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ENT 343 PRINCIPLES OF HEAT TRANSFER PPK MEKATRONIK, UniMAP

Objectives
ENT 343 Classify electromagnetic radiation, and identify thermal radiation
PRINCIPLES OF HEAT TRANSFER Understand the idealized blackbody, and calculate the total and
spectral blackbody emissive power
Calculate the fraction of radiation emitted in a specified
wavelength band using the blackbody radiation functions

Chapter 4
Develop a clear understanding of the properties emissivity,
absorptivity, reflectivity, and transmissivity on spectral and total

basis
Apply Kirchhoff laws to determine the absorptivity of a surface
when its emissivity is known
Define view factor, and understand its importance in radiation
heat transfer calculations
AZIZUL BIN MOHAMAD Calculate radiation heat transfer between black surfaces
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING PROGRAM Obtain relations for net rate of radiation heat transfer between the
SCHOOL OF MECHATRONIC ENGINEERING surfaces of a two-zone enclosure, including two large parallel
UNIVERSITI MALAYSIA PERLIS plates, two long concentric cylinders, and two concentric spheres
Understand radiation heat transfer in three-surface enclosures
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Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

1 INTRODUCTION Radiation differs from conduction and

convection in that it does not require the
Accelerated charges or changing electric currents give rise to electric and
magnetic fields. These rapidly moving fields are called electromagnetic waves or
The hot object in vacuum presence of a material medium to take place. electromagnetic radiation, and they represent the energy emitted by matter as a
chamber will eventually cool Radiation transfer occurs in solids as well as result of the changes in the electronic configurations of the atoms or molecules.
down and reach thermal liquids and gases. Electromagnetic waves transport energy just like other waves and they are
equilibrium with its characterized by their frequency or wavelength . These two properties in a
surroundings by a heat transfer medium are related by

c = c0 /n
c, the speed of propagation of a wave in that medium
c0 = 2.9979108 m/s, the speed of light in a vacuum
n, the index of refraction of that medium
n =1 for air and most gases, n = 1.5 for glass, and n = 1.33 for water
It has proven useful to view electromagnetic radiation as the propagation
of a collection of discrete packets of energy called photons or quanta.
In this view, each photon of frequency n is considered to have an energy of

The energy of a photon is inversely

proportional to its wavelength.

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ENT 343 PRINCIPLES OF HEAT TRANSFER PPK MEKATRONIK, UniMAP

2 THERMAL RADIATION Light is simply the visible portion of

the electromagnetic spectrum that
A body that emits some radiation in the
visible range is called a light source.
The type of electromagnetic radiation that is pertinent lies between 0.40 and 0.76 m.
to heat transfer is the thermal radiation emitted as a The sun is our primary light source.
result of energy transitions of molecules, atoms, and The electromagnetic radiation emitted by
electrons of a substance. the sun is known as solar radiation, and
Temperature is a measure of the strength of these nearly all of it falls into the wavelength
activities at the microscopic level, and the rate of band 0.33 m.
thermal radiation emission increases with increasing Almost half of solar radiation is light (i.e.,
temperature. it falls into the visible range), with the
Thermal radiation is continuously emitted by all matter remaining being ultraviolet and infrared.
whose temperature is above absolute zero.

Everything The radiation emitted by bodies at room temperature falls into the
around us infrared region of the spectrum, which extends from 0.76 to 100 m.
constantly The ultraviolet radiation includes the low-wavelength end of the thermal
emits thermal radiation spectrum and lies between the wavelengths 0.01 and 0.40 m.
radiation. Ultraviolet rays are to be avoided since they can kill microorganisms and
cause serious damage to humans and other living beings.
The About 12 percent of solar radiation is in the ultraviolet range. The ozone
electromagnetic (O3) layer in the atmosphere acts as a protective blanket and absorbs
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wave spectrum. most of this ultraviolet radiation.

In heat transfer studies, we are interested in

the energy emitted by bodies because of their
temperature only. Therefore, we limit our Different bodies may emit different amounts of radiation per unit surface area.
consideration to thermal radiation. A blackbody emits the maximum amount of radiation by a surface at a given
temperature.
It is an idealized body to serve as a standard against which the radiative
properties of real surfaces may be compared.
A blackbody is a perfect emitter and absorber of radiation.
A blackbody absorbs all incident radiation, regardless of wavelength and
direction.

The electrons, atoms, and molecules of emitted by a blackbody:
all solids, liquids, and gases above
absolute zero temperature are constantly
in motion, and thus radiation is Blackbody emissive power
constantly emitted, as well as being
absorbed or transmitted throughout the StefanBoltzmann constant
entire volume of matter.
That is, radiation is a volumetric
phenomenon. 7 8

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ENT 343 PRINCIPLES OF HEAT TRANSFER PPK MEKATRONIK, UniMAP

The wavelength at which the

Spectral blackbody emissive Power: peak occurs for a specified
The amount of radiation energy emitted temperature is given by
by a blackbody at a thermodynamic Wiens displacement law:
temperature T per unit time, per unit
surface area, and per unit wavelength
about the wavelength .

Plancks
law

Boltzmanns constant
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Observations from the figure

The emitted radiation is a continuous function of wavelength.
At any specified temperature, it increases with wavelength,
reaches a peak, and then decreases with increasing
wavelength.
At any wavelength, the amount of emitted radiation increases
with increasing temperature.
As temperature increases, the curves shift to the left to the
shorter wavelength region. Consequently, a larger fraction of
the radiation is emitted at shorter wavelengths at higher
temperatures.
The radiation emitted by the sun, which is considered to be a
blackbody at 5780 K (or roughly at 5800 K), reaches its peak
in the visible region of the spectrum. Therefore, the sun is in
tune with our eyes.
On the other hand, surfaces at T < 800 K emit almost entirely
in the infrared region and thus are not visible to the eye
unless they reflect light coming from other sources.
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ENT 343 PRINCIPLES OF HEAT TRANSFER PPK MEKATRONIK, UniMAP

The radiation energy emitted by a blackbody per unit

area over a wavelength band from = 0 to is

Blackbody radiation function f:

The fraction of radiation emitted from a
blackbody at temperature T in the
wavelength band from = 0 to .

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Most materials encountered in practice, such as metals, wood,
and bricks, are opaque to thermal radiation, and radiation is
considered to be a surface phenomenon for such materials.
Radiation through semitransparent materials such as glass and
water cannot be considered to be a surface phenomenon since
the entire volume of the material interacts with radiation.
A blackbody can serve as a convenient reference in describing
the emission and absorption characteristics of real surfaces.

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ENT 343 PRINCIPLES OF HEAT TRANSFER PPK MEKATRONIK, UniMAP

Emissivity
Emissivity: The ratio of the radiation emitted by the surface at a given
temperature to the radiation emitted by a blackbody at the same temperature.
0 1.
Emissivity is a measure of how closely a surface approximates a blackbody (
= 1).
The emissivity of a real surface varies with the temperature of the surface as
well as the wavelength and the direction of the emitted radiation.
The emissivity of a surface at a specified wavelength is called spectral
emissivity . The emissivity in a specified direction is called directional
emissivity where is the angle between the direction of radiation and the
normal of the surface.

spectral total
hemispherical hemispherical
emissivity emissivity

The ratio of the total radiation energy

emitted by the surface to the radiation
emitted by a blackbody of the same
surface area at the same temperature
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A surface is said to be diffuse if its properties are independent of

direction, and gray if its properties are independent of wavelength.
The gray and diffuse approximations are often utilized in radiation
calculations.

is the
angle
measured
from the
normal of
the surface

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ENT 343 PRINCIPLES OF HEAT TRANSFER PPK MEKATRONIK, UniMAP

incident on a
surface.

Absorptivity,
Reflectivity, and
Transmissivity
The variation of normal emissivity with (a)
wavelength and (b) temperature for various
materials.
for opaque surfaces
In radiation analysis, it is
common practice to assume
the surfaces to be diffuse Typical ranges
emitters with an emissivity of emissivity
equal to the value in the for various
normal ( = 0) direction. materials.
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spectral spectral directional In practice, surfaces are assumed to reflect in a perfectly specular or diffuse manner.
hemispherical absorptivity Specular (or mirrorlike) reflection: The angle of reflection equals the angle of
absorptivity incidence of the radiation beam.
spectral Diffuse reflection: Radiation is reflected equally in all directions.
hemispherical
reflectivity spectral directional
reflectivity
spectral
hemispherical
transmissivity
G: the spectral irradiation, W/m2m

Average absorptivity, reflectivity, and

transmissivity of a surface:

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ENT 343 PRINCIPLES OF HEAT TRANSFER PPK MEKATRONIK, UniMAP

Kirchhoffs Law The Greenhouse Effect

Glass has a transparent window in the wavelength range 0.3 m < < 3 m in which
over 90% of solar radiation is emitted. The entire radiation emitted by surfaces at room
temperature falls in the infrared region ( > 3 m).
Glass allows the solar radiation to enter but does not allow the infrared radiation from the
interior surfaces to escape. This causes a rise in the interior temperature as a result of
the energy buildup in the car.
Kirchhoffs law This heating effect, which is due to the nongray characteristic of glass (or clear plastics),
is known as the greenhouse effect.
The total hemispherical emissivity of
a surface at temperature T is equal
to its total hemispherical absorptivity
for radiation coming from a
blackbody at the same temperature.

spectral form of
Kirchhoffs law

The emissivity of a surface at a specified wavelength,

direction, and temperature is always equal to its absorptivity
at the same wavelength, direction, and temperature. 25 26

5 THE VIEW FACTOR

View factor is a purely geometric quantity
and is independent of the surface
properties and temperature.
It is also called the shape factor,
configuration factor, and angle factor.
The view factor based on the assumption
that the surfaces are diffuse emitters and
diffuse reflectors is called the diffuse view
factor, and the view factor based on the
assumption that the surfaces are diffuse
emitters but specular reflectors is called
the specular view factor.

Fij the fraction of the radiation leaving

surface i that strikes surface j directly
The view factor ranges between 0 and 1.

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ENT 343 PRINCIPLES OF HEAT TRANSFER PPK MEKATRONIK, UniMAP

The view factor has proven to be very useful in radiation analysis

because it allows us to express the fraction of radiation leaving a
surface that strikes another surface in terms of the orientation of
these two surfaces relative to each other.
The underlying assumption in this process is that the radiation a
surface receives from a source is directly proportional to the
angle the surface subtends when viewed from the source.
This would be the case only if the radiation coming off the
source is uniform in all directions throughout its surface and the
medium between the surfaces does not absorb, emit, or scatter
That is, it is the case when the surfaces are isothermal and
diffuse emitters and reflectors and the surfaces are separated by
a nonparticipating medium such as a vacuum or air.
View factors for hundreds of common geometries are evaluated
and the results are given in analytical, graphical, and tabular
form.
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ENT 343 PRINCIPLES OF HEAT TRANSFER PPK MEKATRONIK, UniMAP

View factor between two aligned parallel rectangles of equal size. 33

View factor between two perpendicular rectangles with a common edge.
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View factors for two concentric cylinders of finite length: (a) outer
View factor between two coaxial parallel disks. cylinder to inner cylinder; (b) outer cylinder to itself.

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ENT 343 PRINCIPLES OF HEAT TRANSFER PPK MEKATRONIK, UniMAP

View Factor Relations 2 The Summation Rule

The sum of the view factors from surface i of an enclosure to all
Radiation analysis on an enclosure consisting of N
surfaces of the enclosure, including to itself, must equal unity.
surfaces requires the evaluation of N2 view factors.
Once a sufficient number of view factors are available,
the rest of them can be determined by utilizing some
fundamental relations for view factors.

The total number of view factors that need to be

evaluated directly for an N-surface enclosure is

reciprocity
relation (rule)
The remaining view factors can be
determined from the equations that are
obtained by applying the reciprocity and
the summation rules.

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3 The Superposition Rule 4 The Symmetry Rule

The view factor from a surface i to Two (or more) surfaces that possess symmetry about a third
a surface j is equal to the sum of surface will have identical view factors from that surface.
the view factors from surface i to multiply by A1
If the surfaces j and k are symmetric about the surface i then
the parts of surface j.
Fi j = Fi k and Fj i = Fk i
apply the reciprocity relation

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ENT 343 PRINCIPLES OF HEAT TRANSFER PPK MEKATRONIK, UniMAP

View Factors between 6 RADIATION HEAT TRANSFER: BLACK SURFACES

Infinitely Long Surfaces: The When the surfaces involved can be
Crossed-Strings Method approximated as blackbodies because of the
absence of reflection, the net rate of radiation
Channels and ducts that are very heat transfer from surface 1 to surface 2 is
long in one direction relative to the
other directions can be considered
to be two-dimensional.
These geometries can be modeled
as being infinitely long, and the view
factor between their surfaces can be
determined by simple crossed- reciprocity relation emissive power
strings method.

A negative value for Q1 2 indicates that net

radiation heat transfer is from surface 2 to surface 1.
heat transfer from
any surface i of an N
41 surface enclosure is 42

7 RADIATION HEAT TRANSFER: DIFFUSE, Radiosity For a surface i that is gray and
opaque (i = i and i + i = 1)
GRAY SURFACES Radiosity J: The total
Most enclosures encountered in practice involve nonblack radiation energy leaving
surfaces, which allow multiple reflections to occur. a surface per unit time
and per unit area.
Radiation analysis of such enclosures becomes very
complicated unless some simplifying assumptions are made.
It is common to assume the surfaces of an enclosure to be For a blackbody = 1
opaque, diffuse, and gray.
Also, each surface of the enclosure is isothermal, and both
the incoming and outgoing radiation are uniform over each The radiosity of a blackbody is
surface. equal to its emissive power since
radiation coming from a blackbody
is due to emission only.

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ENT 343 PRINCIPLES OF HEAT TRANSFER PPK MEKATRONIK, UniMAP

Net Radiation Heat Transfer to or from a Surface Net Radiation Heat Transfer between Any Two Surfaces
The net rate of
The net rate of
from surface i to
from a surface i
surface j is

Apply the reciprocity relation

surface resistance

The surface resistance to radiation for a

blackbody is zero since i = 1 and Ji = Ebi.
Reradiating surface: Some surfaces are space resistance
modeled as being adiabatic since their back sides to radiation
are well insulated and the net heat transfer
through them is zero.

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In an N-surface enclosure, the conservation of energy principle requires Methods of Solving Radiation Problems
that the net heat transfer from surface i be equal to the sum of the net heat In the radiation analysis of an enclosure, either the temperature or the net rate
transfers from surface i to each of the N surfaces of the enclosure. of heat transfer must be given for each of the surfaces to obtain a unique
solution for the unknown surface temperatures and heat transfer rates.

The equations above give N linear algebraic equations for the determination
The net radiation flow from a of the N unknown radiosities for an N-surface enclosure. Once the radiosities
surface through its surface J1, J2, . . . , JN are available, the unknown heat transfer rates and the
resistance is equal to the sum of unknown surface temperatures can be determined from the above equations.
the radiation flows from that surface
Direct method: Based on using the above procedure. This method is
to all other surfaces through the
suitable when there are a large number of surfaces.
corresponding space resistances.
Network method: Based on the electrical network analogy. Draw a
surface resistance associated with each surface of an enclosure and
connect them with space resistances. Then solve the radiation problem
by treating it as an electrical network problem. The network method is not
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practical for enclosures with more than three or four surfaces.

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ENT 343 PRINCIPLES OF HEAT TRANSFER PPK MEKATRONIK, UniMAP

This important result is

applicable to any two gray,
diffuse, and opaque surfaces
that form an enclosure.

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Radiation Heat The algebraic

Summary
Transfer in Three- sum of the
currents (net Thermal Radiation
Surface Enclosures radiation heat
transfer) at each Blackbody Radiation
When Qi is specified at node must equal Radiative Properties
surface i instead of the zero. Emissivity
temperature, the term These equations are to be solved for J1, J2, and J3. Absorptivity, Reflectivity, and Transmissivity
(Ebi Ji)/Ri should be
Kirchhoffs Law
replaced by the
specified Qi. The Greenhouse Effect
The View Factor
Radiation Heat Transfer: Black Surfaces
Radiation Heat Transfer: Diffuse, Gray Surfaces
Draw a surface Radiosity
resistance Net Radiation Heat Transfer to or from a Surface
associated with Net Radiation Heat Transfer between Any Two Surfaces
each of the three Schematic of a Methods of Solving Radiation Problems
surfaces and three-surface
Radiation Heat Transfer in Two-Surface Enclosures
connect them enclosure and the
with space radiation network Radiation Heat Transfer in Three-Surface Enclosures
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resistances. associated with it.

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