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Focus on the yellow ones!

After final revision, now I need to focus on blue ones

Cytochrome P450 - Present in all tissues of the body & help with:
Hormone synthesis/breakdown
Cholesterol synthesis
Vit D metabolism
Metabolize toxic compounds, mostly in liver

Obligate intracellular: Chlamydia, rickettsia, coxeilla, plasmodium,

mycobacterium (leprae) cannot reproduce extracellularly need intracellular

NOT an intracellular obligate: Listeria monocytogenes (and in another version,

its gonorrhoea)
of sphenoid

could be vagus


ACTH (from anterior pituitary) stimulates secretion of

glucocorticoid steroid hormones from adrenal cortex cells


Parafollicular cells (aka C cells) are neuroendocrine cells in the thyroid which primary function is to secrete calcitonin.
No, inform the person coming with the

Striated duct
aka Wharton duct

Lecithin on hydrolysis (when broken down) will give:

2 FA and one molecule of glycerol, choline and phosphoric acid.
Difference between cephalin and lecithin is, lecithin gives choline and cephalin gives serine.
Cephalins: (phosphatidylethanolamines) ethanolamine. Nerve tissue components!
Sphingomyelins: ceramide & choline. Nerve tissue components & plasma tissue constituent.
Sphingomyelin: FA+ sphingosine+Choline
Lecithins: FA+Glycerol+Choline
Cephalins: FA+Glycerol+Serine (or 2-ethanolamine)
Hep B > DNA

HIV is double stranded RNA virus



Myosin head
I would say diuretics!
The collecting duct system is under the control of ADH. When
ADH is present, the collecting duct becomes permeable to water.

And Meisserner corpuscle

Dermis papilla
pre ganglionic = Lesser petrosal


Opposite sides

Pterygomandibular raphe
Origin: hamulus (medial pterygoid plate of the
sphenoid bone)
Insertion: into mylohyoid line
what attaches to it?
Posteriorly: Superior pharyngeal constrictor
Anteriorly: Buccinator
Dimorphic fungi?
blasto, histo, coccidio, candida (yeast type)

Main artery in case of stroke!

CD4 related to AIDS


Also in sublingual

venous system

= groove

T-lymphocytes and macrophages


Prostate specific antigen
Except thyrohyoid from C1

What does Rickettsia cause? Typhus (or rocky mountain spotted fever)--
Characteristic lesions on Palms; Several questions: arthropod vector,
insect bite, causes typhus, affects endothelial cells

Rickettsia is a gram negative bacteria and undergoes

biniary fission but viruses dont.
Rickettsia requires a living cell to reproduce (like
I have a full explanation in another file

Ans. pyruvate dehydorgenase

In TCA pyruvate dehydrogenase, isocitrate dehydrogenase,
and -ketoglutarate dehydrogenase catalyze oxidative
decarboxylation reactions. Each reaction reduces NAD+ to
NADH and generates CO2.

= between nucleotides, monomeric units of DNA

inhibits viral RNA synthesis and involved in virus assembly.
In fact it affects both DNA and RNA

There is no glucose 1 phosphatase

in gluconeogensis


Sulbactam/ampicillin is a -lactamase inhibitor (Penicillin anitibiotic)

Aspirin's ability to suppress the production of prostaglandins and thromboxanes is due
to its irreversible inactivation of the cyclooxygenase (COX) enzyme. COX is required for
prostaglandin and thromboxane synthesis.


Antibiotic resistance in bacteria? transferred by conjugation

Penicillin > Type I

Penicillin + Urticaria> Type IV
Lactobacilli is the most aciduric and acedogenic bacterial in the oral cavity


casued by St. Pyogen: A beta-hemolytic streptococcus
Oral sterp are alpha hemolytic

in fetus

Blood supply: Labial branches of the facial


construction at cervical third in primary teeth

Crepitus = clicking

Digoxin (digitalis): Treatment of edema and heart failure.
Causes gingival hyperplasia!

glycine, proline, alanine and lysine

all present in Collagene

Vagus posteriorly
Phrenic anteriorly

below they answered it as hyperglycemia

descending part

its adjacent to cell free and sub adjacent to cell

rich zone

below CEJ

Clostridium tetani virulence

factor is neurotoxin

In case of fermentation it is Organic compound

because it innervates the deltoid muscles

innervated by long thoracic nerve




Thromboplastin - Prothrombin
Thrombin - Fibrinogen



mucosa not submucosa


this is direct way! Indirect by O2

Presence of estrogen marker

Repeated with a different answer?

External laryngeal nerve

Or same?
Wrong question

Tinea pedia, casuses athletes foot

binds to Ca, so it helps in calcium phosphate deposition
proline increases during low Ph to reduce the harm of acidity

- product concentration of ions

- concentration of cations
- conc of anions.

Dystole: no change or decrease?

Damage to facial nerve and paralysis
to muscles of facial expressions

permanent teeth
The answer should be: due to the growth of the jaws
Type IV

Liver and lung, causing cirrhosis and panacinar emphysema

White rami: collection of neuronal axon (myelinated)

Grey: collection of neuronal cell bodies (unmyelinated)
White is in both prevertebral and para
Grey only para

HPV infection not cured by vaccinia? verruca vulgaris or

molluscum or condylomata acumintum. Ans: Molluscum

Cholinergic neurotransmitters are example of chemical gated

Too much acetylcholine? Increase or decrease heart rate?

Ans: Decrease

Acetylcholine is post ganglionic sympathetic to sweat glands and vessels

and lipid synthesis also

It ends by the oblique ridge

Vector is a DNA molecule used as a vehicle to artificially carry foreign genetic material into another cell, where it can be replicated and/or expressed.
- A vector containing foreign DNA is termed recombinant DNA.
- The four major types of vectors are: plasmids, viral vectors, cosmids, and artificial chromosomes.
- The most commonly used vectors are plasmids!


Superior cervial ganglion

Salbutamol, also known as albuterol and marketed as

Ventolin, it is a beta 2 agonist and a bronchodilator. It is
used to treat asthma, exercise-induced bronchoconstriction,
and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

we dont need to correct in myastenia gravis?

a. drooling
b. bradykinesia (slow walking)
3. infrequent blinking


serine and threonine

Staphylococcus epidermidis is a Gram-positive bacterium

Ans: mesiobuccal groove, but

never facial groove since
Respiratory syncytial virus there is no such a groove

Prolactin = Lactogenic

Parasympathetic innervation to the

submandibular glands is provided
by the superior salivatory nucleus
via the chorda tympani, a branch of
the facial nerve, that becomes part
of the trigeminal nerve's lingual
nerve prior to synapsing on the
submandibular ganglion.

The main problem with type 2 diabetes (especially in the early stages) is insulin resistance - meaning they produce insulin but tissues
don't respond!
Insulin resistance mainly occurs as a result of obesity..
That's why some people with early type 2 diabetes, if they lose enough fat, they improve their insulin sensitivity.
Brain and pancreas
Low protein (hypoalbunemia) and malnutrition

Laterotrusive if the tooth is lower!

In cross bite the functional cusps are BULL

outer membrane- host cell membrane

inner membrane- glycoprotein

virus also
Thenar muscles at the base of the thumb (the ball of the thumb)

Koplickss spots

Read somewhere that all stages are reduced...

What type of joint is present between two

parts of mandible during 1st year of life?

Symphysis Suture

Neural crest, ectomesenchyme

These are all formed by neural crest, the answer must be the missing option!
The answer could be according to Tangy: salivary glands or enamel

if in carotid sheath


sucrose is made up of aldose and ketose T/F

True, sucrose made of aldose eg glucose and ketose eg fructose

Three pulp horns

re it is killed so no chance of virulene (causing disease)

just poor oral hygien

Glycosaminoglycans are highly polar and attract water, therefore

useful to the body as a lubricant or as a shock absorber.
The major structural polysaccharides of extracellular matrix
(ECM), connective tissue (CT), and outer cell membrane surfaces.
altered host nuclear membrane and glycoproteins

round or ovoid

Pterygoid pluxus

Lamina propria of small intestine

Aorta has thick tunica media and elastic fibers!

Which of the following is NOT TRUE in regards to fibroid tumor of the uterus ?
1.malignant transformation is rare
FIBROID: Smooth muscle cells + fibrous
2.they are also know as leiomyosarcomas (this is the answer, since fibroid is benign)
connective tissue that developed in uterus,
3.they are compose of smooth muscle
like myomas, fibromas and leiomayoma
4.they are the most common benign tumor in women
5.they may require removal due bleeding tendency

Ewing sarcoma happens in
1015% children 10-20y.
also Ewing sarcoma which Morpho: malignant lymphoma
is a non-osseous tumor Histo: neuroblastoma

What is absorbed in each part

Duodenum- iron
Ileum- B12 and bile

Iron, water, B12, bile salts,

AA, lipids


Looks like a
wrong question
WTH!!! Should be max 1st PM Mesial furcation in permanent upper
maxillary molar is?
1. 2/3 to lingual buccolingually. (TRUE)
2. centered buccolingually
3. no furcation

because it is hydrophilic

- central chemoreceptors (medulla): increased H ions and decreased pH

Respiratory center in medulla
- peripheral chemoreceptors: pco2, o2, pH


Same like oral cavity

Non-keratinized, because it is a lining mucosa!

Organ most resistance in change in pH? Liver
for immunization you inject toxoid,
but for treatment you inject antitoxin.



Subacute bacterial endocarditis (aka endocarditis lenta) is a

type of endocarditis (more specifically, infective endocarditis).
Subacute bacterial endocarditis is type III hypersensitivity.
Prevent protrusion - stylo
Prevents excessive opening - spheno
Yaut - tmj plus accessory ligament

Left The flatter the articular eminence, the shorter the cusps
MUST be.
While the steeper the eminence, the taller the cusps MAY be.

Zona reticularis produce androgen and cholestrol



continued hypoxia seen in enphysema and

acute respiratory distress syndrome are NOT
related to use of cigarettes (tobacco smokers)

Increased smooth muscle
Squamous cells
Increased cartilage
Canine guided (or) protected occlusion during lateral movements only working side canine comes into contact with the other. This result in disclusion of all posterior
teeth The canine has a good crown root ratio capable of tolerating high occlusal forces The canine root has a greater surface area then adjacent teeth. Providing
greater proprioception. The shape of the palatal surface of the upper canine is concave and is suitable for guiding lateral movement.

Mutually Protected : Posterior teeth prevent excessive contact of the anterior teeth in maximum intercuspation, while the anterior teeth disengage the posterior teeth in
all mandibular excursive movements.

Group Function : During the lateral movement the buccal cusp of the posterior teeth on the working side are in contact

Usually bacterial
-Intrinsic bacteremia

and Laterosive is undergoing rotation

Niacin = vitamin B3

Barorecptors > reduce blood pressure

Answer is true! Molluscum caused by pox virus

reticular in specific

I would say maxillary insicors since it is on both sides

Furcations distance from cervical line (from farthest to closest): D > P > M

purified protein derivative

May be also Staph. Aureus
salmonella has a flagella
Except this one



Woven bone

Silicosis (particularly the acute form) is characterized by shortness of breath, cough, fever, and
cyanosis (bluish skin). It may often be misdiagnosed as pulmonary edema, pneumonia, or tuberculosis.

n an absence or deficiency of oxygen reaching the tissues; severe hypoxia.

Also ribosome and nucleus

secondary dentin is Acelluar

and mandibular canine?

Somatostatin is a growth hormoneinhibiting hormone (GHIH). Its an inhibitory hormone!

recurrent larengeal nerve = inferioer larengeal nerve

sensory innervation of the larynx:
Above the vocal folds > internal laryngeal nerve.
Below the vocal folds > recurrent laryngeal nerve.

Superior and inferior laryngeal arteries

Superior laryngeal > superior thyroid branch > external carotid artery.
Snferior laryngeal > inferior thyroid branch > thyrocervical trunk, which is a branch of the subclavian artery.

Tens veli nd salpinopharengeas regulate the balance

nd pressure and open the closed ear
Tensor tympani reduces the noise from chewing and
others -- damping sounds
Muscle protein caused increase blood glucose level, the released alanine cause:
a. Liver to produce glucose
b. Muscle itself to produce glucose
c.Transfer protein to liver that will form glucose. True (Gluconeogenesis occurs in liver. Excess alanine will be
transported to the liver which will be converted to pyruvate and further down to glucose).

If pain, oppsite! If normal senstation, same side!


Why not BCC?

Because it is brown color
Maybe bone cancer!
Pachets disease
Fluorosis affect enamel only
Tetracycline enamel and dentin, but more Dentin!



Superior sagittal sinus

Transferrin for transfer


mucromycosis (= zygomycossis, which means around blood vessel

or histoplasmosis

Myasthenia Gravis
I think the answer is thrombin

This just means enamel!
I believe the answer is hydroxy apetite

Spindles are odontobalstic process projected into enamel.

Rheumatic heart disease is a complication of rheumatic fever

in which the heart valves are damaged.

Rheumatic fever is an inflammatory disease that begins with

strep throat. It can affect connective tissue throughout the
body, especially in the heart, joints, brain and skin.
Most common is nystatin


= (Anterior pituitary)

Exophtalmus: is a bulging of the eye anteriorly out of the orbit.

hCG increases during pregnancy

Facial nerve > Buccinator : 2nd arch

myelinated nerve fibers