ordinary, less
visionary counterparts. Creative people and firms, however, do not simply arrive from
nowhere. They come from contexts, both organizational and geographical. At company
and national level, key factors play a part in identifying, helping and directing creative

Nations and innovative capacity

Nation-specific factors nave been rcognized as critical to technological innovation
10 capacity, From the 1980s, the notion of the 'national system of innovation' was used
to explain the technological success of Japan (Archibugi and Michie, 1997) which
was a leader of a flexible approach to manufacturing. A country's national innovation
system s determinad by many different factors such as education and training, research
and development (R&D), government polcies and funding of research, investment n
15 teecommunicaton infrastructure and inter-firm relationshps.

National spending on R&D by both firms and governments s an important indicator of

levis of innovaton, and also contributes to economc growth (UN, 2006: 103). R&D
expenditure as a percentage of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in different countries is
shown in the figure below* All these countries saw rises between 1975 and 2006.
Every country has strengths and weaknesses in particular fields of science and technology.
The world's leading countries in formal R&D expenditure differ considerably n their
research strengths.

Adapted from Morrison, J. (2009). International Business - Chailenges n a Changing World. Basingstoke: Palgrave
Macmilan. pp.442-3.

*(See page 101 for the figure.)

b Read the extract again cfosely and answer the questions.
1 Does the author believe that innovation s the result of people working alone or people
working in different contexts?
2 ' How did Japan help with innovation?
3 What was the result?
4 Apart from innovation, what is another result of investment n R&D?
c What points made n the article could Jun use in his essay?

Unit 7 Innovation

Synonyms a Jun has made notes of synonyms (words or phrases that have a simfar meaning) for
sections of the first paragraph of the extract in 2.2a. Match the synonyms (a-i) to the
original phrases in the extract.

1 We tend to thnk of nnovation, especially 2 technologcal breakthroughs. as

the product of 3 talented individual im/entors or dynamc firms. which 4 stand,
out from ordnary, less visionary 5 counterrjarts. Creative people and firms,
however, do not simply arrive from nowhere. They 6 come from contexts. both
7 organizatonal and geographcal. At company and national level, key factors
8 play a part in dentifying, 9 nurturing and directi'ng creative potential.

/laffi an tfnporfo.ni' rol?,

are, J 1-f-Fre.rii from be- Il
individuis ar c.otnpanie,5 h ujork in sp&cffc place,S __- _
aa and I m orQaniz&'f'ionS and c.Oitnirit-5

b The followng paragraph contains the same Information as the paragraph n 2.3a. However,
the grammar has been changed. Cover the text n 2.3a and complete the paragraph using
the synonyms a-i. The frst one has already been done.
It s a 1 cotnmon bee-f that nnovation, especially 2 ,
is the result of 3 ____ ... ,. who 4 _______________________ .. their less
imaginative 5 _____ . However, creative people do not come from
nowhere. In reality, they 6 ._. both 7 .____________________________ .
For companies and nations, key factors 8 in idenifying

Now uncover the text in 2.3a and compare t with this one.
c In the left-hand column of the followng table there is a lst of strategies for using this
approach to paraphrasing. Add suggestions a-c in the right-hand column to match each
a But t may be possible to change the part of speech of the word.
b Try to avoid using exactly the same grarnmar structures in your versin.
c A dictionary may be a useful tool for this.

Strategy for paraphrasing Suggestion

1 Underline key deas n the text and think

of / find synonyms forthese deas.

2 It can be difficult to change some words.

3 Rewrite using your notes.


Unit7 I Innovation

Study p In Unit 6, we looked at paraphrasing information in a genera! way. Mere we nave

looked at a specific strategy for paraphrasing: using synonyms. This helps you make sure
that the language of the paraphrase is different from the original, but includes al! relevant

2.4 Paraphrase the information n the second paragraph of the text in 2.2a. It is repeated below.
The underlined words and phrases are key pieces of information that you should nclude in your
paraphrase. Begin the paragraph with the following phrase: Morrison goes on to say that ...

Nations and nnovative capacity

Nation-specific factors have been recognized as critica! to technological innovaton
capacity. From the 1980s. the noton of the 'national system of innovation' was used
to explain the technological success of Japan (Archibugi and Michie, 1997) which
was a leader of a flexible approach to manufacturing. A countr/s national innovation
system s determined by many djfferent factors such as educatlon and training, research
and development (R&D), government policies and funding of research. investment in
telecommunicaton infrastructure and inter-firm reiationships.

3 Grammar in context: comparing and contrasting

3.1 a Figure 1 goes with the third paragraph of the text in 2.2a. It focuses on the percentage of
Gross Domestic Product (GDP) that s spent on R&D in different countries. Look at it and
answer the questions.
1 What two years are compared in the graph?
2 Which country was the biggest spender on R&D in 1975?
3 Which country was the biggest spender on R&D in 2006?
4 Which country had the biggest increase in spendingfrom 1975 to 2006?
5 Which countries are there no 1975 figures for?
6 Which two countries spent a similar percentage on R&D in 2006?
b Compare your answers with another student.

Figure 1 Gross domestic expenditure on R&D as a percentage

of GDP in selected countries


Rnland .-J
,. .
.,.. : ...i
Czech Republic mmH^mm
Poland Noic: For 1975, Gccmany rc/crs to Wcscern
\51 1
Sbvak Republic Germanv (the Federal Rcputulc ofGctmany)
Source: OECD (2007) Main Science and
0.5 1.5 2.5 3.5 Technology Indicators, www.occd. org