Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 81

the leading electrical & electronics monthly

VOLUME 7 ISSUE NO. 1 SEPTEMBER 2015 PGS. 126

ISSN 0970-2946 Rs. 50/-

Cover Story Evolving Equitable PVC

Face2Face

Mr Babu Babel, President (Elect), IEEMA

In Depth Substandard Cables Installed in Distribution Networks

29 2015 9th Switchgear International & Conference Controlgear on 26th & 27th November Mumbai, India
29
2015
9th Switchgear
International & Conference
Controlgear on
26th & 27th
November
Mumbai,
India 2015
23

Thought Leader of the Month

Mr Raimondo Salandra, President Low Voltage Products, ABB India

Mumbai, India 2015 23 Thought Leader of the Month Mr Raimondo Salandra, President Low Voltage Products,

From the President’s Desk

From the President’s Desk

Dear Friends,

As IEEMA President, my main

Desk Dear Friends, As IEEMA President, my main This would be my last formal dialogue with

This would be my last formal dialogue with you as President, IEEMA. The year just passed by and the take at the end of it are lots of very pleasant memories to cherish, partial satisfaction with what could be achieved and a long list of unfinished agenda. The new team consisting of President elect Bhagwat Babel and Vice Presidents elect Sanjeev Sardana and Ms Indira Prem Menon are committed to carry the unfinished agenda to its logical conclusion.

focus was on three objectives and I tried to create

the right kind of impetus for it to be unswervingly driven post my tenure too. The first one is: connectivity with IEEMA membership and creating opportunities for

connecting them to their customers. Second: connectivity with policy makers, including the elected representatives and sensitizing them to issues facing the power equipment industry, and third: aligning the association with the paradigm shift that is occurring in the power sector, not just in India, but also in the rest of the world. Resultantly, the year witnessed an enhanced two way dialog between the membership on the one hand and the Office bearers and Secretariat on the other. This also helped in better understanding of the aspirations of the membership and framing IEEMA initiatives in that direction. I would like to mention only a few - the 1st edition of INTELLECT 2015, a four point action plan for Govt. of India for making the ‘Make in India’ initiative relevant to the Power sector (This is now part of the MoP’s work plan committed to the Hon’ble Prime Minister) and creating a greater consciousness about the threat of Chinese imports to Members of Parliament and the Bureaucracy, through direct contact and presentations and to the general Public through the Media.

The Mission plan jointly made by the Ministry of heavy Industry and IEEMA had targeted to increase the output of the Indian electrical equipment industry to $100 billion by 2022 and make it a destination of choice for overseas buyers. This ambitious target can only be achieved with the active support from all the Stake holders. A clarion call for “Make in India” has been given by the Hon’ble PM. Some also choose to supplement it with another call for “Make for India”. We believe that both are not only relevant but extremely essential for our Power Sector. IEEMA during the year has partnered with Govt. of India in its “Make in India” initiative and also to identify an action plan for achieving the ambitious target. Power being a concurrent subject, while the policy framework is decided by the GOI, the implementation is at the State level. IEEMA has been successful in interacting at both levels in a positive manner. In years to come, I am sure IEEMA would be able to influence policy formulation rather than react over ‘faulty’ policies. Only then IEEMA shall be of greater service to its membership.

My dialogue would be incomplete if I do not mention ELECRAMA 2016. ELECRAMA 2016 with many ‘Firsts’ will not only witness the preparedness of the Indian electrical equipment industry, I assure you, it would be more relevant to your business. I look forward to meet all of you either as exhibitors or visitors,

Lastly, I thank all IEEMA members who were extremely cooperative with the new initiatives IEEMA has taken during the year and I wish them more business in the years to come and higher profits. The new team of Office bearers is full of enthusiasm to take IEEMA to new heights. My best wishes to them.

bearers is full of enthusiasm to take IEEMA to new heights. My best wishes to them.

Vishnu Agarwal

8

September 2015

“ Samvaad Dear Members, Turmoil of the world seems to be unending when on one
“ Samvaad
Dear Members,
Turmoil of the world seems to be unending when on one hand we witnessed the
bombing in Bangkok, in India also we had our share of insurgency in Kashmir
and Punjab, both acts of cowardice and to be condemned. On the other hand
we also witnessed the devaluation of Yuan, which from the Chinese view point
is a master stroke in managing their economy but raises challenges for the
Indian industry. Despite of the challenges posed by Chinese devaluation of
currency, Indian industry stands confident due to its entrepreneurial abilities
and robust economic foundation.

We also struggled during the monsoon session as a nation to achieve tangible results but this could not happen as the parliament was stalled by the opposition. The Indian industry was very concerned due to the dysfunctional session of the parliament, which seems to be a repeat, one after the other irrespective of which partly is in power or in opposition.

One of the political commentators gave a very radical solution to this impasse that why can’t one party stand up and say that we have made a mistake by not allowing the parliament to function and collectively resolve to find alternative means of expressing dissent, while continuing the constructive work of nation building. Voice of Indian industry carries substantial weight today and we hope that the expression of India Inc. would not go unnoticed.

Back in IEEMA, a new team has been elected for the coming year and would take charge at the AGM of IEEMA, on 25th of this month. I join members of IEEMA in welcoming the new team, which will carry on the initiatives in the best tradition of the organization.

the new team, which will carry on the initiatives in the best tradition of the organization.

Sunil Misra

September 2015

9

Contents

the leading electrical & electronics monthly

Volume 7 Issue No. 1 September 2015 CIN U99999MH970GAP014629 Official Organ of Indian Electrical & Electronics Manufacturers’ Association Member: Audit Bureau of Circulation & The Indian Newspaper Society

8 From the President’s Desk 9 Samvaad … 22 Appointments
8
From the President’s Desk
9
Samvaad …
22
Appointments

This new space in the IEEMA Journal will incorporate recent important appointments in the power and related sectors.

29
29

Thought leader of the month

Mr Raimondo Salandra, President Low Voltage Products, ABB India speaks to IEEMA Journal using ELECRAMA 2016 as an opportunity to launch ABB’s major new product range.

an opportunity to launch ABB’s major new product range. 1 2 24 Cover Story The Indian

12

24
24

Cover Story

The Indian Wires and Cable Industry is now Rs. 33,000 Crores in size, which is 14% higher than the previous year. However, the CAGR of the industry for 5 years is only 10% as the year before there was a dip in the market. In comparison, the Indian Electronics and Electricals industry, which saw a similar down turn in the previous year, has shown a growth of only 10 %.

36
36

Face2Face

Mr Babu Babel, Joint Managing Director, Secure Meters and President Elect, IEEMA speaks about his new role and priority areas to focus on after taking over as President IEEMA.

38
38

Interview

David Moore, Senior Manager of Market Development & Regulatory Affairs at Opower speaks to IEEMA Journal about the opportunities the company is looking in the Indian market.

42
42

Tech Space

EHV Cable Systems

High voltage underground cables are commonly used for the transmission and distribution of electricity.

Mr Puneet Jain Assistant Manager- EHV Marketing and Mr Arvind Shrowty Executive Director, KEI Industries Limited

Mr Puneet Jain Assistant Manager- EHV Marketing and Mr Arvind Shrowty Executive Director, KEI Industries Limited

September 2015

Contents

50 82
50
82

In Depth

How Substandard cables installed in Electrical Distribution Network raise electricity bills

Mr Sanjeev Vyas, Havells India Ltd

Expert Speak

High Quality Solar Cables:

Importance for Long Term Performance for Solar installations

Mr VK Bajaj, COO, Apar Industries Ltd

58
58

Guest Article

Cables – Flammability Evaluation

Mr Nilesh Pandya,

Electrical Research and Development Association

58 Guest Article Cables – Flammability Evaluation Mr Nilesh Pandya, Electrical Research and Development Association
65
65

Opinion

HDBaseT: Revolutionizing Video Distribution

Micha Risling

Chair, HDBaseT Alliance, Marketing Committee

65 Opinion HDBaseT: Revolutionizing Video Distribution Micha Risling Chair, HDBaseT Alliance, Marketing Committee
70
70

Tech Space

HVDC Underground Cable System

Mr Pankaj Kumar

Senior Engineer (EHV) KEI Industries Ltd

76
76

Perspective

Smart Grid Cables-

Mr Yogendra S. Tiwari

Head Technical, KEC International Ltd. (Cable Division)

Head Technical, KEC International Ltd. (Cable Division) 85 Feature EHV Cables and Insulations Mr Tony Martens
85
85

Feature

EHV Cables and Insulations

Mr Tony Martens

VP-Technology & Development, Polycab Wires Pvt. Ltd.

88
88

In Conversation

Mr T Jagath Reddy, Director, Telangana Discoms and Telegana Transco speaks to IEEMA Journal about speeding up of generation plants which are under construction and transmission projects.

91
91

In Focus

Need of Standardisation of Distribution Transformers for Reliable and Sustainable Power Supply

IEEMA Transformer division

95
95

SME Talk

IEEMA SME Division

98
98

IEEMA Activities

102
102

Power Scenario

Global Scenario

Indian Scenario

104
104

IEEMA Database

Basic Prices & Indices Production Statistics

108
108

ERDA News

14

September 2015

Contents

110
110

Seminars & Fairs

112
112

Product Showcase

113
113

International News

115
115

National News

117
117

Corporate News

120 CPRI News 122 11
120
CPRI News
122
11

Shocks & Sparks

Theory worth reading

CPRI News 122 11 Shocks & Sparks Theory worth reading Letters to Editor Dear Editor, IEEMA

Letters to Editor

Dear Editor,

IEEMA is an organization that I have been in touch with for the past 31 years and have been utilizing the magazine for updating my knowledge from time to time but in a limited way as far as my work is concerned.

My small suggestion is that magazine should enlighten and educate the people about the best practices that are being implemented all over the world and should bring to the notice of the authorities concerned so that the same can be implemented.

T Jagath Reddy

Director, Telangana Transco

Dear Editor,

The IEEMA Journal that is being published on monthly basis is definitely useful and beneficial to us. It provides an insight to the current market scenario with relation to the Electrical industry / business in India and abroad .

On regular basis we are using the statistical data published in ‘Basic Prices and Indices’ for making our Price Adjustment Claims to different Clients. In case of any queries with IEEMA regarding their publication we are getting prompt replies / clarification from various concerned authority.

Joydip Bhattacharya

Manager – Contracts. McNally Bharat Engineering Company Ltd

Editorial Board

Advisory Committee

Founder Chairman Mr R G Keswani

Chairman Mr Vishnu Agarwal

Members Mr Babu Babel Mr Sunil Misra

Sub Editor Ms Shalini Singh

Mr Sri Chandra Mr Mustafa Wajid

Advertisements Incharge Ms Vidya Chikhale

Circulation Incharge Ms Chitra Tamhankar

Statistics & Data Incharge Mr Ninad Ranade

Designed by:

Reflections

Processed at:

India Printing Works

Regd Office - Mumbai 501, Kakad Chambers, 132, Dr A Besant Road, Worli, Mumbai 400 018. Phones: +91(0) 22 24930532 / 6528 Fax: +91(0) 22 2493 2705 Email: mumbai@ieema.org

Corporate Office - New Delhi Rishyamook Building, First floor, 85 A, Panchkuian Road, New Delhi 110001. Phones: +91 (0) 11-23363013, 14, 16 Fax: +91 (0) 11-23363015 Email: delhi@ieema.org

Branch Office - Bengaluru 204, Swiss Complex, 33, Race Course Road, Bengaluru 560 001. Phones: +91 (0) 80 2220 1316 / 1318 Fax: +91 (0) 80 220 1317 Email: bangalore@ieema.org

Branch Office - Kolkata 503 A, Oswal Chambers, 2, Church Lane, Kolkata 700 001. Phones: +91 (0) 33 2213 1326 Fax: +91 (0) 33 2213 1326 Email: kolkata@ieema.org

Website: www.ieema.in

Articles: Technical data presented and views expressed by authors of articles are their own and IEEMA does not assume any responsibility for the same. IEEMA Journal owns copyright for original articles published in IEEMA Journal.

Representatives:

Guwahati (Assam) - Nilankha Chaliha Email: nilankha.chaliha@ieema.org Mobile: +91 9706389965 Raipur (Chhattisgarh) - Rakesh Ojha Email: rakesh.ojha@ieema.org Mobile:+91 9826855666 Lucknow (U.P. and Uttarakhand) - Ajuj Kumar Chaturvedi Email: anuj.chaturvedi@ieema.org Mobile: +91 9839603195

Chandigarh (Punjab & Haryana) Bharti Bisht Email: bharti.bisht@ieema.org Mobile: +91 9888208880 Jaipur (Rajasthan) Devesh Vyas Email: devesh.vyas@ieema.org Mobile: +91 8955093854 Bhubaneshwar (Odisha) Smruti Ranjan Samantaray Email: smrutiranjan.samantaray@ieema.org Mobile: +91 9437189920 Hyderabad (Andhra Pradesh) Jesse A Inaparthi Email: jesse.inaparthi@ieema.org Mobile: +91 9949235153 Srinagar (Jammu & Kashmir) Mohammad Irfan Parray Email: irfan.parray@ieema.org Mobile: +91 9858455509

IEEMA Members Helpline No. 022-66605754

APPOINTMENTS
APPOINTMENTS

Mr A Wadhwan appointed Additional Secretary, Department of Financial Services

Anup Wadhwan has been appointed as Additional Secretary, Department of Financial Services. He is a

1985 batch IAS officer of Uttarakhand cadre.

Mr GC Murmu appointed Additional Secretary, Department of Expenditure

Mr Girish Chandra Murmu has been appointed as Additional Secretary, Department of Expenditure. He is a 1985 batch IAS officer of Gujarat cadre.

Ms BN Sharma appointed Additional Secretary, Ministry of Power

Mr Badri Narain Sharma has been appointed as Additional Secretary, Ministry of Power. He is a 1985 batch IAS officer of Rajasthan cadre.

Mr SN Tripathi posted as Additional Secretary, Ministry of Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises

Surendra Nath Tripathi has been appointed as Additional Secretary, Ministry of Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises. He is a 1985 batch IAS officer of Orissa cadre.

Ms Alka Panda appointed Director General, Bureau of Indian Standards

Ms Alka Panda has been appointed as Director

General, Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS). She is a

1983 batch IAS officer of Orissa cadre

Mr K Gupta appointed Additional Secretary, Department of Atomic Energy

K Gupta has been appointed as Additional Secretary, Department of Atomic Energy. She is a 1985 batch IAS officer of Maharashtra cadre.

Mr Ajay Kumar appointed Additional Secretary, Department of Electronics and Information Technology

Additional

Secretary, Department of Electronics and Information

officer of

Ajay

Kumar

has

been

a

appointed

as

Technology. He is Kerala cadre.

1985 batch IAS

Mr Sanjay Kumar joins as Director (Personnel), WCL

Sanjay Kumar, GM, CIL, has taken over the charge as Director (Personnel), Western Coalfields Limited.

Mr IJ Kapoor takes over as Technical Member APTEL

Mr Inder Jit Kapoor took over as Technical Member of Appellate Tribunal for Electricity (APTEL) in New Delhi. Before joining the Appellate Tribunal, Shri Kapoor was serving as Director (Commercial), on the board of NTPC Limited for about 7 years.

Mr DJ Pandian appointed chairman of BECL

Former chief secretary D J Pandian has been appointed chairman of Bhavnagar Energy Company Ltd (BECL). He has also been appointed as Director General of Pandit Deendayal Petroleum University.

Ex-Cabinet secy Ajit Kumar Seth appointed PESB chief

Former Cabinet secretary Ajit Kumar Seth was on Friday appointed as the Chairman of the Public Enterprises Selection Board (PESB), the government’s head-hunter. Seth, a 1974-batch IAS officer of Uttar Pradesh cadre, completed his extended tenure of four years at the Cabinet secretariat on June 13 this year. He has been appointed for a period of three years or till he attains 65 years of age, said the order issued by the Department of Personnel and Training (DoPT).

Mr Ved Prakash appointed Director ONGC (onshore)

Mr Ved Prakash Mahawar has been appointed as Director (onshore) of ONGC. He will look after the all onshore operations spread across India. Mahawar has 33 years of experience in managing drilling and operational functions, holding various key positions across vast spectrum of oil fields.

Mr DK Venkatesh selected HAL Director

Mr DK Venkatesh has been selected by the PESB for the post of the Director (Engineering and R&D) in Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL). Venkatesh is currently holding the post of GM, HAL. As many as 15 persons were interviewed for the post of the Director (Engineering and R&D).

CoverStory

Cables

Cover Story Cables T he Indian Wires and Cable Industry is now Rs. 33,000 Crores in

T he Indian Wires and Cable Industry is now Rs. 33,000 Crores

in size, which is 14% higher than the previous year. However, the CAGR of the industry for 5 years is only 10% as the year before there was a dip in

the market. In comparison, the Indian Electronics and Electricals industry, which saw a similar down turn in the previous year, has shown a growth of only 10 %. The wires and cables market is expected to witness rapid growth in the coming years due to government investments in power and telecommunication, dynamic industrialization and urbanization.

Indian manufacturers have proven that they are as capable as global players in terms of manufacturing for special applications within India as well as for Exports. The latest entrant to product up-gradation is the 220 Kv technology that has more than 5 players in the industry versus less than two just a few years back.

Price Variation Clause

Incorporation of PV clause is a logically acceptable solution in normal as well as in inflationary conditions. It is advantageous to have a well-defined PV clause with third party impartial data available

24

for determination of price variation.

Understanding the need of its members and their buyers, IEEMA was involved in establishing various PV clauses for different electrical equipment. IEEMA as you all know is the first ISO certified Association in India and therefore has a well- established documented procedure for evolving and operating PV Clauses.

The important stages followed during the evolution process are as under:

c) Finalizing weights for key raw materials and also for labour cost

d) Deciding on lead time for purchase of various raw materials

Circulation of formula evolved by product division to buyers and other manufacturers for their comments and suggestions.

6) Discussions with the product division on comments and suggestions

5)

7) Finalisation of PV clause and circulation to all manufacturers and buyers.

Circulation of prices / indices regularly every month.

buyers

of

1)

Collection of cost data from member manufacturers.

2)

Analysis of cost data to identify key raw materials.

8)

3) Evaluating average weight based on its cost, for each raw material.

9)

Providing

and

support

in

to

contractors

case

interpretation problems.

4)

Evolving a draft PV clause after discussing in respective product divisions.

The discussions include;

a) Deciding

cost

based on the study of the balance sheets

b) Identifying

of

on

fixed

source/s

supply for key raw materials

IEEMA is involved in this activity for over 30 years and has been successfully operating Price Variation Clauses for about 25 products. All Utilities, PSUs like NTPC and POWERGRID, International funding agencies like World Bank, ADB etc. have accepted IEEMA PV clauses.

One of the oldest IEEMA PV clause was for Power Cables.

September 2015

CoverStory

Cables

PV Clause based on prices of raw materials only

C. P = P0 + F1 (RM1 –RM10) + F2 (RM2 – RM20)

Where-

P /P0 Price Payable /Price Quoted per unit quantity

F1, F2

Factors indicating actual quantity per unit

RM1, RM2, ….

Raw Material prices

per unit quantity at the time

of delivery

RM10, RM20…. Raw Material prices per unit quantity at the time of quoting

This type of formula is used when only one or two types of raw materials are used and quantity of which is easily identifiable. IEEMA is using such clauses for Cables and Transformer Oil

PV formulae development for Cables

PVC

cables

AL

& PILC cables wef 1st Apr 1981

Insulated

&

CU

PVC

& PILC cables wef 1st Aug 1984

Insulated

AL

&

CU

cables

PVC

& PILC cables – wef 1st apr 88

Insulated

AL

&

CU

cables

Variation factors for al armoured & copper mining cables wef 7th Jan 92

PV formula with Steel factors for pvc control armoured cables wef 1st Mar 93

Shift of origin/base value of all IEEMA PV formulae took place wef. 1st Jan 2001

In 2007 major changes took place in

revision of PV clause for Cable.

A sub-committee of major member

manufacturers of Cable added

following new PV clauses

a. LT XLPE Power Cable

b. LT XLPE Control Cable

c. HT (3.3 to 33 KV) XLPE Power Cables

Mr Bharat Jaisinghani, Chairman, IEEMA Cables Division speaks to IEEMA Journal about the growth of cable industry

speaks to IEEMA Journal about the growth of cable industry How would you size up the

How would you size up the emerging opportunity in India in for the Cables and Wires business, if India were to grow its GDP at 8-9%?

India is expected to grow from

a $ 2 Trillion economy to a $ 10

Trillion economy in the next 15 to 20 years where the manufacturing sector will contribute to 25% of the GDP compared to the current 16%. To estimate the opportunity

in India over the next few years it is

best to look at the consumption of Cables and Wires in China which

is a $ 10 trillion economy with a

population of just 10% more than of India. In 2013, China consumed 6 million tonnes of Copper and 9 million tonnes of Aluminium in the Cables and Wires industry. India’s current consumption should be approximately 15% of the above figures. The Indian Wires and Cable industry, which is at approximately Rs 33000 crores right now, will be between 2 to 3 times in 10 years.

What are the growth drivers for the Indian cable industry?

Cables and Wires are dependent on the traditional growth drivers like construction and infrastructure. India has the following drivers in its favour:

The Indian population is the 2nd highest in the world and 65% of it is below the age of 35, whichwill lead to the growing needs of infrastructure. Increase of cost in China and increase in job requirement for the young of India will make us more competitive for global manufacturing at least for the next 2 decades. This will support the Make In India initiative, which will result in massive industrialization and urbanization.

We now have a stable government and the action plan initiated by the new government has improved overall international investor’s confidence in India. Countries like China and Japan have committed more than 100 Billion USD of FDI investments. The government has understood that all this cannot materialise without focus on power and infrastructure and therefore announced investmentsof $ 250 billion in the Power, Coal and Renewable Energy sector. There is special focus on solar energy as India lies in the sunny tropical belt with about 300 days of clear sun. We could greatly benefit from the renewable energy trend, as it has the ideal combination of both - high solar isolation and a big consumer base density.

September 2015

25

CoverStory

Cables

At the same time there are non traditional drivers like increase in use of underground cables and insulated overhead conductors in distribution networks, the rise of use in electric vehicles and electricity driven transport, the need to replace ageing cables, etc. which will lead to growth of the industry.

In a country like India price weighs over quality, how can this be tackled? What would be the market share of the organized sector?

Good quality comes at a price and in most cases the difference between good and bad products are clearly visible in the form of recycled raw material or undersized products. In developed markets, the government forces standardisation of products and there is policing and serious actions against manufacturers making products below the desired quality standards. India will take some time to get there. Quality consciousness also comes from the education of the end client whether it is the formal education or various institutions / companies explaining the risk of using bad quality products for specific applications. At the same time the end clients must understand the risk using low quality products, which can lead to loss of life or could also damage the environment.

Slowly and steadily the industry is turning more brand conscious, which brings about an assurance on quality. The unorganised sector in India, which contributes to the price conscience market, is estimated at 10% in the case of the electrical cables business and 40% in the case of the Housing Wiring segment, which is significantly lower than the numbers few years.

On products side, how much would be the current capacity utilisations in different segments like cables? Do you foresee significant operational leverage in any of these segments, going forward?

The average capacity utilisation in the industry is at 55%. If this has to be split in to various segments then the highest available capacities are in the Low Density and the Low voltage cables which is at 40% utilisation, instrumentation being at 45% and the Medium Voltage Cables at 65% of Industry capacity. The segments that will surge in the short term creating significant operational leverage are the EHV, Solar, Railways and Optical Fibre segments. Although the industry is currently in a phase of underutilization, I believe 2 years from now most companies would want to invest in new capacities.

What’s the prime concern for the industry?

The biggest issue faced by the industry is to do with the payment terms by various buyers, which could be due to delayed projects or sometimes fund unavailability. At times it’s the payment terms and quite often it’s the adherence to payment terms that leads to the erosion of profit. At the same time, other commercial terms of various buyers like Bank guarantees, price variations, earnest money deposits, inspection notifications and warranty’s makes it difficult for manufacturers to make profit. Besides these, there are many customers who buy products below quality standards from B grade suppliers and thus there is no room for comparison.

The industry being a buyers market is very competitive and the above two points creates further disturbances. Limited capacities for testing cables in India with Indian laboratories not being recognised internationally and lack of standardisation amongst most cable buyers are also

The committee also evolved variation factors for all items including PVC and Polymer used in HT Power Cables. However, XLPE Component factors were not evolved.

In July 2010, new Round Wire steel factors for LT & HT cables and factors for XLPE insulated 3.3 to 33 KV Power Cables with Copper/ Aluminium Conductor of 25 sq. mm. cross sectional area and only for 33KV (E) power cable of 50 sq. mm. cross sectional area were added for looking at demand from users.

In July 2012, variation factors of Steel for LT PVC insulated Power and Control cables were revised.

Raw material prices

Common issue: IEEMA prices and indices do not reflect actual market prices.

It must be understood that each supplier has different strategy and policy to quote prices to the buyers based on delivery schedules, payment terms, quantity of supply, credit worthiness of the buyer etc. The sources, which are giving prices to IEEMA, are unable to disclose such policies. However, while obtaining prices on regular basis from the suppliers, IEEMA always advises such suppliers to follow consistent policy while sending prices to IEEMA. Such prices received by IEEMA, therefore, could be either average price, prices offered to one preferred buyer or even the list prices.

Therefore it is observed that, though the prices indicated to IEEMA do not reflect market levels, variation in the prices sent to IEEMA are almost identical to the market fluctuations. Since the IEEMA PV clause is ratio based and as explained above since the variation is identical, it is observed that the ratio of prices indicated to IEEMA and those of market prices are almost same.

PVC Compound – Nocil WB-85 & WH-95 were published til 1999 and subsequently equivalent grades of

26

September 2015

CoverStory

Cables

Cover Story Cables CW-22 and HR-11 of Shriram Axiall Pvt. Ltd. For representing XLPE Compound prices;

CW-22 and HR-11 of Shriram Axiall Pvt. Ltd.

For representing XLPE Compound prices; Cable division made several attempts for prices of base material like PE as well as few domestic & overseas sources of XLPE; however could not conclude with conformity in accuracy and sustainability of these prices.

Copper – IEEMA was publishing Copper prices sourced from MMTC till 1990. Further the prices were

based on Hindustan Copper Ltd. (HCL). In 2007, while publishing new PV clause, Copper price source was shifted to Sterlite Limited. However, from 2001, the Copper prices were based on Final LME Average Settlement price including premium

& freight for accurate variation.

AL prices

For long period, Aluminium prices are published based on prices of major 3 domestic primary producers. The prices were published as on 1st working day.

During past few years, industry has been facing large fluctuations in Aluminium prices during the month including changes in rebits/ discount structure etc. This has hurt in procurement process of manufacturers as well as affecting adversely in realizing accurate price variation.

IEEMA therefore decided to shift to publishing domestic prices of Aluminium based on monthly weighted average price mechanism

from July 2013 for fair representation

& optimum Price variation.

major pain points. While the above are more industry related concerns fluctuating commodities, forex and global oil prices are major concerns of the industry.

What role is IEEMA and the Cable Division playing address some of the above concerns?

The following improvement initiatives are in discussion within the Cable Division and/or with collaboration with other divisions:

1. A commercial committee has been formed to work with the transformer division on standardisation of commercial terms with majority of the utilities. The idea is also to sensitise the buyers about the profit erosion that is caused due to ambiguous and one sided payment terms.

2. Recently, a vision setting exercise was done for the Technical Committee of the cables division. Some of the objectives that the division will take up would be a) Creating standards for products which have none b) Working with the bureau of Indian standards and other standard setting bodies to improve existing standards and c) on request educate the customers on how standards have been set along with resolving their queries d) start marketing campaigns for educating the customers about cables and its application

3. IEEMA has played an important role in supporting the “Make In India” campaign. The cable industry has submitted data with evidence explaining some products, which must have higher entry barriers for the industry to survive.

4. IEEMA also creates special task forces to help Government bodies draft guidelines and policies for special initiatives. Recently a Smart Grid division has been formed by IEEMA to draft such guidelines.

5. If there are any issues that are faced by the Industry, IEEMA and the Cable Division are used as a strong platform to communicate the issues and bring resolution.

How do you foresee the export market?

Times of India, in a story filed from Beijing just termed India as the “next emerging factory of the world”. I feel that the cables and wires business is a localised business and hence we cannot export every product we manufacture as there are barriers like import duty, transportation costs and local advantages to the country.

At the same time any local buyer wants at least a 5% cost advantage to take the pain to buy from a low cost country (LCC). Every country has its own certifications and local body requirements which make it difficult to sell internationally. However, I see a great potential for Indian cable manufacturers to supply products to developed countries where the import duties are low and cost of manufacturing is high especially for labour intensive products like Instrumentations, EPR’s, Railway Signaling and to some extent Medium and High Voltage cables in the medium and long term. I do hope that the government of India will announce Export oriented incentive packages that will help the industry.

How does the industry deal with the situation fluctuation of metal prices?

The Indian manufacturers have learnt it the hard way. From the year 2001 to 2008 Metal prices and the Rupee kept on appreciating. While this increase hit them on the existing orders if raw materials were not bought at time of booking the order, it also rewarded them in the increase of

September 2015

27

CoverStory

Cables

sales value and inventory thus increasing the profit. As there was always a shortage of material companies tried to buy in bulk at fixed prices in anticipation of an upward trend which led to wealth erosion when Copper and Aluminium came down to their historic low of 6 years in 2009.

believe the industry has learnt from its mistakes and has become wiser over a period of time and they seem to have implemented Risk Management techniques with the help of financial institutions and vendors. Customers’ acceptance of the IEEMA Price Variation formula has also marginally helped the industry. However, a drastic fall in prices like in the current situation where Copper has come down from USD 7000 / tonne to USD 5000 / tonne will definitely hit the industry in the short term and there is not much that can be done.

What initiatives of the Government will make the industry grow its size?

The government has taken some new initiatives like “Make in India”, Smart Cities, Sansad Adarsh Gram Yojna (Building India’s villages), Housing for all, 24x7 Power for all, etc. Our Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi has quoted “Fruits of development will not reach the common man unless energy connectivity reached every last household of the country”. However, the government itself will face some challenges due to issues with Coal shortage leading to less use of generation capacities, accumulated losses of DISCOMS which is not helping them flourish and lack of focused energy conservation techniques and also challenges of T&D losses.

Keeping in mind the growing need for generation, demand and supply gap due to increased residential demand and lack of penetration in rural areas the government will have to increase focus on innovative solutions to improve reliability and quality of power. At the same time some initiatives of the government like incentivising exports, implementation of the long awaited Goods and Services Tax (GST) etc will result in boosting the morale of both domestic and overseas investors. The Government thinking and strategy is in the right place. The key to success lies in the execution!

Shifting to LME Average AL prices

The Aluminium metal prices world- wide are primarily based on the LME prices. While majority of the foreign Aluminium producers keep their prices linked to the LME, some of the Indian Aluminium producers have started doing this. On the other hand, the consumers of Aluminium conductors & cables and other Aluminium based products, especially in the private sector, are linking their Purchase Orders with the LME. The benefit of this linkage is that the LME prices are transparent, hedge-able and highly credible.

Based on the wider acceptance of LME based metal prices and the experience with LME Copper prices which are also readily accepted by all stakeholders; It was decided to include LME average settlement prices of Aluminium including premium in the IEEMA Monthly Price Index Circulars from October 2014. IEEMA; in view of the above; recommended to electrical equipment suppliers/ bidders to preferably opt for LME based Aluminium prices for all future contracts/quotes.

Monthly IEEMA PV circulars for Conductor, Cable, Transformers and Transmission Line Accessories & Hardware (TLA&H) would be

Line Accessories & Hardware (TLA&H) would be mentioning both the domestic & the LME linked prices

mentioning both the domestic & the LME linked prices of Aluminium.

Instrumentation PVC

In late 2013, Cable division members felt the need to evolve Price Variation clause for Instrumentation Cables. A sub-committee of major members was formed to guide this activity.

IEEMA as per standard process, collected factors for Copper and Steel for 4 types of Instrumentation Cables: Paired and Triad – Individual and Overall Screened

Members reviewed the factors and the PV formula including raw material sources and the PV formula after due process of review by all stakeholders; published and made operational w.e.f. 1st July 2014

PV Calculator

IEEMA PVC is a highly credible service used by number of stakeholders in this sector to mitigate the risk arising due to fluctuations in raw material prices.

IEEMA has now developed an online PV Calculator portal (www. pvcalculator.ieema.org) where a user can get Certified Report of Price Variation calculations by submitting key inputs of the contract. This will help users to settle the PV claims amicably. The web site currently is in beta version and shortly will be fully functional after adding all features of desired calculations. n

- Ninad Ranade, IEEMA

28

September 2015

ThoughT Leader of The MonTh - aBB

ELECRAMA-2016

EL-2016

ABB will focus on its smart solutions for sustainable growth.

- Mr Raimondo Salandra

President Low Voltage Products, ABB India

ABB is a leader in power and automation technologies that enable utility, industry, and transport and infrastructure customers to improve their performance while lowering environmental impact. Mr Raimondo Salandra, President Low Voltage Products, ABB India speaks to IEEMA Journal using ELECRAMA 2016 as an opportunity to launch ABB’s major new product range.

ABB India speaks to IEEMA Journal using ELECRAMA 2016 as an opportunity to launch ABB’s major
as an opportunity to launch ABB’s major new product range. In the last few years, ELECRAMA
as an opportunity to launch ABB’s major new product range. In the last few years, ELECRAMA
as an opportunity to launch ABB’s major new product range. In the last few years, ELECRAMA
as an opportunity to launch ABB’s major new product range. In the last few years, ELECRAMA
as an opportunity to launch ABB’s major new product range. In the last few years, ELECRAMA
as an opportunity to launch ABB’s major new product range. In the last few years, ELECRAMA

In the last few years, ELECRAMA has been a platform where Low Voltage Products business has reached a balanced audience of customers from different sectors.

where Low Voltage Products business has reached a balanced audience of customers from different sectors. September

September 2015

where Low Voltage Products business has reached a balanced audience of customers from different sectors. September
where Low Voltage Products business has reached a balanced audience of customers from different sectors. September
where Low Voltage Products business has reached a balanced audience of customers from different sectors. September
where Low Voltage Products business has reached a balanced audience of customers from different sectors. September
where Low Voltage Products business has reached a balanced audience of customers from different sectors. September
where Low Voltage Products business has reached a balanced audience of customers from different sectors. September

29

ThoughT Leader of The MonTh - aBB

ELECRAMA-2016

The M onTh - aBB E L E C R A M A - 2 0
EL-2016
EL-2016
onTh - aBB E L E C R A M A - 2 0 1 6

ABBhasbeenmakinginIndiaforaroundsix decades - so for us, the term ‘Make in India’ may be new but the practice is old. India is the only manufacturing location for several ABB products globally and is also home to the largest corporate research center for ABB globally.

to the largest corporate research center for ABB globally. the the leading leading electrical electrical &
to the largest corporate research center for ABB globally. the the leading leading electrical electrical &
to the largest corporate research center for ABB globally. the the leading leading electrical electrical &
to the largest corporate research center for ABB globally. the the leading leading electrical electrical &
to the largest corporate research center for ABB globally. the the leading leading electrical electrical &
to the largest corporate research center for ABB globally. the the leading leading electrical electrical &
to the largest corporate research center for ABB globally. the the leading leading electrical electrical &
to the largest corporate research center for ABB globally. the the leading leading electrical electrical &
to the largest corporate research center for ABB globally. the the leading leading electrical electrical &
to the largest corporate research center for ABB globally. the the leading leading electrical electrical &
to the largest corporate research center for ABB globally. the the leading leading electrical electrical &
to the largest corporate research center for ABB globally. the the leading leading electrical electrical &
to the largest corporate research center for ABB globally. the the leading leading electrical electrical &
to the largest corporate research center for ABB globally. the the leading leading electrical electrical &
the the leading leading electrical electrical & & electronics electronics monthly monthly JUNE JUNE 20130
the the leading leading electrical electrical & & electronics electronics monthly monthly
JUNE JUNE 20130 2013
ISSN ISSN 0970-20- 0970-2946 946
Rs. 50/-
Rs. 50/-
VOLUME 4
VOLUMEME 4
ISSUE ISSUE NO. NO. 10 10
Cover Story
Trade Agreements
Special Feature
African Utility Week
Face2Face
Mr Saurabh Patel
for Power,
Govt of Energy
Minister
& Petroleum,
Gujarat
Country Profile
Egypt
Week Face2Face Mr Saurabh Patel for Power, Govt of Energy Minister & Petroleum, Gujarat Country Profile
Week Face2Face Mr Saurabh Patel for Power, Govt of Energy Minister & Petroleum, Gujarat Country Profile
Week Face2Face Mr Saurabh Patel for Power, Govt of Energy Minister & Petroleum, Gujarat Country Profile
Week Face2Face Mr Saurabh Patel for Power, Govt of Energy Minister & Petroleum, Gujarat Country Profile
Week Face2Face Mr Saurabh Patel for Power, Govt of Energy Minister & Petroleum, Gujarat Country Profile
Week Face2Face Mr Saurabh Patel for Power, Govt of Energy Minister & Petroleum, Gujarat Country Profile
Week Face2Face Mr Saurabh Patel for Power, Govt of Energy Minister & Petroleum, Gujarat Country Profile
Week Face2Face Mr Saurabh Patel for Power, Govt of Energy Minister & Petroleum, Gujarat Country Profile

32

September 2015

ELECRAMA-2016

WORLD ELECTRICITY FORUM

ELECRAMA-2016 WORLD ELECTRICITY FORUM YOUR ACCESS TO THE WORLD OF ELECTRICITY ▲ ELECRAMA  2016  Chairman 
ELECRAMA-2016 WORLD ELECTRICITY FORUM YOUR ACCESS TO THE WORLD OF ELECTRICITY ▲ ELECRAMA  2016  Chairman 

YOUR ACCESS TO THE WORLD OF ELECTRICITY

ELECTRICITY FORUM YOUR ACCESS TO THE WORLD OF ELECTRICITY ▲ ELECRAMA  2016  Chairman  Mr  Aadtiya 
ELECTRICITY FORUM YOUR ACCESS TO THE WORLD OF ELECTRICITY ▲ ELECRAMA  2016  Chairman  Mr  Aadtiya 

ELECRAMA  2016  Chairman  Mr  Aadtiya  Dhoot  alongwith  his  delegation  met  officials  of  Kenya  Power  during  their  visit  to  Kenya  to  promote 

ELECRAMA  2016

IEEMA  President  Mr  Vishnu  Agarwal  and  Chairman  ELECRAMA  2016  Mr  Aaditya  Dhoot  met  President  of  Tanzania  H.E.  Jakaya  Mrisho  Kikwete  to  discuss  the  12th  edition  of  ELECRAMA-2016,  to  be  held  from  13  to  17  February  2016  at  Bangalore,  India.  Tanzania  and  India  have  traditionally  enjoyed  close,  friendly  and  co-operative  relations.  In  recent  years  Indo- Tanzanian ties have evolved into a modern and pragmatic relationship with  greater and diversified economic engagement

greater and diversified economic engagement 33 September 2015
33 September 2015
33
September 2015

ELECRAMA-2016

WORLD ELECTRICITY FORUM

ELECRAMA-2016 WORLD ELECTRICITY FORUM WHAT TO EXPECT AT ELECRAMA 2016? IEEMA is organising the 12th Edition
ELECRAMA-2016 WORLD ELECTRICITY FORUM WHAT TO EXPECT AT ELECRAMA 2016? IEEMA is organising the 12th Edition
ELECRAMA-2016 WORLD ELECTRICITY FORUM WHAT TO EXPECT AT ELECRAMA 2016? IEEMA is organising the 12th Edition

WHAT TO EXPECT AT ELECRAMA 2016?

IEEMA is organising the 12th Edition of the exhibition, ‘ELECRAMA-2016’ at Bangalore International Exhibition Centre (BIEC), Bangalore, from 13th to 17th February 2016. The theme of the exhibition is “World Electricity Forum” with emphasis on new innovations, technological advancements and stimulating discussions of the opportunities for future international collaborations.

ELECRAMA, organised by IEEMA – the voice of the Indian Electrical Industry, since its inception has followed

a single minded pursuit of being relevant to the Industry and the needs of

its constituencies. ELECRAMA is the single biggest forum capturing this rich diversity of globally relevant challenges and solutions.

PROUD PARTNER OF:

forum capturing this rich diversity of globally relevant challenges and solutions. PROUD PARTNER OF: 34 September
forum capturing this rich diversity of globally relevant challenges and solutions. PROUD PARTNER OF: 34 September
34 September 2015
34
September 2015

Face2Face

Face 2 Face T&D sector revival is going to be the main focus: Mr Babu Babel

T&D sector revival is going to be the main focus: Mr Babu Babel

Mr Babu Babel, Joint Managing Director, Secure Meters and President Elect, IEEMA speaks about his new role and priority areas to focus on after taking over as President IEEMA.

What will be the priority areas to focus after you take over as President IEEMA?

We will work on an agreed strategic road map to carry the major industry issues forward. The key goal is to make the Association relevant for its members and help the industry contribute to the collective national targets in power sector. This will involve

a) Increased communications right from sharing strategic road map to regular updates on key activities.

b) Strengthening the secretariat and having greater responsibility and accountability.

c) Integrated approach with various divisions to effectively represent the industry at various Government policy bodies, regulatory bodies and standards committees.

d) Assistance to the central and state Governments in there efforts to improve the T&D networks and reduce losses. Continue the Utility outreach programs

e) Support the SME and non utility segments electrical industry as required.

f) Focus on quality and reliability and exports growth. Support skill enhancement efforts of the government

g) Effective brand building, through world - class exhibitions, seminars and interaction with key players.

h) Interact with other leading industry association and educational institutes.

i) Leverage the experience of Past office bearers and industry leaders while developing a pipeline of younger talent to take the industry forward.

What are the concern areas for the Electrical equipment industry?

a)

The key concern has been under utilization of

established

manufacturing

capacity

across

the

industry.

b)

Need for level playing field against dumping and cheap low quality imports.

c)

Need for change in buying practices by Government organisations to take care of overall ownership cost rather than the lowest initial cost.

d)

Ease of doing business with government organisations.

e)

Wide Currency fluctuations.

 

f)

Non tariff barriers faced by exporters

 

What are your key objectives for the Electrical Equipments Industry during 2015-16?

The key objective is to create a collaborative approach all around to help deliver the key priorities mentioned earlier. There is a general mood around the country to focus on economic growth. However we live in a turbulent global economic environment and therefore need to be very careful with our expectations. T&D sector revival is going to be the main focus.

T&D sector revival is going to be the main focus. Please share your views on the

Please share your views on the concept of smart metering in India?

India was second country after England to introduce Electronic energy meters, way back in 1988. These were a lot smarter than the Ferraris disc meters. The meters bought today have reasonable intelligence. It is what we do with intelligence that is important. We need to be smarter there. Our key focus has to be reducing revenue losses

and looking at revenue completeness. Smart metering Solutions used in the western world are not directly relevant for India. Our challenges and business drivers are different. Expensive solutions will not be justified.

We need a combination of Technology, a cadre of competent people to run the utilities (with continuity) and processes that will support. Working smartly is more

relevant than using western style smart meters. It is not

a magic bullet for our power sector ailments.

What steps can be taken to ensure that smart meters are secure?

Advanced techniques of data encryption is used for

secure data transfer. Overall system and IT integration

is important for a secure system.

Indian power companies want blanket ban on Chinese equipment citing the potential security threats. How do you look at this?

Awarding projects related to power generation, transmission and distribution network to Chinese companies will be a serious threat to national security as the electric distribution system carry power to pipelines, water systems, telecommunications and other critical infrastructure, while also serving critical government or military facilities. The need of the hour is not to protect the

36

September 2015

Face2Face

Indian industry but to intelligently safeguard our business and economy from a neighbour whose intentions are suspicious, and where pricing and business are not rational nor driven by the market

Indian IT prowess and its capability to address complex security issues are well known. The entire world depends on our expertise. We have a very evolved electrical equipment manufacturing base as well. Why should we not entrust them collectively to safeguard our key power sector installations?

How do you see the future of renewable capacity addition in India?

We have very supportive national and state governments to add more renewables. SUBSIDIES for renewable energy are one of the most contested areas of public policy. Billions are spent. The idea seems to be working. Photovoltaic panels have more than halved in price since 2008 and the capital cost of a solar-power plant—of which panels account for slightly under half—fell by 22% in 2010-13. But whereas the cost of a solar panel is easy to calculate, the cost of electricity is harder to assess,

economists use “levelised costs”—the net present value of all costs (capital and operating) of a generating unit over its life cycle, divided by the number of megawatt- hours of electricity it is expected to supply.

The trouble, as Paul Joskow of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology has pointed out, is that levelised costs do not take account of the costs of intermittency.* Wind power is not generated on a calm day, nor solar power at night, so conventional power plants must be kept on standby—but are not included in the levelised cost of renewables.

Electricity demand also varies during the day in ways that the supply from wind and solar generation may not match, so even if renewable forms of energy have the same levelised cost as conventional ones, the value of the power they produce may be lower. In short, levelised costs are poor at comparing different forms of power generation.

So overall there is good future for renewables but the overall growth will be eventually dictated by ownership cost. n

- Shalini Singh, IEEMA

the the leading leading electrical electrical & & electronics electronics monthly monthly JUNE JUNE 20130
the the leading leading electrical electrical & & electronics electronics monthly monthly
JUNE JUNE 20130 2013
ISSN ISSN 0970-2946 0970-20- 946
Rs. 50/-
Rs. 50/-
VOLUME 4
VOLUMEME 4
ISSUE ISSUE NO. NO. 10 10
Cover Story
Trade Agreements
Special Feature
African Utility Week
Face2Face
Mr Saurabh Patel
for Power,
Govt of Energy
Minister
&
Country Profile
Petroleum,
Gujarat
Egypt
Face2Face Mr Saurabh Patel for Power, Govt of Energy Minister & Country Profile Petroleum, Gujarat Egypt
Face2Face Mr Saurabh Patel for Power, Govt of Energy Minister & Country Profile Petroleum, Gujarat Egypt
Face2Face Mr Saurabh Patel for Power, Govt of Energy Minister & Country Profile Petroleum, Gujarat Egypt
Face2Face Mr Saurabh Patel for Power, Govt of Energy Minister & Country Profile Petroleum, Gujarat Egypt
Face2Face Mr Saurabh Patel for Power, Govt of Energy Minister & Country Profile Petroleum, Gujarat Egypt
Face2Face Mr Saurabh Patel for Power, Govt of Energy Minister & Country Profile Petroleum, Gujarat Egypt
Face2Face Mr Saurabh Patel for Power, Govt of Energy Minister & Country Profile Petroleum, Gujarat Egypt
Face2Face Mr Saurabh Patel for Power, Govt of Energy Minister & Country Profile Petroleum, Gujarat Egypt
Face2Face Mr Saurabh Patel for Power, Govt of Energy Minister & Country Profile Petroleum, Gujarat Egypt
Face2Face Mr Saurabh Patel for Power, Govt of Energy Minister & Country Profile Petroleum, Gujarat Egypt
Face2Face Mr Saurabh Patel for Power, Govt of Energy Minister & Country Profile Petroleum, Gujarat Egypt

September 2015

37

Interview - Opower

Transforming households through energy conservation way

F ounded in 2007 Opower is a technology company that combines behavioral science, data management,

and insightful analytics to transform the way utilities relate to their customers. Opower’s software has been deployed to more than 95 utility partners around the world, and reaches more than 50 million households and businesses. David Moore is Senior Manager of Market Development & Regulatory Affairs at Opower speaks to IEEMA Journal about the opportunities the company is looking in the Indian market.

Opower combines a cloud-based platform, big data, and behavioral science to help utilities around the world reduce energy consumption and improve their relationship with their customers. This helps consumers lower their energy use and costs, and significantly reduces carbon emissions. Opower is transforming the way the world approaches household energy conservation.

Opower’s software uses statistical algorithms to perform pattern recognition analysis from data in order to derive actionable insights for utility customers. Without any devices installed in the home, the platform can perform usage-disaggregation analysis, presenting end users information such as heating or cooling usage apart from overall usage, and thus allowing them to spot additional opportunities to save money.

Opower’s Energy Reports incorporate the behavioral science techniques of Robert Cialdini, Opower’s chief scientist and the author of Influence, a 1984 book on persuasion. The reports include targeted tips that seek to motivate customers to lower their energy consumption to the “normal” neighborhood rate. The reports also feature smiley-face emoticons for the most energy-efficient homes, a feature that Opower added after research showed that some consumers who used less energy than average started using more once they knew the norm. The reports also compare energy usage among neighbors with similarly sized houses

The company mails the reports to consumers, but also offers the information in other formats, including internet portals, text messages, email and in-home energy displays. Opower’s software enables customers to input more information to generate recommendations about specific types of energy use, such as air-conditioning and heating.

According to Moore, “It’s no secret that consumers complain about their electricity providers. Traditionally, there has been a huge expectation gap between customers and the utilities that serve them.” The company, which has utility clients across the United States and internationally, hears the same complaints around the world, in developed and developing countries alike. “People want lower bills, they want accurate bills, and they look to utility companies for energy information. The Opower software creates an alignment of the customer’s interests with the utility’s interests and with,

38

interests with the utility’s interests and with, 3 8 David Moore, Senior Manager, Market Development &

David Moore, Senior Manager, Market Development & Regulatory Affairs, Opower

usually, the government interests — in terms of demand- side management, or emissions reductions or simply giving people information they deserve,” Moore said.

“Transforming the way utilities interact with their customers based on the data provided by those customers — how they use energy, when they use it, and how they engage with utility communications — gives a community feel to what has been, traditionally, a public service,” Moore believes. Such refinements were not possible a few decades ago. “Data can unlock transformative opportunities that were not available to the utility industry before the computer age,” Moore said.

Opower’s technology platform has saved families and businesses six terawatt-hours (TWh) of energy across more than 95 utility deployments worldwide. Saving six TWh is equivalent to taking all the homes in Alaska and Hawaii — states with a combined total of 2.1 million people — off the grid for a full year.

Opower is transforming the way the world approaches household energy conservation. He opines,” We are open different kind of opportunities in India we are aware that India is unique we are trying to understand the demographics and the challenges of the Indian market . we see the fundamental challenges in the Indian market are ensuring 24X7 power to all. And I think there are opportunities for us to work in parallel and empowering not only the utilities and regulators but also common people in order to improve energy efficiency measures in India.” n

- Shalini Singh, IEEMA

September 2015

TechSpace

Cables

I n urban areas, high voltage underground cables are

commonly used for the transmission and distribution of electricity. Such high voltage cables have metallic sheaths or screens surrounding the conductors, and/or armour and metallic wires surrounding the cables. During earth faults applied to directly earthed systems, these metallic paths are expected to carry a substantial proportion of the total fault current, which would otherwise flow through the general mass of earth, while returning to system neutrals. These alternative return paths must be considered when determining the extent of the grid potential rise at an electrical plant due to earth faults. For safety and reliable operation, the shields and metallic sheaths of power cables must be grounded. Without grounding, shields would operate at a potential considerably above ground. Thus, they would be hazardous to touch and would cause rapid degradation of the jacket or other material intervening between shield and ground. This is caused by the capacitive charging current of the cable insulation that is on the order of 1 mA/ft of conductor length. This current normally flows, at power frequency, between the conductor and the earth electrode of the cable, normally the shield. In addition, the

shield or metallic sheath provides

a fault return path in the event of

insulation failure, permitting rapid operation of the protection devices.

In order to reduce Circulating current

and electric potential difference

between the sheathings of single core three-phase cables, the sheathing is grounded and bonded

at one or both ends of the cables.

If the cable is long, double bonding

has to be carried out which leads to circulating currents and increased total power loss. Raising the sheath’s resistance, by decreasing its cross section and increasing its resistivity, can reduce this almost to the level of the core losses. However, in case of an earth fault, a considerable portion of the fault current flows through the increased sheath resistance, creating much higher power in the sheaths than in the faulty core. A simple solution, a conductor rod buried into the soil above or under the cable can divert this power from the sheaths.

I. Cable Losses

In cable system, two basic types of

losses are present.

Voltage dependent losses:- As the name suggests these are the Losses that are caused by High Voltage. These losses occur at any moment in which the cable is connected to A.C

Voltage source. These losses reveal

the real characterstic of the cable’s property, namely that the cable can be considered as a “capacitor”. An

ideal capacitor consumes purely capacitive power- or capacitive current. A real capacitor, such as cable, not only has capacitive power but also has reactive power or reactive current. The angle between

reactive current or capacitive current is known as Tan δ ( tangens delta). The reactive power thereby represents the dielectric losses in the cable insulation that are caused by structural irregularities of the insulation itself. These losses can be considered as dielectric losses abd are therefore described as “dielectric loss power” Pd. the voltage dependent losses can be calculated as:

Pd= U02* ω*Cb* Tan δ (W/km)

U0= Rated Voltage for the cable in KV

ω = Angular frequency

Cb = Operating capacity in µF/km.

Tan δ= Dielectric power loss factor.

Current dependent losses:- Despite ohmic conductor losses, current dependent losses only appear when A.C current flows through the cable. The consist of the

TechSpace

Cables

following components.

1. Ohmic conductor losses

2. Losses due to skin effect

3. Losses due to proximity effect

4. Losses in metallic sheath

Ohmic Conductor Losses:- These are the lauses caused by the electron flow through the conductor. They are determined by the conductor material and the temperature

P= I2*R in which

I: Current through the cable core

certain

R:

Resistance

at

a

temperature in mΩ or mΩ/km.

Losses due to Skin effect:-Losses due to skin effect are caused by the displacement of the current towards

the conductor surface. Each current has the ability to induce a voltage in

a conductor. The voltage induction

also takes place in its “own” conductor. With the resistance of the conductor, an additional current flows. The direction of this current causes a higher current to flow at the outer diameter area of the conductor and lower current to flow at the conductor centre. The uneven current distribution leads to higher losses.

Losses due to skin effect are approximately quadratic with the power frequency and conductor diameter. They can be reduced by

a suitable design of the conductor

cross section, such as segmented conductors and/or enameled wires.

It is worth mentioning that the skin

effect is zero at D.C currents as there

is no induction.

effect is zero at D.C currents as there is no induction. Losses due to Proximity Effect:-Losses

Losses due to Proximity

Effect:-Losses

 

due

to

proximity

effect

are

caused

by

the

conductors.

closer

the

higher

are caused by the conductors. closer the higher the metallic sheaths of the cables so by

the metallic sheaths of the cables so by reducing the current flows in metallic sheath by different methods of bonding we can increases the load current carrying capacity (ampacity) of the cable. It provides low impedance fault current return path and provides neutral point for the circuit.It provides shielding of electromagnetic field.

(2) Induced voltage & circulating circulating current in cable screen:

If the cable screen is single point bonded, no electrical continuity and mmf generates a voltage.If the cable screen is bonded at both ends, the mmf will cause circulating current to flow if there is electrical continuity. The circulating current produces an opposing magnetic field. Suitable bonding method should be employed to meet the standing voltage limit and keep Circulating current to an acceptable level.

When laying out a cable system and selecting surge voltage limiters, knowledge of the range of induced voltage during normal conditions and during failures is essential. The induced voltage within the cable screen generally depends on

inductance

hh

The

mutual

between core and sheath

hh The conductor current

hh The length of the cable

The mutual inductivity between core and sheath depends on the:

hh Mean sheath diameter

Axial spacing between different phases

hh

electromagnetic field of the

neighboring

The

conductor,

the losses- hence the term

‘proximity effect’.

Sheath Losses:- Sheath losses are generated by the magnetic induction of the conductor currents in the metallic screen and sheath of the cable. They are caused by:

1. Circulating currents in the cable

2. Eddy currents in the cable sheath

3. Resulting sheath currents caused by the induced sheath voltage (in unbalanced earthing systems).

Particularly during high circulating currents, sheath losses may substantially reduce the current load capacity of the cable. Sheath losses can be lowered significantly by means of special earthing methods

III Cable Screen

(1)

Purpose of cable screen:

 

Cable screen controls the electric field stress in the cable insulation. Cable Screen Provides return path for Cable neutral and fault current.If the screen is earthed at two ends than it provides Shielding for electromagnetic radiation. Enclosing dangerous high voltage with earth potential for safety

(2)

Purpose

of

bonding

cable

screens at both ends:

The electric power losses in a cable circuit are dependent on the currents flowing in

at both ends: The electric power losses in a cable circuit are dependent on the currents

TechSpace

Cables

Tech Space Cables Type of laying of cables, these being trefoil or flat formation h h

Type of laying of cables, these being trefoil or flat formation

hh Assumed conditions in the system ( normal Operating, one pole short circuit,, three pole short circuit.)

Depending on the calculations of the induced voltage, several different types of earthing or bonding systems can be applied.

IV Laying Method of Cable

The three Single core cables in

a 3-phase circuit can be placed

in different formations. Typical formations include trefoil (triangular) and flat formations.

hh

(1) Trefoil Formation

(triangular) and flat formations. h h (1) Trefoil Formation To minimize the electromechanical forces between the

To minimize the electromechanical forces between the cables under s h o r t - c i r c u i t conditions, and to avoid eddy- current heating in nearby steelwork

due to magnetic fields set up by load currents, the three single-core cables comprising the three phases

of a 3-phase circuit are always run

clamped in ‘Trefoil’ formation.

Advantages

1.

This

type of Formation

minimizes the sheath circulating currents induced by the magnetic flux linking the cable conductors and metallic sheath or copper wire screens.

2.

This configuration is generally used for cables of lower voltages (33 to 132kV) and of smaller conductor sizes.

Disadvantages

1. The trefoil formation is not appropriate for heat dissipation because there is an appreciable mutual heating effect of the three cables.

The cumulated heat in cables and cable trench has the effect of reducing the cable rating and accelerating the cable ageing.

(2) Flat Formation:

and accelerating the cable ageing. (2) Flat Formation: formation dissipation appropriate and to is increase cable

formation

dissipation

appropriate

and

to

is

increase

cable rating.

Note:- The Formation choice is totally deepened on several factors like screen bonding method,

heat

This

for

conductor area and available space for installation.

Type of Core and Induced Voltage:

(1) Three Core Cable

hh

For LT application, typically for below 11 kV.

hh

Well balanced magnetic field from Three Phase.

hh Induced voltages from three phases sum to zero along the entire length of the cable.

Cable screen should be earthed at both ends

hh Virtually zero induced voltage or circulating current under steady state operation.

hh

2) Single Core Cable

For HV application, typically for 11 kV and above.

hh Single–core cables neglects the use of ferromagnetic material for screen, sheath and armoring.

hh

hh

Induced

voltage

is

mainly

contributed by

the

core

currents in its own phase and

cables

other

two

phases.If

are laid in a compact and symmetrical formation, induced in the screen can be minimized.

hh A suitable screen bonding method should be used for single–core cables to prevent Excessive circulating current, high induced standing voltage high voltage.

Accessories for HT Cable Sheath Bonding:

High voltage cable systems must always be earthed. The earthing, sometimes reffered to as grounding , very much depends on cable parameters and on the application of cable systems.

(1) Link Box

Link box are used to realize the earthing at terminations or joints. Link boxes can be realized for three phase or for single phase earthing.Link box can also be equipped with SVL.

phase earthing.Link box can also be equipped with SVL. Link Box is electrically and mechanically one

Link Box is electrically and mechanically one of the integral accessories of HV underground above ground cable bonding system, associated with HV XLPE power cable systems.

hh Link boxes are used with cable joints and terminations to provide easy access to shield breaks for test purposes and to limit voltage build-up on the sheath

Lightning, fault currents and switching operations can cause over voltages on the cable sheath. The link box optimizes loss management in the cable shield on cables grounded both sides.

hh In HT Cable the bonding system is so designed that the cable sheaths are bonded and earthed or with SVL in such way as to eliminate or reduce the

hh

hh

TechSpace

Cables

circulating sheath currents.

hh Link Boxes are used with cable joints and terminations to provide easy access to shield breaks for test purposes and to limit voltage build-up on the sheath. The link box is part of bonding system, which is essential of improving current carrying capacity and human protection.

(2) Sheath Voltage Limiters (SVL) (Surge Arrestors)

hh SVL is protective device to limit induce voltages appearing on the bonded cable system due to short circuit.

hh It is necessary to fit SVL’s between the metallic screen and ground inside the link box. The screen separation of power cable joint (insulated joint) will be protected against possible damages as a result of induced voltages caused by short circuit/break down.

Type

of

Sheath

Bonding

for

HT

Cable:

There is normally Three Type of Bonding for LT/HT Cable Screen.

(1) Single Point Bonded

Point

1. One

Side

Single

Bonded System.

2. Split Single Point Bonded System.

(2)

Both End Bonded System

(3)

Cross Bonded System

 

(1)

Single point bonded system:

(A)

One

Side

Single

Bonded

System:

For single point bonding , only one

end of the cable screen is connected to the earth while the other end is

left floating. The voltage is induced

linearly along the whole cable length and at the ‘open end’ a

standing voltage occurs. The open end should be protected with

a Sheath Voltage Limiter (SVL)

This diminishes the chance of overvoltages occurring inside the cable screen, protects the cable system and ensures that relevant safety requirements are upheld.

hh A system is single point bonded if the arrangements are such that the cable sheaths provide no path for the flow of circulating currents or external fault currents.

hh This is the simplest form of special bonding. The sheaths of the three cable sections are connected and grounded at one point only along their length. At all other points there will be a voltage between sheath and ground and between screens of adjacent phases of the cable circuit that will be at its maximum at the farthest point from the ground bond.

hh This induced voltage is proportional to the cable length and current. Single-point bonding can only be used for limited route lengths, but in general the accepted screen voltage potential limits the length.

hh The sheaths must therefore be adequately insulated from ground. Since there is no closed sheath circuit, except

through the sheath voltage limiter, current does not normally flow longitudinally along the sheaths and no sheath circulation current loss occurs.

hh

Open circuit in cable screen, no circulating current.

hh

Zero

volt

at

the earthed

end, standing voltage at the unearthed end.

hh Optional PVC insulated earth continuity conductor required to provide path for fault current, if returning from earth is undesirable, such as in a coal mine.

SVL installed at the unearthed

hh

protect the cable

end

to

insulation

during

fault

conditions.

hh Induced voltage proportional to the length of the cable and the current carried in the cable .

hh Zero volt with respect to the earth grid voltage at the earthed end, standing voltage at the unearthed end.

hh Circulating current in the earth–continuity conductor is not significant, as magnetic fields from phases are partially balanced.

hh The magnitude of the standing voltage is depended on the magnitude of the current flows in the core, much higher if there is an earth fault.

hh High voltage appears on the unearthed end can cause arcing and damage outer PVC sheath.

fault. h h High voltage appears on the unearthed end can cause arcing and damage outer
fault. h h High voltage appears on the unearthed end can cause arcing and damage outer

TechSpace

Cables

The voltage on the screen during a fault also depends on the earthing condition.

Standing voltage at the unearthed end during earth fault condition.

hh During a ground fault on the power system the zero sequence current carried by the cable conductors could return by whatever external paths are available. A ground fault in the immediate vicinity of the cable can cause a large difference in ground potential rise between the two ends of the cable system, posing hazards to personnel and equipment.

hh

hh For this reason, single-point bonded cable installations need a parallel ground conductor, grounded at both ends of the cable route and installed very close to the cable conductors, to carry the fault current during ground faults and to limit the voltage rise of the sheath during ground faults to an acceptable level.

hh The parallel ground continuity conductor is usually insulated to avoid corrosion and transposed, if the cables are not transposed, to avoid circulating currents and losses during normal operating conditions.

hh Voltage at the unearthed end during an earth fault consists of two voltage components. Induced voltage due to fault current in the core.

Advantage

hh

No circulating current.

 

hh

No heating in the cable screen.

hh

Economical.

 

Disadvantage

 

hh

Standing

voltage

at

the

un–

earthed end.

 

hh

Requires SVL if standing voltage during fault is excessive.

hh Requires additional earth continuity conductor for fault current if earth returned current is undesirable. Higher magnetic fields around the

hh

hh

cable compared to solidly bonded system.

S

the

cable

is

to the

the

the

of current in the core.

Typically suitable for cable sections less than 500 m, or one drum length.

voltage

cable sections less than 500 m, or one drum length. voltage h h Most Simple and

hh

Most

Simple

and

Common

method.

hh

Cable screen is bonded

to

earth grids at both ends (via

link box).

t

a

n

d

i

on

n

g

screen

proportional

length of

cable

and

magnitude

(B) Split Single Point-bonded

System

hh

It

is

also

known

as

double

length

single

point

bonding

System.

 

hh Cable screen continuity is interrupted at the midpoint and SVLs need to be fitted at each side of the isolation joint.

hh Other requirements are identical to single–point– bonding system like SVL, Earth continuity Conductor, Transposition of earth continuity conductor.

eliminate the induced

voltages in Cable Screen is to bond (Earth) the sheath at both ends of the cable circuit.

hh This eliminates the need for the parallel continuity conductor used in single bonding systems. It also eliminates the need to provide SVL, such as that used at the free end of single-point bonding cable circuits

hh Significant circulating current in the screen Proportional to the core current and cable length and de rates cable.

h

h

To

hh

Could lay cable in compact trefoil formation if permissible.

hh

Suitable for route length of more than 500 Meter.

hh

Very small standing voltage in the order of several volts.

Advantages

hh

Minimum material required.

hh

Most economical if heating is not a main issue.

hh

Effectively

two

sections

of

single–point–bonding.

hh

No

circulating current and

Zero volt at the earthed ends, standing voltage at the sectionalizing joint.

(2) Both End Solidly Bonded

(Single-core cable) systems

For both end bonding, both ends of the cable screen are connected to the ground. There is no standing voltage occurring at the cable ends. Though, the circulating currents may flow inside the screen as the loop between the two earthing points is closed through the ground. As these circulating currents can be as high as the the conductor current itself, they can reduce the cable ampacity significantly.

can be as high as the the conductor current itself, they can reduce the cable ampacity

TechSpace

Cables

hh Provides path for fault current, minimizing earth return current and EGVR at cable destination.

Does not require screen voltage limiter (SVL).

hh

hh Less electromagnetic radiation.

Disadvantages

hh

Provides

path

for

circulating

current.

hh Heating effects in cable screen, greater losses .Cable therefore might need to be de–rated or larger cable required.

hh Transfers voltages between sites when there is an EGVR at one site.

hh

Can

lay

cables

in

trefoil

formation

to

reduce

screen

losses .

 

hh Normally applies to short cable section of tens of meters long. Circulating current is proportional to the length of the cable and the magnitude of the load current.

disadvantageous

earthing system method as far as economical issues are concerned. Hence applied for very short distances and medium voltage systems.

hh

Most

(3) Cross-bonded cable system

A cross bonding is necessary for long cable segments with many joints. The crossbonding system consists of three sections,each followed by a cyclic sheath crossing. At the terminations, the earthing must be solidly bonded to the ground. In ideal cross bonded system,the three sections are of equal length.

The advantage of cross bonding is the absence of residual voltages at the end of the three sections. With no driving voltages,the sheath currents and therefore the losses in the system are zero. With good crossbonding system, the sheath losses can be kept very low. Another advantage of regular cross bonding is that at the grounded termination ends the voltage is zero.

hh A system is cross-bonded if the arrangements are such that the circuit provides electrically continuous sheath runs from earthed termination to earthed termination but with the sheaths so sectionalized and cross- connected in order to reduce the sheath circulating currents.

hh In This Type voltage will be induced between screen and earth, but no significant current will flow.

hh The maximum induced voltage will appear at the link boxes for cross-bonding. This method permits a cable current-carrying capacity as high as with single- point bonding but longer route lengths than the latter. It requires screen separation and additional link boxes.

hh For cross bonding, the cable length is divided into three approximately equal sections. Each of the three alternating magnetic fields induces a voltage with a phase shift of 120° in the cable shields.

takes

place in the link boxes. Ideally, the vectorial addition of the induced voltages results in

hh

The

cross

bonding

U (Rise) = 0. In practice, the cable length and the laying conditions will vary, resulting in a small residual voltage and a negligible current.

Since there is no current flow, there are practically no losses

in the screen.

hh The total of the three voltages is zero, thus the ends of the three sections can be grounded.

hh Summing up induced voltage in sectionalized screen from each phase resulting in neutralization of induced voltages in three consecutive minor sections.

Normally one drum length (500

hh

m approx) per minor section.

hh Sectionalizing position and cable jointing position should be coincident.

hh

Solidly

earthed

at

major

section joints.

 

hh

Transpose

cable

core

to

balance

the

magnitude

of

induced

voltages

to

be

summed up.

hh

Link box should be used at every sectionalizing joint and balanced impedance in all phases.

hh Induced voltage magnitude profile along the screen of a major section in the cross– bonding cable system.

hh

Virtually zero circulating current and Voltage to the remote earth

at

the solidly earthed ends.

hh

In order to obtain optimal result, two ‘‘crosses’’ exist. One is Transposition of cable core crossing cable core at

result, two ‘‘crosses’’ exist. One is Transposition of cable core crossing cable core at September 2015
result, two ‘‘crosses’’ exist. One is Transposition of cable core crossing cable core at September 2015

TechSpace

Cables

each section and second

is Cross bond the cable

no

transposition of screen.

screens

effectively

hh Cross bonding of cable screen:

It is cancelled induced voltage in the screen at every major Section joint.

hh Transposition of cables:It is ensure voltages to be summed up have similar magnitude .Greater standing voltage at the screen of the outer cable.

hh Standing voltages exist at screen and majority of section joints cable and joints must be installed as an insulated screen system.

Advantage

hh

Not

required

any

earth

continuity conductor.

hh

Virtually zero circulating current in the screen.

hh

Standing voltage in the screen is controlled.

hh

Technically superior than other methods.

hh

Suitable

for

long

distance

cable network.

Disadvantage

hh Technically complicated.

hh More expensive.

Sheath Losses according to type of Bonding:

Sheath losses are current- dependent losses and are generated by the induced currents when load current flows in cable conductors.

hh

Bonding Method Comparison

hh The sheath currents in single- core cables are induced by “transformer” effect; i.e.by the magnetic field of alternating current flowing in cable conductor which induces voltages in cable sheath or other parallel conductors.

sheath induced

electromotive forces (EMF) generate two types of losses:

circulating current losses (Y1) and eddy current losses (Y2), so the total losses in cable metallic sheath are: Y= Y1+Y2

hh The eddy currents circulating radially and longitudinally of cable sheaths are generated on similar principles of skin and proximity effects i.e. they are induced by the conductor currents, sheath circulating currents and by currents circulating in close proximity current carrying conductors.

hh They are generated in cable sheath irrespective of bonding system of single core cables or of three-core cables

hh The eddy currents are generally of smaller magnitude when comparing with circuit (circulating) currents of solidly bonded cable sheaths and may be neglects except in the case of large segmental conductors and are calculated in accordance with formulae given in the IEC60287.

hh Circulating currents are generated in cable sheath if the sheaths form a closed loop when bonded together at the remote ends or intermediate points along the cable route.

hh

The

Earthing

Standing Voltage at Cable End

Sheath Voltage

 

Method

Limiter Required

Application

Single End

     

Bonding

Yes

Yes

Up to 500 Meter

Double End

   

Up to 1 Km and Substations short connections, hardly applied for HV cables, rather for MV and LV cables

Bonding

No

No

Cross

Only at cross bonding points

 

Long distance connections where joints are required

Bonding

Yes

hh These losses are named sheath circulating current losses and they are determined by the magnitude of current in cable conductor, frequency, mean diameter, the resistance of cable sheath and the distance between single-core cables.

Conclusion

hh There is much disagreement as to whether the cable shield should be grounded at both ends or at only one end. If grounded at only one end, any possible fault current must traverse the length from the fault to the grounded end, imposing high current on the usually very light shield conductor. Such a current could readily damage or destroy the shield and require replacement of the entire cable rather than only the faulted section.

hh With both ends grounded, the fault current would divide and flow to both ends, reducing the duty on the shield, with consequently less chance of damage.

hh Multiple grounding, rather than just grounding at both ends, is simply the grounding of the cable shield or sheath at all access points, such as manholes or pull boxes. This also limits possible shield damage to only the faulted section.

References

1 Application guide for high voltage accessories by Ruben Vogelsang

2 Articles from Internet related to EHV bonding Systems.

3 Drawing prepared by Mr. Rasham Pal Sharma

4 Sr. Draftsman EHV , KEI Industries Limited.

Mr Puneet Jain

Assistant Manager- EHV Marketing and

Mr Arvind Shrowty

Executive Director, KEI Industries Limited

InDepth - Substandard Cables

Cables

A s we are well aware that modern civilization depends upon the

Electricity and flow of electricity depends upon the cables. Hence cables are the backbone of any electrical distribution network. There are numerous brands of electric cables available in Indian market for the purpose. Everyone is claiming the compliance of it to specific standard specification but many times such claims are not true. While selecting the cable for particular application, emphasis must be on the quality as annual running cost plays a vital role beside safe functional performances.

In this article, an attempt has been made to make end user understand that if the cables are not selected with caution then how it leads to direct financial loss in term of excessive annual running cost and create unsafe conditions. Loss occurred to the nation is substantial in term of excessive energy consumption by using substandard cables.

In general, Aluminum and copper constitute more than 70 % of the total cost of cable .Keeping in view today’s market scenario, drastic rising trend of Aluminium and

copper prices can be seen since last few years.

This has added to the serious problem of supplying sub-standard cables now a days. Manufacturers of cable are tempted to cut corners and use lesser copper or Aluminium than it is required and also by making the conductor with impure/ Recycled copper or Aluminum , tendency of cable manufacturer is to reduce overall input cost.

Cable standards specify the maximum conductor resistance. Drawing down lesser diameter of the wires .Use of impure/recycled material being cheaper shall reduce the considerable amount of input cost of copper/ Aluminum

With Reduced Aluminium and copper components, cables are being provided with cheaper prices. Many times it is surprising to notice that cables are being supplied at prices even lesser than required Raw material cost.

Defects caused due to under –rated substandard cable is seriously affecting as direct money loss in term of excessive power Consumption beside overheating

and reduced level of safety in electrical system network.

In general as far as functional performance is concerned, such serious defects cannot be judged during buying or installation of cables at consumer end. As L.V. cables are designed to operate at 1100 volts but in actual conditions being operated at system voltage of 415volts in India.

Functional performance may be seen satisfactory for the years as such during the operation. Certificate of compliance is being issued to the cable brands on the basis of functional performances but unfortunately the losses caused in term of excessive annual running cost on account of higher energy consumption are being ignored by the end users which is quite substantial.

In Europe, Public Warning Notices about such unsafe cables are being published authorities like BASEC (British Approval Services For Electric Cables)to assist the public safety and to make aware of such unsafe and noncompliant cables. But In India we are lacking with such approach and awareness.

InDepth - Substandard Cables

Cables

With the findings of a case study

here ,an attempt has been made to address it to the end user as how annual running cost increases and excessive energy losses occur due

to use of substandard cables.

Case study

For

Following were the system parameters

System Voltage: 415V, 3phase, 4 Wire system

Load Current = 160Amps

Route length = 620mts

3.5C x 150 sqmm Cable with Aluminium conductor and XLPE Insulation was selected for the operation. There were two cable suppliers for this.

Supplier A @ Rs- 350/- per meter

Supplier B @ Rs – 300/- per meter.

Cable of supplier “B” was selected for the purpose being cheaper.

On investigation, it was noticed

that actual size of cable of supplier

B was 20 % lesser i.e (120sqmm

instead of 150sqmm). Overall

system,

a

particular

electrical

diameter of cable was matched to 150sqmm with increased thickness of insulating material

since input cost was lesser hence

cable was supplied at cheaper prices.

Such defect could not be noticed during operation as recommended size of 150sqmm with rated capacity of 255Amps was selected to operate at 160Amps (65% of rated capacity) and 20 % underrated cable has not caused any immediate functional issues (Since rated current of 120sqmm is 225Amps) hence operational performance was seen satisfactory somehow .

Now let us understand it by following calculation, how it has picked up our pocket in term of excessive electricity bills.

First of all we need to calculate Economical Running Cost Constant Kf in standard conditions.

Kf(Standard) =Total Amount in term of Energy losses in 3 phase system

Kf(standard)= 3phase energy loss X Unit rate

3 phase system Kf(standard)= 3phase energy loss X Unit rate = 3 x (I) 2 x

= 3 x (I) 2 x R x t x unit rate

I= rated current Rating of cable in Amps

R= A.C. resistance at operating temperature in ohms/km

Values of Rated currents & A.C. resistances are normally given in manufacturer’s catalogue and shown below for AL/XLPE cables for ready reference for particular sizes of cable used.

 

A.C

Current

Calculated

Sizes

Resistance

ratings

(Kf)

   

in

 

at 90 deg c

ground

Rs/km/Hr

Amps

3.5C

0.325

ohm/

225

246.8

X

120

km

3.5C

0.265

Ohm/

255

258.5

X

150

km

Unit Rate is taken as @ Rs-5/- KWH

Kf (Standard) as calculated above are based on following assumption

1)

Cables are to be charged at rated current .

2)

Route length of one KM ,

But in actual practical conditions, load current is lesser with varied route length. Hence Kf is required to be calculated at site conditions and calculated as below.

Kf For particular installation

= X2 x Kf( Standard) X ROUTE LENGTH IN KM

x = Actual load current/ Rated current of cable

x

for 150Sqmm=160/255 = 0.63

x

for 120Sqmm=160/225 = 0.71

Since for particular Installation

Actual load current was 160 Amps

Route Length was = 0.620KM

Hence calculated Values

Kf FOR 120SQ MM= (0.71)2 X 246.8X 0.62 =77.1 Rs /Hour

Kf FOR 150SQ MM= (0.63)2 X 258.5X 0.62 =63.6 Rs /Hour

NOW INTIAL COST ( Amount spent to buy the Cable)

InDepth - Substandard Cables

Cables

InDepth - Substandard Cables Cables for Cable A=350X620 = Rs 217000/- for Cable B=300X620 = Rs

for Cable A=350X620 = Rs 217000/-

for Cable B=300X620 = Rs 186000/-

Total amount saved to buy Cable B as compared to A

= 217000-186000=Rs 31000

Amount Spent in term of Energy Consumption in case of Cable “A”

in

one year

=63.6X20X30X12=4.579Lacs

used

for

particular

application

(Assuming

20Hours

operation

in

a day)

Amount Spent in term of Energy Consumption in case of cable “B” cable used for particular application in one year

=77.1X20X30X12=5.551Lacs

(Assuming 20Hous operation in a day)

Total loss on account of cable(B) = 555100 – 457900

= Rs 97200/- per Year = Rs 8100/- per Month

Conclusion

There is loss of RS - 8100/- per month on account of excessive power consumption in substandard quality cable.

Thus It will take only four months to loose Rs -31000/- which we have saved one time on account of buying cheaper cable and after that, Rs- 8100/- per month would be a punishment for buying substandard/ Cheaper cable for a Life time.

Hence the cable which has been purchased today at 10% lesser prices one time may become 20 % costlier for a life time if proper attention is not given to the quality of cables.

Hence it is need of today that economical running condition of installed cable in your electrical distribution network must be considered as an element while energy audits. n

Mr Sanjeev Vyas

General Manager, Havells India Ltd

the the leading leading electrical electrical & & electronics electronics monthly monthly JUNE JUNE 20130
the the leading leading electrical electrical & & electronics electronics monthly monthly
JUNE JUNE 20130 2013
ISSN ISSN 0970-2946 0970-20- 946
Rs. 50/-
Rs. 50/-
VOLUME 4
VOLUMEME 4
ISSUE ISSUE NO. NO. 10 10
Cover Story
Trade Agreements
Special Feature
African Utility Week
Face2Face
Mr Saurabh Patel
for Power,
Govt of Energy
Minister
&
Country Profile
Petroleum,
Gujarat
Egypt
Face2Face Mr Saurabh Patel for Power, Govt of Energy Minister & Country Profile Petroleum, Gujarat Egypt
Face2Face Mr Saurabh Patel for Power, Govt of Energy Minister & Country Profile Petroleum, Gujarat Egypt
Face2Face Mr Saurabh Patel for Power, Govt of Energy Minister & Country Profile Petroleum, Gujarat Egypt
Face2Face Mr Saurabh Patel for Power, Govt of Energy Minister & Country Profile Petroleum, Gujarat Egypt
Face2Face Mr Saurabh Patel for Power, Govt of Energy Minister & Country Profile Petroleum, Gujarat Egypt
Face2Face Mr Saurabh Patel for Power, Govt of Energy Minister & Country Profile Petroleum, Gujarat Egypt
Face2Face Mr Saurabh Patel for Power, Govt of Energy Minister & Country Profile Petroleum, Gujarat Egypt
Face2Face Mr Saurabh Patel for Power, Govt of Energy Minister & Country Profile Petroleum, Gujarat Egypt

InDepth - EHV Cable

Cables

T he topic of EHV cable is very broad and I will start with

specialized conductors to motivate more thought and stimulation to develop areas of technical interest to support the local Power Grid Corporation of India which owns and operates about 1,16,625 ckt kms (Circuit Kilometers) of transmission lines at 800/765kV, 400kV, 220kV & 132kV EHVAC & +500kV HVDC levels and 195 sub-stations. Also the transformation capacity of about 2,34,709 MVA as at 31st May 2015. This gigantic transmission network, spread over length and breadth of the country, is consistently maintained at an availability of over 99%.

Nowintheworldover,therehavebeen dramatic shifts and improvements in power system in all its facets - design, installation, operation and maintenance. Practices in maintenance of EHV transmission lines have been undergoing refinements in techniques and broadening of scope, consistent with rapidly changing requirements and compulsions.

India has a massive transmission network expansion programme and several EHV transmission lines are planned in the years ahead, which would form an integral part of the

National Grid. The transmission lines are the connecting links between generating stations and distribution systems, as well as links between transmission systems. Extensive transmission networks have come into existence for transporting bulk power from generating stations, many 400 kV AC and few 765 / 800 kV AC & 500 kV HVDC transmission systems are already working satisfactorily in our country. The 800 kV HVDC (Six conductor bundle configuration) transmission system is also in the process of implementation, plans are already afoot in the country to introduce 1200 kV AC (Eight conductor bundle configuration) transmission lines. India has massive transmission network expansion program and several EHV/UHV transmission lines are planned in the years ahead, which would form an integral part of the national grid. In addition, all our efforts have to be put in to ensure that the existing EHV/ UHV transmission lines perform satisfactorily with no downtime so that additional investment in transmission system network could be judiciously planned. The difficulties experienced by the power utilities in finding the required corridor for new transmission lines

and increased demand for power can be met by Up-rating or Up- grading the existing transmission lines with suitable modifications. The main issue in all power circuits is the ability of the conductor to perform and voltage with stand performance of any particular insulated conductor.

The cable industry has to challenge

itself to provide the requirement for

a more technical OHL (overhead

line) lines with the composite

materials that are now available and invest in equipment to provide the designs that give the optimization

of load capacity, physical strength

for reduced spans, towers etc. The materials being Calcium aluminium and carbon reinforced aluminium, these conductors are

currently available and are known as ‘composite’ conductors and are classified under the “High Temperature Low Sag”, or HTLS conductors. These composite conductors are currently required

to be used on long crossings and

replacement of existing lines where

a larger conductor is needed to

carry more power but with a lower weight and is a good economical alternative to building new

transmission towers. The shape (compactness, roundness and

InDepth - EHV Cable

Cables

InDepth - EHV Cable Cables smoothness) of these conductors are critical to performance in windy and

smoothness) of these conductors are critical to performance in windy and icy conditions.)

The ACCC ( aluminium Carbon Composite Conductors) conductor’s hybrid carbon and glass fiber composite core offers many advantages compared to an all- aluminum or steel-reinforced conventional conductor. It offers twice the capacity while cutting line loss by 25-40% under equal load conditions. The combination of high tensile strength and low thermal sag enables longer spans, so new lines can be built with fewer structures.

The Roll Form Strander is equipped with an external roll form system to be able produce the compact smooth OHL conductor. The objective of this system is to present to the strander the material in the optimum format depending on the desired strand construction. This roll form system can be as simple as a two layer (ie:

1+6) construction or as intricate as a five layer (ie: 1+6+12+18+24) construction. The scope of the strand design determines the application configuration.

(a)

Roll forming of the input wires. This is achieved with a driven roll stand shaping each wire in a layer.

(b)

Round wire layers where a number of round wires are closed without any change in section. The “S” roll metering system is used in this instance.

hh

PROCESS STEPS

hh

Round Wire Coil Payoff

hh

Roll Formed Profiles

 

hh

Wire

Assembly

into

Double

Twist

hh

Compact conductor

 

Polycab Wire and Cables are producing many copper, aluminium conductors and overhead lines with many options to offer.

Undergrounding is the opposite to overhead lines and are necessary when overhead is not practical as in most cities. The conductors that are now being used for EHV have grown considerably in size and 3200mm2 have now been achieved for 500kV XLPE cable. The 2 issues working against the large current carrying capacity conductors are “skin effect” and “proximity effect”

The skin effect is the concentration of electric current flow around the periphery of the conductors.

It increases in proportion to the cross-section of conductor used. The short distance separating the

phases in the same circuit generates the proximity effect. When the conductor diameter is relatively large in relation to the distance separating the three phases, the electric current tends to concentrate on the surfaces facing the conductors. The wires of

the facing surfaces indeed have a lower inductance than wires that

are further away (the inductance of a circuit increases in proportion to the surface carried by the circuit).

The current tends to circulate in the

wires with the lowest inductance. In practice, the proximity effect is

weaker than the skin effect and rapidly diminishes when the cables are moved away from each other.

The proximity effect is negligible when the distance between two cables in the same circuit or in

two adjacent circuits is at least 8 times the outside diameter of the cable conductor. There are two designs of

conductor,

stranded and 2) segmental “Milliken” stranded.

1) Compact round conductors, composed of several layers of concentric spiral-wound wires. In round stranded compact conductors, due to the low resistance electrical contacts between the wires, the skin and proximity effects are virtually identical to those of solid plain conductor.

2) Segmental conductors, also

known as “Milliken” conductors are composed of several segment shaped conductors assembled together to form

a cylindrical core. The large

cross-section conductor is divided into several segment- shaped conductors. There are

from 4 to 7 of these conductors, which are known as segments

or sectors. They are insulated

from each other by means of semi-conductive or insulating tape.The spiral assembly of the segments prevents the same conductor wires from constantly being opposite the other conductors in the circuit, thus reducing the proximity effect. This structure is reserved for large cross-sections greater than 1200 mm2 for aluminium and at least 1000 mm2 for copper. The Milliken type structure reduces the highly

unfavourable skin effect and proximity effect.

Enameled copper wire for copper conductors with cross-section of greater than 1600mm2,enameled

round

1)

compact

InDepth - EHV Cable

Cables

wires (around two thirds are included in the structure of the Millliken type segmental conductor. The proximity effect is almost eliminated, as each conducting wire follows a path alternating between areas that are far away from and areas closeto the phase conductors. The skin effect is reduced due to the small cross-section of the wires used, each insulated from each other. In practice, a Milliken structured conductor containing enameled wires adds roughly one whole conductor cross-section. For example a 2000mm2 enameled copper cable is equivalent to a 2500mm2 non-enameled copper cable. The connection of enameled copper conductors requires special technology to remove enamel for connections/jointing.

Reduction

in

skin

effect

as

compared

to

IEC

and

CIGRE

formulas.

Reduction in Skin Effect

AC

 

Resistance

900 DC

Conductor Structure

Resistance

900

Cross

   

Milliken

Sectional Area

mm2

Compacted

Circular

Milliken

Segment

Enameled

Wire

1600

1.33

1.24

1.03

2000

1.46

1.35

1.04

2500

1.62

1.56

approx

1.05

3000

1.76

1.73

approx

1.06

Cupric oxide coated conductor wires

The enamel coating method has been generally used for the insulation of a strand. This enamel coating method, however, has the drawback of being expensive.

There is available is a method of forming a surface oxide film on a strand by oxidizing the surface of every stand. In this method, each strand is individually immersed in oxidizing liquid which should

preferably be a mixed solution of 5% sodium chlorite and 5% sodium hydroxide to form an oxide film on the surface of the strand.

In the manufacturing method, the conditions of the oxidation treatment are determined such that the cupric oxide films have about 0.3 to about 3 μm in thickness

When the wires are stranded to form a conductor for a cable, the wires with the oxide films are stranded by means of rotating equipment which may cause a relatively large frictional force to occur between the strands during the stranding, operation, techniques for smooth passage through stranding is are required to prevent the removal of the oxide films on the surfaces of the strands.n

Mr Tony Martens

VP-Technology & Development, Polycab Wires Pvt. Ltd.

the the leading leading electrical electrical & & electronics electronics monthly monthly JUNE JUNE 20130
the the leading leading electrical electrical & & electronics electronics monthly monthly
JUNE JUNE 20130 2013
ISSN ISSN 0970-2946 0970-20- 946
Rs. 50/-
Rs. 50/-
VOLUME 4
VOLUMEME 4
ISSUE ISSUE NO. NO. 10 10
Cover Story
Trade Agreements
Special Feature
African Utility Week
Face2Face
Mr Saurabh Patel
for Power,
Govt of Energy
Minister
&
Petroleum,
Gujarat
Country Profile
Egypt

GuestArticle - Flammability Evaluation

Cables

E lectricity is a wonderful aspect of modern life, while on other hand,

it can be dangerous if handle without proper care. In majority case of fire accidents, electrical fire are found very common. As various types of cables are playing role as electricity carrier, these cables became responsible directly or indirectly for initiation of fire and / or spreading of fire, which has ultimately resulted into a huge loss of revenue as well as loss of human lives. According to data analyzed by the National Fire Incident Reporting System (NFIRS), more than 69,000 fires were reported in a span of 2002 to 2009 associated with cables in USA.

When a cable is under fire, as it is connecting different parts of a building, the fire gets path to spread over in a large area in very short time. Further a dense black smoke is generated due to burning of cable, the visibility of effected area will reduce drastically and difficulty increases for finding EXIT path. In many cases, damages found not only due to the flame but also due to poisonous – toxic corrosive fumes generated due to burning of cable. These toxic fumes will directly attack the person’s lung system while inhaling and in absence of proper timely treatment, it may result into a great loss of life.

Awareness is increasing about use of a cable having good fire resistance properties. For highly populated area/mass gathering centers like theatre, shopping malls, multistoried buildings, air crafts, metro rails, refineries etc. and for highly critical area like power plants, hospitals, communication centers, data storage centers, industries etc., it now becomes mandatory to use fire retardant cable, low smoke evolution cable, fire survival cable etc. depending upon the applicable conditions. Considerable efforts have been made to develop suitable cables and cable materials which constitute a reduced fire hazard.

With development of cable having fire resistance properties, prediction of its behavior in a fire is now appreciated with numerous small and large scale standard tests. Major factors; not limited to, considered to evaluate the cable’s flammability and combustion behavior are a) Ease of ignition, b) Resistance to propagation, c) Heat of combustion, d) Smoke emission, e) Toxic gas evolution and f) Corrosive gas evolution.

This article describes various types of cables with different fire properties, specific requirements for each fire property, significance and briefed methodology of applicable tests to evaluate fire properties.

Classification of Cables w.r.t. FIRE performance

For different applications, relevant cable has to be selected from a wide range of cables with different materials as well as different constructions. As far as flammability properties are concerned, selection of a cable depends upon acceptable degree of fire hazard for a particular application. On the basis of their flammability requirements, Indian Standard classifies cables into three main categories i.e. 01, C1 and C2, as mentioned in Table-1. Some of the other special fire requirements are also tabulated in Table 1.

In recent years, emission of smoke and corrosive gases from burning cables have increased concerns. Apart from other requirements, demand for low smoke generation and low halogen or zero halogen is increased. Now a days, FS - Fire Survival cables are also having increasing demand for maintaining essential circuits such as emergency lighting, fire alarms as well as for safe shutdown of very critical processes etc.

Evaluation of Cables for Fire performance.

With respect to behavior of cable under fire, evaluation methodology

GuestArticle - Flammability Evaluation

Cables

 

Table-1

Classification

General requirements

Cat 01

Flame Retardant with self-extinguishing properties

Cat C1 / FR

With improved fire performance. Flame Retardant, self- extinguishing, does not propagate flame when installed in groups in vertical duct

Cat C2 / FRLSH

Flame Retardant Low Smoke with Reduced Halogen evolution. Cables in constrained area with limited human activity, presence of sophisticated systems.

LSZH / LS0H

Low Smoke Zero Halogen

ZHFR / HFFR

Zero Halogen Fire Retardant / Halogen Free Flame Retardant

FS

Fire survival, maintaining circuit integrity under fire for a specific time

considers two major aspects – first is the fire resistance or fire survivability and second is fire hazard posed by the combustion of cable. The cable material and cable construction plays role on level of fire performance as well as potential fire hazard. In general, fire test methods are split into two categories, tests for individual component material and tests on whole cable.

Various international standards describe procedure for evaluation of fire performance of cables, which are also considered in Indian Standards. Flammability tests for the insulating materials and finished product (i.e. cables) are listed in Table-2. It also mentions the general acceptance value. For more details, relevant test standard needs to be referred.

A brief significance of each test is described in following texts.

(% volume) in a mixture of oxygen and nitrogen, required just to support burning of a material. This is the most widely used indicator of individual material flammability property.

To continue the fire basic three things are required; first spark or a flame, secondly fuel and third presence of oxygen. For a given material, after applying a flame, if the material requires higher oxygen than the atmospheric oxygen of 21%, the material termed as a self- extinguishing material. This test is helpful for selection of a material for fire resistance.

A standard test specimen is mounted in a test chamber having controlled concentration of oxygen and nitrogen. Initially flame is applied and on removal of flame, continuation of fire for min. 3 mins or propagation upto min. 50 mm to observe. With repeat trails techniques, minimum oxygen required for burning to determine.

Oxygen Index Test

By definition, “Oxygen Index” is the minimum concentration of Oxygen

Temperature Index Test

For polymeric material, ease of ignition increases with increasing temperature, in other words, with increasing temperature in the vicinity of material, the oxygen index of a material decreases. The material will start burning at lower oxygen

decreases. The material will start burning at lower oxygen Oxygen Index test set up concentration with

Oxygen Index test set up

concentration with higher temperature. When there is a fire, naturally surrounding temperature will increase, and reaching to a particular temperature the material will start burning immediately with

a flame at atmospheric oxygen level

of 21%, this temperature is termed

as Temperature Index.

In this test, “Oxygen Index Test” is conducted at different higher temperatures and temperature at 21% oxygen concentration is derived from plotting the values of Oxygen index Vs temperature.

Flame Retardant Test on Single Cable

This test is conducted to evaluate fire-resisting property of a single vertical mounted cable. It reflects the self-extinguishing and non-fire propagating property of a cable.

A 600 mm long sample is suspended

in a draught free chamber and a

specific flame is applied at an angle of 45o to the horizontal. After a specific time flame is removed and the self-burning time as well as the extension of effect of burning in terms of charring is recorded.

of effect of burning in terms of charring is recorded. Single vertical flammability test set up

Single vertical flammability test set up

Flame Retardant Test on Bunched Cable

Number of cables when running in

parallel from one end to far end of

a building, the severity increases

GuestArticle - Flammability Evaluation

Cables

with burning of one cable and subsequently others too. In many electrical fire accidents and that due to cables, the spreading of fire in a short time in a large area observed. To tackle this, cables with new material and construction are developed, exhibiting reduced fire propagation behavior. To address different application severity, the test is divided into three test categories namely A, B and C. This category decides test volume of cables and flame application time.

Based on the test category, number of test specimen each of 3.5 meter length, are arranged in vertical and specified flame through a ribbon