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Objectives

ENT 343 Classify electromagnetic radiation, and identify thermal radiation

PRINCIPLES OF HEAT TRANSFER Understand the idealized blackbody, and calculate the total and

spectral blackbody emissive power

Calculate the fraction of radiation emitted in a specified

wavelength band using the blackbody radiation functions

Chapter 4

Develop a clear understanding of the properties emissivity,

absorptivity, reflectivity, and transmissivity on spectral and total

basis

Apply Kirchhoff laws to determine the absorptivity of a surface

when its emissivity is known

Define view factor, and understand its importance in radiation

heat transfer calculations

AZIZUL BIN MOHAMAD Calculate radiation heat transfer between black surfaces

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING PROGRAM Obtain relations for net rate of radiation heat transfer between the

SCHOOL OF MECHATRONIC ENGINEERING surfaces of a two-zone enclosure, including two large parallel

UNIVERSITI MALAYSIA PERLIS plates, two long concentric cylinders, and two concentric spheres

Understand radiation heat transfer in three-surface enclosures

2

Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

convection in that it does not require the

Accelerated charges or changing electric currents give rise to electric and

magnetic fields. These rapidly moving fields are called electromagnetic waves or

The hot object in vacuum presence of a material medium to take place. electromagnetic radiation, and they represent the energy emitted by matter as a

chamber will eventually cool Radiation transfer occurs in solids as well as result of the changes in the electronic configurations of the atoms or molecules.

down and reach thermal liquids and gases. Electromagnetic waves transport energy just like other waves and they are

equilibrium with its characterized by their frequency or wavelength . These two properties in a

surroundings by a heat transfer medium are related by

mechanism: radiation.

c = c0 /n

c, the speed of propagation of a wave in that medium

c0 = 2.9979108 m/s, the speed of light in a vacuum

n, the index of refraction of that medium

n =1 for air and most gases, n = 1.5 for glass, and n = 1.33 for water

It has proven useful to view electromagnetic radiation as the propagation

of a collection of discrete packets of energy called photons or quanta.

In this view, each photon of frequency n is considered to have an energy of

proportional to its wavelength.

3 4

azizul@unimap.edu.my 1

ENT 343 PRINCIPLES OF HEAT TRANSFER PPK MEKATRONIK, UniMAP

the electromagnetic spectrum that

A body that emits some radiation in the

visible range is called a light source.

The type of electromagnetic radiation that is pertinent lies between 0.40 and 0.76 m.

to heat transfer is the thermal radiation emitted as a The sun is our primary light source.

result of energy transitions of molecules, atoms, and The electromagnetic radiation emitted by

electrons of a substance. the sun is known as solar radiation, and

Temperature is a measure of the strength of these nearly all of it falls into the wavelength

activities at the microscopic level, and the rate of band 0.33 m.

thermal radiation emission increases with increasing Almost half of solar radiation is light (i.e.,

temperature. it falls into the visible range), with the

Thermal radiation is continuously emitted by all matter remaining being ultraviolet and infrared.

whose temperature is above absolute zero.

Everything The radiation emitted by bodies at room temperature falls into the

around us infrared region of the spectrum, which extends from 0.76 to 100 m.

constantly The ultraviolet radiation includes the low-wavelength end of the thermal

emits thermal radiation spectrum and lies between the wavelengths 0.01 and 0.40 m.

radiation. Ultraviolet rays are to be avoided since they can kill microorganisms and

cause serious damage to humans and other living beings.

The About 12 percent of solar radiation is in the ultraviolet range. The ozone

electromagnetic (O3) layer in the atmosphere acts as a protective blanket and absorbs

5 6

wave spectrum. most of this ultraviolet radiation.

the energy emitted by bodies because of their

3 BLACKBODY RADIATION

temperature only. Therefore, we limit our Different bodies may emit different amounts of radiation per unit surface area.

consideration to thermal radiation. A blackbody emits the maximum amount of radiation by a surface at a given

temperature.

It is an idealized body to serve as a standard against which the radiative

properties of real surfaces may be compared.

A blackbody is a perfect emitter and absorber of radiation.

A blackbody absorbs all incident radiation, regardless of wavelength and

direction.

The electrons, atoms, and molecules of emitted by a blackbody:

all solids, liquids, and gases above

absolute zero temperature are constantly

in motion, and thus radiation is Blackbody emissive power

constantly emitted, as well as being

absorbed or transmitted throughout the StefanBoltzmann constant

entire volume of matter.

That is, radiation is a volumetric

phenomenon. 7 8

azizul@unimap.edu.my 2

ENT 343 PRINCIPLES OF HEAT TRANSFER PPK MEKATRONIK, UniMAP

Spectral blackbody emissive Power: peak occurs for a specified

The amount of radiation energy emitted temperature is given by

by a blackbody at a thermodynamic Wiens displacement law:

temperature T per unit time, per unit

surface area, and per unit wavelength

about the wavelength .

Plancks

law

Boltzmanns constant

9 10

The emitted radiation is a continuous function of wavelength.

At any specified temperature, it increases with wavelength,

reaches a peak, and then decreases with increasing

wavelength.

At any wavelength, the amount of emitted radiation increases

with increasing temperature.

As temperature increases, the curves shift to the left to the

shorter wavelength region. Consequently, a larger fraction of

the radiation is emitted at shorter wavelengths at higher

temperatures.

The radiation emitted by the sun, which is considered to be a

blackbody at 5780 K (or roughly at 5800 K), reaches its peak

in the visible region of the spectrum. Therefore, the sun is in

tune with our eyes.

On the other hand, surfaces at T < 800 K emit almost entirely

in the infrared region and thus are not visible to the eye

unless they reflect light coming from other sources.

11 12

azizul@unimap.edu.my 3

ENT 343 PRINCIPLES OF HEAT TRANSFER PPK MEKATRONIK, UniMAP

area over a wavelength band from = 0 to is

The fraction of radiation emitted from a

blackbody at temperature T in the

wavelength band from = 0 to .

13

4 RADIATIVE PROPERTIES

Most materials encountered in practice, such as metals, wood,

and bricks, are opaque to thermal radiation, and radiation is

considered to be a surface phenomenon for such materials.

Radiation through semitransparent materials such as glass and

water cannot be considered to be a surface phenomenon since

the entire volume of the material interacts with radiation.

A blackbody can serve as a convenient reference in describing

the emission and absorption characteristics of real surfaces.

15 16

azizul@unimap.edu.my 4

ENT 343 PRINCIPLES OF HEAT TRANSFER PPK MEKATRONIK, UniMAP

Emissivity

Emissivity: The ratio of the radiation emitted by the surface at a given

temperature to the radiation emitted by a blackbody at the same temperature.

0 1.

Emissivity is a measure of how closely a surface approximates a blackbody (

= 1).

The emissivity of a real surface varies with the temperature of the surface as

well as the wavelength and the direction of the emitted radiation.

The emissivity of a surface at a specified wavelength is called spectral

emissivity . The emissivity in a specified direction is called directional

emissivity where is the angle between the direction of radiation and the

normal of the surface.

spectral total

hemispherical hemispherical

emissivity emissivity

emitted by the surface to the radiation

emitted by a blackbody of the same

surface area at the same temperature

18

direction, and gray if its properties are independent of wavelength.

The gray and diffuse approximations are often utilized in radiation

calculations.

is the

angle

measured

from the

normal of

the surface

19 20

azizul@unimap.edu.my 5

ENT 343 PRINCIPLES OF HEAT TRANSFER PPK MEKATRONIK, UniMAP

Irradiation, G:

Radiation flux

incident on a

surface.

Absorptivity,

Reflectivity, and

Transmissivity

The variation of normal emissivity with (a)

wavelength and (b) temperature for various

materials.

for opaque surfaces

In radiation analysis, it is

common practice to assume

the surfaces to be diffuse Typical ranges

emitters with an emissivity of emissivity

equal to the value in the for various

normal ( = 0) direction. materials.

21 22

spectral spectral directional In practice, surfaces are assumed to reflect in a perfectly specular or diffuse manner.

hemispherical absorptivity Specular (or mirrorlike) reflection: The angle of reflection equals the angle of

absorptivity incidence of the radiation beam.

spectral Diffuse reflection: Radiation is reflected equally in all directions.

hemispherical

reflectivity spectral directional

reflectivity

spectral

hemispherical

transmissivity

G: the spectral irradiation, W/m2m

transmissivity of a surface:

23 24

azizul@unimap.edu.my 6

ENT 343 PRINCIPLES OF HEAT TRANSFER PPK MEKATRONIK, UniMAP

Glass has a transparent window in the wavelength range 0.3 m < < 3 m in which

over 90% of solar radiation is emitted. The entire radiation emitted by surfaces at room

temperature falls in the infrared region ( > 3 m).

Glass allows the solar radiation to enter but does not allow the infrared radiation from the

interior surfaces to escape. This causes a rise in the interior temperature as a result of

the energy buildup in the car.

Kirchhoffs law This heating effect, which is due to the nongray characteristic of glass (or clear plastics),

is known as the greenhouse effect.

The total hemispherical emissivity of

a surface at temperature T is equal

to its total hemispherical absorptivity

for radiation coming from a

blackbody at the same temperature.

spectral form of

Kirchhoffs law

direction, and temperature is always equal to its absorptivity

at the same wavelength, direction, and temperature. 25 26

View factor is a purely geometric quantity

and is independent of the surface

properties and temperature.

It is also called the shape factor,

configuration factor, and angle factor.

The view factor based on the assumption

that the surfaces are diffuse emitters and

diffuse reflectors is called the diffuse view

factor, and the view factor based on the

assumption that the surfaces are diffuse

emitters but specular reflectors is called

the specular view factor.

surface i that strikes surface j directly

The view factor ranges between 0 and 1.

27 28

azizul@unimap.edu.my 7

ENT 343 PRINCIPLES OF HEAT TRANSFER PPK MEKATRONIK, UniMAP

because it allows us to express the fraction of radiation leaving a

surface that strikes another surface in terms of the orientation of

these two surfaces relative to each other.

The underlying assumption in this process is that the radiation a

surface receives from a source is directly proportional to the

angle the surface subtends when viewed from the source.

This would be the case only if the radiation coming off the

source is uniform in all directions throughout its surface and the

medium between the surfaces does not absorb, emit, or scatter

radiation.

That is, it is the case when the surfaces are isothermal and

diffuse emitters and reflectors and the surfaces are separated by

a nonparticipating medium such as a vacuum or air.

View factors for hundreds of common geometries are evaluated

and the results are given in analytical, graphical, and tabular

form.

29 30

31 32

azizul@unimap.edu.my 8

ENT 343 PRINCIPLES OF HEAT TRANSFER PPK MEKATRONIK, UniMAP

View factor between two perpendicular rectangles with a common edge.

34

View factors for two concentric cylinders of finite length: (a) outer

View factor between two coaxial parallel disks. cylinder to inner cylinder; (b) outer cylinder to itself.

35 36

azizul@unimap.edu.my 9

ENT 343 PRINCIPLES OF HEAT TRANSFER PPK MEKATRONIK, UniMAP

The sum of the view factors from surface i of an enclosure to all

Radiation analysis on an enclosure consisting of N

surfaces of the enclosure, including to itself, must equal unity.

surfaces requires the evaluation of N2 view factors.

Once a sufficient number of view factors are available,

the rest of them can be determined by utilizing some

fundamental relations for view factors.

evaluated directly for an N-surface enclosure is

reciprocity

relation (rule)

The remaining view factors can be

determined from the equations that are

obtained by applying the reciprocity and

the summation rules.

37 38

The view factor from a surface i to Two (or more) surfaces that possess symmetry about a third

a surface j is equal to the sum of surface will have identical view factors from that surface.

the view factors from surface i to multiply by A1

If the surfaces j and k are symmetric about the surface i then

the parts of surface j.

Fi j = Fi k and Fj i = Fk i

apply the reciprocity relation

39 40

azizul@unimap.edu.my 10

ENT 343 PRINCIPLES OF HEAT TRANSFER PPK MEKATRONIK, UniMAP

Infinitely Long Surfaces: The When the surfaces involved can be

Crossed-Strings Method approximated as blackbodies because of the

absence of reflection, the net rate of radiation

Channels and ducts that are very heat transfer from surface 1 to surface 2 is

long in one direction relative to the

other directions can be considered

to be two-dimensional.

These geometries can be modeled

as being infinitely long, and the view

factor between their surfaces can be

determined by simple crossed- reciprocity relation emissive power

strings method.

radiation heat transfer is from surface 2 to surface 1.

The net radiation

heat transfer from

any surface i of an N

41 surface enclosure is 42

7 RADIATION HEAT TRANSFER: DIFFUSE, Radiosity For a surface i that is gray and

opaque (i = i and i + i = 1)

GRAY SURFACES Radiosity J: The total

Most enclosures encountered in practice involve nonblack radiation energy leaving

surfaces, which allow multiple reflections to occur. a surface per unit time

and per unit area.

Radiation analysis of such enclosures becomes very

complicated unless some simplifying assumptions are made.

It is common to assume the surfaces of an enclosure to be For a blackbody = 1

opaque, diffuse, and gray.

Also, each surface of the enclosure is isothermal, and both

the incoming and outgoing radiation are uniform over each The radiosity of a blackbody is

surface. equal to its emissive power since

radiation coming from a blackbody

is due to emission only.

43 44

azizul@unimap.edu.my 11

ENT 343 PRINCIPLES OF HEAT TRANSFER PPK MEKATRONIK, UniMAP

Net Radiation Heat Transfer to or from a Surface Net Radiation Heat Transfer between Any Two Surfaces

The net rate of

The net rate of

radiation heat transfer

radiation heat transfer

from surface i to

from a surface i

surface j is

surface resistance

to radiation.

blackbody is zero since i = 1 and Ji = Ebi.

Reradiating surface: Some surfaces are space resistance

modeled as being adiabatic since their back sides to radiation

are well insulated and the net heat transfer

through them is zero.

45 46

In an N-surface enclosure, the conservation of energy principle requires Methods of Solving Radiation Problems

that the net heat transfer from surface i be equal to the sum of the net heat In the radiation analysis of an enclosure, either the temperature or the net rate

transfers from surface i to each of the N surfaces of the enclosure. of heat transfer must be given for each of the surfaces to obtain a unique

solution for the unknown surface temperatures and heat transfer rates.

The equations above give N linear algebraic equations for the determination

The net radiation flow from a of the N unknown radiosities for an N-surface enclosure. Once the radiosities

surface through its surface J1, J2, . . . , JN are available, the unknown heat transfer rates and the

resistance is equal to the sum of unknown surface temperatures can be determined from the above equations.

the radiation flows from that surface

Direct method: Based on using the above procedure. This method is

to all other surfaces through the

suitable when there are a large number of surfaces.

corresponding space resistances.

Network method: Based on the electrical network analogy. Draw a

surface resistance associated with each surface of an enclosure and

connect them with space resistances. Then solve the radiation problem

by treating it as an electrical network problem. The network method is not

47 48

practical for enclosures with more than three or four surfaces.

azizul@unimap.edu.my 12

ENT 343 PRINCIPLES OF HEAT TRANSFER PPK MEKATRONIK, UniMAP

applicable to any two gray,

diffuse, and opaque surfaces

that form an enclosure.

49 50

Summary

Transfer in Three- sum of the

currents (net Thermal Radiation

Surface Enclosures radiation heat

transfer) at each Blackbody Radiation

When Qi is specified at node must equal Radiative Properties

surface i instead of the zero. Emissivity

temperature, the term These equations are to be solved for J1, J2, and J3. Absorptivity, Reflectivity, and Transmissivity

(Ebi Ji)/Ri should be

Kirchhoffs Law

replaced by the

specified Qi. The Greenhouse Effect

The View Factor

Radiation Heat Transfer: Black Surfaces

Radiation Heat Transfer: Diffuse, Gray Surfaces

Draw a surface Radiosity

resistance Net Radiation Heat Transfer to or from a Surface

associated with Net Radiation Heat Transfer between Any Two Surfaces

each of the three Schematic of a Methods of Solving Radiation Problems

surfaces and three-surface

Radiation Heat Transfer in Two-Surface Enclosures

connect them enclosure and the

with space radiation network Radiation Heat Transfer in Three-Surface Enclosures

51 52

resistances. associated with it.

azizul@unimap.edu.my 13

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