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Bulletin of the Transilvania University of Braov Vol. 4 (53) No.

2 - 2011
Series V: Economic Sciences



Abstract: New ways of advertising are having a significant impact on the

mix of marketing not only for big companies, but also for non-profit
companies and for public persons and politicians. The new term netvertising
has appeared and its having a significant impact on the marketing strategy
of different companies. If the traditional media is still used to transmit the
message of a company, the internet and the new ways of advertising are used
more and more to promote the image of a company, to promote the products
or services not only to the young segment of consumers, but also to the
segment of companies and others.

Key words: netvertising, online game, social networks, viral marketing.

1. Introduction create loyalty, achieve economic education

When you think about new ways of of consumers, marketing research, public
advertising, you think about new media, relations, consulting services etc.
about internet, about mobile internet and These new forms of transmitting the
so on. Today, traditional media and new advertising messages are created by the
media are in constant interaction. Thus, need to introduce, within the current
television and radio interact with the communication strategies, new elements to
internet to distribute advertisements and develop the level of interactivity with the
messages. But, the printed media, consumers, to increase consumer response
magazines and newspapers, are promoting rates, but also to lead to a new and higher,
their image through the opportunities level of direct marketing and one-to-one
offered by the internet: websites and social communication.
networks, e-mail etc. The Internet has, by far, the most
Instead of replacing each other, the ways important role in the new digital era and
of communication and the media, new media. Advanced technology allows
depending on their appearance, they marketers to define new types of ads, to
intersect each other, and the flow between apply the same practices and strategies
them is seen increasingly better. used, so far, in traditional media, but
New media and the new ways of adapted to the new forms.
advertising offer the companies different
advantages like: they generate brand 2. The netvertising
awareness, they shape the brand image and According to Angeline Close Internet
the attitude towards it, generate process, advertising, e-advertising or nervertising

Department of Doctoral School in Marketing, Transilvania University of Braov.
Department of Economic Sciences and Business Administration, Transilvania University of Braov.
12 Bulletin of the Transilvania University of Braov Vol. 4 (53) No. 2 - 2011 Series V

(Zinkhan) is an aspect of marketing that is The netvertising is a set of techniques

customer-oriented (e.g., push marketing that are produced and distributed via the
versus pull marketing), globally oriented Internet ads. Netvertising refers to
(e.g., globally is related to chat rooms and advertisements sent through the internet
business sites) and influences the but, as compared to traditional ads, the
consumer behaviour and marketing former are enhanced with various features
strategies. audio, video, images etc.

Images in CME stimuli:

Stimulus elements inherent in netvertising communication in cyberspace: media
capabilities, interactivity, ads, stores, brands, corporations and product experiences.

Image attributes:
CME stimulus images rich in breadth and depth.
Images in edutaiment message able to
communicate education and entertainment.

Consumer contrasted mental images:

CME stimulus images perceived in consumers imagination and memory.
Mental picture constructed out of stimulus elements via perceiver processing.

Constructed images based in working memory generate marketplace responses.

Marketplace responses
Behavioral responses: purchases, clicks, word of mouth, information search, loyality.

Fig. 1. Stages in Image the Netvertising Communication Model

Source: Stafford, M. R., Faber, J.-R.: Advertising, promotion, and new media.
Publishing House M. E. Sharpe, New York, USA, 2005, p. 31

Netvertising elements and, especially, internet and realized through the

the purposes of netvertising are best techniques developed later by netvertising
described by Hoffman and Novak model have a traditional base, they are just more
brought in 1996. This model is cold complex and their content is made up of
Netvertising Image Communication Model several motivators that can be transmitted
as you can see in the figure above. by new technologies [10].
The netvertising involves combining all Basically, this model shows how both
types of stimuli to form message elements: traditional advertising and netvertising
verbal stimuli, audio stimuli, video stimuli. refers to search and research in the first
These messages transmitted via the phase of the relationship between
Boitor, B. et al.: Impact of new online ways of advertising 13

advertising and consumer behavior, are the newest advertising methods, are
research in which verbal, audio and video increasingly developing.
stimuli presented are central elements in When we refer to the impact on users,
obtaining information about possible the Internet and online advertising have a
answers from consumers to media significant advantage from traditional
messages [10]. means of communication. If television has
The netvertising and new media have reached 50 million users in 15 years radio
managed to capture the attention of most has reached the same number of users in
marketers and companies and to determine 38 years, the Internet has broken every
they to direct much of their resources to record and reached the figure of 50 million
these two aspects. If companies do not yet users in just five years.
give so much importance to social a. Brand Websites
networks, twitter messages, profile pages Brand sites are sites with specific
on Facebook or Second Life virtual information about the brand. A brand site
environment, they have now begun to can be used to communicate with target
distribute large portions of the budget groups and can be used as a platform for
allocated to promote to online advertising. interaction with and among customers or
Following research carried out by for collecting customer data. Branded sites
emarketer.com, in 2010 U.S. companies may form attitudes towards brand or can
spent $ 25.8 billion for online advertising strengthen the position of brands on the
and European companies spent $ 23.05 market. Brand sites are essential for
billion (UK, Germany, France, Italy and sustaining or increasing the efficiency of
Spain). These recorded values are loyalty to groups of users. A website is
increasing as compared to previous years. necessary to maintain constant
3. New on-line ways of advertising The advantages brought by websites
Online advertising has offered to have a great impact on consumers. By
marketers different techniques and forms promoting a brand or a company through a
of transmitting the advertising messages. website, marketers can: offer worldwide
These takes the form of: banners, buttons, lots of information regarding products and
pop-ups, sponsorships etc. The most services, create on-line sales services,
important advantage of this type of create brand awareness, communicate and
advertising is that the internet allows create a one-to-one relationship with the
worldwide transmission of the advertising target groups.
message. However, the internet allows The efficiency of websites can be seen
those who promote the product to through the number of visitors and the
personalize the message for each user, number of responses that come from the
enhancing customer loyalty and generating users.
increased profits. Not only large companies invest
The main modern methods of promotion nowadays in websites, but small
can be found in the channels of companies, non-profit organizations and
communication via internet and mobile institutions have chosen to establish a
internet. These are: banners, pop-ups sites, closer, more personal relationship with the
websites, advertising through blogs, social customers through websites. In 2010 the
networks or advertising through video number of websites reached the figure of
games. Also the new concepts of viral 255 million worldwide, by 21.4 million
marketing and mobile marketing, which more than in 2009, and the number of
14 Bulletin of the Transilvania University of Braov Vol. 4 (53) No. 2 - 2011 Series V

internet users was, in 2010, of 1.97 billion an even greater extent among the target
as compared to 1.73 billion users in audience;
2009.[17] - blogs can be used as a way to do some
b. Advertising through blogs internal marketing, helping to establish
Blogging is a means of communication a strong corporate culture, the internal
that can be used for marketing and management of the company and the
communication with customers and can be brand itself.
globally spread. It is also a way to interact Although the blog is a good way of
with individual consumers at one to one advertising and marketing as a whole and,
level. In many ways, is a marketing although it is one of the cheapest ways to
communication tool, listening device, promote products or services, it also has
machine conversation, all in one tool. some disadvantages:
Blogs are currently used by companies, - topics and information blogs should
individuals, privately-owned businesses, always be updated to determine thus users
global television networks, newspapers, and customers to return and maintain
even politicians.[9] company-consumer relationship active;
Companies create and use blogs to - if the blog does not have an interactive
inform and educate the target market. They structure, it can drive away customers
use blogs to present the characteristics of who are not familiar with technology
products or services, and those who want and systems and software necessary to
to enter the market. The advantage of this read a complicated blog;
type of advertising is that companies can - lack of privacy;
communicate with consumers, customers - updating daily can lead to lack of
etc., they can quickly get feedback from attention and to making mistakes in the
them, and thus manage to make contact format, writing or reading the
with consumers in a personal way.[5] information;
Advertising through blogs has its - a very influential blogger can destroy a
advantages. Listed below are a few: brand faster than through the use of any
- blogs are popular internet search means on the market.
engines; The advertising through web-blogs has a
- target audience is highly segmented due very big impact on the internet users and
to the chosen topics for blogs; the companies. The blogs are the easiest
- blogs are concise, to the point, making it way to introduce and promote products or
easy to read by visitors; services to specific segments of clients.
- on blogs are displayed many links to c. Social Networks
different websites brand etc.; Social networks have revolutionized
- blogs are a way to advertise marketing. Facebook, LinkedIn,
inexpensively, even free in most cases; Friendster, Bebo, Hi5 and hundreds of
- updating blogs can be done very quickly other social networks began to occupy first
with relatively easy access not only by place in on-line marketing.
computers but by pads, tablets, laptops Approximately 40% of adult Internet
and cell phones as long as there is an users in the U.S. are members of social
internet connection; networks and, of those who are members,
- other blogs can display links to other 39% access social networks daily.
companies blogs (partners, suppliers, Socialization through these networks is a
employees, customers, etc..) Products or global phenomenon. Facebook had, in July
services with such exposure are taking 2011, 600 million users globally.[2]
Boitor, B. et al.: Impact of new online ways of advertising 15

Social networks have expanded very consumers in a way not possible

much in recent years. If before they were through traditional media channels;
used by individual users on the Internet for - owned by consumers unprecedented
socializing, now they are increasingly used control through social networks;
by companies and organizations as a new - social networks provides a rich database
way of advertising and promote their for marketing research;
business, brand, products or services. - social networks enables marketers to
Social networks are a global push consumers into different
phenomenon, and companies that promote conversations in which they can then
their business through them were joined by identify opportunities that may enhance
government organizations, non-profit existing offerings;
organizations, politicians, regional and - social networks offer marketers a lot of
local institutions. data about consumers, they can identify
The impact of social networks is bigger data, create more accurate profiles of
year after year. If, in 2009 there were 350 many target customer segments;
million people on Facebook, in 2010 the - social networks enable marketers to
number of Facebook users raised to 600 establish a relationship between brand
million. If the number of tweets per day on and consumers through dialogue and
Twitter, in 2009, was of 27.3 million, in exchanges.[12]
2010 the number of sent tweets was of 25 Marketing and advertising through social
billion and the number of people that used networks is an ecosystem in the real
Twitter in 2010 was of 175 million. meaning, an environment in which a
Social networking is an opportunity for company may obtain essential information
companies worldwide. Through them, a about the target consumer segments, a
company can: connection can be made interactive with
- create a suitable environment for them and can enhance brand awareness
development and innovation; through differentiation and preference.
- brand awareness; d. On-line games advertising
- build brand preference and The report on advertising through video
differentiation; games conducted by the specialists from
- increase traffic to brand sites and sales; emarketer.com has found that video games
- build relationships with customers and have become, in a very short time, a new
obtain their loyalty; exciting and dynamic advertising medium
- enhance the recommendations; with an explosive growth. Video game
- gain valuable information on target advertising comprises several
segments. communication channels and all have the
One can say that social networks have same extremely rapid development.
created a whole new marketing Which resulted in very rapid
environment, one in which the consumer is development of advertising through video
the one in control and not the brand. Some games, as it is well high-lighted by experts
marketers may consider this as a threat to from www.emarkter.com who have
customary ways of doing business, but compiled a list of factors that positively
many companies and brands have shown influenced the development of new
that social networks offer opportunities like: methods of advertising:
- social networks allow companies to - video game industry growth;
interact and communicate with
16 Bulletin of the Transilvania University of Braov Vol. 4 (53) No. 2 - 2011 Series V

- awareness among advertisers that the - more games favor on-line advertising
games are becoming more and more a such as on-line games single player or
way to achieve targets; multiple players, the third generation
- coverage in the category of users of consoles that allow on-line connectivity;
video game-aged people and women; - models of successful use of advertising
in games.

20 650
20 625
20 589
20 511
20 403
20 295

0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700

Fig. 2. Evolution of advertising expenditure through video and online games during
2007-2012 ($ milion)
Source: www.emarketer.com

As you can see from the chart, the marketers know precisely how many
expenditure of companies regarding the players receive the advertisement;
advertising through on-line games has - the size of on-line advertising in games
raised in a spectacular way, and the is great and insufficiently exploited.
predictions for 2012 estimate the online The advertising through online games
games advertising costs at 650 $ million. attracted the interest of big companies,
Advertising through video games, online politicians and marketers especially
games offer marketers benefits such as: because they can target the young
- the possibility of niche targeting; segments of customers, they can introduce
- product placement; new products to the segments that adopt
- relatively low media costs; sooner the innovations and so on.
- possibility of developing tools that add e. Viral marketing
value by integrating brand players Viral marketing and viral advertising
experience in games as opposed to other refer to marketing techniques that use pre-
types of advertising; existing social networks to produce
- the possibility of testing the impact of increases in brand awareness or to achieve
various advertising works because, in other marketing objectives (such as
case of the games on the internet, the product sales) through self-replicating viral
Boitor, B. et al.: Impact of new online ways of advertising 17

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