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RCC design of major bridge

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- Sample General Notes

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10.5

A B

C1 C2 C3 C4

0.35

0.5

Transverse Direction

1.2 2.75 4.55

3.5 5.3 8.3

7.85

A B C/L of Abutment

0.9

The Pile Cap shall be designed under siesmic condition as it is critical for design.

Siesmic Case

Calculation of Pile Reaction of C1 Column

Pmax = P/n + ML / ZL1 + MT/ZT

= 1524.19167921875 / 12 + 1459.5299125 / 30 + 0/27.2

= 175.596 T

Pmin = P/n - ML / ZL1 - MT/ZT

= 1524.19167921875 / 12 - 1459.5299125 / 30 - 0/27.2

= 82.352 T

Pmax = P/n + ML / ZL2 + MT/ZT

= 1524.19167921875 / 12 + 1459.5299125 / 90 + 0/27.2

= 143.23 T

Pmin = P/n - ML / ZL2 - MT/ZT

= 1524.19167921875 / 12 - 1459.5299125 / 90 - 0/ 27.2

= 110.8

Grade of Concrete = M 35

Grade of Steel = Fe 500

Calculation of Moment at section A-A

Downward vertical load due to self weight of Pile Cap in ULS Condition

= 8.3 x 3.5 x 1.8 x 2.5 x 1.25

= 163.41 T

= 1313.09 T-m

MA-A = 1313.09 / 8.3

= 158.2 T-m /m

Effective depth of pile cap (d)= 1800 - 75 -12.5

= 1712.5 mm

Lever Arm (z) = 0.95 x d

= 1626.88 mm

For Sections without Compression Reinforcement the Ultimate Moment of Resistance Can be

checked according to IRS-CBC (Cl.-15.4.2.2.1).

Moment of resistance Mr = 0.15 x fck x b x d 2

= 0.15 x 35 x 1000 x 1712.5^2/10^7

= 1539.64 T-m > 158.2 T-m Hence Ok

Mu = 0.87 fy As z

Therefore Ast Required = 158.2 x 10^7 / ( 0.87 x500 x 1626.88)

= 2235.43 mm2

Minimum reinforcement required = 0.20% of bd

= 3425 mm2

Spacing of reinforcement provided = 125 mm

Ast Provided = 3927 mm2

Ast Provided > Ast Required Hence Ok

Hence provide 25 mm tor bar @ 125 mm c/c in Longitudinal direction over pile cap width

Distribution Steel:

Minimum area of secondary reinforcement :-

As per Cl: 15.9.4.2 of IRS Concrete Bridge Code; = 0.12% of bd

= 2055 mm2

Dia of Reinforcement provided = 20 mm

Spacing of reinforcement provided = 125 mm

Ast Provided = 2513 mm2

Ast Provided > Ast Required Hence Ok

Hence provide 20 mm tor bar @ 125 mm c/c in both direction over pile cap length

Checking of Shear force has been done at "d" distance from the face of the Abutment wall

So available length of pile cap beyond "d" distance = 3500 - 1712.5 mm

= 1787.5 mm

= 1.7875 mm

= 873.02 T

= 0.61 N/mm2

Now As per Cl. No. 15.8.3.2 & 15.8.3.3 of IRS CBC

av = (3.5 - 0.75 -0.6 ) + (0.2 x 1.2)

= 2.39

So Enhanced factor= 2x d / av

= 2 x 1.7125 /2.39 = 1.43

Now, 0.75 x sqrt( fck) = 4.44 Mpa

= 0.23 %

Now As per table 15 of IRS CBC

c = 0.37+ {(0.44-0.37)/(0.25-0.15)}*(0.23-0.15)

= 0.43 Mpa

Now As per table 16 of IRS CBC

s= Max ( (500 /1712.5)^0.25, 0.7)

= 0.735

(As per Cl. No. 15.8.3.2 of IRS- CBC)

So enhanced shear stress = 1.43 x 0.316 = 0.452 Mpa

{ ( 8300-3 x 1200 )x0.316+ ( 3 x 1200 x 0.452 )} x

= 1712.5/ 10^4

= 533 < 873.02 T

Hence Shear reinforcement Required

Now in this case v > s c So as per table no 14 of IRS CBC

Now Consider,

sv = 125 mm d= 1712.5 mm

b= 8300 mm V= 873.02 T

fyv= 415 Mpa SVc= 449.15 T

So, Asv = 125 x (873.02+ 0.4 - 449.15)x 10^4 /( 0.87 x415 x 1712.5)

= 856.93 mm2

= 103.2446 mm2

= 904.7787 mm2 > 103.2446 mm2 Hence Ok

Calculation of Moment at section B-B

Downward vertical load due to self weight of Pile Cap in ULS Condition

= 8.3 x 5.3 x 1.8 x 2.5 x 1.25

= 247.44 T

Downward vertical load due to self weight Backfill Soil in ULS Condition

= (63.154-58.822) x (7.85 - 2 x 0.5) x 5.3 x 1.8 x 1.25

= 353.86 T

Downward vertical load due to self weight of Return Wall in ULS Condition

= (63.154 - 58.822 ) x 5.3 x 2 x 0.5 x 2.5 x 1.25

= 71.75 T

=

2.65 )- (353.86 x 2.65 ) - (71.75 x 2.65)

= -144.26 T-m

Now Bending moment per meter length of pile cap= MB-B

MB-B = -144.26 / 8.3

= -17.38 T-m/m

For Sections without Compression Reinforcement the Ultimate Moment of Resistance Can be

checked according to IRS-CBC (Cl.-15.4.2.2.1).

Moment of resistance Mr = 0.15 x fck x b x d 2

= 0.15 x 35 x 1000 x 1712.5^2/10^7

= 1539.64 T-m Hence Ok

= 245.5868 mm2

Minimum reinforcement required = 0.20% of bd

= 3425 mm2

Spacing of reinforcement provided = 125 mm

Ast Provided = 3927 mm2

Ast Provided > Ast Required Hence Ok

Distribution Steel:

Minimum area of secondary reinforcement :-

As per Cl: 15.9.4.2 of IRS Concrete Bridge Code; = 0.12% of bd

2055

Dia of Reinforcement provided = 20 mm

Spacing of reinforcement provided = 125 mm

Ast Provided = 2513 mm2

Ast Provided > Ast Required Hence Ok

Hence provide 20 mm tor bar @ 125 mm c/c in both direction over pile cap length

2. Design of Abutment Wall:

Girder Side

0.6375 m

0.311 61.022 M

0.3625 m

1.4 0.9 m

0.85 m

1.7

A 58.822

Level = 57.022 M

Load Calculation:

1. Dead Load :- Dead Load from various components on Abutment and their moments about point A shown in

Diagram is calculated below

Dimensions Lever Arm Vertical Moment

Unit about Reaction

Sl. No. Load Case

Weight Point A on T-m

Length (m) Bredth (m) Height (m) (T/m3) (m) Abutment(

Dead Load of

1 - - - 2.5 0.85 57.855 -49.18

Superstructure

2 SIDL - - - 2.5 0.85 64.269 -54.63

3 Abutment Cap 7.85 1.7 0.9 2.5 0.85 30.026 -25.52

4 Abutment Wall 7.85 1.7 1.3 2.5 0.85 43.371 -36.87

5 Dirt Wall 7.85 0.6375 2.132 2.5 1.381 26.673 -36.84

Extended portion of

6 Longitudinal arrester 1.3 0.3625 1.4 2.5 1.881 1.649 -3.1

block

7 Pedestal 1.515 0.5575 0.15 2.5 0.85 0.317 -0.27

Total= 224.16 -206.41

= -15.874 T-m

So moment about about C.G. of Base of Abutment without SIDL=

= 159.89125 x 0.85 -151.78

= -15.872438 T-m

2. Live Load:

(Note : Please Refer Appendix XXIII of IRS:Bridge Rules)

Including CDA Live load on superstructure = 335.123 T

Reaction on Abutment = 167.562 T

(Please Refer Appendix XXIV of IRS Bridge Rules )

Reaction on Abutment = 37.05 T

So Moment about base of abutment = 37.05 x (61.022 + 0.311 - 58.822 )

= 93.03 T-m

4. Earth Pressure:

Formation Level

63.154

58.822

Pressure Intensity = KaH

= 2.363 T/m2

Total Horizontal Force due to earth pressure = 2.363 /2 x 4.332 x 7.85

= 40.18 T

= 58.02 T-m

5. Surcharge Pressure:

(Note : Please Refer CL. 5.8.2 Of IRS : Substructure & Foundation Code.)

Live Load Surchage S = 13.7 T/m

Surcharge Width at Formation Level B = 3 m

Length of Abutment L = 7.85 m

Height of Abutment h = 4.332 m

Thickness of Pile Cap D = 1.8 m

Total height with Pile Cap H = 6.132 m

Length of Pile Cap Lp = 8.3 m

L-B= 7.85 - 3 = 4.85 m

Therefore, H > (L - B), Case-2 is applicable

Case - 2 :

( S + V ) Ka

= 2.04 T/m2

B

4.85 4.332

6.132 0.91

( S + V ) Ka

= 0.78 T/m2

L

Pressure Intensity at Top of Pile Cap Level = 2.04 - ( 2.04 - 0.78 )/ 4.85 x 4.332

= 0.91 T/m2

= 6.39 T/m

= 50.16 T

Lever Arm of this force from base of this abutment = 4.332 / 3 x (2x0.91 + 2.04)/(0.91 + 2.04)

= 1.89 m

So Moment at Base of Abutment = 50.16 x 1.89

= 94.8 T-m

6. Seismic Forces:

Horizontal seismic co-efficient for Abutment (h) = 0.27

Vertical Seismic Co- Acting at

Sl. No. Load Case Load (HL) (T) of (m) (T-m) (C5

Reaction (T) efficient RL

(C3 x C4) Abutment (C6-C7) x C8)

C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 C6 C7 C8 C9

1 Dead Load of 57.855 0.27 15.62 61.333 58.822 2.511 39.22

2 SIDL 64.269 0.27 17.35 61.333 58.822 2.511 43.57

3 Abutment Cap 30.026 0.27 8.11 60.572 58.822 1.75 14.19

4 Abutment Wall 43.371 0.27 11.71 59.472 58.822 0.65 7.61

5 Dirt Wall 26.673 0.27 7.2 62.088 58.822 3.266 23.52

Extended portion of

6 Longitudinal arrester 1.649 0.27 0.45 61.272 58.822

block 2.45 1.1

7 Pedestal 0.317 0.27 0.09 61.097 58.822 2.275 0.2

Total = 60.53 129.41

Dynamic Increment of Earth Pressure:

= 87.5 %

So Earth Pressure Increment = 40.18 x 87.5%

= 35.158 T

= 76.152 T-m

= 43.89 T

= 2.902 m

So Moment at Base of Abutment = 43.89 x 2.902

= 127.369 T-m

Load Combination:

Load combination under ULS Case:

Seismic case

V= (224.16-64.26875) x 1.25 + 64.26875 x 1.5 + 167.562 x 0.5 + 60.53 x 0.67 x 1.2

= 428.714 T

ML = 1.25 x (-15.8724375 )+1.7 x 58.02 + 1.7 x 94.8 + 0.5 x 93.03 + 1.2 x 129.41 + 1.2 x 76.152 + 1.2 x 127.369

= 686 T-m

Clear Cover = 75 mm

Effective Depth of Abutment = 1592.5 mm

Lever Arm = 0.95 x d

= 1512.875 mm

Grade of Concrete = M 35

Grade of Steel = Fe 500

For Sections without Compression Reinforcement the Ultimate Moment of Resistance Can be checked according

to IRS-CBC (Cl.-15.4.2.2.1).

Moment of resistance Mr = 0.15 x fck x b x d 2

= 0.15 x 35 x 7850 x 1592.5^2/10^7

= 10452 T-m Hence Ok

Check for Reinforcement:

= 10424 mm2

Reinforcement Required (Ast) per meter length of Abutment

= 1328 mm2

Minimum area of reinforcement required is 0.4%

(as per cl. No. 15.9.4.1 of IRS CBC) = 0.4% bd

= 0.4 % x (7850 x 1592.5 )

= 50004.5 mm2

Minimum area of reinforcement required per meter length of Abutment

= 6370 mm2

Spacing of reinforcement = 120 mm

Ast Provided in Earth Face of Abutment = 4091 mm2

Spacing of reinforcement = 120

Ast Provided in Earth Face of Abutment = 2618

= 6709 mm2

Ast Provided > Ast Required Hence Ok

Total Reinforcement % Provided = 0.15 + 0.26

= 0.41 %.

Distribution Steel:

Minimum area of secondary reinforcement :-

As per Cl: 15.9.4.2 of IRS Concrete Bridge Code; = 0.12% of bd

= 1911 mm2

Dia of Reinforcement provided = 20

Spacing of reinforcement provided = 150

Ast Provided = 2094 mm2

Ast Provided > Ast Required Hence Ok

Total Shear force in ULS Conbination =

x 35.158 + 1.25 x 43.89

= 379.92 T

So Shear Force per meter length of Abutment = 379.92 / 7.85

= 48.4 T/m

Shear Stress (v) = 48.4 / ( 1 x 1.5925 )

= 30.39 T/m2

= 0.304 Mpa

Now 100 As/ bd = 100 x 4091 / (1000 x1592.5)

= 0.26 %

Now As per table 15 of IRS CBC

c = 0.44+ {(0.56-0.44)/(0.50-0.25)}*(0.26-0.25)

= 0.445

Now As per table 16 of IRS CBC

s= Max ( (500 /1592.5)^0.25, 0.7)

= 0.749

Therefore Allowable shear stress (sc) = 0.749 x 0.445

(As per Cl. No. 15.8.3.2 of IRS- CBC) = 0.333

In This case v<sc

So as per table no 14 of IRS CBC

Asv = 0.4 b sv/0.87 fyv

Now Consider,

sv = 120 d= 1592.5

b= 1000 v= 0.304

fyv= 415 sc= 0.333

= 132.95 mm2

Provided dia of bar= 12 mm dia 2 Legged stirrups @ 120 c/c

Hence Ok

3. Design of Bed Block:

The Bed block/ Abutment Cap is a solid slab fully supported on abutment wall.

Mesh Reinforcement (10mm dia 110 c/c in Longitudinal Direction & 10 mm

dia 100 c/c in transverse direction) has been provided under bearings.

The Block has been adequeately reinforced with 20mm dia bar @ 150 mm c/c bothways

to provide rigidity and strength against local loading

Spacing of bars provided = 150 mm

= 2094 mm2

% of Reinforcement provided = 0.23 %

4. Design of Dirt Wall :

Load Calculation:

1. Earth Pressure Calculation:

Formation Level

63.154 M

2.132

61.022 M

= 0.303 x 1.8 x 2.132

= 1.163 T/m2

Now Force Due to Earth Pressure on Dirt Wall per meter length

= 0.5 x 1.163 x 2.132

= 1.24 T /m length

( S + V ) Ka

= 2.04 T/m2

B

2.132

4.85

6.132 Top of Bed Block

1.486

( S + V ) Ka

= 0.78 T/m 2

L

Pressure Intensity at top of bed block level = 2.04 - { ( 2.04 - 0.78 ) / 4.85 x 2.132 }

= 1.486 T/m2

Now the point of application of surcharge pressure from the top of bed block

= ( 2.132 / 3 ){(2 x 1.486 + 2.04 ) / ( 1.486 + 2.04 ) }

= 1.01 m

Now Force Due to Surcharge Pressure on Dirt Wall per meter length

= ( 2.132 / 2) x (2.04 + 1.486 )

= 3.759 T /m length

3. Calculation of Dynamic Increment force:

= 1.24 x 87.5 %

= 1.085 T /m length

= 3.759 x 87.5 %

= 3.289 T /m length

Height of Dirt Wall = 2.132 m

= 3.4 T/ m Length

Horizontal seismic co-efficient for Abutment (h) = 0.27

= 0.918 T/ m Length

Load Combination:

Total Ultimate moment on Dirt wall in Seismic condition

( 1.24 x 2.132 x 0.33 x 1.7 + (3.759 x 1.01 x 1.7) + (1.085

x 0.67 x 2.132 x 1.25) + (3.289 x 0.67 x 2.132 x 1.25) +

ML = (0.918 x 0.5 x 2.132 x 1.25)

= 16.99 T-m

Grade of Concrete = M 35

Grade of Steel = Fe 500

Clear Cover = 50 mm

Effective Depth of Section (d) = 637.5 - 50 - 20 / 2

= 577.5 mm

Lever Arm = 0.95*d

548.625 mm

= 711.9156 mm2

Spacing of reinforcement = 125 mm

Ast Provided = 0.7850 x 20^2 x 1000 /125

= 2513.274 mm2

Ast Provided > Ast Required Hence Ok

. 5. Design of Transverse Seismic Arrester Block:

Size of The Arrester block provided =

(mm) (mm) (mm)

725 1300 1400

Grade of Concrete = M 35

Grade of Steel = Fe 500

Clear Cover = 50 mm

Load Calculation:

1. Factored Horizontal force due to dead load of super-structure in ULS

= 57.855 x 0.27 x 1.25

= 19.526 T

2. Factored Horizontal force due to SIDL in ULS

= 64.26875 x 0.27 x 2

= 34.705 T

3. Factored Horizontal force due to 50% Live Load in Transverse direction

= 229.536 x 0.5 x 0.27 x 1.4

= 43.38 T

So Total horizontal force in Transverse direction (H T)

HT = 19.526 + 34.705 + 43.38

= 97.61 T

Now, As per Cl. No. 13.3.2.4 of IITK- RDSO- Guidelines for seismic design

this Horizontal force shall be further enhanced by 1.5 times

= 146.415 T

Design Calculation & Methodology:

Now design methodology has been followed as deep beam of V.K. Raina

Book of "Concrete Bridge Practice"

Here Vu = 146.415 T

Consider S = 0.97 x 1.4 = 1.358 m

Effective Depth(d') = 1300 - 50 - 25/ 2 - 16

= 1221.5 mm

= 1.112 >1 Hence proceed with design

= 0.9772 m

Therefore Calculate flexural tension reinforcement

Af = ( 1464150 x 1358 ) / ( 0.85 x 500 x 977.2

= 4788 mm2

No of Bars Provided = 12 in 2 Layers

Dia of Bar provided = 25 mm

= 5890 mm2 Hence ok

= 2.07 Mpa

For M35 grade of concrete

fc' = 0.8 x 35

= 28 MPa

Now, 0.15 xfc' = 0.15 x 28

= 4.2 MPa

As Vu/bd < 0.15 fc' Hence Ok

Avf = 146.415 x 10^4 / (0.85 x500 x 1.4 )

= 2461 mm2

Check for Shear Reinforcement:

Total Shear Reinforcement will be More Than the Max of the following :

Ah =0.333 x Avf = 819.513 mm2

This stirrup shall be provided below As within a depth of 2/3 d'

No of Legs of stirrup = 4 nos

No of layers = 4 layers

Provided area of steel (Ah ) = 0.785 x 16^2 x 4 x 4

= 3217 mm2

Ah provided > Ah required Hence ok

0.5 x (Vu - Vc) x p

Area of Horizontal stirrups(Av) =

Fy x d

Now, Vc = 10 x b x d in kgs

= 10 x 72.5 x 97.72

= 70847 Kg

= 708.47 kN

= 155 mm2

Now dia of stirrups provided = 12 mm

No of Legs of stirrup = 4 nos

Pitch of stirrups (p) = 200 mm

= 452 mm2

Av provided > Av required Hence ok

6. Design of Longitudinal Seismic Arrester Block:

Size of The Arrester block provided =

(mm) (mm) (mm)

1300 1000 1400

Grade of Concrete = M 35

Grade of Steel = Fe 500

Clear Cover = 50 mm

Load Calculation:

1. Factored Horizontal force due to dead load of super-structure in ULS

= 57.855 x 0.27 x 1.25

= 19.526 T

2. Factored Horizontal force due to SIDL in ULS

= 64.26875 x 0.27 x 2

= 34.705 T

3. Factored Horizontal force due to Tractive effort/ Breaking force

= 37.05 x 1.4

= 51.87 T

So Total horizontal force in Transverse direction (H T)

HT = 19.526 + 34.705 + 51.87

= 106.1 T

Now, As per Cl. No. 13.3.2.4 of IITK- RDSO- Guidelines for seismic design

this Horizontal force shall be further enhanced by 1.5 times

= 159.15 T

Design Calculation & Methodology:

Now design methodology has been followed as deep beam of V.K. Raina

Book of "Concrete Bridge Practice"

Here Vu = 159.15 T

Consider S = 0.97 x 1.4 = 1.358 m

Effective Depth(d') = 1000 - 50 - 25/ 2 - 12

= 925.5 mm

= 1.467 >1 Hence proceed with design

= 0.7404 m

Therefore Calculate flexural tension reinforcement

Af = ( 1591500 x 1358 ) / ( 0.85 x 500 x 740.4

= 6868 mm2

No of Bars Provided = 16 in 2 Layers

Dia of Bar provided = 25 mm

= 7854 mm2 Hence ok

= 1.65 Mpa

For M35 grade of concrete

fc' = 0.8 x 35

= 28 MPa

Now, 0.15 xfc' = 0.15 x 28

= 4.2 MPa

As Vu/bd < 0.15 fc' Hence Ok

Avf = 159.15 x 10^4 / (0.85 x500 x 1.4 )

= 2675 mm2

Check for Shear Reinforcement:

Total Shear Reinforcement will be More Than the Max of the following :

Ah =0.333 x Avf = 890.775 mm2

This stirrup shall be provided below As within a depth of 2/3 d'

So, 2 / 3 d' = 620.09 mm

No of Legs of stirrup = 6 nos

No of layers = 6 layers

Provided area of steel (Ah ) = 0.785 x 12^2 x 6 x 6

= 4072 mm2

Ah provided > Ah required Hence ok

0.5 x (Vu - Vc) x p

Area of Horizontal stirrups(Av) =

Fy x d

Now, Vc = 10 x b x d in kgs

= 10 x 130 x 74.04

= 96252 Kg

= 962.52 kN

= 170 mm2

Now dia of stirrups provided = 12 mm

No of Legs of stirrup = 6 nos

Pitch of stirrups (p) = 200 mm

= 679 mm2

Av provided > Av required Hence ok

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