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electric & hybrid vehicle technology international

January 2015

TESLA TAKEOVER
How Elon Musk and other tech giants are
revolutionizing the electric vehicle movement January 2015
UKIP Media & Events Ltd

RAGING ELECTRIC BULL WHAT LIES BENEATH COACH JOURNEY


Boasting 910ps, Lamborghinis first-ever Wireless charging is the EV future, say its Why arent buses making the transition
plug-in hybrid does not lack brute power supporters. Will it ever become a reality? from old diesel motors to clean new hybrids?
The Market
Leader in EVSE
Charge Station
and Battery
Testing

Key Standards
Include:
UN 38.3
CB Scheme
IEC 62133
IEC 61851
IEC 62196
SAE J1772
SAE J2953 Please Contact:
SAE J2380 icenter@intertek.com
UN ECE R100.02 www.intertek.com/
CHAdeMO energy-storage
CONTENTS

In this issue...

electric & hybrid


vehicle technology
international
January 2015
JANUARY 2015
TESL A TAKEOV
ER
How Elon Musk
and other tech

UKIP Media & Events


revolutionizing giants are
the electric vehicle

34
movement
RAGING ELECTR January 2015
IC BULL

WHATS NEW?
Boasting 910ps,
Lamborghinis WHAT LIES BENEAT
plug-in hybrid first-ever H
does not lack Wireless charging COACH JOURNE

Ltd
brute power
supporters. Will is the EV future, say its Y
it ever become Why arent buses
a reality?
old diesel motors making the transition from
to clean new
hybrids?

06. Charging bull Co ver illu str at


ion by
Kept under wraps until DA LE ED W IN
MURR AY
a surprise reveal at the
Paris Motor Show, the
Asterion LPI 910-4 is
Lamborghinis first-
ever plug-in hybrid
and its most powerful
development to date

11. Money talks


Hyundai-Kias latest
hybrid offering might
still be in the prototype
testing phase, but its
already disproving
the theory that cost
is a barrier to the
development of diesel-
electric powertrains

14. Street smart


No longer merely
a concept vehicle,
Toyotas all-electric
three-wheeler the 25. An American tale
i-Road is now street-
legal and taking part in
COVER STORY
34. Tech takeover
06 E&H finds out how
Venturi drew on a
a European fleet trial Should the emergence wealth of experience
of tech companies as in the development of
16. Doubling up big hitters in the EV its latest two-seater
The second-generation industry give traditional car, the America
XC90 sports Volvos car makers a headache?
new plug-in hybrid 28. Personality
double-boosted profile
Twin Engine, and the Assistant chief
Swedish OEM claims
it makes its SUV the
18 engineer at Fiat
Chrysler Powertrain,
cleanest in the world
28 Sabino Luisi

18. Charging forward 30. EVs on test


VWs e-powertrain E&H spends some time
offensive continues with Mercedes-Benzs
with the Passat GTE E300 Bluetec Hybrid;
a plug-in hybrid thats Volkswagens e-Golf;
the latest product of Porsches Panamera
the MQB program S E-Hybrid; and the
stunning Tesla Model S
20. Production news
A roundup of the latest
14
32. EV speak
news, developments Actor, writer and E&H
and announcements columnist Robert
from the EV world Llewellyn on two
game-changing
vehicles hes been

25 driving recently

Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology International // January 2015 // 01


The New EiceDRIVER SIL & Boost
Driving Tomorrows Mobility Today
In the search for alternative forms of mobility with a smaller carbon footprint, hybrid
and electric vehicles are growing in importance. Infineons next-generation EiceDRIVER
solutions can play a valuable role in increasing energy efficiency and reliability of these
and other motor control applications. Based on our Coreless Transformer Technologies
(CLT), these high-voltage IGBTs gate drivers feature a range of built-in features support-
ing system level functional safety. With a thermally optimized exposed pad package,
these devices can drive and sink peak currents of up to 15A making them ideal for most
inverter systems in automotive applications where space savings, cost efficiency and
ASIL C/D certification are priorities.

www.infineon.com/automotive-eicedriver

EiceDRIVER SIL-Boost_215x275_EN_ANZ.indd 1 31.10.2014 16:36:15


CONTENTS

FEATURES 86. Biker gang


44. Hydrogen heyday The electric motorcycle
industry is poised to
58
Toyotas fuel cell
sedan, the Mirai, goes take off as e-powertrain
on sale in Japan in technologies mature
early 2015, which for two-wheelers
means production
FCEVs have finally 94. Electric ancestor
become a reality. Introduced in 1973,
E&H finds out all the the battery-powered
engineering details Enfield 8000 predates
modern electric city
50. Public spectacle cars by decades but
As cities look for far just what went wrong?
cleaner alternatives to
diesel-powered buses, 98. Multiple choice
E&H visits various Key developers in the
local authorities that transmission world
are exploring the future are convinced that
of public transport the future for EVs
and PHEVs looks set
58. No strings to feature gearbox
How far away is the solutions with more
world from widespread than just one speed 118 118. Personal touch
The LA Auto Show
wireless charging? And Design Challenge looks
could it really silence 106. Urban outfitters at how the human-
electrification doubters Could all-new hybrid machine interface
once and for all? commercial vehicles looks set to change
offer towns and cities
66. Power struggle a more cost-effective 124. Turning rubber
The EV industry is solution than all- Recycled tires can
waiting on the next electric powertrains? form the basis of a new
breakthrough in material for anodes
battery technology, but 114. Air apparent
in Li-ion batteries,
what could the future Harnessing the energy
and could help
look like as scientists stored in liquid air
push ahead with could have exciting
implications for diesel
130 bring the kWh cost
down to much more
cutting-edge research manageable levels
and development? powertrains and
refrigeration systems
130. Go the distance
74. Heady metal The switch to hybrid
MIT professor Donald powertrains in the
Sadoway believes World Endurance
liquid metal batteries Championship has
could be the key to seen LMP1 racers get
future power demands impressively faster as
well as more frugal
80. Top cat
Project Ingenium 137. Transferable skills
might at first glance be DRS, a global power
all about downsized
four-cylinder designs,
137 electronics supplier,
has turned its defense
but hybrids, plug-in
hybrids and BEVs are
141 expertise to the
commercial sector
on the way too for
Jaguar Land Rover 141. Drive to succeed
As demand for electric
and hybrid vehicles
86 grows, driveline pioneer,
GKN, is keeping up
with the market needs

200. Last word


Resident columnist
Greg Offer on why
the meteoric rise of
Tesla shouldnt really
surprise the industry

Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology International // January 2015 // 03


CONTENTS
174 The word wizards
Editor: Dean Slavnich
Deputy editor: Matt Ross
Assistant editor: John Thornton
PRODUCTS & SERVICES Production editor: Alex Bradley
Chief sub editor:
145. IGBT gate drivers 175. Performance Li-ion cells 187. Flexible chargers (EDN)
( Andrew Pickering
Deputy chief sub editor:
(Infineon Technologies) (Xalt Energy) 188. Extended battery lifetime (EnerSys)
Nick Shepherd
149. Reluctance-assisted motors (TM4) 176. Lithium-sulfur batteries 189. Drivetrain ultracapacitors Proofreaders:
152. Simulating BMS strategies (D2T) (Oxis Energy) (Skeleton Technologies) Aubrey Jacobs-Tyson,
154. Heavy-duty mild hybrids (AVL) 177. Advanced inverter cooling 190. FPGAs in EV drive systems (Altera) Christine Velarde
156. CAE driving models (Brel & Kjr) (International Rectifier) 192. Products & services in brief
Contributors
158. BMS safety standards 178. Automotive EV cables Farah Alkhalisi, Nargess Banks,
(Lithium Balance) (Huber+Suhner) Josh Bentall, Philip Borge,
160. Correct voltage conversions (Lear) 179. Multi-physics simulation John Challen, Brian Cowan,
Matt Davis, Rachel Evans,
162. Electric powertrain testing (CD-adapco)
(D&V Electronics) 180. Sensor self-diagnostics 178 Adam Gavine, Dan Gilkes, Max
Glaskin, Burkhard Goeschel,
164. Ultracapacitor storage (Allegro MicroSystems) James Gordon, Mark Hales,
(Maxwell Technologies) 181. Optimized electric drives Graham Heeps, John Kendall,
Andrew Lee, Robert Llewellyn,
166. Gold-plated resistors (Kinetics Drive Solutions) Mike Magda, Jim McCraw, Max
(Power and Signal Group) 182. Sensor bearing technology Mueller, Bruce Newton, John
168. EV drivetrain control (SKF) OBrien, Greg Offer, Keith Read,
Rex Roy, John Simister, Michael
(Actia Automotive) 183. Simulating thermal design
Taylor, Adam Towler, Karl
170. Zero-emissions motoring (Mentor Graphics) Vadaszffy, Saul Wordsworth
(Mouser Electronics) 184. Modular energy storage
172. Flywheel-based KERS (Flybrid) (Sensor-Technik Wiedemann) The ones who
make it look nice
173. Vehicle safety processors 185. Advanced power analysis
Art director: Craig Marshall
(Toshiba) Hottinger Baldwin Messtechnik)
(Hottinger Messtechnik ) Art editor: Ben White
174. Fuel cell power box 186. High rate discharge testing Design team: Louise Adams,
(Brusa Elektronik) (Arbin Instruments) Andy Bass, Anna Davie,
Andrew Locke, James Sutcliffe,
Nicola Turner, Julie Welby

Production people
Head of production & logistics:
Ian Donovan
Deputy production manager:
EDITORS NOTE Lewis Hopkins
Production team: Carole Doran,
Cassie Inns, Frank Millard,
You know electric vehicles are starting to come of age when The rationale is that with clean architectures, innovative Robyn Skalsky
companies synonymous with heart-thumping V6, V8, V10 approaches and a different way of thinking, these new tech Circulation manager:
and V12 creations start to embrace powertrain electrification. companies, with no legacies to working unions and Adam Frost
Granted, what Toyota, Honda, VW, Renault, Nissan et al manufacturing plants, and with an ethos of developing
The ones in charge
are doing with sustainable transportation for the masses is technology first and thinking about profits later, hold an CEO: Tony Robinson
far more important on a wider society level, but we all know advantage over conventional car makers, especially as EVs Managing director:
developments like the McLaren P1, Porsche 918 Spyder and jump from the niche into the mass market, while autonomous Graham Johnson
Editorial director:
Ferrari LaFerrari are what gets most of us car enthusiasts driving progresses from being a pipe dream to a reality. Anthony James
going. And now even Lamborghini is at it, showcasing its Are we really facing a situation where the pioneers of
first-ever plug-in hybrid, the Asterion. The future of the this industry the likes of BMW, Daimler, Ford, GM, Honda, Commercial colleagues
automotive industry looks not only green and clean, but very Hyundai-Kia, Jaguar Land Rover, Renault-Nissan, Toyota, Sales and marketing director:
Simon Edmands
exciting too the end is not nigh for supercars, sports cars, Volkswagen Group and Volvo are now no longer our
hot hatches and performance sedans after all. leading lights as the sustainable future unfolds? How to contact us
But the growing influence that powertrain electrification, I think that is very unlikely, but most, if not all the above, Electric & Hybrid Vehicle
sustainable transportation and autonomous driving is have recognized there are new names in town and these tech Technology International
Abinger House, Church Street,
having in the automotive sphere is adding a new dimension. players are not only coming at powertrain development and Dorking, Surrey, RH4 1DF, UK
Conventional car makers and suppliers, which have been automotive manufacturing from a totally different angle, they +44 1306 743744
around for numerous decades, if not more than a century in are ripping up a lot of the R&D and production rules that we electric@ukipme.com
www.ukipme.com/ev
some cases, now not only have to do battle with themselves, as an industry have adhered to for so long.
they are also facing attack from a new breed of tech Companies like Tesla and Google show that there are other Subscriptions
companies keen to fill the EV and self-driving vacuum. ways to get into this business, says Bentleys engineering 66/US$118 for two issues
Were a technology company making electric cars, said head, Rolf Frech, in our tech special feature that starts on
Published by
Elon Musk to me a few months back at the RHD launch of page 34. Gerald Killman, Frechs counterpart at Toyota, fully
the Tesla Model S in the UK. And while Musks Tesla goes agrees: As engineers, we always like competition, and these
from strength to strength, dominating the electric vehicle new products that come into the market show us that we UKIP Media & Events Ltd
arena with products that, generally speaking, are far more should never believe in the constraints we give ourselves. The views expressed in the
desirable, go for longer, and offer much more power than Change is taking place and the next 10 years might just be articles and technical papers are
other EV rivals, Google, one of the worlds largest companies the most important time for the automotive industry as we those of the authors and are not
endorsed by the publisher. While
across every sector and industry, is eyeing autonomous know it. Last word, then, to the man probably spearheading
every care has been taken during
driving. Heres an organization that generated revenues of that change the most, Mr Musk, who told me before he left the production, the publisher does not
US$60bn in 2013 more than some established car makers Model S event in London earlier this year, Whats very accept any liability for errors that may
and ominously for the automotive industry, it clearly thinks important is sustainable transport. Autonomous driving is nice to have occurred. This publication is
protected by copyright 2015. ISSN
that self-driving electric cars are the future and, like the have but not required; sustainable transport is whats required.
1467-5560 Electric & Hybrid Vehicle
internet, Google wants to own this space. Dean Slavnich Technology International . Printed
by William Gibbons & Sons Ltd,
Willenhall, West Midlands, UK.

04 // January 2015 // Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology International


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WHATS NEW? LPI 910-4

The Asterion is not just the most powerful


Lamborghini ever created, its also the first
development from the Italian supercar maker
that features powertrain electrification

Part brain,
part brawn

06 // January 2015 // Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology International


WHATS NEW? LPI 910-4

WORDS: DEAN SLAVNICH

T
he finer technical details remain scarce
and the company is staying true to
its somewhat secretive nature, but,
despite this, how could we not begin
this issue of E&H with anything but a
plug-in hybrid Lamborghini that drops massive
engineering hints as to where the Italian supercar
maker is headed to next in terms of powertrains
and products?
Now, before we get too carried away, lets
get some things out in the open from the start.
Lamborghini maintains that the Asterion LPI
910-4 one of the genuine surprise reveals at
the 2014 Paris Motor Show is a special, one-off
concept. But, despite this, here is a true working
technology demonstrator that confirms two things
if nothing else: all car makers every single one
of them, including Lamborghini, whose supercar
creations across the years have only ever been
powered by V8, V10 and V12 thumping hearts
are about to be hit hard with a new round of
emissions legislation, forcing everybody and

Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology International // January 2015 // 07


WHATS NEW? LPI 910-4

VITAL STATISTICS
1 Drivetrain: Four-wheel drive, front
wheels driven by electric motors
Displacement: 5,204cc
anybody to either downsize displacement or Power: 910ps
quickly adopt e-powertrain solutions or, in most Torque: 560Nm
cases, both. For the Asterion, Lamborghini has Bore & Stroke: 84.5mm x 92.8mm
gone with option two from that list, but more Compression ratio: 12.7: 1
on that later. The second thing that this tech
Top speed: 310km/h (192mph)
demonstrator proves is that hybrid and electric
Acceleration
vehicle powertrain technology if you were in (0-100km/h): 3.0 seconds
any doubt beforehand isnt just here to stay, Fuel consumption:
its also hitting the market with some style and 4.12l/100km (68.5mpg)
panache. Granted, conventional e-powertrain CO2 emission: 98g/km
developments are crucial for the industry and Electric range: 50km
society in general (family-friendly mass movers
like the Toyota Prius and Nissan Leaf are prime
examples of that), but its the exotic heart-skips-
a-beat creations like the Ferrari LaFerrari,
McLaren P1, Porsche 918 Spyder, and yes, even
the Asterion concept, that are where its at.
We at Lamborghini always invest in new
technologies and we deliver the unexpected,
said president Stephan Winkelmann at the
unveiling of the Asterion in Paris. Now, plug-in
hybrid designs might not be new on an industry-
wide basis, but very few knew of the Italian
companys PHEV plans prior to the motorshow,
so kudos to Winkelmann and his team of
engineers for not only delivering such a hybrid
beast, but also for keeping it under wraps and
away from prying media eyes.

Power trip
But what makes Asterion so significant is that
theres more to this development than just being
Lamborghinis first dalliance with e-powertrain
systems. Somewhat ironically in so much
that PHEVs have become synonymous with the
sustainable transportation utopian vision the
Asterion is the most powerful Lamborghini ever
created, with 910ps resulting in a blink-and- 4

08 // January 2015 // Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology International


WHATS NEW? LPI 910-4

ALL IN THE NAME


The clue as to what powers the Lamborghini Asterion
LPI 910-4 can be found in its very name. LP stands
for longitudinale posteriore the longitudinal mid-rear
position of the V10 engine; I is for ibrido the Italian
for hybrid; the 910 represents total system power; and
4 signifies the cars permanent 4WD capability. As for
Asterion? Well, thats somewhat less straightforward
and one for all the ancient Greek mythology experts out
there. Asterion is the proper name of Minotaur, a mythical
hybrid figure that was symbolic of crossbreeding,
representing a story of powerful fusion between intellect
and instinct part man, part bull.

The Asterions architecture sees one of the


three electric motors incorporate an integrated
starter motor and generator (ISG) design, and sits
between the V10 and the 7-speed DSG. The two
electric motors at the front axle are fed by power
from the ISG with a torque vectoring function.
Such a setup allows the worlds most efficient
Lambo to serve up two driving modes: hybrid,
which combines the V10 with all three e-motors,
ensuring a permanent four-wheel-drive state
without being dependent on the batterys charge
level; and pure electric, where only the two
frontal motors are active and in use. These hybrid
subsystems, including the battery pack, weigh
2
250kg in total. For now, though, Lamborghini
wont reveal the total weight of the Asterion.
youll-miss-it 0-100km/h sprint time of just 3.0 seconds. Top In terms of where exactly that 910ps comes
speed is 310km/h (192mph). But such hard-hitting power to from, some 300ps is the responsibility of the
the wheels is only part of the story: this is a Lamborghini that is e-motors, while the remaining lions share comes
said to return 4.12l/100km (68.5mpg) on NEDC with emissions 3 from the longitudinally mounted, naturally
output coming 2g/km under that magical 100g/km level. aspirated 5,204cc engine. And just for good
Designed and developed entirely in-house by Lamborghini measure, the IC unit also serves up an additional
1. Offering CO2 emissions of 98g/km and 560Nm torque. For those in the EV world who
engineers meaning that theres no apparent Porsche or Audi
a pure electric driving range of 50km, the
crossover here the Asterion is home to the Italian car makers Asterion LPI 910-4 has been conceived are not overly familiar with Lamborghini power
5.2-liter V10 mid-engine, as seen previously in the Gallardo more for comfortable luxury daily cruising units after all, this is a company that just doesnt
and currently in the Huracan, and no fewer than three powerful than for ultimate track performance do below six-cylinders the V10 in the Asterion
brushless electric motors, which help ensure an emissions-free seems like-for-like with the 5.2 powertrain in the
commute for 50km (31 miles). Careful acceleration will also 2. The Asterions clear polycarbonate rear Huracan, with matching power ratings across the
engine cover features hexagon-shaped
allow the Lamborghini tech demonstrator to drive in e-mode up cut-outs through which to view the 5.2 V10
board. As such, aspects such as bore (84.5mm),
to speeds of 125km/h (77mph). stroke (92.8mm) and compression ratio (12.7:1) all
The trio of e-motors is powered by a lithium-ion battery 3. Although it uses the engine from the probably remain the same too.
thats placed longitudinally in the center tunnel of the Asterion, Huracan, the Asterion is based on the same Further information such as development
essentially replacing the transmission that otherwise would carbon fiber monocoque as the Aventador goals and challenges, as well as data relating to
have been located in the same area. Leveraging know-how and the battery (cooling, cells, modules and capacity)
4. Driven in pure electric mode, the Asterion
experience that other VW Group members have gained with is the first front-wheel-drive Lamborghini is not being disclosed yet by Lamborghini. For
their EV-related projects, Lamborghini says the placement of us at E&H thats fine for now, because the EV
the battery down the center tunnel allows for better balance world is perfectly happy to welcome a car maker
and handling, as well as further protecting the pack in case of with super sportscar roots dating back to 1963 to
a collision. the modern e-powertrain movement.

Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology International // January 2015 // 09


The TM4 MOTIVE systems
use high RPM permanent magnet
motors allowing for compact
packaging and high power density.

Up to 100 kW / 255 Nm / 10,000 RPM

The TM4 SUMO systems


use high torque / direct
drive motors for optimal
powertrain efficiency.

Up to 300 kW / 3400 Nm

TM4 Pub 2015.3.indd 1 2014-10-31 11:43:28


WHATS NEW? HYUNDAI-KIA DIESEL-HYBRID

Hyundai-Kia engineers are currently


focusing on further optimization of the
mild diesel-hybrid powertrain, with
R&D work on the project having first
commenced just under two years ago

xxxxxxxx

Smart money
Said to cost a quarter of the price of a full hybrid powertrain
development, Hyundai-Kias diesel-electric propulsion innovation
makes sense on both a business and engineering level

Those car companies that are not committing Everything has a price vehicle powertrain with our system that improves
themselves to launching a diesel-hybrid Currently, Hyundai-Kia offers various markets existing powertrains but still meets economy and
powertrain for the mass market usually around the world hybrid products that performance goals, the difference is huge.
Japanese OEMs, but North American ones too essentially combine a gasoline engine with In fact, a Hyundai source even said that its mild
tend to cite a multitude of factors at play when e-motor(s) powered by a lithium-polymer hybrid creation probably costs around a quarter
asked about their reluctance, the greatest one battery. Diesel-hybrids, as previously to develop and build in comparison with a full
being overall development and production costs. acknowledged, are rather expensive, from hybrid, such are the savings to be had.
In fact, to date, the only diesel-hybrid vehicles our point of view, admits Jurgen Grimm, The Optima and i40 show cars both feature
on offer have come from PSA Peugeot Citron, head of powertrain for the Korean car makers a new belt-driven starter generator (BSG) that
Volvo, Mercedes-Benz and Range Rover. Well, European operations, adding that the cost of replaces the conventional alternator, enabling
now for something a little different; a novel development doesnt quite match up to the fuel the engine to restart with little noise or vibration.
solution that combines diesel with electric, ticks economy gains that can be realized in the real Stop/start capability further drives down
various emissions reduction and performance world from such a technology. emissions output, but what makes the entire
boxes, and even manages to effectively tackle So, around 20 months ago, Grimms package really appealing is that as new city-
that overriding cost issue. engineering team went back to the drawing center regs come into force, the powertrain can
Introducing, then, the T-Hybrid (standing for board to find a solution that would allow for operate in electric-only mode at low speeds of
turbo hybrid) powertrain concept from Hyundai- a big step to be made in CO2 reduction up up to 20km/h (12mph) for a range of 2km (1.2
Kia, which made its debut at the Paris Motor Show to 20%, he says but also wouldnt blow the miles), as well as when steady cruising.
housed in Optima and i40 tech demonstrators. R&D budget. We asked ourselves which kind We also have load leveling, which means
Still under development and very much in of technology is the most appropriate for us to when the engine is operating at a low-load, we
the prototype testing phase the innovative realize that kind of decrease in emissions, but can increase the load by the electrical alternator
powertrain seems to have a rather simplistic also takes into account cost. In the end, we and can even charge the battery if necessary,
engineering setup, pairing together a 1.7-liter CRDi decided on this mild hybrid system because adds Grimm. Deceleration also serves to charge
turbodiesel with a 48V lead-carbon battery, a it combines several components that already the battery as well as regenerative braking, with
small electric motor and an electric supercharger. exist and are in use, and then if and when the BSG working as a generator.
But what makes the entire project even more lithium-ion or lithium-polymer gets cheaper, we
interesting is that Hyundai-Kia is saying it is can easily implement this type of battery into Lead not lithium
prepping this technology not for experimental the system. The cost issue is also one of the main reasons
studies, but rather for mass production one day From our perspective, when you compare why Hyundai-Kia opted for a 48V lead-carbon
in the near future. the cost of developing a new hybrid or electric battery, developed in collaboration with suppliers

Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology International // January 2015 // 11


WHATS NEW? HYUNDAI-KIA DIESEL-HYBRID

1. Rather than the lithium


battery used in the current
US-market Optima Hybrid,
the T-Hybrid powertrain
features a 48V lead-carbon
technology that requires
no active cooling, is highly
durable and very compact

that Grimm wouldnt disclose the names of, but another factor
that played a crucial role in this decision-making process is that
the technologys end-of-life recyclability is well established.
We can get material from lead-carbon batteries that we can
then sell on when were finished with them, whereas with
lithium-ion, you have to pay to obtain it and its not clear if
youll get anything back at the end-of-life stage.
In addition, lead-carbon helps with the general engineering
simplification theme entwined with this project in that the
battery, which is placed in the trunk of the Optima and i40,
requires no active cooling, is very durable and is so compact in
size that Grimm says it can easily be installed in just about any
Hyundai-Kia model and architecture. In fact, the entire package
is said to weigh no more than 50kg.
The 1.7-liter diesel engine is supplemented with a Valeo-
developed electric supercharger that works in addition to the IC 2
bases BorgWarner turbo, in the process eliminating turbo lag
and offering power and torque across the range, particularly at 2. The mild diesel-hybrid prototype unit does at take-off stage: With most
low RPM. This latter point is especially pertinent to Grimm. development has been diesels, during take-off you can feel a certain lack
designed so that it can be
Five or six years ago, we were heavily investigating two- of torque; its either that, or you have to have a
easily installed in most
stage turbocharging for diesels, and from our perspective we current Hyundai-Kia very short first gear. What weve done is elongate
didnt really see the value of this for our cars in Europe, he architectures, including the the gearbox to support the launch by the electrical
explains, adding that the main reason for this was because third-generation Sorento machine with 150Nm up to 1,000rpm. This gives
Kia didnt have a presence in the high-end performance diesel the driver an instant start of power.
sector. So, we went back and gave it some more thought, and Currently, Hyundai-Kias powertrain team
to bridge that gap between performance and economy, from is in the testing stage of the diesel-hybrids
our point of view, electrification and therefore mild hybrids development program. To be more specific,
is a much more appropriate technology. reveals Grimm, were testing to find the optimal
He continues, When you have a two-stage turbocharger, operation mode regarding electrical components
you do get low-end torque and high-performance, but theres and the combustion engine.
only a small step to be had when it comes to CO2 benefits. With And if all thats not impressive enough,
this mild hybrid, we have the possibility to use recuperated T-Hybrid ticks one last box for Kia in particular,
energy, making it very efficient. which finds itself in something of a tricky market
The 48V e-machine delivers some 10kW of electrical position: Were in the D-segment with a 1.7-liter
power, which in the i10 results in total system output of 155ps diesel engine, and customers tend to think its a
and 360Nm torque. It is safe to assume that a similar 15- little underpowered, but we dont want to install
20% increase in overall power in the Optima is also realized, our 2-liter diesel in the Optima because it brings
although Kia is not confirming any actual numbers yet. more load to the front suspension and wed have
We use this power for starting the engine, adds Grimm, to re-design the front-end module with regard
because it enables us to ramp up the engine to 800rpm, at to aerodynamics, explains Grimm. As a result,
which point the combustion starts, which means its a very fast 48V technology, he says, is a simple solution
and very smooth operation. implementation that will allow Kia to increase
Although Grimm cites such a smooth engine startup process the Optimas power, thus eliminating that need to
as a big benefit, another important plus-point is what the make a larger IC engine available in this class.

12 // January 2015 // Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology International


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Illustration: Dean Armstrong/NREL


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WHATS NEW? TOYOTA I-ROAD

City
slicker
In an effort to better understand how to create
With its lightweight 300kg mass,
compact battery pack and two 1.9kW
e-motors, i-Road is proving to be a big
success with city commuters in
Grenoble and Toyota City

the perfect integrated public transportation service,


Toyota has made its i-Road concept road legal
and its now part of a pioneering new fleet trial
At the 2013 Geneva Motor Show, Toyota surprised download an app on their smartphone or tablet to
much of the industry by unveiling a new form of see the real-time location of the vehicles that are
personal transportation the so-called i-Road. charged and ready to use.
An all-electric three-wheeler, here was a compact, Away from the virtual environment and in the front wheels. Along with the 50km driving range,
versatile and funky concept ideal for the urban real world, people will be able to pick up and drop a top speed of 60km/h (37mph) is also possible
environment with its 50km (31 mile) zero-emissions off their i-Road or COMS at a different location ideal for inner city commuting.
driving capability. And following its unveiling, the any of the 27 charging stations in the greater Such tiny e-powertrain proportions i-Road
industry was left feeling mightily impressed with Grenoble area rather than having to make a weighs only 300kg means it takes just three
Toyotas personal mobility vehicle (PMV) attempt, round trip. When the vehicle is dropped off, it is hours to fully charge the vehicle, but perhaps
but few thought such a development would hit the then plugged back into the system for charging, whats just as impressive is another new Toyota
road anytime soon. ready for the next person to use, allowing the technology that the PMV debuts: Active Lean.
Well, less than two years after its worldwide entire scheme to map out a better way of building According to Toyota, key to the higher levels of
debut and at the Paris Motor Show in October a fully integrated public transport service. stability, safety and comfort that the i-Road offers
a road-legal version of the companys tricycle- is Active Lean, which operates in conjunction with
format PMV made its European debut, having Urban warrior rear-wheel steering via a conventional steering
successfully already been part of fleet trials in But as much as Cite lib Ha:Mo is pioneering, so wheel, and also features a lean actuator motor
Toyota City in Japan earlier in 2014. too is the i-Road. Never covered previously in and gearing mounted above the front suspension
Now part of a major pilot program in Grenoble, E&H, the road-legal tricycle PMV is 2,345mm member, linked via a yoke to the left and right
France, the i-Road, a two-seater three-wheeler, long (5mm less than the 2013 Geneva concept); front wheels. An ECU calculates the required
has lined up with another Toyota EV, the COMS, a 1,455mm high (10mm taller); 870mm wide (20mm lean based on a steering angle, gyro-sensor and
single-seater four-wheeler, as part of a 70-strong wider); and boasts a wheelbase of 1,695mm vehicle speed data. The system automatically
electric vehicle supply commitment from the (down by 5mm), all of which is about the same as moves the wheels up and down in opposite
Japanese car maker for the three-year low-carbon conventional two-wheelers. directions and is able to apply a lean angle to
car sharing scheme, known as Cite lib Ha:Mo, Between concept stage in 2013 and making counteract the centrifugal force of cornering.
which includes partners EDF and Sodetrel. it road legal for Toyota City and Grenoble this Active Lean also operates when the i-Road
The project essentially invites anyone 18 years year, the electric powertrain has largely remained is being driven straight ahead on a stepped
or older with a valid driving license to register with unchanged, featuring a lithium-ion battery surface, with the lean actuator automatically
Cite Lib in order to gain access to the innovative providing power to a pair of 1.9kW (2kW for the compensating for changes in the road surface
Toyota EVs. Once subscribed, participants can concept) electric motors that are mounted to the to keep the body level.

14 // January 2015 // Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology International


WHATS NEW? VOLVO TWIN ENGINE

The Volvo XC90 Twin Engine


combines an in-line four-cylinder
IC unit driving the front wheels,
featuring an Eaton supercharger
and BorgWarner turbocharger,
with a 60kW electric motor
that powers the rear wheels

On a
charge
VITAL STATISTICS

Displacement: 1,969cc
Bore x stroke (mm): 82 x 93.2
Compression ratio: 10.8:1
Electric motor:
Driving rear wheels; 60kW
Transmissions: 8-speed Aisin
Thanks to its new VEA architecture, the all-new Engine block and cylinder
head: Aluminum
Volvo XC90 features powertrain electrification
as well as a double-boosted IC engine base
In creating the all-new, second-generation Architecture, we probably would have put the One of the reasons why so few car makers
XC90, Volvo claims to have delivered the worlds pack in the boot or wherever we could find space. have not followed VWs TSI TwinCharger lead has
most powerful and cleanest SUV. Granted, The result of such electrification measures is been because its an expensive option, but Thorn
the automotive industry is beginning to get not only amazingly low SUV benchmark-setting has a different take: To boost an engine turbo
rather blas and tired with such marketing-led emissions levels, but also an all-electric driving and supercharge it is a cost-effective way of
statements, but having looked into the finer mode that can cover some 40km (24 miles) getting power compared with other solutions such
details, its tough to argue against such lofty crucial for inner-city emissions-free zones. as adding size and cylinders. This is our top-of-
claims: XC90 is a 2,000kg (or so) seven-seater the-line engine, so thats another reason why we
with all-wheel drive, delivering 400ps and Boost action opted for this technology.
640Nm torque, but with ultra-low emissions But while the various hybrid subsystems Last year, Thorns then-boss, Derek Crabb, who
of just 60g/km CO2. including the 60kW e-motor that drives the was vice president of powertrain engineering at
How is all this possible? Well, important rear wheels, battery pack and crank-mounted Volvo before recently retiring, told E&Hs sister
advances in powertrain electrification have generator have played an instrumental role in title, Engine Technology International, that his
certainly played a central role its no surprise driving emissions down to that 60g/km threshold, team opted for a twin-charging arrangement to
that were talking about a PHEV development perhaps the more interesting technical story of ensure that the new four-cylinder engine could
here but so too has a clever new petrol engine this PHEV creation lies not with its powertrain replace a six and eight without causing any
fresh off Volvos VEA architecture. electrification parts, but rather the gasoline IC concern to the customer. The situation we faced
Karin Thorn, director of powertrain strategy at engine that powers the front wheels. was this: we were taking out six-cylinder engines
Volvo, says that while such headline-grabbing Interestingly, the VEA 2-liter in-line four- and replacing them with fours, but customers
numbers were no easy feat to achieve, some cylinder sports a supercharger and turbocharger, were saying they wanted the same power.
clever forward-planning helped her team to a combination that only one other car maker Getting power from engines is easy, but what the
integrate Volvos new plug-in hybrid powertrain Volkswagen has used in a mass production customer actually feels is responsiveness, which
branded Twin Engine within the XC90 footprint engine, and to great affect, with the Wolfsburg he/she translates to power, but its not actually
without having to overcome too many engineering OEM winning no fewer than 12 International power, its a transient issue.
hurdles. If we had attempted this with an existing Engine of the Year Awards for the 1.4 TSI The result is an Eaton supercharger to fill in
vehicle, it would have been far more challenging TwinCharger since its launch in 2006. the bottom-end torque, giving the 1,969cc unit
for us, but for the XC90, this [PHEV powertrain] a big naturally aspirated feel, added Crabb.
was part of the strategy from the beginning, The mechanically linked compressor functions
which meant choosing the engine, gearbox and immediately at low revs, with the BorgWarner
electronics right at the start. turbo kicking in when airflow builds up.
The lithium-ion battery pack and its optimal For this engine, we really didnt want any
location within the central tunnel is an compromises on performance, adds Thorn.
obvious example of how early planning So boosting with turbocharging was what we
(work on VEA started in 2008) helped decided to use. And while the Volvo team did
Volvos powertrain engineering team to look to twin-turbo charging in addition, that
easily package the plug-in hybrid nature of solution, according to Crabb, was quickly ruled
XC90. If we had to work with an existing out because we wanted this whack of response
architecture and not our new Scalable Product at the low end.

16 // January 2015 // Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology International


WHATS NEW? VOLKSWAGEN PASSAT GTE

Plug the gap


The all-new Passat GTE becomes the latest development to The eighth-generation
Passat is the latest
spin off from VWs ever-growing e-powertrain MQB portfolio MQB e-powertrain
development from VW

The wonderful thing about new, state-of-the-art in both sedan and tourer body derivatives. motor has been uprated from the Golfs 102ps
flexible and modular architecture is that it gives While thats noteworthy, more interesting is (75kW) offering. But like VWs hatchback plug-
powertrain engineers numerous technical options. the powertrain, which combines a 1.4 TSI turbo in hybrid, the e-motor is integrated within the
And perhaps no other car maker is executing this engine developing 156ps at 5,000rpm with an transmission housing. The 6-speed DSG, which
mantra better at present than Volkswagen with 115ps (85kW) electric motor that benefits from has been developed especially for VW hybrid
its MQB program, which has spawned refreshed energy coming from a chargeable lithium-ion applications, has three clutches and whenever
and new IC engines, hybrids, plug-in hybrids and battery pack, meaning that total system output possible the disengagement clutch disengages
battery electric developments over the past year. is 218ps. Such power along with the 330Nm the TSI unit from the driven front axle and shuts
Hot on the heels of the likes of e-Golf and of instant torque not only allows for that 50km it off meaning that in certain drive states, such
e-Up, Golf GTE and Twin Up (the latter of which all-electric driving capability, but it also ensures as coasting, kinetic energy is used without any
is still in conceptual phase), as well as the limited the GTE can hit speeds of 130km/h (80mph) added propulsive power.
production run XL1, is the next MQB e-powertrain relying solely on thee-motor and battery pack. The liquid-cooled high-voltage lithium-
baby: the Passat GTE, a front-wheel drive plug-in With the transversely mounted IC motor also up ion battery has also had a power upgrade for
hybrid that can do up to 50km (31 miles) in all- and running, top speed is enhanced to 220km/h project Passat, going from 8.8kWh capacity for
electric mode. (136mph) while 0-100km/h (0-62mph) takes less Wolfsburgs first PHEV to 9.9kWh. Although
Now in its eighth generation, the new Passat than eight seconds. unconfirmed at the time of writing, the weight of
is the first VW product that comes in PHEV form But perhaps even more importantly for a firm the Passats battery pack, which is located under
family lugger and fleet company car favorite the rear seats, will probably fall in line with that of
such as this is its environmental competencies the Golfs so around 120kg.
and here too the new Passat doesnt fall short: Additional components of the Passats hybrid
total driving range (with e-motor and TSI engine drive include power electronics that covert DC
combined) is in excess of 1,000km (621 miles), power from the battery to AC power for the
which equates to 2 liters/100km (141mpg) and e-motor. An electromechanical brake servo and
CO2 emissions of fewer than 45g/km. an electric air-conditioning compressor ensure
optimal and energy-efficient operation of the
Sibling sharing brakes and air-con unit when e-mode is active.
In terms of inner system workings, the Passat To charge the Passat GTEs battery from
GTEs powertrain is not too dissimilar to that of completely flat to full via a standard cable
the Golf GTE, but it would be overly simplistic to plugged into a 230V electrical socket takes
say that the e-powertrain was plucked from one 4hours and 15 minutes. A fast charge wall box
The TSI engine and e-motor produce 218ps of total system project only to be placed in another. For starters, unit operating at a level of 3.6kW will reduce total
power, with some 330Nm of instant torque also available the three-phase permanent magnet synchronous charge time to just 2 hours and 30 minutes.

18 // January 2015 // Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology International


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GKN PRODUCES WORLDS FIRST 2-SPEED ELECTRIC AXLE BYD UNVEILS THE INDUSTRYS
LARGEST BATTERY ELECTRIC VEHICLE
GKN has developed the automotive Two-speed eAxles will help
BYD Motors has debuted Americas first all-electric
industrys first 2-speed eAxle for hybrids manufacturers enhance hybrid and
articulated bus. Called the Lancaster eBus, the 18.3m
and EVs, with the technology being electric drivetrains and support the trend
articulated battery-electric application can drive upward
applied for the first time in the BMW i8. to downsize eMotors to reduce weight
of 270km (170 miles) with a passenger load of up to 120,
The eAxle enables automakers to and cost, says Theodor Gassmann,
and demonstrates BYDs commitment to the American
produce axel-split hybrids. A conventional GKN Drivelines vice president for
rapid transit markets. BYDs mission is to create safer
or hybridized engine provides the primary product technology eDrive systems.
and more environmentally friendly battery technologies,
power to either the front or rear wheels, With the technology proved in a high-
performance vehicle with high levels
says motors fleet sales vice president Brendan Riley.
with the other axle being driven by an
of refinement, significant savings in
This has resulted in the BYD iron-phosphate battery, a
eAxle module. The technology responds
intelligently to deliver an instant, high- CO2 are possible.
fire-safe, completely recyclable and incredibly long-cycle
torque, all-wheel drive experience, a
technology the foundation of BYDs electric buses.
useful pure electric range or a refined,
These buses run entirely on battery power, lasting up
efficient parallel-hybrid mode.
to 24 hours on a single charge, with a single off-peak
Giving the electric motor an additional
charging time of between two and four hours. Whats
gear ratio improves acceleration and
more, no additional generation capacity is needed to be
the pure electric range, benefiting both
built to charge our buses at night, since the grid is only
driving dynamics and CO2 emissions.
40% employed.
GKNs 2-speed eAxle also enables the
motor and all its associated systems to
be downsized, reducing mass and further
increasing efficiency.

SEOUL TO OFFER ELECTRIC


VEHICLE INCENTIVES
The city government of Seoul has
reportedly partnered with BMW, GM,
Hyundai-Kia and Renault Samsung to
encourage customers to buy electric
vehicles from one of the four car makers.
Seouls Civilian Supply of Electric Cars
Program is intended to boost uptake in
a city that has seen EV use suffer from
CHEVROLET TO DEBUT VOLTEC SYSTEM IN NEXT-GENERATION VOLT
a lack of infrastructure and road laws
that restrict the use of electric cars on
certain roads. The program offers cash When the next-generation Chevrolet Volt original cell, while the number of cells has been
incentives up to around US$18,000 debuts at the North American International reduced from 288 to 192. The cells are also
for vehicles manufactured by one of the Auto Show in January, it will feature an all-new positioned lower in the pack for an improved
four OEMs.
Voltec extended range electric vehicle (EREV) lower center of gravity and the overall mass of
The city will also offer corporate
customers further incentives to install propulsion system. the pack has decreased by almost 13kg.
charging stations in their parking lots. GM says its battery technology has been It would have been simple for us to tweak
BMW Korea has committed to substantially improved for the new vehicle, with our existing battery to provide nominally
installing over 120 charging points at revised cell chemistry, developed in conjunction increased range, but thats not what our
major locations around the city, and is with LG Chem, increasing storage capacity customers want, says Larry Nitz, executive
also offering potential customers the by 20% on a volume basis compared with the director of GM Powertrains electrification
chance to rent the i3 for up to 10 days engineering team. So our team created a new
to fully test drive the car. battery system that will exceed the performance
expectations of most of our owners.
Like the battery pack, the next-generation
Volts drive unit has been re-engineered with a
focus on increased efficiency and performance,
improved packaging and reduced noise and
vibration. The two-motor drive unit operates
approximately 5-12% more efficiently and
weighs 45kg less than the current system.

20 // January 2015 // Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology International


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WHATS NEW? VENTURI AMERICA
Development work on the
America, which features two
e-motors and a T-shaped
battery pack, began in 2012

Test cell
Prior to achieving final sign-off, Venturis newest EV
creation underwent extreme testing and validation
Having launched its first all-electric vehicle, Once the cells the developer of which Venturi engineers to opt
the Ftish, in 2004, some five years after the wont disclose had been fully characterized, for a T-shaped pack,
companys e-powertrain rebirth, Mongasque Baldets team was able to decide where to also created in-house
auto maker Venturi unveiled at the 2014 Paris place the modules and decide upon the type of by the car makers
Motor Show the latest addition to its production interfaces between the modules, as well as make technical department,
model line-up the America. a final decision relating to battery pack hardware. which is housed inside a
The two-seater, rear-wheel-drive sports car, After that, the Venturi engineering team carbon composite Kevlar chassis.
says Venturi, is the culmination of a range of built a battery module and tested it on a larger An aluminum honeycomb structure
experimental technical projects completed over rig internally designed to meet their specific provides optimal protection for both
the past few years, including different vehicles needs. The module included an ECU, developed the battery pack and passengers.
designed to break speed, endurance and extreme by Venturis in-house electronic department, For these tests we used real cells because
high-temperature durability records. to monitor cell behavior, and the charge and otherwise we would have lost time re-testing,
Actual development on the EV started in 2012, discharge cycles were conducted at higher adds Baldet. We also ran basic functional safety
at Venturis headquarters in Monaco, but two voltage and currents. tests where we over-charged and over-discharged
years before that, Franck Baldet, head of testing, In order to ensure that all the ECUs were the battery to check that the fuse and the
validation and homologation, put together an communicating freely together, they were conductors were working properly.
intense physical test program for the project, connected on a static test bench without the We conducted shock tests to ensure that the
which focused first on battery assessment at battery, e-motor or inverter a stage in the project pack does not displace in the event of sudden
cellular level: We started by characterizing the that Baldet refers to as ground zero. Further acceleration or deceleration, and to ensure it does
chosen cell regarding its voltage, current and the optimizations of the ECUs were undertaken not short-circuit either. That involved running a
thermal behavior. That involved charging and throughout the testing program. For the record, chassis, with the battery inside, into a wall. We
discharging the cell on a test bench in Austria. the powerful e-motor technology was also fully also did immersion tests where the battery was
At that stage, although a virtual model of the car developed in-house by Venturi engineers. soaked in 1m of water for 30 minutes.
had not yet been finalized, such critical battery- Once the final battery layout had been adopted According to Baldet, a particular focus
based data was fed into various simulation models and coupled with the cooling system, the pack throughout the development program of the
to enable the team to later decide the optimal was subjected to further rig testing using a America was placed on ensuring minimal contact
location of the battery pack for cooling requirements. mule prototype. Such a detailed approach led resistance between the cells: When current gets

Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology International // January 2015 // 25


WHATS NEW? VENTURI AMERICA

TECH SPEC

Engine type: Permanent


magnet synchronous
The Americas e-motor (below, Battery system: Lithium-ion polymer;
with the transmission, inset) 53kWh capacity
produces 300kW and 480Nm Power output: 300kW; 480Nm torque
Top speed: 220km/h
Acceleration
(0-100km/h): 4.5 seconds
(0-200km/h): 14 seconds

TIGHT SQUEEZE
A new suspension setup on the America is
of subsystems and technologies. The level said to improve its vehicle dynamics, but
of testing was then increased to first include the arrangement was a particular challenge
longitudinal acceleration and deceleration to integrate at the rear, as Franck Baldet
tests, followed by lateral dynamic testing. We (below) explains: The new powertrain,
increased the performance of the car by small which features two motors coupled with a
steps. In total, this took two weeks. new gearbox, takes up a lot of space and
The team then began public road testing therefore everything is more confined.
around Monte Carlo. There is a small area The new component layout also
where we can test on all types of road surfaces, presented NVH and durability challenges.
which is very convenient, adds Baldet. With tight gaps between the subsystems,
In parallel to the performance assessments, care was taken during vibration tests
the Americas durability has been tested at to monitor whether the components
every stage of the development, beginning at were touching, or whether wires that
component level and continuing throughout pass between two components were
track testing. Once the components were in the rubbing. We also had to integrate the
vehicle, we could check for other things that we cooling system, which required some
might not see on the bench, including unwanted reorganization in order to establish where
vibration, humidity and brake temperature. to put the oil and pipes, recalls Baldet.
We were also continually checking to These needed to pass through the
ensure that the ECU, the motor and the battery radiator, but cannot pass too close to the
were communicating properly. Sometimes, for battery or the brakes.
in, the resistance can create a power loss, so you example, we may find that the connectors or the
have to reduce the maximum contact resistance, wiring is incorrect, or the connectors might break
he stresses. due to vibrations.
Baldet notes that for a standard development
From the virtual world to the real world program, the team would aim to cover in total
Two prototype vehicles were used for further, 160,000km (100,000 miles). However, when
real-world development, with the team visiting testing the America, the primary goal was to
tracks in Spain and in the south of France. Initial, ensure that everything was working properly at
shakedown runs on the proving grounds focused its limit: Its a sports car and therefore the testing
simply on checking that all the parameters of was very intense, he adds.
the vehicle were correct. We began with two Only 100 Americas are planned for production,
laps of the track at very slow speed to check all of which will be assembled at Venturis
that the brakes, acceleration, regeneration and Manufacture de Vhicules Electriques plant in
cooling system were all working so those types La Sarthe, France, and go on sale later in 2015.

26 // January 2015 // Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology International


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PERSONALITY PROFILE

What career did you want when you were two years, after which I joined the Fiat
growing up, and what was your first job? Research Center and worked on the MultiAir
I always wanted to work in engineering gasoline engines project. In May 2014, I
because my father was a mechanical started work on the 1.8TBi engine as part of
engineer, although he now works in the team led by Aldo Marangoni, head of Fiat
civil engineering. My first job was at the Chrysler EMEA Powertrain Engineering.
Polytechnic of Turin as a research fellow
at the Internal Combustion Engines What are the best and worst elements
Advanced Laboratory. of your job?
The best thing is that you can apply your
When did you first start playing around knowledge and background to continuously
with powertrains? optimizing current technology. Nevertheless,
I first became involved with engines when I it is demanding to optimize many specific
was working on my master thesis and while components in a synergistic way.
I was a research fellow at the Polytechnic
of Turin. I worked on diesel engines, on What would be your dream engine
aftertreatment development and injection specification?
PROFILE: SABINO LUISI system definition. The aim was to optimize It would have to be the 1.8TBi its a really
combustion efficiency and the trade-off high-performance engine. More generally,
Job title: Assistant chief engineer between NOx and soot emissions. though, a proper specification for gasoline
Company: Fiat Chrysler Powertrain engines is to have a high compression ratio
What was your career path to the position to increase thermodynamic efficiency at part
Engineering you currently hold? load, but with technical solutions implemented
My degree was in automotive engineering. to prevent knocking and cooling down the
As I mentioned, my first job was at the exhaust temperatures in high-load conditions.
Polytechnic of Turin and I worked there for Advanced gasoline technologies include a

Tested the hard way For the harshest environments


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28 // January 2015 // Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology International


PERSONALITY PROFILE

The engine that is particularly emotive is the 1.779-liter, which in 1967


equipped the 1750 GT Veloce along with the 1750 Berlina and 1750 Spider

variety of new components and subsystems two valves per cylinder, 80mm bore, 88.5mm What could legislators do to make your
aimed at improving fuel economy. These stroke development. Peak power was 120ps working life easier?
technologies can act on pumping losses at 5,500rpm, with a peak torque of 186Nm Legislation is pushing toward a 100g/km CO2
(downsizing with turbocharging, VVA, cylinder at3,000rpm. A higher ratio final drive was fleet average by 2020/25. This requires not
deactivation and hot EGR), thermodynamic fitted but the same gearbox ratios were only detailed optimization of the engine, taking
efficiency (cold EGR and stratified combustion) retained. This engine was one of the most into account the combustion, pumping losses
and friction losses. Advanced gasoline powerful at the time and can be considered and engine/vehicle friction, but also technical
engines are expected to remain competitive in the grandfather of the 1.8TBi. In contrast to powertrain hybridization solutions.
vehicle applications for the near future, but the that naturally aspirated engine, turbocharging
technologies to improve gasoline engines can today delivers higher performance levels at In your opinion, what will be powering a
obtain a better cost-to-benefit ratio in terms of low-end torque and full rated power. In typical family sedan in 2030?
CO2 reduction. particular, what is really interesting is the The hybridization of engine architecture will
useof scavenging to increase torque output increase, because it is a key technology in
In your opinion, what is the greatest engine during transient operation. This technical reducing CO2 on the New European Driving
that has ever been produced? solution is based on a controlled post- Cycle and under other legislative regulations.
Related to the 1750 TBi, the engine that is combustion phase that takes place at the Further improvements will focus on optimizing
particularly emotive is the 1.779-liter, which turbine inlet and not in the combustion engine efficiency at specific operating points,
in1967 equipped the Alfa Romeo 1750 GT chamber; its target is to increase the enthalpy using the best areas of the engine map to
Veloce along with the 1750 Berlina and 1750 level to ensure higher boost pressure and the produce energy for the batteries so that the
Spider. It was a double overhead camshaft, fastest response of the engine. electric side of the powertrain can be used.

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Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology International // January 2015 // 29


ELECTRIC POWERTRAINS ON TEST
Our thoughts on four cars weve tested recently, all of which
feature some sort of advanced powertrain electrification

MERCEDES E 300 TESLA MODEL S


BLUETEC HYBRID
E&H was one of the first to test a right-hand 2,100kg. Nor do those big dimensions detract
drive Tesla Model S and, simply put, its unlike from the Model Ss on-road capabilities, with
Across the years weve never hidden
anything else on the road today, be that cars the steering being light but responsive and
the fact that at E&H we are big fans of
powered by humble diesel or gasoline engines the car feeling agile throughout. Even East
diesel-hybrid powertrains. Yes, they
or even the new-generation of EVs. Its the Londons bustling one-way streets were a
are expensive to develop and yes, this
numbers that first set the Model S apart from breeze for our Model S, as it silently drifted
is a typically European standpoint, but
the chasing pack. Depending on the spec, in and out of spaces. The interior is even
on many engineering levels they just
theres 400+ ps and 600Nm of torque to be more extraordinary. Here the minimalistic
make sense. And slowly the market is
had, all of which puts the Tesla sedan firmly in approach creates a calm environment. A
becoming increasingly populated with such
Porsche, BMW M, Mercedes-AMG and even large, class-leading touchscreen dominates
drivetrains, following PSA Peugeot Citrons
Maserati territory. Green no longer equates the center console think of a TomTom satnav
lead a few years ago. The latest name to
with boring. And that torque is instantly system on steroids, then times that by 20!
enter the diesel-hybrid arena is Mercedes-
available, so tap the accelerator pedal with And this centerpiece technology does just
Benz, in the form of the E 300 Bluetec
care; a 0-100km/h dash at the lights takes a about everything, from presenting real-time
Hybrid, which essentially puts Daimlers
mere 5.6 seconds remarkable for a car with traffic information and offering wi-fi to even
much trusted and rather underrated 2.2-liter
large proportions weighing the best part of operating mechanical functions, such as
four-cylinder CDI together with an electric
motor thats placed between the IC base
and the 7G tronic transmission. The 2,143cc
OM651 diesel creates 205ps and 500Nm of
torque between 1,600 and 1,800rpm, while
the electric portion of the E 300s setup
sees a compact 35-cell, 0.8kWh lithium- VOLKSWAGEN E-GOLF
ion battery pack from Deutsche Automotive
supply power to a 20kW donut e-motor Our Tesla write-up (above) is rather gushing by VW engineers. The lithium-ion battery,
thats good for 280Nm. Impressively, the and name drops the BMW i3 and i8 along which weighs 318kg (the e-Golf has in total
part electrification of the E 300 Hybrid has with the sublime Model S as being the around 300kg more mass than a Golf TSI),
resulted in just a 99kg weight increase finest examples of EV engineering to date. comprises 264 individual cells integrated into
over the standard E 250 CDI. On the road, But can the Volkswagen e-Golf join such 27 modules, each with six or 12 cells. This
theres no denying that the E 300 Hybrid illustrious company? The short answer is all adds up to nominal voltage of 323V while
is very capable. In this segment, power Yes! And while were at it, the e-Up (see the packs over-capacity is 24.2kWh. On a
and performance needs to be blended with last issues Electric Powertrains On Test) can full charge, we found the battery will provide
a refined upmarket drive, and while the E also be thrown into that mix. Having always a real-world driving range of around 128km
Class from the outset has been designed to planned for an all-electric derivative when (80 miles), which isnt bad going although not
deliver those goods, the hybrid part of the the seventh generation Golf was first being quite in Renault Zoe or Nissan Leaf territory.
E 300 is not just there for show or to pay lip formed many years ago within VWs R&D But arguably the most noteworthy aspect of
service to the green lobby. We very nearly labs in Wolfsburg, Europes largest car maker this car is that its like any other new Golf out
matched Mercedes claimed combined fuel has without too much engineering fuss there: similar superb driving characteristics,
economy figure of 4.1 l/100km (68.9mpg), swapped its wonderful array of gasoline interfaces that are very familiar, easy to use
and with emissions being 109g/km, such and diesel engines for an equally striking and live with, and an end product that, quite
readings are not bad at all for a sedan that e-powertrain for the all-electric Golf. That simply, is very well put together.
sprints to 100km/h in 7.5 seconds. out with the IC, in with the electric
replacement has been a seamless
transition thanks mostly to VWs
highly impressive and very flexible
and not to mention modular
MQB underpinnings. This all means
that e-Golf benefits from a 115ps
synchronous motor, code-named
EEM 85, that delivers 270Nm
torque. The motor and the e-Golfs
EQ 270 single-speed gearbox with
integrated differential have both
been fully developed in-house

30 // January 2015 // Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology International


FREE SERVICE!

electric &
hybrid vehicl
e techno
logy intern
l ationa
January 2015
opening the sunroof. Yet regardless of our thoughts on the Model S,
one can tell a car is truly special when other drivers stop, stare, take a
second glance, and then grab their phones to snap a quick photo. The TESL A TA
design is sleek and stylish but, mirroring founder Elon Musk, theres also How Elon
KEOVER

UKIP Media
Musk and
revolutionizin other tech

humility there too; this is a car that doesnt need over-the-top chrome
g the elec giants are
tric vehicle
RAGING ELEC movement

& Events Ltd


TRIC BUL
Boasting L Janu ary 2015
910p WHAT LIES
plug-in hybri s, Lamborghinis

finishes or a grille that can be seen from the International Space Station. d does not first-ever BENEATH
lack brute Wireless charg
power ing is the COACH JOU
supporter
s. Will it ever EV future, say its RNE Y
become a Why aren
reality? t buses maki

The Model S is revolutionary in a very quiet, understated way, letting


old diesel ng the trans
motors to ition from
clean new
hybrids?

the technology and its powertrain do all the talking (or not, in this EV
case). And thats the thing with the Model S. Its only when stepping out

LEARN MORE
of the car that everything neatly falls into place. Despite those headline
grabbing power and performance numbers, this is the electric vehicle
totally re-imagined. This is transport with no emissions at all. Nada. But
crucially and unlike most other four-wheel electrics on the market

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today, BMW i3 and i8 models not included this is a car first and an EV
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PORSCHE PANAMERA S E-HYBRID

Two major engineering revisions separate the 2010, first-generation


Porsche Panamera Hybrid from this new gen-two S E-Hybrid. The
latter now has plug-in capability, but perhaps more noteworthy is that
the formers nickel metal hydride battery setup has been replaced
with a lithium-ion pack that can store 9.4kWh some five times that

www.ukipme.com/info/ev
of the old batteries and 384V. This feeds a synchronous electric
motor thats packaged with a 3-liter V6 supercharged engine, with Visit:
the integration handled by a decoupler clutch; drive is then performed
by ZFs ubiquitous 8-speed torque converter automatic gearbox. The www.ukipme.com/info/ev
e-motor develops 70kW and 310Nm, which theoretically means the
E-Hybrid can get from rest to 48km/h (27mph) in 6.1 seconds on e-drive to request exclusive and
alone, and a top speed of 135km/h (83mph) is also possible. While that
frugality is important Porsche claims combined fuel consumption rapid information about
of 3.1 l/100km (91.1mpg), which we couldnt quite get near to, and CO2
output of just 71g/km this is still a Porsche, so in sport mode, one of the latest technologies
and services featured
four drive settings, the V6 and e-motor boost continuously to serve up
416ps and 590Nm torque, making the sedan very quick: 0-100km/h

in this issue
takes just 5.5 seconds on the way to a top speed of 269 km/h (167mph)
outstanding for a car with an unladen weight in excess of 2,000kg.
OPINION

Llewellyn
The Mitsubis
hi Outlande
charging ab r PHEV, with
ility, is a its rapid-
genuine SU
I have recently driven two game-changing vehicles: V ga me chan
ger
first the Volkswagen Golf GTE and then the Mitsubishi
Outlander PHEV, both sublime in their own different ways.
The Golf and Outlander are plug-in hybrids (like the regeneration via a control on the DSG gearshift, meaning
latters full name suggests), but other than that, they are that its possible to decelerate the car without touching the
very different machines. And for me, a major difference brakes. As youd expect, its all very clever stuff from VW
was the experience I had in driving them. I was behind the and works seamlessly. After two hours of driving, I can safely
wheel of the Golf for just a couple of hours, but I had the say the GTE is brilliant. I mean, its a VW through and
Outlander for a week. With these new-generation electric through: solid, durable and very well engineered.
and plug-in hybrid vehicles, you need to drive them for a Because I drove the Outlander much further, charged it
while to get any real idea of how they perform its all myself, bought petrol for it, and did the simple math of how
about real world mpg, not drifting far I went and how much I spent,
sideways on a disused runway mph. I have a much better idea of the
Sadly, I have little idea of what the real cost of driving it.
real world mpg of the Golf GTE would
be. Its certainly going to be way above You need to drive them For starters, its huge Im
talking its proportions here, not
the GTD or the GTi Golf performance
models, but driving the car for only
for a while to get any everyday running costs! The
Outlander is a big, hulking
a few hours gives one very little idea.
What I do know, however, is that
real idea of how they four-wheel-drive SUV. That said,
its smooth and quiet to drive,
the GTE can go along very quietly
in electric mode, and if you switch to
perform its all about although the game changer for
me was the ability to rapid charge.
hybrid operation, it sips fossil fuel like real world mpg, not My first all-electric car was
a teetotaler at a booze-up. If you press the Mitsubishi i-Miev, and the
the GTE button, however, it uses drifting sideways Outlander has the same charge
everything and goes like stink. inputs, a standard Mennekes
The VW hatchback gets its socket for 3kW and 7kW input,
power from a 1.4-liter TSI unit and Chademo for 50kW input.
and a 102ps electric motor, the latter of which is What this means is that you can recharge the vehicle to
fed by a 8.7kWh lithium-ion battery pack, aiding 80% in about 12 minutes using a rapid charge point at a
the GTE to offer a pure-electric range of between highway service stop. So, on my first longish trip (around
40 and 50km (24-51 miles) in the real world. 225km (140 miles) in total), I achieved 2.97 l/100km (95.1mpg).
You can recharge the battery using the engine Yes, thats right: 2.97 l/100km in a 2-ton SUV.
so you dont have to plug it in but, obviously, if I did three charges, which added 24 minutes to my journey
you do, the fuel economy is going to be far because one of them was in a car park while I wasnt using
greater. Like other PHEVs, there are the vehicle. I accept that not everyone is going to recharge
a number of different modes to to this extent, so I kept a close record, and after 800km (500
choose from, depending on your miles) I averaged 3.92 l/100km (72mpg). I only charged it
driving situation. Battery Hold overnight at home and topped it up when I could be bothered.
retains a constant state of charge, In general, I have plenty of reservations about SUVs and
while Battery Charge will actively hot hatchbacks, but truthfully, if youre going to get one or
top up the pack. You can also the other, these two cars are a massive improvement on
select the intensity of battery the regular IC engined models.

32 // January 2015 // Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology International


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RISE OF THE TECH GIANTS

TAKEOVER
With Teslas monumental move into the EV market, and
Googles advances in self-driving vehicles, are traditional car
makers at risk of being left behind as the new tech-focused
super-brands enter the automotive space and push ahead
with sustainable transportation? WORDS: PHILIP BORGE

S
ince its inception in 1998, Google car manufacturers and suppliers that have
has gone on to become one of been around for many decades and in some
ILLUSTRATION: DALE EDWIN MURRAY

the largest and most powerful cases over a century.


companies in the world. In 2013 Not surprisingly, though, most engineering
it generated revenues of almost and powertrain heads at first play down such
US$60bn larger than some of the biggest car a threat. Companies like Tesla and Google
manufacturers and its sphere of influence show that there are other ways to get into this
extends way beyond its original dominion business, says Bentleys head of engineering,
of all things internet into everything from Rolf Frech. I cannot comment on the quality
Google Glass and medical science R&D of these cars, but I do see them as a positive
through to its much-publicized self-driving influence, so that we come out of the narrow
electric vehicles. tunnel and take a wider view.
The rapid expansion and limitless interests Gerald Killman, head of powertrain at
of pure-tech brands such as Google and now Toyota, agrees with his Bentley counterpart:
Tesla which, in founder Elon Musks own As engineers, we always like competition,
words is a technology company making electric and these new products that come into the
cars mean they now pose a serious threat market show us that we should never believe
to the automotive establishment, conventional in the constraints we give ourselves.

34 // January 2015 // Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology International


RISE OF THE TECH GIANTS

Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology International // January 2015 // 35


RISE OF THE TECH GIANTS

Yet despite such diplomatic rhetoric from two of the


automotive industrys most senior engineers, there is
cause for traditional car makers to sit up and take notice.
Stefan Lippautz, an automotive expert at PA Consulting
Group, says, Tesla and Google are both closely observed
by all major OEMs. Tesla is appreciated for paving the
road for the EV, and OEMs are clearly positioned as fast
followers, focusing on all types of the hybrid concept.
Google is considered more of a threat in the context of
the connected car.
But whatever the perceived threat level, can traditional
car makers and their established suppliers really stand up
to the march of the new technology giants?

Invasion of the technologists


Companies like Tesla
Everyone in the automotive sector will do well to watch and Google show that
exactly how Tesla, Google and many other technology
organizations make a play for the automotive space, says there are other ways to
Dr Gregory Offer, lecturer in mechanical engineering at
Imperial College London. They dont have to play by the get into this business
same rules, they can react to opportunities, innovate and Rolf Frech, head of engineering, Bentley
try much faster than the incumbents, he adds. They also
have far less to lose because they dont have a profitable
business making large volumes of conventional vehicles
already that will be damaged if disruptive technology is 1
introduced too soon.
But not everyone agrees with the Imperial academic. On
the contrary, Volvos director of powertrain strategy, Karin
Thorn, even dismisses the need to be worried. Of course
we should look at all competitors and keep up with what
they are doing, but you cant do this too much. Knowledge
of what everybody else is doing is helpful, but if we focus
on this too much, we would not make the right decisions
in regards to what were doing.
Thorns outlook seems to mirror the perspective of
many engineers plying their trade with the traditional
OEMs. Being forewarned equates to being forearmed, but
1. Caption style

36 // January 2015 // Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology International


RISE OF THE TECH GIANTS

As of September 2014,
almost 47,000 units of
the Tesla Model S have
been sold worldwide

not losing sight of ones initial goals, belief and culture is 1. The software powering commercial goal or not. Google has cultivated a history
highly important. That said, though, there is no denying Googles cars is called of just trying things to see if they work, and worrying
Google Chauffeur. The
that the entire automotive world is also looking at every project is currently being
about how to make money from them later. It has clearly
single move Tesla and Google make and imitation is the led by Google engineer identified that autonomous vehicles are going to be one of
sincerest form of flattery. Sebastian Thrun, former the key transport revolutions in the next decade or two.
director of the Stanford
Artificial Intelligence
So, by investing now, Google is likely to be at the forefront
Innovation engine Laboratory and co-inventor of a multibillion-dollar market, and so will almost
Ingenuity has always been at the very forefront of the of Google Street View certainly benefit at some point, says Offer.
automotive community. Advances to the IC engine, the 2. Googles prototype
Tech brands also benefit from a clean slate from which
steadily maturing EV, the marriage of the more traditional vehicle features sensors to originate their thinking, giving them a foundation on
and the cutting-edge powertrain technologies in hybrid that remove blind spots which to construct new architectures, and focus more on
and can detect objects out
offerings, as well as the soon-to-be-launched hydrogen to a distance of more than
disruptive technologies and executions. But without prior
fuel cell vehicles, are all testament to the importance of two football fields in all experience and established expertise, can any technology
new engineering ideas. directions. Its speed has company really make a play for a significant automotive
been capped at 40km/h
But in the period immediately after the 2008 financial market share?
crisis, investment in innovation was hit hard. There was You need at least a basic level of technical knowledge.
a 21% decline in patent applications by Tier 1 suppliers, Thats the case whether youre a new brand or a traditional
and a 29% drop by the car makers, according to Boston car maker, Volvos Thorn suggests. But when it comes to
Consulting Group (BCG). working processes, of course this can differ.
In stark contrast, tech companies invest heavily in Bentleys Frech goes one step further: They have a
innovation, often whether there is a clear and immediate clean sheet advantage, for sure, but they dont have the

Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology International // January 2015 // 37


RISE
RISEOF THETECH
OFTHE TECHGIANTS
GIANTS

experience of what it actually means to be an established


car manufacturer in the automotive industry.
And Kim Wagner, senior partner at BCG and co-author
of its 50 Most Innovative Companies report, agrees: The
greatest challenge for the tech companies is typically that
they start off as gifted amateurs. While they bring with
them a fresh perspective and a deep understanding of
their core technologies, they have to learn by doing, so
they often spend time learning the things that industry
insiders take for granted.
Nevertheless Wagner says the new names still hold an
advantage simply because of the way they operate. The
learning culture of technology companies is well-suited to
pushing the boundaries of current technologies, and their
successes will naturally encourage the traditional players
TIME WITH
in the space to push forward as well. ELON MUSK
So, starting with a blank sheet is undoubtedly liberating
As the pioneering
when developing new technologies and progressing them
all-electric Tesla
to a proof of concept stage. But it is here where reality will Model S is launched
kick in. Ultimately, in order to move forward on any scale, in the UK, E&H was granted an exclusive audience with
the tech pioneers will need supply chains, manufacturing one of the worlds leading tech visionaries Space X,
capacities and a robust commercial model to actually Solar City, PayPal and Tesla founder Elon Musk
launch a product successfully. One only needs to look at
Teslas journey to where it finds itself today, and then look E&H: WHATS YOUR GOAL FOR TESL A IN EUROPE?
at the so-called many new names that have been far less EM: Our aim is to sell a comparable number of cars in
successful, like Fisker, Venturi and Think. Europe as we do in North America. Thats the target,
and it will mean expanding activities in Europe and our
operations in the Netherlands. Also, you can most likely
Off-the-shelf experience expect us to establish an engineering R&D center in the
As innovative as its initial sustainable transportation UK next year or certainly the year after.
vision is, Tesla is today benefitting from the experience,
established supply chains and non-powertrain parts that E&H: WHERE WILL THAT TECH FACILIT Y BE?
EM: We have a lot of British engineers working for the
are available to the wider industry. It simply could not
company in California, so were going to speak with
have launched a single model without the help of existing them to find out what the best location will be for the
automotive and electronics parts providers. new center.
Tech brands realize that some of the future demands
on a car will be mobility and connectivity-based. Tesla has E&H: SO WILL TESL A EVENTUALLY PRODUCE CARS
IN EUROPE?
made a strong move here, but what it needs to do is refine
EM: Were looking to establish a factory in Europe. It
everything it brings to the customer, explains Jurgen seems like a logical thing to do and will be part of a
Grimm, head of powertrain engineering at Hyundai-Kia. long-term plan. The first factory will probably be in
So, for example, Tesla purchased the steering wheel that continental Europe, not the UK.
was originally made for the Mercedes S Class, the seat 1. In July 2010, Tesla
introduced the Roadster E&H: WHY EX ACTLY ARE YOU GIVING AWAY THE
made for a BMW, and so on, and integrated all of these
2.5, a pure EV sports car SUPERCHARGERS, EFFECTIVELY ALLOWING MODEL
parts together. However, sometimes these parts do not all with a range of 395km and S OWNERS TO CHARGE THEIR VEHICLES FOR FREE?
match perfectly. a top speed of 200km/h EM: It doesnt cost that much to charge a car, so we
either charge people a few dollars or pounds every time
1 they recharge or we can charge them nothing and build
that cost into the price of the car.

38 // January 2015 // Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology International


RISE OF THE TECH GIANTS

Were a technology
company making electric
cars. Whats very important
is sustainable transport.
Autonomous driving is nice
to have but not required;
sustainable transport is
whats required
Elon Musk, founder, Tesla

E&H: HOW DO YOU SEE BATTERY TECHNOLOGY


DEVELOPING?
EM: Battery chemistry is an extremely tricky thing 2
it is remarkable how many so-called breakthroughs I
read about that turn out to be nonsense. I dont know 2. Teslas gigafactory, a
anything better at the moment than lithium-ion. Every lithium-ion battery base,
time somebody says they have a breakthrough battery is to be built at the Tahoe
technology, I say great send us an sample, but they Reno Industrial Center in
Storey County, Nevada.
never do. Either that or they do and it doesnt quite live Set to be operational by
up to expectations. 2017, the projected cost to
build the facility is about
E&H: WHAT CAN YOU TELL US ABOUT TESL AS US$5bn. Tesla expects to
NEXT MODEL? achieve a minimum of 30%
EM: Our third-generation car will be around 25,000 reduction in production
(US$39,000) in terms of pricing, but its true cost will cost for its car batteries 3
be less than that because you dont have to pay for when the factory opens
gasoline, therell be some government support and 3. The Tesla Model X The established OEMs are naturally very proud of their
therell be Supercharging. It might be comparable to full-size crossover utility
a car costing, say, 15,000 (US$23,400) to 20,000 vehicle will weigh about
in-house development abilities. At Toyota we will never
(US$31,200). Were aiming to bring that car to market 10% more than the Model give up our durability, reliability and mass production
by 2017. Out third-gen car will also be 20% smaller than S and will share about ability for democratizing technology, Killman adds. The
60% of its parts content.
the Model S.
Tesla expects to begin
[tech companies] have a different approach. We know the
deliveries in Q3 2015 advantages of our processes, especially regarding reliability.
E&H: HOW ARE THINGS PANNING OUT WITH
THE MODEL X? It would also be wholly unjust to suggest that the
EM: Were going to start deliveries of the X in California established car makers and suppliers arent pushing the
in Q2 [now Q3] and then right-hand drive at the end boundaries of technology and innovation themselves,
of 2015. building on their experience to usher the automotive
industry into a new age.
E&H: AS A TECH PIONEER, WHAT DO YOU MAKE OF
GOOGLE AND ITS SELF-DRIVING VEHICLE PROJECT? Car makers have renewed their focus on innovation
EM: They should be applauded for their initiatives, but since 2008, with the number of registered patents rising
well be taking a different approach. sharply in the past four years. Having lagged behind in
the league tables, there are now 14 established OEMs
E&H: WHERE DO YOU SEE TESL A IN THE GRAND
ranked in the top 50 companies in BCGs latest global
AUTOMOTIVE SETUP AND WITH SELF-DRIVING
TECHNOLOGY IN PARTICUL AR?
innovation study, compared with 10 car makers in 2012
EM: Were a technology company making electric and only five in 2005. Toyota, Ford and BMW are placed
cars. Whats very important is sustainable transport. in the top 10 alongside tech organizations in the form of
Autonomous driving is nice to have but not required; consumer electronics and internet giants. In fact, since
sustainable transport is whats required. the annual study first launched, there are now more car
manufacturers than technology companies in the top 20.

Working partnerships
As the e-powertrain movement gathers momentum, it is
becoming clear that the spirit of cooperation will play a
key future role for the established OEMs as well as the
new breed of tech companies.
Ultimately car makers are experts in assembling cars
and everything that goes with that, says Offer. Already
a lot of the technology is developed either in partnership
with or by suppliers, so I see the tech companies as just

Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology International // January 2015 // 39


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RISE OF THE TECH GIANTS

forming a different type of supplier relationship, alongside 1. The B-Class Electric 1


Drive is partly a result of
those that already exist. an EV technology joint
Until October 2014, Daimler was a small shareholder in venture between Tesla
Tesla, and it is insistent that even after offloading its 4% and Mercedes-Benz
stake in the EV company a move that puzzled some 2. The close proximity of
analysts given Teslas rise its current JV projects will JLRs research facility in
continue. The offshoot of the latest collaboration between Portland, Oregon, to Intel
Labs is enabling the
the two organizations resulted in the development of the development of next-gen
Mercedes B-Class Electric Drive. We have supported digital vehicle prototypes
Tesla as a start-up company for many years and have with in-vehicle cockpit
experiences that connect
learned a lot. At the same time, Tesla was able to profit car, device and cloud
from our automotive expertise, says Dr Thomas Weber,
member of Daimlers board of management and head of
research for Mercedes-Benz.
In fact theres a growing number of examples of healthy
partnerships between tech brands and car markers, with

The greatest challenge for the tech companies is


typically that they start off as gifted amateurs. While
they bring with them a fresh perspective and a deep
understanding of their core technologies, they have
to learn by doing, so they often spend time learning
the things that industry insiders take for granted
Kim Wagner, senior partner, Boston Consulting Group

software an especially important component of this type


of information sharing. Ford partnered with Microsoft on POWER TRIP
its MyFord Touch in-vehicle connectivity interface, and
Jaguar Land Rover has even broken soil to be close to the Whether its decision to launch the
right partners. new Model S P85D a week after
We have a new technology and research development the Paris Motor Show was a deliberate
center in Portland, Oregon, and we chose that location move to signal its independence from any
because we want to be close to the core of the consumer (and indifference to) the rest of the gasoline-
electronics industry, states Wolfgang Epple, director of automotive world, Tesla was always powered car in the
going to grab the industrys attention same class, whether
research and technology at JLR. As a result, we have also that might be a Maserati,
with its latest creation.
built up close cooperations with companies like Intel that The Model S P85D is, without doubt, BMW M, Mercedes-AMG and so on.
we can communicate with, influence and leverage about Teslas most important launch to date. The launch of the Dual Motor Model
the desires, demands and expectations of our customers. Its dual motors, one on each axle, S also showcases Teslas strategy for
This will enable us to get the best from new technologies digitally and independently control smarter vehicles, with the inclusion
and to play a major part in the evolution of new tech. torque to the front and rear wheels, of Autopilot, hardware that includes
resulting in precision control of traction. forward radar, 12 long-range ultrasonic
Furthermore, digital torque controls sensors, numerous cameras, and a
2
and a low center of gravity provide digitally controlled electric braking
very competent handling, or so the system. It also promises to activate
companys founder, Elon Musk, says. the potential of this system with future
But it is the power and performance software updates, so as it develops
that really sets the Model S P85D active safety, collision avoidance
apart from all other EVs. Its capable of and a multitude of other functions,
0-100km/h (0-60mph) supercar-like Autopilot, says Tesla, will be able to
sprint times of 3.2 seconds, delivering relieve drivers of the most boring and
100% of its huge peak torque from potentially dangerous aspects of road
a standing start. This, ladies and travel, while allowing the driver to
gentlemen, is enough to outperform remain in control of the vehicle.

Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology International // January 2015 // 41


RISE OF THE TECH GIANTS

Where to next?
It seems that assisted driving is where all roads converge,
because software and computing power the defining
innovative parts of this technology revolution are such
an essential piece of the overall automotive jigsaw.
Autonomous vehicles are the wildcard. Most OEMs are
developing technology for various degrees of autonomy,
and the transition to the automotive end game is not very
clear, says Offer. We probably need a trailblazer who
isnt afraid of convention, like Google, to actually push
this faster than the incumbents believe is possible.
Googles move into this area has been much publicized,
1
but it isnt the only company to experiment with self-
driving tech. Audi recently claimed the speed record for
a self-driving vehicle (topping 240km/h with its RS7 at 1. The self-driving Audi 2
RS7 took just over two
Hockenheim racing circuit), and Teslas Model S is set to minutes to complete a lap
include its newly announced Autopilot hardware, which is of the Grand Prix track in
designed to set up the vehicle for future software updates Hockenheim, Germany
that will enable assisted driving. 2. A human was put behind
Suppliers are at the vanguard of these developments the wheel of the RS7 for a
too, explains PA Consultings Lippautz. Its not so much comparison lap. The driver
took five seconds longer to
about traditional car makers. The Tier 1 suppliers who complete a lap of the circuit
drive innovation, such as Continental, Bosch and Wabco,
are looking at self-drive technology from the commercial
vehicle side.
Offer agrees with such an outlook: Google probably
wont be competing with the OEMs but is probably going

Autonomous vehicles are the wildcard. Most


conventional car makers are developing technology
for various degrees of autonomy, and the transition
to the automotive end game is not very clear
Dr Gregory Offer, lecturer in mechanical engineering, Imperial College London

3 3. Volvo is pushing ahead to interfere and potentially be in a position to threaten the


with its own self-driving suppliers of technology in the future.
vehicle plans, having put
100 autonomous cars on
In this sense, established car makers, along with their
public roads in Gothenburg, suppliers, also have consumer experience on their side.
as part of its Drive Me Research by YouGov, commissioned by Virgin Disruptors,
project. The Swedish OEM
plans to have self-driving
highlights that 43% of British travelers would not feel
cars on sale by 2017 comfortable with driverless vehicles being on the road,
and one in four people stated they would never use or get
into a driverless car. So finding a way to resolve reticence
by the public on such a huge technological leap forward is
a challenge that car makers are perhaps best suited to.
That is a continuous journey, and from our point of
view it will take another five to 10 years before we as an
industry can offer autonomy. However, at Jaguar Land
Rover, autonomy is something where the question soon
becomes: Why take the joy of driving away from the
customer? says Epple.
And the man at the center of all this change, Elon Musk,
fully agrees: Autonomous driving is nice to have but not
required. Sustainable transport is whats required.

42 // January 2015 // Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology International


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PRODUCTION-READY

never
Better late than

Drawing parallels with its Hybrid Synergy Drive journey,


Toyota is set to launch a production fuel cell vehicle, meaning
that cars that emit nothing but water vapor have finally arrived

I
ts taken a while nearly five decades, in fact, since the further potential of this technology as we continued to
WORDS: DEAN SLAVNICH

technology first made an appearance in an automotive advance it. But, what we have today with seven million
application but fuel cell vehicles at a showroom, hybrid vehicles sold, is just amazing. Some of our
ready-to-sell level are finally set to arrive. Toyota is mainstream models, like the Auris, have a more than 50%
leading the pack with its production-ready Mirai, which hybrid share and even small vehicles like the Yaris have a
will be launched first in Japan in the early part of 2015, and more than 30% hybrid share. This shows that the
then in North America and Europe by the second quarter. technology is truly accepted, and thats something we did,
Gerald Killman, head of powertrain operations for Toyota continually communicating to the market within the given
Europe, cant hide his delight that such a momentous day is lead time. Hybrids are now seen as a mainstream standard
almost upon us. Hes been one of the staunchest supporters with all its advantages so seamless drive, quiet operation,
of the technology over the years, even when development and reduced or no emissions. Now, what we did in 1997
seemingly went quiet as governments lobbied hard for can also be applied to what were doing in 2015 with
OEMs to shift their R&D focus to battery electric vehicles. FCEVs. Heres a brand-new technology [for the market]
Launching this vehicle will be a staggering moment, says that weve worked on so much, but weve proved new
a smiling Killman, whos quick to add that its important to technology can work and thats our driver for fuel cells.
factor in two things: One is the perspective of looking back As for the second matter going it alone Killman says
to the past with this technology was what we wanted to there are some key differences between Toyotas journey
do feasible? And secondly, are we alone or not? with hybrids and fuel cells. With hybrids in 1997, we
On the first matter looking back Killman is keen to were alone for a very long time, he laughs. But, with fuel
draw parallels with another technology that Toyota has cells, we see that were not alone, there are other OEMs
championed: the companys Hybrid Synergy Drive. Back going the same way, albeit perhaps with a slightly different
in 1997, we had another front-running technology our timescale. So, we think more here that the amount of
hybrid powertrains. When we launched the first Prius, I support from other OEMs including us with fuel cells
think the general understanding of the potential of this will drive things forward to overcome the constraints,
technology was not shared [by the wider industry] as we because the constraints to this technology are not on the
initially thought. And, admittedly, we too discovered the OEM side, but rather on the infrastructure side.

44 // January 2015 // Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology International


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All roads lead to hydrogen or do they?


With the raft of car makers prepping fuel cell
vehicles for market launch in the next 24
months being proof that the technology is
now in place, infrastructure and infrastructure
issues alone seems to be the only hurdle left 1
to overcome. But what an obstacle that is.
For Toyota Europes powertrain chief, a the infrastructure providers have to be sure there are cars
broader approach involving governments, needing to be refilled, otherwise they wont make money.
local authorities, new hydrogen suppliers and Its a chicken-and-egg situation and by us launching this
existing forecourt operators is key to fuel cell vehicle weve broken that vicious circle.
overcoming the FCEVs greatest remaining Of course, Toyota isnt the only car maker accelerating
challenge. We as an industry are working in FCEV launch plans. Hyundai-Kia, Honda, BMW, GM,
partnership and in cooperation several 1. Toyotas Mirai (Japanese Renault-Nissan and Daimler are all working hard too,
OEMs in fact with policy makers and energy for future) produces 155ps finalizing or in some cases fast-tracking development
providers to make sure this new powertrain and will, its manufacturers for various model introductions due in 2015 and 2016. This
claim, travel up to 480km
technology does have a future and does (300 miles) on a single fill
has meant a rapid increase in hydrogen refueling stations
happen. This will be one of the key enablers popping up across Japan, Korea, North America and
because having a new infrastructure was not 2. The vehicles fuel cell Europe. In London, for example, there will be 15 hydrogen
powerplant combines
necessarily the case for hybrids in the 1990s. stored hydrogen with air
refueling points within the next 12 months, while across
And Killman is resolute that its not up to to generate electricity, Germany that number will be around 50. Granted, such
car makers alone to make sure that the emitting only water vapor figures are not huge, but progress is progress, says Killman:
infrastructure materializes. Its not on our Its around those areas where we will initially launch this
active agenda; however, it is on our partnership car because if theres no infrastructure, then these cars have
agenda, he states. We need to make sure that little meaning. Then, from these areas, we see that the
the infrastructure is there for our cars, while energy will come to steadily grow the technology, vehicles
and infrastructure throughout Europe. It will take time, for
2 sure, but it took hybrids 17 years to get to where we are
today and really 17 years is not that long. So, if we say itll
take a decade or more for hydrogen technology to
experience the same breakthrough, for me thats okay.

A matter of engineering
For Killman and the various Toyota powertrain teams
around the world, there were a few challenges to developing
a market-ready fuel cell vehicle, starting with making
the whole thing work! he says. We began fuel cell
development in 1992 and until we had the first car running
several years later, having the system working reasonably,
so that we could run tests, was the first breakthrough.
The second thing was overcoming two main technical
constraints: one was storage of hydrogen and the other

Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology International // January 2015 // 47


PRODUCTION-READY FUEL CELLS

was cold start. We overcame both around four 1. Advances in the fuel cell 1
stack and optimization of
to five years ago. So we have a standardized, the membrane mean it can
cross-industry reference point of 700 bar be situated under the driver
storage and cold start of -30C. and passenger seats
Then, for the last few years, its been a real 2. The reduced-size fuel
battle with costs. We have incorporated our cell stack and one of the
manufacturing know-how in order to drive Mirais two carbon fiber
hydrogen storage tanks are
the costs down. While our prototype vehicles located in the vehicle floor
were beyond the million dollar/euro mark,
were now at costs where we can offer this car 3. The Mirais styling
includes front intakes
for 7m (around US$65,000) in Japan. which direct air to the
Along with infrastructure, cost is the only fuel cell stack, where it is
other factor that could kill the FCEV, so just combined with hydrogen
how did Toyota tackle this thorny issue for its
fuel cell sedan? The key driver was reducing
the number of expensive components. So,
while in our prototype cars and fleet trial cars membrane were developed in-house, and retaining that
we had four bottles of hydrogen, we now have expertise and know-how within is key to the way Toyota
two. Sizes have been adapted, but for the pushes ahead with new breakthroughs. When it comes to
manufacturing processes, were not building core technology, Toyota always develops in-house,
four units so there we could drive down reiterates Killman. So with hybrids, for example, we
costs. Taking another example, the fuel cell developed electric motors, power electronics, software
stack is not big and bulky any longer weve everything in-house. Now we have moved to a stage
optimized the size of the membrane and this where its standardized and we work with suppliers. Fuel
has enabled us to install the stack underneath cells are the next core key technology to be competitive and
the driver and passenger seat. for that we need to understand those manufacturing
The architecture also sees the front processes, enabling us to drive those costs down.
compartment of the vehicle house the electric Another impressive example of Toyotas FCEV cost-
motor, electronic control system and boost cutting comes from new developments relating to the
converter. Increasing the voltage produced by Mirais stack humidifier. This is a unit that takes up space
the fuel cell, the converter has enabled both and cost in a fuel cell vehicle, explains Killman. In our
the size of the motor and the number of cells 2 latest cars weve actually eliminated the humidifier, reusing
to be reduced, in the process helping to the humidity from the exhaust gas, which of course is water
further cut costs and increase performance. vapor, to the fuel cell stack. It sounds rather simple but
Nearly all the principal inner system technologically it isnt, but weve made that step.
workings of Toyotas fuel cell powertrain As emissions legislation gets tougher, its safe to assume
including the tanks, the stack and the that products like the Mirai represent the powertrain
endgame for the automotive industry, finally bringing into
effect a sustainable transportation utopia. But Killman is
diplomatically not so sure: I think its one of the road
maps that we need to follow, but its not the only solution.
Its too early to say how high a percentage this
technology will take of the overall market. Only the future
will show that, but what we can say is that it has big
potential big potential for the city, with its zero emissions
capability, as well as big potential out the city, with a good
driving range allowing for long-distance driving. Now, you
put these two together and theres a very logical usage of
the technology and its not maybe Toyotas main driver
but long-distance daily driving in the city is undertaken by
buses. Therefore, Toyota and our sister company Hino are
working on fuel cell hydrogen buses for city use because
that could be a next stage and then that will help make
an even greater business case to create an infrastructure.
In fact, such is Killmans belief on this issue that he says
in the initial phase fuel cells are probably more applicable
for public transportation, but longer term, I strongly
believe that infrastructure will not be a limiting factor.
And neither will actual vehicle application D segment
offerings such as Toyotas first FCEV are just the start: In
1997, wed have never imagined a hybrid Yaris today, so
absolutely yes to fuel cell sports cars, minicars and
3 hatchbacks. Thats something we should do!

48 // January 2015 // Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology International


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50 // January 2015 // Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology International
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Should old, large diesel engines really be powering our inner-city


buses? E&H visits metropolises in Asia, Europe and North America to
discover which cities are overcoming various challenges to embrace
e-powertrain technologies for their public transportation networks
WORDS: SAUL WORDSWORTH

T
heres no denying that the landscape noticeable that more operators are starting to rethink
of public transportation is a their position and begin pilot activities to gain experience
mishmash of different solutions, of their own.
technologies and applications all Air quality is a serious concern in many major cities
in varying states of development, across the world, and such fears are not limited to urban
but one thing is for certain: buses as actual hubs in developing countries. In Paris, in the second and
vehicles can last a long time decades, in third quarters of 2014, only alternate odd and even
fact and once a decision has been taken license-plated vehicles were allowed into the city center
to adopt a certain powertrain, traditionally in an effort to reduce pollution. Following this initiative,
large diesel engines, nothing else is going to Paris announced its plan for 100% electric buses by 2025.
change in a hurry. It would be unfair to say that most buses are old and
Diesel buses remain extremely popular, emission unfriendly, counters Adrian Wickens,
confirms Mike Weston, director of buses at engineering product planner at Volvo UK. The progress
Transport for London (TfL). This is a vehicle on emissions standards since 1988 has been immense.
that has matured over many decades. It gives The argument that diesels are unclean doesnt necessarily
you flexibility. Its reliable. You can fuel it up hold water. There has been a lot of work done on
once a day and dont have to recharge it. At reduction, but that also doesnt mean NOx isnt a problem.
the moment, most alternative technologies fail After all, diesel engines still idle in heavy traffic.
to compete on a truly like-for-like basis. In this respect, hybrid drivetrains have an important
And from the perspective of bus transit role to play, says Mat Lawrence, a former engineer and
operators across world, there is one now head of technical sales for BAE. Everyone knows
primary objective to meet: on-time service. the benefits of reducing CO2 emissions, he adds, so
There may be supplementary objectives local air quality is improved immeasurably with the
such as cost savings and environmental reduction of particulate emissions. There is no question
concerns, but timekeeping is the reason that series hybrid architecture is the right one for city
that public transportation remains such center operations.
a conservative market. Its a given that hybrid buses are cleaner, quieter and
Range anxiety, cost, and to an extent use about 40% less fuel than conventional diesel
the limited number of electric and hybrid applications, thus reducing CO2 emissions by the same
options, are the reasons cities mostly stay amount, but the bar to entry is wrapped up with
with diesel buses, observes Mathias uncertainty and expense. So without incentives, either
Wechlin, director at IPT Technology, a through threat of fines or offer of subsidy, or a defined
leading inductive power transfer technology political agenda, electric is a tough sell, but thats not to
provider. Awareness needs to spread much say that certain metropolises are not attempting to achieve
further to really alter mindsets. However, it is a sustainable public transportation utopia.

This is a vehicle that has matured over many


decades. It gives you flexibility. Its reliable. You
can fuel it up once a day and dont have to recharge
it. At the moment, most alternative technologies
fail to compete on a truly like-for-like basis
Mike Weston, director of buses, Transport for London

Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology International // January 2015 // 51


PUBLIC TRANSPORT UTOPIA

The UK 2
When it comes to fully implementing advanced bus
propulsion technology, London is a trailblazer in every
sense. The UK capitals fleet is the cleanest in the country
and boasts more than 800 hybrid buses. This already
impressive figure will increase to 1,700 units 20%
of the entire fleet by 2016. If thats not impressive
enough, local authorities are currently testing eight
full electric vehicles on the citys routes. Only last year,
TfL was awarded US$7.99 million (5 million) from
the Department for Transports Green Bus Fund for a
further 46 hybrid buses. The fund acts as an incentive
a cost differential that bridges the gap between standard
and electric buses.
For the medium term, diesel-electric buses will
be the mainstay of our fleet, confirms TfLs Weston. 3
Essentially, most are electric buses driven by an
electric motor and just happen to have a generator on
board. The challenge with pure electric is the operating 1. Londons public Europe
transportation system
range. Most double-deckers in London run 18-hour days already includes more London might lead the way today, but for
minimum, and on a Friday or Saturday night they might than 800 hybrid bus more than a decade Europe has been awash
come back for half an hour, get washed and refueled, and applications, with further with experiments in hybrid and electric
initiatives planned
be back out on the road. Finding an electric vehicle that vehicles in the public sector. As early as 2002
can do that is impossible. 2. Foothill Transit Ecoliners Genoa and Turin were running wireless
This would explain TfLs 2015 inductive charging run almost exclusively on charging systems with hybrid buses and both
compressed natural gas
hybrid pilot project, which is part of a wider European installations have been in continuous
scheme. The charging will take place at bus stands at 3. Deutsche Post DHLs operation ever since. This year Amsterdam
either end of the route and should reduce running costs e-fleet will be expanded Schiphol Airport placed an eye-opening order
to 120 vehicles this year
and extend the driving range of diesel-electric double- for 35 BYD all-electric buses to transfer
decker buses in the capital. If the vehicle is running late, 4. The BYD Lancaster passengers between aircraft and terminals.
or there has been an accident or a power cut, it can still all-electric bus is being The Sustainable Bus System of Schiphol
manufactured in the USA
provide a passenger service by switching to diesel. (SUBSS) project comes at a time when

52 // January 2015 // Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology International


PUBLIC TRANSPORT UTOPIA

Its one place where we can make a huge


impact, second only to helping people out
of their single-user cars and onto the bus particular stand out. The first is the StreetScooter, an
Roland Cordero, director, maintenance and vehicle technology, Foothill Transit
electric-powered two-wheeler built specifically for mail
and parcel delivery. With a maximum speed of 85km/h
(52mph) and a range of 80km (49 miles), it is CO2-free
and almost silent. The scooters are also part of the Posts
other major project, last years carbon-free delivery
initiative in Bonn. For this the e-fleet was expanded to
include small e-vans up to five tons plus a number of
StreetScooters. This year a further 40 electric vehicles
were added to the fleet, making 120 in all. Next year
the regions remaining diesel vehicles will be removed
from service and replaced by electric operators. By the
end of the pilot project there will be a total of 141 electric
delivery vehicles on Bonns roads and this translates into
savings of more than 500 tons of CO2 a year.

USA
In Los Angeles County, Foothill Transit, which is fast
approaching its 26th year of service, currently operates a
fleet of 330 buses, all of which run on compressed natural
gas except for 15 fast-charge battery electric applications.
Foothill began using electric buses in 2010 to cover an
area of more than 830km 2 (320 square miles) and connect
to more than 25 cities, including Los Angeles. The
fast-charge battery electric luggers operate on a route that
is a 25.9km (16.1 miles) long round trip and make a stop
at a Transit Center at the halfway point, where the buses
charge from 60% back to 100% within five minutes while
passengers board and alight.
airports are under pressure to reduce The fleet rule for transit agencies, enforced by the
pollutants. The buses themselves employ California Air Resources Board (CARB), requires the
many advanced technologies, including BYDs states largest transit systems to purchase a certain
iron-phosphate batteries, in-wheel hub percentage of zero emission buses (ZEB) with new bus
motors and regenerative braking. The procurements annually, explains Roland Cordero,
batteries contain no toxic electrolytes or director of maintenance and vehicle technology at
heavy metals and can be easily recycled. Foothill. In addition, Foothill is committed to
But save for Schiphol, very few agencies supporting the development of sustainable fuels for
are committed to completely reworking their commercial applications like public transportation. Its
fleet to electric, admits Micheal Austin, vice Above: Foothill Transits one place where we can make a huge impact, second only
Roland Cordero is a big fan
president of BYD America. of compressed natural gas, to helping people out of their single-user cars and onto
In Germany, Deutsche Post DHL has been but the company is also the bus. We were the first transit agency in the USA to
experimenting with an increasingly eco- expanding its pure BEV fleet use the fast-charge electric bus model. Our electric buses
friendly fleet of vehicles. Two projects in hold up under the stress of a rigorous schedule and
improve the quality of life in the communities they travel
through by eliminating greenhouse gas emissions and
noise pollution.
4
But despite such positives, Cordero admits there are
some downsides to electric buses as well: While electric
cars can be charged at night when power prices are low,
buses have no choice but to do so in the middle of the day
at peak time. The limited range also prevents the
technology from being used on longer routes, so its hard
for us to completely convert to electric vehicles. For some
agencies this technology wont be feasible until such
issues are addressed.
Also out in California is BYD, the electric bus supplier
for the SUBSS project in the Netherlands, which continues
to go from strength to strength on a global basis, with VP

Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology International // January 2015 // 53


PUBLIC TRANSPORT UTOPIA

1 2

battery power of comparable electric vehicles


and do not need to stop at a charging station.
As such, many see the KAIST OLEV as truly
being a vision of the future and the city of
Gumi in South Korea has been running one
such vehicle since 2013.

Running behind schedule


Austin revealing that in China alone the company has 1. BYD supplies electric While most stakeholders are desperately
buses for customers across
orders for more than 4,000 buses. the world, including the
keen for electric and hybrid public
We also have orders from Stanford University and 25 pioneering SUBSS project transportation vehicles to replace what
from LA Metro, he enthuses. The CARB has great power in the Netherlands might be seen as the 20th century technology
and sets the emissions bar very high, but part of the 2. A Volvo 7700 diesel
of the IC diesel engine, the transition is one
problem in the USA is that there are some transit companies bus converted to run on that for now at least requires a helping
with routes of 300 miles (482km) a day. In such cases electricity. Pictured here, hand. Subsidies, state-funded development,
the bus is being charged at
inductive technology will help extend range. Meanwhile a wireless charging stand
threat of fines for not meeting emissions
there are both positive and negative political implications. regulations, and even the opportunity for
some old-fashioned national pride, are all
South Korea reasons why certain countries, councils,
Among Asian countries, India, Japan and particularly local authorities and institutes are pushing
China all boast a number of electric and hybrid public harder than others. But theres no denying
transport applications and initiatives, but its at the that development and adoption rates are
state-funded Korean Advanced Institute of Science and running slowly.
Technology (KAIST) that an incredible engineering The biggest market for hybrids is the
breakthrough has been made. Selected by Time magazine USA, states Volvos Wickens. To be blunt,
as one of the 50 best inventions, the KAIST OLEV the main reason is a federal government that
(OpenLeading Electric Vehicle) takes inductive charging funds new bus purchases. With that kind of
to the next level with its road-embedded chargers. financial support, you would be a fool not to
A similar system was patented as long ago as 1894 go with it.
by Nikola Tesla for use by tramcars in the USA, but it Meanwhile, with the stop/start nature of
has taken until now to properly develop what might inner-city traffic there remains scope for other
be termed a recharging road. Unlike most inductive public vehicles to become fully electrified.
charging systems, OLEV charges vehicles while they are Although hybrid and electric technologies
stationary or in motion via electric power strips under are suited to public transportation, I would
the road. As a result they consume one-fifth of the warn against grouping everything from buses
to rubbish trucks to ambulances as one,
notes Lawrence of BAE in a telling final
Save for Schiphol, very few agencies observation. You need to look at each
application in terms of its own duty cycle.
are committed to completely Buses as city-center applications are heavy
stop/start vehicles with often large passenger
reworking their fleet to electric loads. This means they are ideally suited to
Micheal Austin, vice president, BYD America
hybrid, as is anything last mile. But the
moment you leave the city you encounter
higher average speeds with fewer stops.
Neither hybrids nor electric are so well suited
in this scenario.

54 // January 2015 // Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology International


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WIRELESS CHARGING

58 // January 2015 // Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology International


WIRELESS CHARGING

Taking
Wireless charging technology has
the potential to shake up the EV
landscape on an unprecedented
scale. But how close is the industry
to making this dream a reality?

charge
WORDS: MATT ROSS

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Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology International // January 2015 // 59


WIRELESS CHARGING

D
espite a growing number of vehicle launches,
government initiatives and technological
breakthroughs, the electric and hybrid vehicle
industry is rarely short of skeptics keen to point
out that major obstacles remain before the roads
are humming with legions of e-drivetrains. The truth is,
consumers might be coming around to the idea of EVs,
HEVs and PHEVs, but the reality and the logistics of
keeping one on the road still makes many people think
twice before buying one.
Wireless charging essentially the ability to transfer
electricity from a power supply to a vehicle via a magnetic
field, and without a physical connection has long been
heralded as a potential knock-out blow to EV naysayers.
But for all its promise, how far away from implementation
could this technology actually be?

Tried and tested


You might not see it on everyday passenger cars just yet, but
the technology to enable wireless vehicle charging is not
only available, its already been proved. The technology
itself is not a stumbling block any longer, states Andrew
Daga, chairman and CEO of Momentum Dynamics. If
you were to walk in here today, we would turn on the
switch and show you that it works. There is no impediment
to the technology. Momentums wireless development,
which is currently operating in a number of pilot programs,
can charge at power levels up to 50kW assuming the
vehicle in question has a battery that can take it with
efficiency levels in excess of 90%, and has been designed
to safely and reliably transmit power through both air
and water.

Main: Qualcomms Halo development Joe Barrett, senior director at Qualcomm, tells a similar
is currently being used in Formula E story. Although the technology is over 100 years old, its
to charge the BMW i8 safety car
only in the past 25 years that the power electronics and
Right: Qualcomm has deployed its components have got to the point where you can produce
technology in numerous projects a wireless charging system that actually works and is fit
around the world. Shown here is
dynamic charging in action for purpose for charging electric vehicles. Qualcomm
has been providing wireless power in factory automation
since the 1990s, and the companys Halo technology
currently utilized to charge the safety car in the Formula
E championship has been used at a variety of power
levels (including up to 20kW as part of Qualcomms
project with the world record-breaking Drayson racing
team), and in a range of applications, including a program
to charge buses in Turin which uses multiple pads to raise
power levels still higher.
US organization Hevo, like many other wireless
developers, also has products rolled out in various pilot
programs. Industrial applications of wireless charging,
such as factory vehicles and materials handling
Weve proved that it works, and weve equipment, are nothing new, and uses in the public
transport sector, such as charging passenger buses during
proved that its fit for purpose. What their frequent and predictable stops, are showcasing the
effectiveness of the technology. Industrial EVs operating
were waiting for is standardization to in warehouses and factories, or small neighborhood EVs
used for utility purposes, will benefit greatly from wireless
get everybody agreed on the system charging, and present a very large market opportunity,
says Hevos chief engineer Aditya Sharma. However,
parameters that need to be adhered to shortly after entering those markets, Hevos high-power
unit will target light-duty passenger and commercial EVs,
Joe Barrett, senior director, Qualcomm
as well as heavy-duty EVs, such as delivery trucks.

60 // January 2015 // Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology International


WIRELESS CHARGING

OFF THE GRID


The majority of charging systems
be they wireless or otherwise
are still beholden to some form of
electrical infrastructure. After all,
power has to come from somewhere.
California-based Envision Solar,
however, has plans for vehicle
charging that isnt at the mercy of
the nearest available connection to
the grid.
The Electric Vehicle Autonomous
Renewable Charger (EV ARC) is the
result of an eight-year project. The per day, or provide a quarter-charge
goal was to create the worlds first to multiple vehicles. The EV ARC
transportable solar EV charging incorporates all charging connections
station that required no construction currently available, with wireless
or trenching, switchgears, transformer charging to follow as the market
upgrades and so on, says Desmond matures, adds Wheatley.
Wheatley, CEO of Envision Solar. Already in full production, the EV
A unit that can hurdle the biggest ARC is, its creators claim, limited
challenge facing EV infrastructure only by the amount of sunlight and
deployment today site acquisition. the availability of unshaded parking.
The 2.3kW solar array generates So, in other words, Wheatley says,
16kWh a day, stored in a 22kWh there arent a lot of limitations to
battery. It can fully charge one EV this technology.

Left: The inner system workings


of the Halo WEVC technology

Setting the standard


In short, then, there are plenty of examples of wireless
charging in existence around the world. And theres
plenty of evidence to suggest that it is an efficient and safe
technology too (see Knowledge of power on the next page).
So why hasnt the technology yet made the leap to modern
passenger electric vehicles, essentially allowing the EV to
overcome its range anxiety issues?
Weve proved that it works, and weve proved that
its fit for purpose, explains Barrett. What were waiting
for is standardization to get everybody agreed on the
system parameters that need to be adhered to.
Daga agrees with the Qualcomm director: The
technology does not slow down the implementation any
longer, he says. What will slow it down, and what has
slowed it down, is integration with the vehicle, and the
adoption by the major automotive companies. The
unspoken truth is that all and I mean all of the auto
makers are going to electric vehicles, and they are all
Left: Drayson Racing moving toward wireless. And the way we know this is
continues to serve as an
important testbed for their participation in the standards bodies. They are all
Qualcomms wireless represented even companies like Toyota, which claims
charging innovations not to be interested in battery electric vehicles [due to its
interest in hydrogen power]. Theyre all interested in
moving the wireless charging standard to full implementation
as soon as possible, so that they can begin managing the
supply chain of the product, and begin integrating it into
their vehicles.
And there are signs that a shift is coming, evidence that
OEMs are beginning to look at the bigger picture, and at
solutions that encompass more than just their own products.

Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology International // January 2015 // 61


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WIRELESS CHARGING

infrastructure front, standardization activities need to be


kept as neutral as possible in order not to restrict future
innovation, Krammer continues. Interoperability needs
to be ensured it must be possible to use the same
infrastructure to charge vehicles of different makes.
None of this is news to wireless technology pioneers,
however, many of whom are well aware of the developmental
bottleneck that has been created. They are keen to push
forward, but also acutely aware that a lot of time, effort
and money could be wasted in developing equipment that
could quickly become obsolete. In the absence of standards,
first implementations [of wireless charging technology]
can only be proprietary solutions, explains Mathias
Wechlin, project manager and engineer at German
company IPT, which has partnered with Transport for
London to develop bus station wireless charging stands
We see our main task as being to focus on IPT has built up extensive
expertise and know-how in
the vehicle-integrated side of the system,
says BMWs head of inductive charging
wireless charging solutions,
participating in various
The technology itself is not a
development, Josef Krammer. In our
cooperation with Daimler, and our mutual
feasibility studies and pilot
projects for over 15 years stumbling block any longer. If
technology partner Brusa, we are concentrating
chiefly on the development of compact,
you were to walk in here today,
standardized components. Yet while
collaborations and JVs are all well and good,
we would turn on the switch
until the industry as a whole agrees upon and show you that it works
benchmarked standards, the speed of
Andrew Daga, chairman and CEO, Momentum Dynamics
development will be hamstrung. On the

KNOWLEDGE OF POWER
While the basic concept of wireless very heavy copper cable is an expensive with a car company, you have to be able
charging is relatively simple to grasp the thing people are stealing wires because to meet the basic safety requirements,
transfer of energy between objects via an of the value of copper, and theres a certain says Qualcomms Barrett. So, if you cant
electromagnetic field this hasnt stopped fraction of plug-in chargers that are disabled meet those requirements the ability to
a few misplaced beliefs in the technology right now because they need a new wire. detect foreign objects, being able to detect
from springing up. With wireless, you dont have that. In any moving objects that might be under
Theres a preconception that wireless most cases, wireless is also able to boast the car, field leakage, EMC requirements,
charging is more expensive and less efficiency levels that match (and often those types of factors then you just dont
efficient than plug-in, says Momentums exceed) those found in plug-in charging. get a seat at the table. You cannot deploy
Daga. Actually, the reverse is true. A And its safe, too: To get a seat at the table technology that isnt safe.

Left and above: Momentum Dynamics develops


high-power inductive charging technologies for
the automotive and transportation industries.
The companys Momentum Charger enables all
classes of electric vehicles to be charged without
supervision and under all weather conditions

Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology International // January 2015 // 63


WIRELESS CHARGING

Right: The Hevo Mobile App provides


clear communication between the
hardware components and serves as
the sole interface with the end user

Below: Interestingly, Hevo has also


designed charging pads that blend
into the everyday environment of
a busy road, like manhole covers

for a diesel hybrid bus scheme due to take place in 2015.


Having standards that assure interoperability between
chargers and vehicles will be key to leveraging the
implementation of wireless charging on a larger scale.

Charging ahead
Despite such concerns, there remains a conviction within
the industry that the shift to wireless is inevitable. It is
going to happen, states Daga. It is perhaps slower than
some people would like, but it really has to happen. Weve
passed that point of no return, where the technology has
been de-risked. It is available to the world, and it simply
needs to be commercialized.
And although static wireless charging is yet to become
widespread, developers are already looking at the natural
evolution of the technology.
Weve always seen dynamic charging as the ultimate
game changer, adds Barrett with the same conviction.
Then you can electrify the roads, which means smaller
batteries, and cheaper vehicles that charge while theyre
driving. Formula E is keen to get that technology deployed
in racetracks, which will add a great dimension to the
racing. Progress on dynamic charging through which
Industrial EVs operating in warehouses
vehicles charge in short, intense bursts as they pass over
coils embedded in the road surface is already impressive,
and factories, or small neighborhood
despite the fact that static technology is far from commonplace. EVs used for utility purposes, will
Were working on developing semi-dynamic and
dynamic charging, and we have been for several years, benefit greatly from wireless charging
Barrett says. Weve already proven it working at low Aditya Sharma, chief engineer, Hevo
speeds, and the next step is to get it up to high speeds.
Momentum has already built such functionality into its to 10 years, electric drive systems will gain a
chargers and, Daga believes, the only obstacle is the cost considerable share of the total vehicle market.
of installing equipment into roads. The vehicle would be And we are confident that wireless charging
driving over a traveling wave of magnetic energy. All of will be well-positioned within this share.
this would be invisible and silent, and its well within the Others are a little more optimistic. Barrett
capability of our technology to do this. says, We believe, based on our discussions
within the industry, that in 2017 you will be
The big day able to tick a box when you order your EV
With few doubts remaining over the actual functionality and specify that you want wireless charging.
of wireless charging, the question remains: how long And while Momentums Daga believes that
before we see the technology implemented? Opinions tend plug-in charging will be obsolete in 10 years
to vary from one developer to the next. time, the widespread implementation of
It will likely be anywhere between two and five years wireless technology could become a reality
before the technology can be rolled out en masse, says considerably sooner, if the industrys malaise
Hevos Sharma. It mostly boils down to how quickly the can be overcome: I lose my patience a little bit
vehicle manufacturers can meet the wireless charging with those folks who say this is still years away.
standards currently being set forth so that suppliers and The only reason this technology is years away
auto makers are on the same page. is because of the slowness of the auto makers
IPTs Wechlin is a little more cautious: We dont have a to make a decision. It could be implemented
crystal ball, but we would venture that, over the next five next year if they wanted to do it!

64 // January 2015 // Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology International


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66 // January 2015 // Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology International


LIFE AFTER LITHIUM-ION

P wer
rangers
If electric vehicles are to provide more power, go longer
on a single charge and eventually replace IC-engined
products, battery technology needs to reach a new level.
But can that be achieved with lithium-ion chemistry?
WORDS: MAX MUELLER

B
ack in 1925, Sakichi Toyoda, the
founder of Toyota Industries, offered
a prize of 1m for the invention of a
revolutionary electric battery. He set
the bar rather high, as revolutionary
in his book meant a device capable of
delivering 100ps over 24 hours and weighing
no more than 225kg. A quick calculation
shows why, almost 90 years later, researchers
wont be claiming the reward any time soon.
A Sakichi battery has an energy density of
nearly 12kWh per kilogram, placing it on
par with gasoline and outclassing todays
lithium-ion cells by a factor of 60.

Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology International // January 2015 // 67


LIFE AFTER LITHIUM-ION

Yet if the electric vehicle is to come into its


own, providing mobility to the masses,
the industry needs a big breakthrough that
conventional lithium-ion is unlikely to deliver.
In this respect there is no need to despair, as
new concepts are appearing on the technology
horizon, shrouded only by the choice of the
right battery chemistry. So just what does the
future hold for lithium-air, lithium-sulfur and
lithium ultracapacitors, and will these new
systems mean the end of the road for
lithium-ion before the EV has jumped out
of its niche and into the mainstream?

Air max
For a battery technology after Toyodas own
heart, look no further than lithium-air. Since
the concept was first suggested for transport
in the 1970s, it has always remained a good
25 years away. However, important advances
in materials science at the turn of the
millennium prompted IBM to launch its
Battery 500 research project in 2009, in
pursuit of electrical storage to power a
passenger car for 500 miles (800km).
On paper at least, lithium-air makes perfect
sense. In discharge mode, oxygen from the
atmosphere enters a porous carbon electrode,
where it reacts catalytically with lithium ions
to form solid lithium oxide, which gradually
fills the pores. When the battery is recharged,
the lithium oxide decomposes, releasing
lithium ions and freeing up pore space in the
carbon. The resulting oxygen is released back
into the atmosphere. In theory, replacing
the cathode with air results in enough weight
loss to launch the system into the Sakichi
stratosphere, with a possible energy density
of 11.1kWh per kilogram.
Sadly, though, the practical hurdles of
lithium-air match the enormity of the reward.
As well as having to manage the fire hazard of
highly flammable metallic lithium, researchers
Few organizations, perhaps only a
must deal with the fact that oxygen degrades
the electrolyte and renders it unable to conduct
handful, are working on lithium-air
a charge. Many similar problems have stopped because of the many challenges
Battery 500s principle investigator, Winfried
Khalil Amine, materials scientist and joint leader, lithium-air battery study group, ANL
Wilcke, from making any predictions except
that the technology wont happen this decade.
At IBMs project development partner, the
US governments Argonne National Laboratory
(ANL), researchers recognize such problematic
issues. Khalil Amine, a materials scientist and

68 // January 2015 // Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology International


LIFE AFTER LITHIUM-ION

Advancing modeling
technology enables MODEL BEHAVIOR
battery simulation
on electrode, cell The role that simulation plays in battery National Renewable Energy Laboratory and
and pack level design and development is as important as ESim has enabled us to create a simulation
it is complex. In terms of modeling, batteries tool that integrates the various scales. We
pose multiscale problems, with phenomena can now mimic a battery at electrode, cell and
occurring on different levels ranging from pack level over an entire drive cycle faster
the microscopic to millimeter, centimeter than real time in under a minute at times
and decimeter scales. Despite this, data without a loss of accuracy.
must be correlated to make sense of the In another related engineering development,
overall picture. The chemical reactions Ansys is claiming to revolutionize practice
that happen within a cell will affect battery in battery simulation and other automotive
performance and, in turn, the cooling strategy applications by introducing certified
will influence the electrochemistry, explains embedded software generation. In the
Sandeep Sovani, director of global automotive aerospace industry, weve been delivering
industry at Ansys. tools that automatically generate embedded
Another challenge is the complexity of software that is certified to the highest safety
interconnected physics, such as electrical, standard. Now were transferring this method
fluid and thermal fields. Four or five years ago to the transport environment, which means
battery simulation was restricted to regular the entire code-generating process will be
finite element analysis to calculate things certified to safety requirements such as ISO
like flow behavior for the cooling strategy. 26262 at ASIL D level, eliminating the need
But a recent partnership project with GM, the for software verification, Sovani says.

2 3

4 1. ANL researchers testing joint leader of ANLs lithium-air battery study


low-cost carbon catalyst group, comments, Few organizations, perhaps
materials for a lithium-air
battery technology cathode only a handful, are working on lithium-air
because of the many challenges. Were looking
2. The newest generation
at new electrolytes and our extensive
of lithium-ion battery knowledge of lithium-ion to progress the
(foreground) has an energy technology, as well as a new approach for
density three times that of
batteries in todays EVs
creating more stable catalysts. Were taking full
advantage of ANLs advanced photon source
3. An ANL chemist tests
expertise and our Center for Nanoscale
materials for potential Materials to better understand the problems
application in the of lithium-air. Our objective is to obtain very
development of new high energy density and cyclability of the
battery technology
system, which is very challenging.
Other battery developers, however, are
4. A tech illustration of
how a lithium-ion battery more skeptical about the chances of lithium-
functions. All ANL images air entering the mainstream. Come 2030,
courtesy of the Argonne you will find many variations of battery
National Laboratory
chemistry, each tailored to its application.

Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology International // January 2015 // 69


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Lithium ion cells and packs Design expertise
Control systems/software Engineering capability
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LIFE AFTER LITHIUM-ION

When the economies of


scale match, lithium-sulfur
will have the cost advantage
and enable manufacturers to
produce affordable vehicles
with a long driving range
Tom Cleaver, project manager, Oxis Energy

1 2

We expect Li-sulfur to be mature enough to displace 1. Oxis Energy staff in a dry


Li-ion, particularly in pure EVs, predicts Tom Cleaver, room. The Revolutionary
Electric Vehicle Battery
project manager at Oxis Energy. Last year the developer partnership aims to realize
received a grant from the UKs Technology Strategy Board a battery density level
to lead a joint research project, with Imperial College of 400Wh/kg by 2016
London, Cranfield University and Lotus Engineering, into
lithium-sulfur batteries. By late 2016 the Revolutionary 2. A detailed Oxis Energy
comparison of current
Electric Vehicle Battery (REVB) partnership is aiming to and future Li-S and Li-ion
realize an energy density of 400Wh/kg, a cost reduction capabilities, in terms of
to US$250/kWh and an effective use of 90 to 95% of the both volumetric energy
and specific energy
energy stored, all of which compares well with current
lithium-ion systems coming in at 150Wh/kg, US$500/
kWh and 60% efficiency. with a number of organizations on combining
For Cleaver, though, price remains at the heart of the the power density, longevity and low
battery EV issue. Look at Tesla the Model S claims a discharge rate of ultracapacitors with the
300-mile [483km] range but costs US$85,000. To make energy density of lithium-ion systems.
an affordable car that drives 400 miles you need much In terms of power density, lithium-ion
cheaper cells. Tesla is attacking this problem by hitting capacitors are very good indeed. Youre
economies of scale with its gigafactory [see Silver State looking at a 40kg unit producing a nominal
Secures Gigafactory, overleaf]. But its using cobalt in the 100kW of power, explains Ian Goodman,
electrodes, which is around US$30,000 per ton. We use CEO and co-founder of the company. The
sulfur, which is US$200 per ton. When the economies of peak rating is over 200kW, which would be
scale match, lithium-sulfur will have the cost advantage very useful in an acceleration event. The cell
and enable manufacturers to produce affordable vehicles itself is comparable in voltage to a standard
with a long driving range. lithium-ion cell at 2.4-3.8V, and after
modifying our battery management system
Super capacity were now producing modules and systems
Elsewhere, researchers are looking beyond the concept of with this technology. Its expensive when you
the battery as the sole solution for a vehicles electrical consider energy density, at around US$5,000
storage. Goodwolfe Energy, for example, has been working per kilowatt-hour, but at the other end of the
scale, power density is 26kW per US$1,000
thats phenomenally cheap. True, you cant
go very far on it, but in a hybrid application
its at the right price point for mass
In one test of some 1.2 million cycles, the production, especially for large commercial
vehicles where the IC engine will play a role
system lost only 30% of its capacitance with a for years to come.
Another strength of the device is its sheer
mere 20% deviation in the internal resistance longevity. Lithium-ion capacitors have
withstood more than 1.7 million cycles,
while operating at 60C. It has the potential according to validation carried out by the
company. Charging at 400V and 200A, its
to last for the entire life of the vehicle the right power range for a large 4x4 hybrid.
Ian Goodman, CEO and co-founder, Goodwolfe Energy In one test of some 1.2 million cycles, the system
lost only 30% of its capacitance with a mere

Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology International // January 2015 // 71


LIFE AFTER LITHIUM-ION

Teslas future growth including


the creation of additional new
products that sit alongside the
Model S will be underpinned
by the new giggafactory (right)

20% deviation in the internal resistance while


operating at 60C. It has the potential to last
for the entire life of the vehicle.
Its no wonder, then, that for the Goodwolfe
CEO, lithium-ion capacitors could bridge the
gap between current battery chemistries and
the technologies of the future. For
transitional means of transport, especially SILVER STATE SECURES GIGAFACTORY
hybrids and commercial vehicles, the system After months of speculation, Tesla Motors cylindrical lithium-ion cells and investing in
has massive potential, he concludes. CEO, Elon Musk, has finally revealed that the associated equipment, machinery and
Nevada will be the home of the companys other manufacturing tools based on mutual
all-new and all-important gigafactory. approval. A network of supplier partners will
Premature end game?
Having fended off competition from Texas, produce the required precursor materials.
So just how soon will these advances ring the Arizona, New Mexico and California, Nevada Tesla will take cells and other components
death knell for the tried and tested lithium- governor Brian Sandoval could not hide his to assemble battery modules and packs. But
ion cell? Not as fast as some might think, joy in securing the facility, which is estimated in order to meet projected demand, Tesla will
according to battery specialist Seeo. We very to represent investment of around US$5bn continue to purchase battery cells produced
much believe that lithium batteries whether from Tesla and its partners. in Panasonics Japan factories.
you call them lithium-ion or lithium metal This is great news for Nevada. Tesla will Tesla says that the gigafactory will enable
will continue to be the driving force of this build the worlds largest and most advanced a continuous reduction in the cost of long-
industry right up to 2030 and beyond, says battery factory here, which means nearly range battery packs in parallel with the
US$100bn in economic impact to the Silver manufacturing volumes required to enable
vice president Ulrik Grape, a battery
State over the next 20 years. I am grateful the company to meet its goal of advancing
specialist with over 20 years experience. that Elon Musk and Tesla saw the promise mass market electric vehicles. J B Straubel,
The Californian company launched in 2007 in Nevada. These 21 st century pioneers, Teslas CTO, adds, The gigafactory
with the goal of creating a new class of fueled with innovation and desire, are represents a fundamental change in the
high-energy lithium-ion storage based on emboldened by the promise of Nevada way large-scale battery production can
a nanostructured polymer electrolyte. to change the world. be realized. Not only does the gigafactory
Scientists at Lawrence Berkeley National Due to open in 2020, the gigafactory enable the capacity needed for the Model 3,
Laboratory pioneered the idea and received will see Tesla preparing, providing and but it sets the path for a dramatic reduction
funding from the US Department of Energys managing the land, buildings and utilities, in the cost of energy storage across a broad
and Panasonic manufacturing and supplying range of applications.
Batteries for Advanced Transportation
Technology (BATT) program. Our core

We very much believe that lithium technology is a solid, dry polymer electrolyte with a
lithium metal anode. This allows us to make the cathode
batteries whether you call them from different materials such as lithium-ion phosphate,
resulting in an all-dry, all-solid system with high energy
lithium-ion or lithium metal density and much better safety as weve eliminated volatile
electrolytes. A stable setup like this also translates into a
will continue to be the driving long battery life and attractive cost profile, Grape explains.
The current cell boasts an energy density of 220Wh per
force of this industry right kilogram which, according to Grape, is second only to the
much more expensive cobalt system used by Tesla. Were
up to 2030 and beyond working with some higher-energy cathode materials to
Ulrik Grape, vice president, Seeo improve energy density further with a target of 400Wh
per kilogram at cell level. With efficient packaging, youre
hitting numbers that become competitive with IC
powered vehicles and were on track to implement this
within the next couple of years, he promises.

72 // January 2015 // Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology International


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LIQUID METAL BATTERIES

Quest
for power
The result of 10 years of study and research,
liquid metal battery technology promises
low-cost power with an impressive lifespan
WORDS: JIM McCRAW

74 // January 2015 // Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology International


LIQUID METAL BATTERIES

I
n the USA, there is at least one man who
believes that the right combination of cheap
materials and good science can produce
batteries that will change the way we store
and use energy. That man is Donald Sadoway,
professor of materials chemistry at the renowned
Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).
Sadoway, whose degrees in chemical
engineering and chemical metallurgy are from
the University of Toronto, has been working
on this project at MIT for 10 years with
his team, Group Sadoway: Extreme
Electrochemistry, and with his company,
Ambri, named after Cambridge, where MIT is
located. He is a TED lecturer, frequent television
guest, occasional music video performer, and
made the list of Times 100 Most Influential
People In The World in 2012.
Sadoway became interested in batteries after a
test drive of a Ford Ecostar electric van in 1994,
a project that used sodium-sulfur batteries
operating at 325C. He was impressed because
the vehicles performance, even then, was like a
1960s muscle car. So, he says, he went back to
Cambridge and got to work on batteries.

SADOWAY BIOGRAPHY
Born March 7, 1950, in Toronto, Ontario,
Canada, Donald Robert Sadoways
research seeks to establish the scientific
underpinnings for technologies that
make efficient use of energy and natural
resources in an environmentally sound
manner. This spans engineering applications
and the supportive fundamental science.
The overarching theme of his work is
electrochemistry in non-aqueous media.
Research interests include liquid metal
batteries, metals production by molten oxide
electrolysis, rechargeable solid polymer
batteries and aluminum-ion batteries.

Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology International // January 2015 // 75


LIQUID METAL BATTERIES

() Terminal

Cell lid
Seal
Low cost, long life
The primary goal of the liquid metal battery
(LMB) project is to develop a low-cost and
long-life battery for grid-scale stationary Negative electrode
energy storage, but the LMB can also be (liquid metal)
downscaled for all manner of other purposes,
including automotive propulsion in electric
and hybrid vehicles.
The Sadoway liquid metal battery uses
three elements: a positive electrode made of
an alloy of lead and antimony, which is placed
at the bottom of the cell; a negative electrode Electrode
(molten sald)
of an iron-lithium alloy at the top of each cell;
and an electrolyte that is a solution of mixed
molten salts, all operating together at a top
temperature of 450C. The current element
ratio is approximately 80% metals and 20%
Positive electrode
electrolyte. The salt is included, Sadoway (liquid metal)
explains, to force the bionic reaction, but
does not contribute to power storage.
The ideal battery would have super-thick
electrodes and super-thin electrolyte. You
want the metals thick enough to prevent
shorting, but not excessively thick because
youre just giving up volume. The voltage Cell body
drop across the electrolyte is voltage you
dont access in the external circuit.
A previous combination of alloys worked
only at temperatures in excess of 700C, and In the event that the
case of a liquid metal
one of the goals of the program is to find a battery is breached or
combination of alloys and salts that will broken, its contents
operate at 250C. Sadoway says there are will remain solid and
therefore free from fire
some 20 patents already associated with the or explosion unlike
LMB program, with more to come. lead-acid or lithium-ion

(+) Terminal

The battery design (and the metals used in it) makes


the steel case a positive connector, since the bottom layer
In addition to his teaching is directly connected to and has the same polarity as
responsibilities, Sadoway the case, with the top layer (a kind of metal foam) acting
mans the helm of as the current collector.
Group Sadoway: Extreme
Electrochemistry, an adept We use the metal foam like a sponge, Sadoway explains.
research group comprising The metal foam on the top has a connector that goes up
about 30 postdoctoral through the center of the battery and has an insulator, and
associates and visiting
scientists, technical staff, that becomes the negative terminal the exact opposite of
graduate students and an AA battery. That way you can stack these cells, because
undergraduate students the pin that goes through the top has a button. If you put
another one on top of it, now you have positive to negative
and you can double the voltage.
These things are built in a protective environment,
Sadoway continues. So we dont have to go to extremes
of vacuum-sealing them, but it is preferable to seal them
under inert gas. We have actually built cells in open air,
and the metal on the top reacts to consume whatever

76 // January 2015 // Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology International


LIQUID METAL BATTERIES

oxygen and nitrogen are present and, within moments, Above: This interior cross-section of an because it runs for a long time, but after about
early 4in liquid metal battery prototype
the atmosphere inside the cell is conditioned. The main shows that the battery can be scaled up or
a year, we tend to discover that it runs for
issue is to keep the humidity relatively low so you dont down, depending on its intended purpose about 30% less time, and after two years, it
lose effectiveness. runs for about 60% less time. Eventually,
The start-up energy is small, as Sadoway explains: You Right: The battery runs at 450C so its after three years, it turns into a paperweight.
workings are impossible to photograph.
have to heat the battery up to kick off the chemistry, but However, this room-temperature mock-up The 85% figure after 10 years of daily cycling
the charging and discharging keep the reaction going. It simulates it via use of mercury (bottom) means 3,650 cycles at 85% of capacity.
doesnt take that much energy to heat something up to and steel foam instead of hot, liquid metals
that temperature. Its like priming a pump. Automotive application
In addition to the lower operating temperature, which As for putting it into a car, the temperature is
should simplify the batterys design and extend its overall still too high, Sadoway explains. The 450C
working life, the new formulation will be less expensive to operating temperature level is too high for
make. As for safety, Sadoway states, everything inside the transportation. But we are looking at new
battery returns to a solid state at room temperature and combinations of alloys and new combinations
its just a brick. Practically speaking, this means it can of salts, because we think that if we can get
be safely shipped by truck or air, since it wont leak or that temperature down to 250C less than
start a fire unlike lithium-ion batteries, which cannot be the temperature of your kitchen oven then
transported by air. that is something that could go into a car.
The power figures are impressive. The voltage figure Then, if I add in 85% retention over 10 years,
on a cell is a little bit less than 1V, Sadoway says, so you and I throw in a price point that is about five
have to stack these in series to get up to 20V or higher, times lower than lithium-ion a lead-acid
because the cost of a transformer that converts DC to AC price point with lithium-ion performance and
current goes way up when the voltage of the DC cell goes long service lifetime I have a winner.
down. Its a lot cheaper to transform high-voltage DC into Sadoway insists that he and his team
AC. We cant change the voltage on the cell, because of the havent invented a battery, however. We have
metallurgy. In a stack of 2m 3, which is about the size of a invented a battery field, and we have got other
refrigerator, the energy is about 10kWh enough to power ideas. If you want a car battery that can take
a typical home for a day.
Sadoways team found that, while antimony produced a
high operating voltage and lead gave a low melting point,
a mixture of the two combined both advantages, with a
The initial concept has been realized,
voltage as high as antimony alone, and a melting point
between the two contrary to expectations that lowering
to the point that we feel we are on the
the melting point would come at the expense of also right path, and that success is imminent
reducing the voltage.
The 85% efficiency figure that we have is a very, very in terms of something that would be
low fade rate, and thats the one particularly troubling
thing for the lithium-ion batteries in hybrid and electric scalable and economically viable
cars, cell phones and laptops. On day one, were overjoyed Donald Sadoway, professor of materials chemistry, MIT

Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology International // January 2015 // 77


LIQUID METAL BATTERIES

The ideal battery would have super-thick electrodes and super-thin


electrolyte. You want the metals thick enough to prevent shorting,
but not excessively thick because youre just giving up volume
Donald Sadoway, professor of materials chemistry, MIT

you 400km (249 miles) on a single charge at if you were to break the case of a liquid metal battery,
a price point, if I could put a Chevrolet Volt then everything inside of it will remain a solid.
on the showroom floor for US$20,000, Id
take over the world. The missing piece is the Powering forward
battery. With the right battery, we could put The future for the technology, Sadoway believes, is
a Chevy Volt on the showroom floor that will assured. The initial concept has been realized, to the
last for 10 years with no complaints about point that we feel we are on the right path, and that
loss of range, and at that point, the price of success is imminent in terms of something that would
oil goes back to US$20 per barrel. be scalable and economically viable, he explains. This
Such an electric car would theoretically be started with the idea that we wanted to develop security
plugged into house current, trickle charging for the grid, and that means, in the first world, giving us
to keep the battery going, Sadoway suggests, a type of grid that is stable against rolling blackouts and
and severe weather considerations would not brownouts, and frequency fluctuations. For two out of
need to be considered such a battery could seven people on the planet, it would mean giving them
virtually freeze solid and still function once access to electricity through wind, solar and water. With
it starts to draw current and heat up. Another liquid metal batteries, wind and solar, they would have
consideration, Sadoway says, is that several sustainable power.
LMB-equipped electric cars on a car carrier Sadoway says that, in computer software and app terms,
could flip over and the batteries could not his team has now progressed to LMB 5.0, but that his own
catch fire in their cold state. recent research, as yet unpublished, has found a path to
A high-temperature battery is safer than new energy storage methods that are yielding three times
a low-temperature battery, because if you the energy density of anything they have done up to now
breach the case on a lead-acid battery, it will and which would enable them to cut pricing threefold.
just keep leaking. And if you break the case The LMB research was supported by the US Department
on a lithium-ion battery, you have got a really of Energys Advanced Research Projects Agency and by
flammable liquid all over the place. However, French energy company Total.

78 // January 2015 // Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology International


THE EXPO FOR ADVANCED BATTERIES
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SEPTEMBER 15 17, 2015

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OEM INTERVIEW JAGUAR LAND ROVER
OEM INTERVIEW:

All shook up
A recent trip to Jaguar Land Rover confirmed that project
Ingenium is just the start of a leaner, more efficient engine
WORDS: DEAN SLAVNICH

future for the British car maker, which will soon also
include a variety of all-new e-powertrain creations

J
aguar Land Rover is on a roll. New products,
starting with the Range Rover Evoque a few
years ago through to the most recent unveiling
of the Jaguar XE, are helping to transform
a company whose market share dipped
dangerously below 15% in 2008, but hit a 40% high in
the last 12 months, culminating in more than 425,000
JLR vehicles leaving various showrooms around the world.
And such a rapid and momentous turnaround is just the
start of things to come for the former Ford PAG member
with there being no let-up in new vehicles being
developed. According to senior execs, such as Dr
Wolfgang Ziebart, director of group engineering, the
British car maker plans to launch no fewer than 50
products in the next five years, many of which will sport
hybrid and plug-in hybrid powertrains, in the process
safeguarding the future of Jaguar, Land Rover and Range
Rover against a backdrop of tough emissions legislation.
We will invest 3.5bn [US$5.6bn] in new products,
states Ziebart, a former BMW board member who headed
up product development. What does this mean? In the
past, we brought out a new car once every second or third
year, but going forward well launch a major new car every
six months. Its a significant change of pace for us.

80 // January 2015 // Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology International


INTERVIEW JAGUAR LAND ROVER
OEM INTERVIEW:

JLRs all-new architecture will allow for


advanced hybrid powertrains to be rolled
out across Jaguar, Land Rover and
Range Rover model families, but surely
a plug-in F-Type is out the question?

Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology International // January 2015 // 81


OEM INTERVIEW: JAGUAR LAND ROVER

Emissions mission
JLRs emissions mission is underpinned by project
Ingenium, but the impact of such ambitious growth plans
is already being felt on the OEMs various engineering
divisions. To give you a scale of it, we currently have
2,000 engineers in powertrain thats twice as many
as we had only five years ago, so were growing really
quickly, says Ron Lee, powertrain engineering director.
A further 500m (US$805m) is being spent on an
all-new state-of-the-art powertrain manufacturing center
in South Staffordshire, nestled nicely between JLRs three
existing sites at Halewood, Castle Bromwich and Solihull.
Having recently been opened, its the first new plant JLR
has built from the ground up and will create 1,400 jobs
when at full capacity. More significantly, the 100,000m 2
base will be home to Ingenium engine production,
a project thats close to Lees heart.
Ingenium is a new engine family concept for us. These
lightweight, low emission and configurable petrol and
diesel turbocharged engines on a common architecture
will deliver both efficiency and performance,
whether theyre driving a Jaguar or a Land
Rover, he says.
We were able to design Ingenium the way
we wanted because we had that rare and
fantastic opportunity to start with a clean
sheet of paper. We werent handcuffed
by any of the usual restrictions or
compromises that are forced onto us, so
we had no existing production machinery
that we had to reuse. We had no carry-over
engine architecture that we were trying to
amortize. There was no existing plant that we
had to modify. And capping it all off, the engine is
going into an all-new vehicle. This was a truly rare moment.
Costing the best part of 800m (US$1.3bn), work on
project Ingenium started just over four years ago. At its
I feel PHEVs will be a key technology for us
very core, the powertrain family has a design based around and it will mean that in the future we will be
a deep-skirt aluminum cylinder block featuring thin-wall,
press-fit, cast-iron liners. The lightweight blocks share the able to enjoy products such as the Range
same bore, stroke, cylinder spacing and a 500cc cylinder
capacity, allowing for a modular setup that guarantees Rover, as opposed to driving micro cars
configurability and flexibility. Dr Wolfgang Ziebart, director of group engineering, Jaguar Land Rover

JAGUAR LAND ROVER IN NUMBERS

138kg 21% 23%


is the total weight of the XE AJ200D unit reduction in JLRs operating CO2 of the 425,006 JLR vehicles sold last
emissions has been realized since year were based in China
2007 per vehicle built

72,000 3.5bn
hours of dyno testing and 2 million of
real-world miles testing was undertaken
29,000+ (US$5.6bn) investment will result in
during Ingenium development JLR employees globally 50 new models in five years

82 // January 2015 // Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology International


OEM INTERVIEW: JAGUAR LAND ROVER

We looked 10 years into the future and asked ourselves


what are the things that might happen with this engine?
We then went to a number of the big consultancies
and asked them the same question independently
Ron Lee, powertrain engineering director, Jaguar Land Rover

Similar to what Volvo has undertaken with its VEA


investment, Ingeniums modular nature serves to reduce
complexity, raise quality and simplify manufacturing.
And like VEA and VWs MQB, JLRs architecture has
been designed with an eye on the future.
When we set out on the program, we looked 10 years
into the future so that we could look at all the technologies
that Ingenium may use moving forward, and we protected
the engine in terms of developments for fuel systems,
performance upgrades and electrification, so as these
Main image: The South technologies become ready and available, we can easily
Staffordshire 100,000m2
engine manufacturing
introduce them, adds Lee.
center will be home to That means options like three-cylinder designs and
1,400 personnel and is cylinder deactivation have both been factored in, as well
JLRs first new plant
built from the ground up
as various forms of powertrain electrification.
Below: Work on Ingenium,
We looked 10 years into the future and asked ourselves
a flexible and modular what are the things that might happen with this engine?
engine architecture, We then went to a number of the big consultancies and
started four years ago.
It wont be long before
asked them the same question independently, so the likes
new hybrid derivatives of Ricardo, AVL and FEV. They all submitted their findings;
are added to the family we compared each one carefully and then went through
all the key technologies looking at how we would implement
Lee, who during his three decades at the company has each system. These are things that would fit with a design
just about seen it all, sheds more light on the powertrain change to the existing layout, and we know that each one
strategy: In among all the other engineering challenges has a plausible way of being deployed.
and goals of this program, we needed the new engines
to fit seamlessly into our installations for both north- E-powertrain plans
south and east-west architectures. They also had to be Ingenium is not just important to JLR in the immediate
able to accommodate front-, four- and rear-wheel-drive future, powering the XE in 180ps/430Nm and 163ps/380Nm
configurations, and deal with auto, manual and hybrid in AJ200D form, with the latter becoming the most
transmissions. Finally, the new family has to be able to efficient Jaguar ever, achieving 75mpg (3.7l/100km)
cover smaller and larger displacements for the future. and 99g/km CO2; the new engine family will also act
as a catalyst for the car maker in order to fully embrace
powertrain electrification.
In this respect, Ziebart is a man with emissions on his
mind: The major challenge for all of us is CO2 reduction
and improving fuel economy. Governments have set tight
regulations on emissions, so going forward from 2020,
in the EU the average consumption of vehicles should
be below 100g of CO2 per kilometer, which is roughly
75mpg. These are very, very tight regulations.
According to the engineer who headed up the 3 Series
platform in a former BMW life, what this means for
JLR on a company-wide basis is that fuel consumption
between 2007 and 2020 needs to have been slashed by
45%. So, in 2007, our car fleet had an average of 242g
CO2, but by 2020 this needs to go down to 132g. Currently
were at 180g, so theres still a way to go for us to achieve
the remaining target. But Ingenium, insists Ziebart, will
play a starring role in getting JLR over that 2020 line.
I would say that 50% of future target achievements
when it comes to emissions will come from the powertrain.

Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology International // January 2015 // 83


OEM INTERVIEW: JAGUAR LAND ROVER

This means the improvement of conventional engines and


transmissions, and adding electrification to the IC engine,
so everything from micro and mild hybrids, through to full SELF-DRIVING INGENIUM?
hybrids, plug-ins and battery electric vehicles. JLRs investment in Ingenium ensures that its new vehicles will
Ziebart says that other areas for automotive engineers to come equipped with efficient engines brimming with technology
look to for emissions reduction include vehicle weight, as that also provide power and performance. And on a company-
well as coming up with new measures relating to parasitic wide level, the new powertrain family also guarantees the car
makers future, bringing in-house all engine R&D expertise and
losses. But its the powertrain thats the biggest single
production capability, allowing it to react to changing market
contributor to emissions, he warns. demands, and implementing new technology. But what does
The situation is such that we can leave no stone the long-term future look like for JLRs powertrain plans? And
unturned to squeeze out fuel economy improvement. might Ingenium one day even include self-driving aptitude?
That means advanced hybrid powertrains based on Autonomous driving, from our point of view, is a
Ingenium architecture are not far off for JLR. Hybrids continuous journey that started in 1996, when
are very important to the industry, but are also extremely Jaguar was the first to bring ACC in the XK to the
important to us in particular, confirms Ziebart. In spite market, says Wolfgang Epple, JLRs director
of the many improvements that we have achieved with of research and technology.
Over time, various supporting
combustion engines, for vehicles like ours, such as the
functions have been implemented,
Range Rover, there is currently no obvious route to arrive such as emergency braking and sub-
at a double-digit CO2 per kilometer figure, except by using functions that help to make the car more
hybrid powertrains. autonomous, taking more of the load
So, we have introduced the Range Rover Hybrid and, away from the driver. That is a continuous
going forward, we assume that the electric part of the journey, and from our perspective, it will
powertrain, the e-motor, will become greater and more take another 5-10 years before we as an
powerful, whereas the combustion engine might get smaller. industry can offer driving autonomy.
However, the former BMW, Lotus and
Range Rover last year debuted the companys first
Proton chief engineer says that when discussing
conventional hybrid production models, but plug-in autonomous driving, its important to think about the
derivatives are on the agenda too: I believe that plug-in enjoyment people get from behind the wheel. Basically, every
hybrid technology will come close to full battery electric driver has two states. The first is commuting from A to B, a
systems, especially if you offer enough range during the tedious work /school journey that really nobody likes to do.
electric part of the operation. I feel PHEVs will be a key The other is the more emotive state, driving on country roads
technology for us and it will mean that in the future we and enjoying the fun of motion and mobility. For us, the tedious
will be able to enjoy products such as the Range Rover, one is where autonomous comes in, because there the driver
as opposed to driving micro cars. can do something else in the car, being more productive and
staying connected. The other, second state, is where we want
However, for now and until the new engine facility is
to maintain the joy of driving and being in control.
up to speed and fully ramps-up Ingenium production

In 2007, our car fleet had an average itll be business as usual for JLR as it continues to buy in
co-developed Ford/PSA Peugeot Citron motors, but
of 242g CO2, but by 2020 this needs eventually the plan is for Ingenium family members to
replace such units across all ranges. However, this will
to go down to 132g. Currently were at happen on a model-by-model, organic basis, says Ziebart.
In the past, engine technology was very much a stable
180g, so theres still a way to go for us technology, so we carried over an engine at least for two
or three generations of vehicles and, in some cases such as
to achieve the remaining target the V8, an engine can have a life of five decades! But now
Dr Wolfgang Ziebart, director of group engineering, going forward, with all the challenges we have, engine
Jaguar Land Rover technology has become one of the most dynamic
technologies. So there are changes and improvements
more or less every year, not every decade.
Its extremely important to have a very flexible
approach and to take this capability in-house, he
continues. While our current engines are state-of-the-art,
going forward we see that if its possible to introduce a
new technology [on an engine thats bought in], then you
must negotiate with a third party to introduce that new
technology, and in that situation youre already in a
no-win position. Having this capability in-house and in
our own hands means we are securing our future.
In a telling final remark, Ziebart adds, Its a great time
Range Rover was the first JLR for the company, and in particular for engineering. We
brand to launch a hybrid
powertrain, but soon Jaguar and have the financial means, the engineering skills and the
Land Rover models will follow ambition to be number one in automotive technology.

84 // January 2015 // Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology International


ELECTRIC MOTORCYCLES

86 // January 2015 // Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology International


ELECTRIC MOTORCYCLES

Easy rider
Analysts have predicted that 2015 is to be a breakout year for electric motorcycles,
as more products come to market and consumers switch on to battery-powered
biking. So E&H hit the road to get the insider view from the manufacturers, while
also investigating the wider implications for electromobility on two wheels
WORDS: FARAH ALKHALISI

A
drenaline junkies and cost-conscious Left: Over 70,000 hours
of engineering, design
commuters alike not necessarily mutually and development have
exclusive bedfellows are eyeing up the resulted in the creation
growing number of electric motorcycles hitting of the Saietta R, an
all-electric motorcycle
the market. And its not just about work-home from Agility Motors
traveler scooters and e-motor-driven mopeds, or at the
other end of the spectrum, electric superbikes such as the Right: A high-tech
electric powertrain
TTXGP and TT Zero competitors. New sports bikes and means the Saietta R can
rugged urban designs are bringing e-riding to a much combine a super quick
wider audience, and electric off-roaders such as the KTM 0-100km/h sprint time
of three seconds with an
Freeride E one of the first electric offerings from an emissions-free range
established big-name brand are becoming available, of 193km (120 miles)
representing a new market shift for these well known
Below right: At the heart
companies. Making things even more interesting are of the Agility Motors
numerous start-up organizations vying aggressively to electric motorbike is
become the Tesla of two wheels. an advanced axial flux
permanent magnet
Its really amazing what were seeing the level electric motor with
of interest in some areas is four times the level we 72kW and 127Nm
measured last year, outlines Abe Askenazi, CTO of Zero torque and an 11kWh
Motorcycles, a California-based company founded in lithium-ion battery

2006 and one of the highest volume e-bike makers yet.


But such momentum has come after a slow start, due,
Askenazi believes, in part to the market itself not being
ready for electric motorcycles: People were still not
convinced that this was technology that was here to
stay, something that was real. Another factor, he believes,
was that the bikes themselves did not offer range and
performance on par with comparable IC-engined models.
However, since various technical and engineering
upgrades, sales have taken off.
Last year, we moved around 1,000 vehicles, and were
looking to significantly increase that volume this year,
Askenazi says with enthusiasm. And we have seen a
definite pick-up in consumer interest in Europe too. Part
of that growth can be attributed to Zeros experience of
racing in the super-stock series of the US TTXGP which
it won last year marketing the brand further and informing
audiences about its product range: Weve learned a lot
about cooling; weve learned a lot about our battery

Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology International // January 2015 // 87


ELECTRIC MOTORCYCLES

management; and weve learned a lot about Project LiveWire is Harley-Davidsons first
charging, because you have to charge very attempt at an all-electric development as
the company looks to adapt in a changing
quickly between warm-up and the different market, attracting new buyers to the
heats throughout the day. And weve learned brand. The prototype has been designed
a lot about the suspension and the braking to offer a top speed of 148km/h (92mph)
and a 96km (60-mile) driving range
and all those more traditional things.
At its HQ in London, Agility Motors is
preparing to scale up production of its Saietta
R, a 169km/h (105mph) sports bike with
an advanced composite monocoque chassis,
capable of doing 0-100km/h (0-60mph) in
three seconds but delivering a driving range
of up to 180km (112 miles) at urban speeds.
Demand for this premium-level street
machine is growing at a rate of knots,
reveals Agility CEO Lawrence Marazzi. Its
a very exciting time to be in the industry.
Agility, whose R&D experience has been
honed by working with the highly successful
TT-winning Agni Racing team, expects to
deliver around 700 e-bikes next year. And
the year after that well be delivering closer
to 2,000, forecasts Marazzi, who hints at
plans for broadening the model line-up
and a longer-term target of 10,000 units.
The experience of both organizations
supports the general notion that electric
motorcycles will break out as a transportation
alternative this year, as announced by
Navigant Research in its Electric Vehicles: 10
Predictions for 2014 White Paper, released in
January. Taking to two wheels is an
increasingly appealing option in urban areas
to beat traffic jams and parking problems;
and going electric offers the opportunity to
save money on fuel as well as benefiting from

LIVE WIRE
Until now, making all electric
motorcycles has been the preserve
of small start-ups and custom
bike-builders but the established
brand-names in the two-wheeled
world dont come any bigger or more
legendary than Harley-Davidson,
whose electric bike, the Project
LiveWire concept, has been out
on tour across the USA to gauge
consumer reaction.
LiveWire is all part of the
111-year-old companys ongoing
plans to widen and future-proof
its range and its global reach,
following a general overhaul
of its product development and
manufacturing operations. Project
LiveWire is just one element in our
efforts to preserve and renew the
freedom to ride for generations
to come, explains Matt Levatich,
president and COO, at LiveWires
unveiling earlier this year.

88 // January 2015 // Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology International


ELECTRIC MOTORCYCLES

any local incentives, such as exemption from


tolls or congestion charging. An add-on to
this is the continued increase of rail and bus
fares in most countries and cities around the
world, making some commuters think seriously
about switching away from public transport.
However, those that are opting for electric
motorbikes are generally going for relatively
low-powered models: Im sure theres a market
for a high-performance electric two-wheeler,
as there is a market for high-performance
electric cars; Tesla is a good example of this,
explains Neville Jackson, chief technology
and innovation officer at Ricardo, whose
motorcycles and personal transportation
division has been working on electric and
hybrid two-wheeler projects. But how big it
is, Im not sure. I think the really big market
is the smaller, lighter-weight, lower-cost vehicles.

Torque curves and learning curves


From an ownership perspective, riders are
having to get to grips with a different
experience one with no engine noise, no
conventional engine braking, and no gears.
Electric motors make power very differently
to IC engines; they make most torque at low
rpm, whereas IC engines you have to rev up
and shift from one gear to the next to stay in
the sweet spot, Askenazi describes. The
Project LiveWire is just one element in beautiful thing about electric motors is that
the sweet spot is everywhere from 5mph
our efforts to preserve and renew the (3km/h) through to 80mph (49km/h) and
you dont have to be as good a rider and you
freedom to ride for generations to come dont have to work as hard to get the power
Matt Levatich, president and COO, Harley-Davidson that you want.

Harley-Davidson is giving technology consultancy, and its other electric motorcycles on feedback on their expectations
away little technical detail on recent CV namedrops support for the market. for a road-going electric machine,
the bike as yet, but the basic Team Mugen, one-two winner in The riding experience is and this will further inform the
specifications of the prototype the latest TT Zero on the Isle of claimed to be visceral but the bikes ongoing development.
include a 0-100km/h (0-60mph) Man earlier this year. single-speed transmission should Because electric vehicle
time of around four seconds, a The LiveWires design and make it easier for novice riders technology is evolving rapidly,
top speed of 148km/h (92mph), chassis structure are the work to get to grips with, and suit the we are excited to learn more from
a 96km (60-mile) driving range of Harley-Davidsons in-house day-to-day routines of urban riders through Project LiveWire
and a 3.5-hour recharging time team, however, with care taken to commuting, a key potential role to fully understand the definition
on a Level 2 (240V ) charger. The ensure that it is characteristically for all future electric motorcycles. of success in this market as the
LiveWires lithium-ion batteries a Harley despite its lack of a The test-bikes also feature technology continues to evolve,
are sourced from an as-yet throbbing petrol powerplant. Its selectable riding modes, allowing explains Richer.
unnamed technical partner, and an expression of individuality and riders to choose between power Further signaling that this is
its electric motor thought to iconic style that just happens to performance and energy- more than just market research or
develop around 75ps and 70Nm be electric, states Mark-Hans conserving range settings. a one-off show bike development,
of torque has been developed Richer, senior vice president, who While Harley-Davidson is Harley-Davidson has hired former
with input from San Franciscos also points out that although the keen to emphasize that this bike General Motors engineer Jim
Mission Motors. This latter traditional Harley exhaust note is still very much in concept Federico, leader of the Chevrolet
nugget of supplier information is may be gone, the bike makes its form, theres no doubting the Volt and Spark projects, as
particularly noteworthy because own singular noise. companys serious intent to its new vice-president of
Mission is bringing its own The sound is a distinct part of bring an electric model to engineering, and the motorcycle
electric superbikes to market the thrill, he adds. Think fighter production some time soon. The OEM is also advertising a number
via its now-independent Mission jet on an aircraft carrier. Project Project LiveWire experience of jobs for electrical engineers
Motorcycles division. In addition, LiveWires unique sound was gives potential customers the to form an electric vehicles
the company is also evolving as a designed to differentiate it chance to take a test ride, with engineering team at its facility in
product supplier and engineering/ from internal combustion and the specific aim of collecting Wauwatosa, Wisconsin.

Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology International // January 2015 // 89


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ELECTRIC MOTORCYCLES

The Zero DS features advanced cell


chemistry and battery management
systems to provide a 210km (130-mile)
driving range. Each cell in the DSs
power pack is individually controlled and
monitored to ensure maximum health

The Zero Motorcycles CTO also points to the ease


of riding and the purity of the noise-free experience as Once youve lived with an electric vehicle,
factors in winning over consumers to the electric cause.
Once youve lived with an electric vehicle, its very
its very difficult to go back to an IC engine.
difficult to go back to an IC engine. It feels crude, it feels
like old technology.
It feels crude, it feels like old technology
Abe Askenazi, CTO, Zero Motorcycles
The feel of engine braking on an e-bike can be replicated
through the regenerative braking system as well as KERS, is the largest. But when you put the battery
although Agilitys Marazzi notes, I havent been on a together with the motor and the controller as
single test ride where somebody has said to me, Itd a whole powertrain package, compare this to
be really nice if I had another gear. He believes that an IC engine with an exhaust system, air box
fixed-speed transmissions are particularly appropriate and a gas system, and overall weight is lower,
in urban environments, as this is essentially one less not by a lot, but it is lower.
distraction for vulnerable riders. Yet through sophisticated For Marazzi, starting with a clean-sheet
management software, he says, We can raise the intensity architecture purpose-built to accommodate
of the emotions, the satisfaction and the enjoyment, an electric powertrain is a brilliant advantage
and we can also simplify the whole experience, making for his engineers. He adds, Tell me something
the interaction much more intuitive and seamless. that storing electrons has in common with
Zero gives the rider the choice of three regen braking burning gasoline! In the case of the Saietta R,
modes: sport; eco, in which speed and torque are limited combining this fresh factor approach with
and the energy capture is stepped up for maximum a particularly short wheelbase allows for
efficiency; plus a further custom setting in which personal heightened handling agility, he says. Where
preferences can be set. Riders can also set up their bikes you dont have exhausts hung out the back,
using a smartphone app. Askenazi, who formerly worked everything is really concentrated, and that
at Buell, says that programming selectable settings is less reduces our polar moment of inertia and
complicated in an electric motorcycle because there are no enables the bike to change direction that
complex fueling maps or effects on emissions to deal with. much more quickly. And not only do electric
motorcycles not need exhaust systems, we
Pondering packaging also dont have to have anything like the level
When it comes to system integration and implementation, of cooling or wasted heat, and heat that we
theres always a battle for the OEs and their engineers. have to dissipate, Marazzi continues.
Were always fighting for millimeters in terms of packaging, The phenomenal difference in cooling
confirms Askenazi. The heaviest part on the motorcycle requirement, in ancillary equipment for the
is the battery, so its the hardest thing to package because it cooling system and isolation from heat on a

Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology International // January 2015 // 91


ELECTRIC MOTORCYCLES

normal IC motorcycle, accounts for a whole ON PATROL


lot of equipment you have to package. None
Electric motorcycles are increasingly being happen, adds Askenazi. But you could
of that exists for us. And this benefits not
deployed by police and security forces be charging a couple of modules at base,
only the overall weight of the bike, but also for their stealthiness as well as energy you could be riding while those are being
its aerodynamic design. efficiency and zero-emissions operation. charged, and then come back to base and
Oregon-based Brammo has moved into this within 60 seconds put fresh batteries in and
Technology transfer niche, and Californias Zero Motorcycles be back out.
Electric motorcycle-makers have been keen has so far supplied 100 bikes to the Zeros optional modular platform
to move into licensing and supplying their Colombian city of Bogota last year, 60 to enables the removal of battery modules for
proprietary technologies and expertise for the Hong Kong police, plus further bikes charging, and sharing of interchangeable
use in automotive applications as well in to various municipalities in the USA. We modules between different bikes on the
have an expectation that fleet is going to same platform a highly useful function for
machines built by companies in other sectors.
be a significant proportion of our business, all fleets. The military also liked the app-
Zero, for example, has worked with a team confirms CTO Askenazi. selectable settings, adds Askenazi: If they
racing high-performance go-karts they Zero has also built prototypes for military want to limit the speed of the bike for base
did exceedingly well last year in all the trials. One of the requirements for the US operation, or limit the torque to ensure that
competitions when they entered with our Special Forces was 60-second charging, the guys are conserving energy, they can
powertrain and we learned a lot from that and there is no technology right now that do that, and actually thats something you
collaboration, says Askenazi and the OE will allow true 60-second charging to cant easily do with an IC engine.
has been in talks with further companies over
powertrain supply for street-legal vehicles.
Marazzi is confident that his organizations
licensed technology will definitely go into
four-wheeled vehicles, so its no secret that
Agility has been speaking with OEs in the
light commercial vehicle and marine sectors
to further extend its in-house powertrain
technology. He also points out that theres a
huge industry for industrial electric vehicles
if you even just count airports, or vehicles
for the movement of parts in a warehouse,
all of those applications represent a
big sector. And for him, the Saietta R
development is as much a showcase for the
companys technologies as it is a product in
itself, and opting to build a motorcycle as a
calling card rather than a car was a carefully
considered decision: We can do things much
more quickly, for a variety of reasons, and yet
the value for a brand is almost as significant,
because motorcycles are highly emotive
everybodys excited by them.
Such optimistic thinking serves to further
underline the idea that although electric
superbikes and the higher-performance
e-machines may account for only a small
premium-level proportion of total sales in
this growing space, the likes of the Saietta R
and other headline-grabbers, such as the
California-built Mission RS and Lightning
SuperBike, or the Venturi-developed
200ps/200Nm Voxan Wattman, all have
an important role to play as halo products
to raise the profile of electromobility on A key growth
area for Zero
two-wheels. And whats more, public Motorcycles has
visibility of electric vehicles in fleet usage is been the supply
also thought to be significant in encouraging of e-motorbikes
to police forces
mainstream consumers to consider around the world
transportation thats driven by an electric
powertrain. The electric motorcycle-builders
are not an industry sector to be viewed in
isolation, but rather another vital piece of the
greater e-mobility jigsaw.

92 // January 2015 // Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology International


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WAY BACK WHEN

ENFIELD
8000
Against an energy crisis backdrop, one company
an all-electric urban runaround in the early 1970
created
s. So just
lution?
why didnt the Enfield 8000 kick off the EV revo
WORDS: JOHN SIMISTER

94 // January 2015 // Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology International


WAY BACK WHEN

(the body which oversaw power production) was

B
The Enfield 8000 grew out
atteries. They represent the of a winning design in a concerned, it was the future of urban mobility. And
all
overriding challenge for electr ic 1966 Electricity Council this was taking place over four decad es ago, way before
vehicles today, and they were the competition for a contract
even GMs ill-fated EV1.
single biggest problem decades ago, to build a compact EV
too. In the case of the Enfield 8000, Energy crisis
introduced in 1973, its eight 12V lead-acid The Enfield 8000 grew out of a winning design in
a 1966
batter ies, at 309kg, accounted for nearly Electr icity Council competition for a contract to build
a
one-third of the total weight of the compact small electr ic car. Enfield, despit e its name, based on the
electr ic city car. That was a lot of mass for an Isle of Wight, had started its electr ic-car program with
the
e-motor of just 8ps (hence the cars name) or 465 in 1969, but just three of these were made before it
6kW to shift. Just imagine what an Enfield was re-imagined as the fractionally more conventiona
l-
would be like with modern lithium-ion looking 8000, reveal ed later that year.
cells but well come to that later. It was in 1973 when Enfields moment of oppor tunity
Somewhat ironically, the Enfield did briefly really came. The Yom Kippur War had triggered the
first
look like it might make it as Britains first energy crisis as oil supplies suddenly lost their forme
r
viable electr ic car. Its styling was cute, it was taken-for-granted certai nty, and electr ic power sudde nly
fun to drive, it was just about zippy enough seemed to represent an energy-secure future even
if it
to cope, and it had extraordinar ily efficient still depended rather too much on coal-fired power
aerody namics, with a Cd of just 0.275, thank s stations. Then Britain suffered its miners strikes, which
partly to the generously curved windscreen put paid to that. Never theless, between them, the
and a lack of drag-inducing frontal air Electr icity Council and various local electr icity board
s up
intakes. As far as Britains Electr icity Council

Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology International // January 2015 // 95


WAY BACK WHEN

ENFIELD
8000

didnt
seconds from rest, but prov ided you
extr eme s too often,
visit these performance
t get 80k m (50 mile s) from one full
you migh
battery charge.
at
That figure might have been somewh
som e form of rege nera tive
better had there been
ing capa bilit y. Lift your foot off the
brak
the same
accelerator and the car continues at
d, obse rved Mik e McC arth y in the
spee
editi on of week ly
September 8, 1973,
of the
magazine Motor. It is an indication
resis tanc e and any other
extent to which rolling
sary frict ions have been elim inated.
unneces
poin ted out to McC arthy
Eng ineer Adraktas
ther e were only eigh t mov ing part s, and
that
perhaps
four of them were wheels. That was
ly glib simp lifica tion of the 800 0s
an over
it does emp hasi ze its
system workings, but
of com plica tion . McC arth y enth used
The non-proprietary
lack
ing
and dow n the country bought 65 Enfi
elds, typically using components of the 8000 about the smooth ride, the quiet runn
r-rea ders , with a furth er from the mot or cont rol unit s click s, the
them to transpor t traveling mete were made in Greec e and apar t
uctio n brak es, the tiny turn ing
55 examples going to private owners
until prod expor ted to the Isle
light and prog ressive
of Wight for assem bly
e, and the exce llent road hold ing: Any
ended in May 1976. circl
twitch
From 1973, the non-proprietary com
ponents and corner is taken flat-out, with just a
mad e in Gree ce and steer ing whe el. And the Enfi eld had
subsystems of the 8000 were of the
assembly , an or Indu stry Rese arch
then exported to the Isle of Wight for even passed the Mot
use the Enfi eld ons 30m ph (48k m/h ) head -on crash
arrangement that came about beca Asso ciati
iona ire a safer car than its
company was owned by Greek ship
ping mill test; this was probably
Giannis Goulandris. The car itself was
engineered by most recent emulator, the G-Wiz.
e
fellow Greek Con stan tine Adra ktas , who had also worked In 1969, Enfield took a pair of prototyp
and used a squa re-tu be 0s to Cali forn ia for the worl d sym posium
on the Apollo space project, 800
t.
spaceframe structure clad in aluminum
panels. The of electric vehicles, the first such even
-mo lded plas tic e acro ss the USA trigg ered muc h
shor t-lived 465 had an injection The driv
stati on own ers, but
monocoque structure, incidentally. opprobrium from gas-
Reagan
Proprietary parts included a coil-spru
ng, rear-wheel- then-Governor of California Ronald
d Bug; 10in whe els an exce llent idea (Los
drive back axle designed for the Bon thought the Enfield
ed, low- pivo t, swin g-ax le eles had a majo r smo g prob lem) and
from a Mini; and the wide-bas Ang
a new
front suspension (and rear lights) from
a Hillman Imp. suggested building the little cars in
ter than an orig inal Min i, forn ia facto ry. It neve r happ ened , of
The Enfield was 200mm shor Cali
seat s and use of pres sure applied
its tiny size made possible by having
just two course, possibly beca
a stowage ledge behind, whil e the shor t bon net
ries, each of them
cove red
Lift your foot off to Gou land ris by the oil com pani es who
four of the eight motive-power batte used his ships.
with a 110A h capacity. The other four
sat under the the accelerator The problems of restr icted range and
eld
stowage ledge, while a separate batte
ry pow ered light s, lengthy charging put paid to the Enfi
wipers and, indulgently, a radi o. That little touc
gly
h of
spor ty-
and the car ente rpri se, alon g with
in
the
1975
pric
, whic
e a
h
head
wou ld
y
buy
risin US$4,493 (2,808)
luxury blended well with a pair of surp
looking bucket seats and a deep ly-d ishe d, leath er-ri mm ed continues at the you a Ran ge Rove r with 180 (US$ 280)
today
to
spare, or nearly four Mini 850s. But
steer ing wheel.
The motor sat snugly und er the cent ral tunn el,
a
its
serie s
same speed enth usia sts of the car
es
still
getti ng
keep
bette
a few
r pace
Enfields
and
l triggered running, sometim
demands met as the accelerator peda mor e Mike McCarthy in the September 8,
1973,
with a mor e mod ern motor
se prog ress ively zine Moto r ter dista nces
of mechanical switches to relea edition of week ly maga grea
ing at a
power from the batteries. Reverse was
selected by pressing and enhanced, lighter batteries runn
d, to swit ch the pola rity er volta ge. Thu s upd ated , an Enfi eld
a rocker switch on the dash boar high
te in the oppo site mor e relev ant now than
and make the motors armature rota could just be even
eld coul d reac h arou nd was in 1969 .
direction. Given time, the Enfi it
(30mph) in nine
65km /h (40mph), having hit 48km/h

96 // January 2015 // Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology International


TRANSMISSIONS

98 // January 2015 // Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology International


TRANSMISSIONS

Multishift
The move to multispeed transmissions for EVs and PHEVs
remains in its earliest stages, but despite this, innovators are confident
that there is a future beyond the current single-speed solutions
WORDS: FARAH ALKHALISI

S
ingle-speed simplicity has, so far,
been the predominant transmission
of choice in the EV world, with even
high-profile and high-cost
creations such as the Tesla Model S
and BMW i3 featuring just the one forward
gear, not to mention the more price-sensitive
electric urban runarounds and microcars.
Nonetheless, suppliers and OEMs are
working on a variety of more advanced and
complex multispeed developments in response
to market trends and the ever-increasing
pressure to enhance energy efficiency.
Generally speaking, theres an increasing
desire for automated transmissions
especially in developing regions which in
turn is influencing R&D activity.
The increasing living standards in many
parts of the world lead to a growing demand
for a comfortable driving experience,
resulting in more customers seeking an
automated transmission, confirms Harald
Merkel, technical specialist in friction
technology at BorgWarner. A DCT [dual-
clutch transmission] offers a good
performance, comfort and the flexibility to
integrate with a hybrid or electric powertrain.
The wet dual-clutch technology, combined
with hydraulic actuation and supplied by an
on-demand electric pump, is the optimum
solution to satisfy customers in all segments.

Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology International // January 2015 // 99


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Dual agenda
In EV applications specifically, the DCT
provides high efficiency and low parasitic
losses, enabling smooth shifts without
torque interruption.
An electric motor has much higher rotational
speeds than an IC engine, Merkel explains.
So, the transmission should be robust and
efficient enough to handle high rotational
speeds and high ratio steps between two
gears. Wet DCTs are ideal for this challenge.
However, what is new or different with a
DCT for EVs and HEVs is the emphasis placed
on the electronic communications needed to
match the electric machine to the torque and
speed requirements during shift events. The
transmission enables more robust shifts and
control strategies, and the clutch sizing and
cooling requirements are lower.
Paolo Mantelli, head of performance
automotive engineering at Oerlikon Drive
Systems, agrees with his BorgWarner
counterpart on the move toward automation:
We specialize in the niche sector rather than
the high-volume market, but we can see some
clear trends emerging, such as the move
toward non-manual transmission types in all
but the most exotic performance cars, he says.
However, because they are light, efficient
and compact, AMTs [automated manual
CVT comeback
Having been maligned by many outside its
Cost is less of an
transmissions] are making a comeback
against DCTs, thanks to the possibility of
stronghold market in Japan during the past
few years, continuously variable transmission
obstacle than you might
using an electric motor to overcome their (CVT)-based solutions for the EV movement think, because multispeed
traditional weakness: torque interruption shouldnt be ruled out either. Bosch recently
during shift events. claimed that within a few years, the market solutions can use a
The Oerlikon Graziano OGeco automated- share of CVTs will grow from 20% to 25% of
manual development, optimized for a all automated transmissions fitted. The Tier 1 lower-cost motor for
high-performance hybrid application but
suitable for a variety of powertrain and
also points out that CVTs can save fuel in
hybrid powertrains because they enable the the same installed
driveline architectures, provides the fastest
possible shift speed in maximum
IC unit to run at higher speeds closer to its
optimum operating point; more energy not
performance as a single-
performance mode, without compromising
shift comfort in low to medium performance
used for forward propulsion is then captured
in the battery, increasing electric range.
speed transmission
modes, says Mantelli. It matches the Meanwhile, FEV exhibited a two-speed Paolo Mantelli, head of performance automotive
engineering, Oerlikon Drive Systems
refinement of a DCT by using torque infill eCVT earlier this year, for use in an EV or
from the electric motor, but at lower cost, as part of an extended-range hybrid system,
higher efficiency and with less weight. and demonstrating suitability for packaging
Oerlikon Grazianos DCT technology has within a downsized engine compartment; this
formed the basis of its 4SED powertrain: an transmission, with no torque converter, is
integrated twin-motor, four-speed setup, in said to be 10% lighter, shorter and less
which the e-motors replace the original pair costly to make than a comparable DCT.
of clutches and synchronizers.
Number crunching
However, developing more advanced
Top: Paolo Mantelli, head
of performance automotive transmission technologies for what is still a
engineering at Oerlikon Drive very small market sector remains financially
Systems, believes that there is challenging. Transmissions for EVs are still
an industry-wide shift toward
automated transmissions a very niche part for us, admits Bernd
Vahlensieck, ZFs head of driveline technology,
Right: Oerlikons eDCT system advanced engineering and design, who thinks
provides EVs with greater
range, while reducing vehicle that single-speed systems will remain the
weight and battery pack size norm in EVs for some time yet. There is
demand only for niche applications, he adds.

Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology International // January 2015 // 101


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Yet, Cost is less of an obstacle than you the motor for much of the time at around 90%
might think, counters Mantelli, because efficiency instead of 60-70%.
multispeed solutions can use a lower-cost Interestingly, both engineers identify
motor for the same installed performance particular issues, though not least the
as a single-speed transmission. However, expectations of the end user. The challenge
where lowest cost is the main priority, a is to perfectly match a transmission shift
single-speed reduction transmission will event with the electric motor controlling
always have an advantage. torque management and speed, underlines
Cost aside, there are important technical Merkel. The usual expectation for shift
disadvantages to single-speed transmissions. changes with EVs is to be seamless, quiet and
There is a fundamental mismatch between undetectable by the driver.
the rotational speed of the road wheels and Mantelli adds: You cannot separate satisfying
the preferred operating speeds of an e-machine, driver expectations from meeting the other
Mantelli points out. Although it is true that technical requirements. Ultimately, any solution
an electric motor generates maximum torque must be appealing to the consumer in terms of
from zero rpm, the motor efficiency is poor at cost, range, performance and driving comfort.

Transmissions for EVs are still a very niche part


for us. There is demand only for niche applications
Bernd Vahlensieck, head of driveline technology, advanced engineering and design, ZF

such a low speed. For the lowest-cost TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER


solution, a driveline with no reduction
The move away from the traditional
gearbox is attractive, but performance,
engine-gearbox layout, combined with
efficiency and range will all be compromised. increasing electrification in a diversity
Therefore choosing the right number of of market segments, has opened up
ratios is necessary to provide the optimum opportunities for small start-ups as Top: Bernd Vahlensieck, head
solution for a particular application. Modern well as the major suppliers and far of driveline technology at ZF,
says it will take a while before
simulation techniques enable detailed greater potential for technology transfer EVs become mass market
comparisons of vehicle efficiency and between different industries and
performance attributes to be made at the sectors. One example of this comes from Above: ZFs nine-speed
London-based electric motorcycle maker automatic transmission
concept stage, while evaluating the alternatives, combines economy and
Agility Motors, which has won an award
adds the Oerlikon engineering head. performance benefits
from the UK governments Technology
Despite this, the general consensus across Strategy Board for its multispeed Below: Agility Motors,
the industry is that multispeed transmissions transmission for electric vehicles, developers of the Saietta R
can play an important role in maximizing developed initially for a motorbike. sports bike, has designed
energy efficiency levels and, in the case of It literally has no clutch, says Agility a multispeed transmission
pure battery-electric vehicles, increase the CEO Lawrence Marazzi. This means far
overall operating range. fewer components, much lower weight
Transmission efficiency is a key enabler and lower cost, and you can increase
the efficiency and change the way the
that can help optimize battery range and
transmission interacts with the rider if
cost, says BorgWarners Merkel. Multispeed you control various elements.
transmissions also give the OEM the Agilitys debut product, the Saietta
opportunity to operate the motor and the R sports bike, is single-speeder, but
generator in a more efficient range. the multispeed transmission has been
Indeed, according to Merkel, BorgWarners designed to be licensed for a wide
three-speed version of its eGearDrive, in an variety of uses.
electric bus application, enables the 150kW When we developed it, we knew there
motor to operate within a 92-95% efficiency would be a great deal of interest in it for
light commercial vehicles. The system
range for both driven and regenerative
can be scaled and changed for all sorts
braking modes. of other applications, but is absolutely
Mantelli concurs: There is a genuine applicable right now in its current design
improvement in overall efficiency with a for light commercial vehicles, says
multispeed transmission, typically of around Marazzi, describing the technologys
15%. This can be taken as a performance low cost, efficiency and tiny size, and
increase or an extension in range, depending suggesting that it would also be suitable
on the control strategy required. The overall for marine and industrial applications.
efficiency improvement comes from operating

Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology International // January 2015 // 103


TRANSMISSIONS

saving and claimed efficiency improvements


of 10-15% in an EV compared with an
equivalent single-speeder, as well as drawing
less power for shifting than a DCT.
BorgWarners eAWD has hybridization and
powertrain combined into one compact, robust
package consisting of two electric motors as a
rear-axle module. Supplementing the engine-
driven front axle, one motor provides
propulsion torque to the rear wheels and a
smaller second electric motor adjusts the
differential torque left to right between the rear
wheels on a balancer shaft to allow torque
vectoring. This nicely demonstrates how
electrification can complement handling and
stability control technologies, as well as enabling
all-wheel drive. Also suitable for all-electric
vehicles, eAWD eliminates the need for a
mechanical power transfer unit and propshafts.
ZF, too, has been working on an electric
axle drive system: Its an electric drive with
Integrated innovations high power density that is centered on the
For some applications, alternative products axle, with very good driving dynamics and a
are emerging that bridge the gap between the better range, says Vahlensieck. The high-tech
more complex multispeed designs and system is especially, but not exclusively,
lower-cost single-speed simplicity including suited to subcompact and urban vehicles.
those in which the transmission and motors Going a stage further in weight and space
are integrated into a single module. saving, ZFs Electric Twist Beam concept
Oerlikon Grazianos 2SED technology, for (eTB) integrates the transmission and motors
example, is a simpler option than the 4SED into two separate drive units within a
and OGeco offerings, essentially being a semi-automatic suspension system, thus also
two-speed seamless-shifting transaxle enabling torque-vectoring.
designed for passenger cars and light Direct-drive in-wheel drive systems are also
commercial vehicles that can be coupled with on the verge of coming to market. Protean
a transverse electric motor. It has been Electrics Protean Drive, which comprises
defined as perfect for inner city transport, not motors, inverters, control electronics and
only for the reduction of CO2 emissions and software in a unit packaged behind a wheel,
noise, but also for considerable cost savings, went into production this year, and a drivetrain
enthuses Mantelli. The 2SED transmission is now under development for FAW-
has been demonstrated in a Mercedes-Benz Volkswagens Bora sedan in the Chinese market.
eVito electric taxi. Depending on driving
style, compared with a single-speed it showed Multiple outcomes
improved acceleration, gradient climbing and Ultimately, however, it seems that the
top speed, or reduced energy consumption. development of transmissions for electric
Meanwhile, the MSYS multispeed traction and hybrid vehicles will be more about
system developed by Drive System Design in appropriate solutions for different
collaboration with Yasa Motors, MIRA and applications, and different regions or markets,
Jaguar Land Rover integrates an axial flux rather than the emergence of any one
motor with a three-speed hydraulic predominant and all-conquering technology.
powershift transmission to give a 40% weight ZFs Vahlensieck believes that, in the
foreseeable future, there will be mainstream
Top: Oerlikon Grazianos OGeco with a simple one-gear, probably two-step,
hybrid AMT with torque infill provides
very fast shifting, says the developer transmission and niche solutions for special
and maybe not so cost-sensitive applications.
Above: Production of ZFs hybrid Oerlikons Mantelli agrees: The preferred
eight-speed automatic transmission
for passenger car applications at technology depends upon the requirements
the companys Saarbrcken plant of the application. An urban delivery vehicle
with large payload variation, a range-sensitive
Left: ZFs dynamic driveline test rig
for passenger cars, which can be commuter vehicle and a hybrid luxury sports
used for EV and HEV optimization car will each prioritize different aspects
of their performance. We would expect to
tailor a transmission solution individually
for each one.

104 // January 2015 // Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology International


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Degrees of
separation Theres no denying that all-electric commercial
vans are having an impact in specific urban-based
projects, but do hybridized powertrains promise
more versatile and cost-effective solutions?
WORDS: FARAH ALKHALISI

106 // January 2015 // Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology International


COMMERCIAL VEHICLES

W
hile the light commercial vehicle sector The fleet market tends to be quite conservative, as fleet
has been generally slow to adopt managers thoroughly examine new technologies prior to
electric powertrains, vans such as the adoption, says Lisa Jerram, senior analyst at Navigant
Nissan eNV200, Renault Kangoo ZE, Research, on the release of a hybrid and electric truck
Mercedes-Benz Vito E-Cell and Iveco report. The key to market sustainability will be to focus
Daily Electric are now rolling off production lines in only on those applications that provide the greatest
increasing numbers and appearing on delivery routes in payback or other ancillary benefits, and to ensure that the
major cities, having undergone some extensive trial technology is sufficiently reliable for the fleet market. As a
programs. Yet significant barriers remain for fleets and result, Navigant forecasts very modest worldwide sales of
operators in going full battery-electric, and other just 105,000 hybrid and electric trucks a year by 2020,
electrification options are being considered alongside the after a slowing of growth, which it puts down to analysis of
purely plug-in preference. cost paybacks and dependency on governmental subsidies.

Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology International // January 2015 // 107


COMMERCIAL VEHICLES

This echoes feedback from customers. than a system in which the motor works only to assist the
All-electric vehicles come into their own for engine, with the latter demanding heavier, larger and
urban operations and home deliveries, said more expensive batteries.
Jim York, vice president of GoGreen DHL On a smaller scale, the Fuso Canter Eco Hybrid truck
Supply Chain Europe, speaking at the has recently been upgraded; other manufacturers
e-Mobility North Sea Region conference in promising new developments in this arena include Iveco,
London earlier this year. As one of the worlds which showed a concept called Vision at the IAA show.
largest freight and delivery services, DHL This features Ivecos Dual Energy powertrain integrating
operates 60,000 vans in Germany alone kinetic energy recovery, an electric motor-generator and
where it incorporates Deutsche Post and transfer unit plus electric braking and steering into a
its in this market that the company has been chassis driven by a 2.3-liter common-rail diesel. The
trialing the new generation of delivery company says such a powertrain realizes a 25% reduction
vehicles, including the Volkswagen e-Caddy. in fuel consumption and CO2 emissions, along with an
However, while saying that driving range electric-drive range sufficient for local or low-speed usage,
itself is not necessarily an issue for inner-city up to 50km/h (31mph).
usage, York says additional key challenges
include the massive impacts on a
vehicles energy consumption of
heating and cooling, the need to
upsize vans to get the desired
payload, and limitations of
We see the same technology trends as
local infrastructures to we do in passenger cars, but slightly
support a number of vehicles.
If thats not enough, DHL has later and at lower adoption rates
also found that on low-mileage Paul Rivera, managing director, hybrid and electronic systems, Ricardo
routes, fuel cost savings were
not much of a gain over the return
from economical diesel vehicles, and
with high purchase prices and lease costs,
the total cost of ownership of electric vans
was higher in these instances. With this in
mind, although still planning to incorporate
some EVs into its fleet for quiet overnight
deliveries, for example the courier
conglomerate has been increasingly looking at
hybrid powertrains as a solution, seeing them
as being more versatile with their increased
range and greater flexibility, and thus more
commercially viable.

Heavy-duty hybrids
Hybridization technologies are already
in production in buses and heavy-duty
commercial vehicles around the world, such
as the Volvo FE Hybrid. At the 2014 IAA
show in Hanover, Germany, in September,
MAN revealed its TGX hybrid concept, a
parallel hybrid with a 440ps diesel engine
and a 130kW electric motor, the latter
acting as an alternator under coasting and
braking. MAN believes that a parallel hybrid
configuration is the most appropriate for
long-distance heavy trucks, with the
maximum opportunity for brake energy
recuperation, storage and reuse. The German
OEM has also been testing its range-extended
Metropolis prototype a waste collection
vehicle with a 203kW motor driving its The all-new Iveco
rear wheels via a two-speed automatic Vision, featuring the
manufacturers Dual
transmission, plus a Volkswagen V6 TDI Energy powertrain,
sourced engine acting as a range-extender was unveiled at the
and generator but sees electric-only 2014 IAA Show
operation as being technically more complex

108 // January 2015 // Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology International


COMMERCIAL VEHICLES

Quick and cost-effective payback 1


But its not just the OEMs that have been busy
developing e-powertrains for van and truck
applications alike. Modular systems such as
the ZF TraXon Hybrid development offer
further possibilities. The German Tier 1s
module, mounted in the clutch bell housing,
integrates a 120kW e-motor and enables
low-speed all-electric driving, stop/start,
energy recuperation and boosting of the IC
engine, as well as the direction of otherwise
wasted energy for auxiliary power supply to
items such as cooler units or to facilitate
additional functions such as coasting (engine
switch-off at speed) and quiet, efficient
electric power take-offs, all to give a projected
fuel saving of around 5%. Bosch, meanwhile,
suggests fuel savings of up to 15% from its
parallel hybrid system, as tested in a 40
metric ton truck, which enables all-electric
start-up, a short electric-only range, stop/start 1. The MAN Metropolis 2
and electric powering of peripheral systems. prototype combines a
203kW motor driving the
Boschs compact module slots between an rear wheels via a 2-speed
existing engine and gearbox, and can work in transmission, and a
combination with waste heat recovery for Volkswagen V6 TDI engine
energy saving at different points in its 2. The Metropolis is a
operating cycle. range-extended waste
Paul Rivera, managing director for hybrid collection vehicle that
offers local authorities
and electronic systems at Ricardo, says that a low emissions solution

Electrification is going to have


to apply to a lot more vehicles varying optimum technologies differ by sector: It
depends on the size of the vehicle and the typical overall
than just that small niche duty cycle. He adds, So the additional cost for a full
Jules Carter, engineering director, new product innovation, GKN hybrid system can be very expensive, because of the
energy storage and the power electronics. In the smaller
vehicles, there is a good amount of work right now
investigating mild hybrid and 48V technologies even for
commercial vehicle applications. If you get into 3/4 tons,
3. ZFs TraXon automatic then plug-in hybrids are a potential solution. As you get
transmission system can
becoupled with five drive into very large trucks, full hybrids, because of the mass of
modules (from left): a single that truck on very small grades, even on a 1% grade
or twin plate clutch; a dual- they can pick up 100kW in energy recuperation.
clutch module; a hybrid
module; an engine- Ricardos projections see PHEV and pure electric
dependent PTO; and a commercial vehicles becoming more widely adopted from
torque converter clutch around 2020, with full hybrids having a mainstream
3 presence in the heavy-duty sector from around 2025 and
beyond. Rivera describes plug-in hybrid applications as
being well-suited to smaller to mid-sized applications on a
predictable duty cycle, with the opportunities
to create export power ideal for utility
or telecommunications organizations
with the need for on-site power
but with low-cost micro-hybrid
and mild hybrid technologies as
a much nearer-term prospect.
Were seeing OEMs looking
at whether or not they can apply
48V mild hybrid system with a
10-15kW belt-starter generator
with the benefit of stop/start

Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology International // January 2015 // 109


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While the electrification of
existing IC models may be
preferred to BEV solutions in
the near-to-medium term, the
DELIVER prototype (Design
of Electric Light Vans for gained space can be used for
technology, a smaller battery pack and a small Environment-impact Reduction) cargo volume; it resulted in a
amount of regeneration, adds Rivera. In showcases the benefits of a flat and very wide cargo floor.
addition, if you have the right-size battery purpose-built electric vehicle. A 2-speed transmission is
pack, you can run your air-conditioner or Produced as part of an EC- accommodated, as well as an
your heater for a little time before the vehicle funded project, coordinated by 80-cell Li-NMC battery pack,
has to restart, with the 48V bus able to take ika (Institut fr Kraftfahrzeuge) and the prototype is capable of
at RWTH Aachen University a 100km driving range and a top
on these and other power-hungry ancillary
and involving partners including speed of 100km/h, with a 700kg
demands. The Ricardo MD is also keen to Fiat, Volkswagen and Michelin, payload. Although a major
point out developments in the car market it was created for tasks such challenge remains with the low
that will start to deliver economies of scale, as postal and supermarket energy density of the battery,
noting, We see the same technology trends deliveries or urban/suburban its high production cost and
as we do in passenger cars, but slightly later city council usage. Besides its performance degradation over
and at lower adoption rates. flexible walk-through cabin time, says Lesemann, many
Similarly, the need for lower-cost solutions developed to prioritize driver parts of electric drivetrains have
is also driving the development of flywheel- safety and stress-reduction, it a very mature level or are used
has a powertrain layout that in series production already.
drive technologies. In electric buses 1. The MAN TGX hybrid
maximizes its capabilities. Its Findings from the DELIVER
particularly, you can be spending three or rear-mounted pair of 57kW, program will inform the project concept features a 440ps
four times more on a battery pack than what diesel powertrain and
42Nm Michelin in-wheel motors partners and the demonstrator a 130kW electric motor
our entire system costs, states Jules Carter, represent a very compact vehicle will remain available
engineering director for new product drivetrain, explains ika project for future research, not only 2. MAN believes that a
innovation at GKN Land Systems, who also coordinator Micha Lesemann. on electric drives, but also on parallel hybrid setup, such
As they only very slightly aspects such as ergonomics, as the one in the TGX
points to the problem of battery charging concept, is the most
downtime. We dont use a battery, we use increase the wheel arches, the design and charging, he adds.
appropriate for long-
quite a simple and straightforward flywheel distance heavy trucks
system, he says. GKNs electric-drive system,
2
combining an EVO motor and Gyrodrive
flywheel, is showing 25% fuel savings on
urban bus routes, and a three-year payback
on its upfront cost highly worthwhile for a
typical operator keeping a bus for 12 years.
Likewise, such an energy recuperation
system is also well suited to other vehicles

Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology International // January 2015 // 111


COMMERCIAL VEHICLES

1 1. DHL is actively looking to


reduce its carbon footprint
by using more vehicles
with state-of-the-art
efficient powertrains.
Pictured here is a DHL
delivery truck with a Volvo
FE Hybrid drivetrain

2. Volvos hybrid
powertrain includes a
7-liter diesel and an
electric motor. The two
power sources share a
propshaft, with an I-Shift
gearbox handling shifting

operating on a stop/start cycle, such as urban


delivery vans and refuse trucks. In fact, the
compact motor is apt for fitment in vehicles
from passenger cars through to 20-ton
trucks, as well as specialist construction or
agricultural vehicles, and can be used as a
motor or a generator in a range-extended
system. And if thats not impressive enough,
GKNs eAxle brings further gains, as Carter
explains: The benefit of the electric axle is
that it allows you to make the diesel engine
a lot smaller, particularly if you use the
flywheel as energy storage, because if you
need 200kW to drive your truck, you can
get 100kW out of the flywheel and 100kW
out of the engine, and then when youre not The key to market sustainability will
accelerating, the engine will catch up and
recharge the flywheel. be to focus only on those applications
Small is beautiful that provide the greatest payback
Given the modest rate of development, speed Lisa Jerram, senior analyst, Navigant Research
of adoption and market demand, it seems that
all-electric commercial vehicles are likely, in
the short to medium term at least, to remain a transportation, as well as having possibilities for full
minority compared with both mild and full on-demand hire and sharing schemes. Volkswagen is
hybrid models although thats not to say expected to put its e-Load Up concept based on the
that the market is not developing. Zones popular Up city car into production as a way of entering
with noise or emissions legislation and this emerging market segment.
enforcement, and specific applications on And while conversions of existing larger IC vans remain
industrial sites or business parks, will all call predominant due to cost constraints, ground-up developments
for electric-only running modes and there is and purpose-designed prototypes such as the DELIVER
a lot of movement in very small commercial development demonstrate some innovative thinking (see
vehicles, for campuses and for inner-city Special delivery on page 111). Nonetheless, it looks as
kinds of driving applications, notes Ricardos though incremental degrees of hybridization will play a
Rivera, citing the Renault Twizy as an greater role in the nearer-term process of a transition to
example of the sort of micro-EV under electromobility in the commercial vehicle sector, with
consideration for urban operation. Such differing technologies in different types and sizes of
low-cost electric quadricycle-type vehicles, vehicle. Theres always going to be a real inner-city need
or even scooter-style three-wheelers like the for zero-emissions electric vehicles, but electrification is
Toyota i-Road, are being marketed as last-km/ going to have to apply to a lot more vehicles than just that
mile solutions for deliveries and personal small niche, sums up GKNs Carter.

112 // January 2015 // Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology International


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LIQUID AIR ENGINE

Liquid
assets
An engine concept that stores energy in
the form of liquid air has the potential to
dramatically improve the efficiency of diesel
powertrains and refrigeration systems
WORDS: PHILIP BORGE
1

T
2 he BBCs flagship science television program,
Tomorrows World, has been off the air for over
a decade, but its ability to inspire innovation
continues, not least with the Dearman engine.
The concept is the brainchild of Peter
Dearman, a classic British garden shed inventor.
Dreaming of a fossil-fuel-free world since the 1960s,
Dearman was inspired by a Tomorrows World report on
liquid air and its potential application as a fuel source.
Air turns into a liquid when cooled to around -196C,
a process that can be driven by renewable or wrong-time/
off-peak energy. Around 710 liters of ambient air is the
equivalent of one liter of liquid air, which can be stored
in an unpressurized, insulated vessel.
The science behind the Dearman engine is rather
simple. When liquid air is reintroduced to ambient or
low-grade waste heat, it boils and turns back into a gas,
expanding 710 times in volume. This expansion can be
harnessed to drive an engine, while the by-product of cold
exhaust is available for any processes that require both
power and cooling functions.
The Dearman Engine uses this process, adding a heat
exchange fluid [a combination of water and glycol] into
the mix, promoting extremely rapid rates of heat exchange
to occur within the engine, explains Nick Owen, chief
technology officer at Dearman. This process gives rise
to near-isothermal expansion.

114 // January 2015 // Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology International


LIQUID AIR ENGINE

The Dearman refrigeration unit is a major up to 25%, decreases CO2 emissions and is
cheaper to run. And due to the Dearman
advance because it produces both cooling TRU being zero emissions at its point of use,
it delivers huge improvements in air quality.
and shaft power from a single unit of fuel According to a recent report [Liquid Air on
Nick Owen, chief technology officer, Dearman
the Highway, June 2014], introducing just
13,000 Dearman engines would reduce NOx
emissions by the same amount as removing
Combining cooling and power 80,000 Euro VI vehicles from the road, or 1.2
The primary application for the Dearman engine is in million Euro VI diesel cars. And in terms of
transport refrigeration, as Owen explains: A refrigerated particulate matter, it would be equivalent to
vehicle is cooled using a truck refrigeration unit (TRU), removing 367,000 such vehicles from service.
which is powered by a secondary diesel engine, thereby This application, which is partly funded
consuming up to 20% of the vehicles fuel. The TRU by a grant from Innovate UK, is gearing up
engine is only compliant with off-highway regulations, for on-vehicle demonstration at the Motor
which are a light-touch for low-power units, so it can Industry Research Association (MIRA).
emit up to six times the NOx and 29 times the particulate Commercial field trials are planned for 2015,
matter of a modern Euro VI truck propulsion engine. The in collaboration with Hubbard Products.
Dearman refrigeration unit is a major advance because it
produces both cooling and shaft power from a single unit Recycling waste heat
of fuel essentially giving two bangs for one buck. Whats Another use for the Dearman innovation is
more, it is zero emissions at its point of use, emitting only as a waste-heat hybrid for heavy-duty urban
1. The Dearman engine is a novel piston
cold air as exhaust. engine powered by the phase-change
vehicles. The Dearman heat hybrid, Owen
In this particular application, the fuel is vaporized in a expansion of liquid air or liquid nitrogen claims, can solve an issue affecting IC engines
heat exchanger inside the refrigerated compartment of the 2. Peter Dearman, inventor of the Dearman that around a third of the energy derived
engine, cooling it and using the expansion to drive the liquid air engine, was inspired by the idea from fuel is lost as low-grade waste heat. The
unit. Shaft power can be used to power a conventional of cryogens being used as a source of fuel Dearman uses this waste heat to boil the liquid
refrigeration compressor, or for auxiliary power. 3. The Dearman engine can be used either air and warm the heat-exchange fluid. The
as a prime mover (main engine) or as a
The impact of Dearmans vision could be considerable. secondary unit to recover waste heat from power produced is fed into the engine, enabling
As well as being quieter, it reduces fuel consumption by an IC engine in order to increase efficiency it to be downsized and increasing its efficiency.

Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology International // January 2015 // 115


LIQUID AIR ENGINE

1 Heat exchanger (2) providing cooling to


goods compartment from refrigeration unit

Heat exchanger (1) providing cooling


to goods compartment from cryogen

Refrigeration unit and Dearman engine

Cryogenic storage vessel

A Dearman heat-hybrid system would be 1. Dearman is targeting commercial vehicle one located each side of the piston ring, tribology is an
cheap to build, costing much less than an fleets as its primary market, with a specific area of ongoing development. That said, we are making
focus on refrigerator trailers, as they have a
electric hybrid bus, and has the potential to huge impact on air pollution but are likely to good progress.
reduce the diesel consumption of a vehicle remain untouched by new EU air pollution Indeed, the Dearman engine also has the potential for
by up to 25%, suggests Owen. legislation due to come into effect by 2020 integration into existing engine architectures. It shares a
As well as reducing fuel consumption and 2. In 2014, Dearman, Loughborough similar structure to current IC engines, thereby enabling
University, MIRA and Air Products won
emissions, the heat-hybrid technology could funding from the Technology Strategy manufacturing infrastructure to be carried over easily.
also be used to provide free cooling. In a bus Board in order to build and test a liquid air In terms of putting one in the vehicle, its a straight
in a hot country, such as India or Tanzania, engine fitted in a commercial vehicle swap in truck refrigeration or a prime mover so the
where we have already conducted some 3. The low-energy density of liquid air challenge is packaging the tank, not the engine. In the
storage means that it could rival electric
high-level market studies, this would mean battery power in vehicle applications
heat-hybrid it sits alongside the downsized main engine,
taking the air-conditioning load away from and we have a package solution that works on a bus.
the main drive engine. But Owen admits that refrigeration is the easiest market.
There is also a proposed third application Think of it as a way of harvesting waste power from a
in development a small, low-cost, zero- liquid nitrogen cooling system. That being said, with the
emissions unit. next-generation engine that we are currently designing,
I think we can use almost half the liquid nitrogen of
Proving grounds a simple system that cools by evaporation only.
With such wide uses on the horizon, the
company is working hard to prove its concept. Industry adoption
We have two engines running: one in our Following the successful completion of tests at MIRA, the
lab and another, integrated into a refrigeration truck refrigeration engine is due to commence commercial
system, being fitted to the truck by MIRA, field trials with Hubbard and a logistics operator in 2015.
adds Owen. It has made the heat exchangers Low-volume manufacture is currently scheduled for 2016.
thoroughly cold on the laboratory floor, so I The heat-hybrid waste-heat recovery system will be on a
cant wait to see the results in the truck. We testbed in 2015.
are also making great progress in the lab The development program has already brought about
we have already trebled the power output US$13.7m of investment to the UK, as well as sustaining
and improved efficiency by as much as 30% more than 40 jobs. The Centre for Low Carbon Futures
3
on the initial spec. and the University of Birmingham both estimate that the
However, the development process has engine could, if it develops as expected, be worth at least
encountered some challenges, including 2,100 jobs to the UK by 2025.
achieving adequate efficiencies from the unit Innovative clean technologies tend to come at a much
and maintaining durability. The isothermal higher cost than incumbents, and this is often the reason
process worked quite well out of the box, for slow adoption within industry, however the Dearman
efficiency gains have come from optimizing engine breaks this orthodoxy, states Owen. It would be
all the variables and attacking parasitic losses, economic without subsidy, and this is one reason why
and the next engine will be even better. The liquid air is rapidly becoming recognized as a promising
basic unit is now durable, but with two fluids, energy vector in the transport industry.

116 // January 2015 // Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology International


GKN BMW i8 E & H V Tech Intl ad.indd 3 05/11/2014 15:56
MAN AND EV MACHINE

Sixth
sense
As technology continues to advance, our reliance on and
relationship with machines deepens. This years LA Auto
Show Design Challenge explores how future engineering
innovations will transform human-machine interfaces
that connect with our senses, predict our next moves and
create a more human-like relationship with our vehicles, in
turn helping to realize a truly sustainable transportation network
WORDS: DEAN SLAVNICH

118// January 2015 // Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology International


MAN AND EV MACHINE

INFINITI DESIGN SAN DIEGO


This concept introduces a brand-new universal fuselage
pod that can transform into three vehicle types and will be
used for Infinitis unique triathlon competition, the ARC (Air,
Rally, Circuit) race. The first stretch of the race is a Formula 1
grand prix course from Los Angeles to Las Vegas. The second
portion is a desert race, which requires driving an off-road
buggy to the Grand Canyon. And the final leg of the race is a
gymkhana-style jet race through virtual pylons back to L A. The
ARC triathlon will also be the debut of Infinitis new futuristic
human-machine interface called Synaptiq, a system that will
make the driver and machine become one by connecting the
Synaptiq SUIT (Symbiotic User Interface Technology) through
spinal lock attachment. It will enhance the drivers passion
and performance for racing as well as influence the design of a
vehicle that will provoke imagination.

Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology International // January 2015 // 119


MAN AND EV MACHINE

QOROS DESIGN SHANGHAI


Underpinning the basis of the Qoros entry is a digital and
physical concept, codenamed Q: Qoros Qloud Qubed, where
the vehicle will become an intelligent, multi-dimensional
personal management assistant. Q learns from the user
over time through the five senses: sight, touch, smell, taste
and sound. Whats more, the dynamics of the relationship
between Q and the user is modeled on how human
relationships develop over time. Q learns the users tastes,
favorite restaurants, places regularly frequented, music
preferences, friends, family and much more during
the ownership period, and is designed to maximize safety
by identifying when the user is acting irresponsibly and
quickly switching to automated driving mode.

120// January 2015 // Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology International


MAN AND EV MACHINE

ACURA
At the core of this entry is a human-machine interface
concept for Acura that comprises an exterior and interior
shell, connected through a modular adjustable mesh
material that can flex to suit a passengers preferences.
Able to accommodate one or two passengers, the interior
is constructed out of a fabric-like material that can be
altered simply by pushing or pulling on the surface. With
the help of biometrics and repeated use, this vehicle will
be able to learn the users preferences, anticipate their
needs and have the ability even to change its shape.

Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology International // January 2015 // 121


MAN AND EV MACHINE

PETERBILT MOTORS
The SymbiotUX (pronounced symbiotics), is a concept
based on the projection that the future of transportation
will be dominated by a transformational shift toward
vehicles operating together in truly symbiotic
relationships that will, in turn, improve efficiency,
safety, wellness and travel enjoyment. An important
part of this transformation will be the role of the truck
driver, which will grow in stature and esteem, similar to
that of an airplane pilot. SymbiotUX is a design concept
that explores and illustrates how human-machine
interfaces will be transformed by this future reality. The
road pilot will have greater responsibility and therefore
the spaces and interfaces of a vehicle in pilot mode will
be purpose-driven to enhance pilot capabilities, leading
to energy efficiency, fewer accidents, less traffic
congestion and lower overall wear and tear.

Honda Advanced Design Tokyo


The CARpet is a human-focused interior
consisting of two elements a carpet
and a ball. The former is a highly flexible
platform used to create a seamless and
uninterrupted space with the freedom to
change its shape to accommodate each user.
Whether alone or traveling with friends,
users can manipulate the cars interior and
make intuitive and natural forms for their
ride. The second element, the Honda ball,
allows drivers to interact with the vehicle
during their autonomous journey. Within its
closed shape, the Honda ball provides users
with a calm interface that responds to voice,
touch and gesture commands for human-to-
vehicle communication. In active mode, the
driver can use the ball to control the car; the
synergy between car and machine emulates
that between a rider and their horse. Via the
Honda ball, the car also interprets driver
commands to determine its optimum move.

122// January 2015 // Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology International


TIRE RESEARCH

Reinventing
the
wheel
A research team at Oak Ridge National Laboratory believes
that recycled tires could form the basis of a new material
for the anodes in lithium-ion batteries for electric vehicles
WORDS: MIKE MAGDA

P
ioneering research has demonstrated that
modified carbon black recovered from recycled
tires has the potential to outperform graphite
as an anode material in lithium-ion batteries,
and at a lower cost. But the challenges ahead,
according to scientists from the Oak Ridge National
Laboratory in Tennessee, include demonstrating the
method with large batteries and adapting the process
to a broad industrial scale.
We need more process optimization, admits Parans
Paranthaman, who along with Amit Naskar, led a team
of researchers to the discovery, which could have a great
impact on lithium-ion battery production at a time when
there is increased emphasis on making electric vehicles
more accessible to mainstream consumers. Were
thinking you could save up to 10% on battery costs.
Advances in lithium battery technology
and production have also made it possible for energy
produced by wind and solar methods to be stored, but
EVs are drawing more attention following President
Obamas launch of the EV Everywhere Challenge and
news that Tesla is building a US$5bn lithium-ion battery
gigafactory near Reno, Nevada. Analysts predict that the
facility will create a massive shortage of graphite unless
Parans Paranthaman new mines come online or a suitable anode substitute
co-led the team of
scientists at Oak Ridge material is found.
National Laboratory

124 // January 2015 // Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology International


TIRE RESEARCH

Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology International // January 2015 // 125


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TIRE RESEARCH

Left: A comparison of
the nitrogen absorption
and pore volume of
graphite powder, control
carbon and tailored carbon

Carbon black is the new gold According to Paranthamans estimates, the


The man-made carbon black developed by the Oak Ridge current average figure of US$400 per kilowatt-hour
team is similar but superior to graphite in initial tests. for automotive battery power will need to drop to less
According to a paper published in the RSC Advances, than US$300 before electric vehicles become both
a small laboratory-scale battery was subjected to 100 practical and affordable for mainstream consumers.
charge cycles. The capacity then measured nearly US$250 is really the level at which you can penetrate
390mAh/g of carbon anode, which, according the market, he adds.
to Oak Ridge exceeds the best properties of The research team conducted tests using
commercial graphite. 250g batches of pulverized tire rubber. The
This technology addresses the need to electromechanical studies were based on the
develop an inexpensive, environmentally benign production of a CR2032 coin-sized (20mm) cell,
carbon composite anode material with a high- commonly used in calculators and small devices.
surface area, higher-rate capability and long-term The anode material was constructed using 80%
stability, explains Naskar. recovered carbon and 5% commercial carbon. A
While the technology is still in its laboratory traditional binding material was used to adhere the
infancy, some of the major steps in the eventual mixture onto copper foil in order to form the anode.
manufacturing process are already part and parcel of Charge/discharge cycling between 0V and 3.0V was
the tire recycling infrastructure. According to the teams conducted at room temperature under different rates
paper, the practice involves shredding waste tires and on the test cells, and the results were compared with
removing all metallic substances. The micronized tire graphite-based anodes.
rubber is then digested in a hot oleum bath based on a
sulfuric acid formula to yield a sulfonated rubber slurry
that is filtered, washed and compressed into a solid cake. This technology addresses the need to
The carbon black is recovered from this material through
pyrolysis a procedure that heats the rubber without develop an inexpensive, environmentally
burning in an oxygen-free atmosphere. In this process
the waste tires are basically distilled down into fuels,
benign carbon composite anode material
gases and carbon. Amit Naskar, group leader, carbon and composites, Oak Ridge National Laboratory
Numerous tire recycling operations throughout the
world already have shredding or pulverizing capabilities,
and carbon black is being recovered from shredded tires
through many pyrolysis facilities. Much of that carbon
black, however, is suitable only for low-grade applications
such as hoses, toner or ink pigmentation. Even high-
quality carbon black manufactured from premium
feedstock is not suitable as an anode material.
However, the proprietary rubber pretreatment developed
by the Oak Ridge team, combined with pyrolysis, results
in a carbon monolith with a very different microstructure
that makes it suitable for manufacturing anodes.
The Oak Ridge research began when Naskar, a member
of the carbon group, teamed up with Paranthaman in the
battery group. He understood all the chemistry, says Right: The process to turn
recycled tires into anode
Paranthaman. We were looking at low-cost batteries and material now needs to be
testing different sources of carbon when we zoomed in on proved in larger batteries,
carbon black from tires. and on an industrial scale

Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology International // January 2015 // 127


TIRE RESEARCH

Now we need to demonstrate this on a large battery, 1 2


says Paranthaman. Were looking for companies to license
the technology and work with us in the next phase.

Hazard warning
Despite such promise, researchers havent fully analyzed
the industrial scales possible with this process. One ton
of tires might require hundreds of gallons of pretreatment
solution before slurry is filtered and compressed into
cakes for the pyrolysis.
We are looking at demonstrating [recycled tires] as
an energy material, states Paranthaman, adding that 1. A transmission electron According to the complaint, The [pyrolysis] process
recovery rates could be as high as 50% of tire material. microscopy image showing turns a non-hazardous material scrap tire into a
control recovered carbon,
There are numerous pyrolysis operations around which has the morphology hazardous substance, a low-grade oil that may be used as
the world using recycled tires as feedstock especially of fused particles with fuel after additional refining. Tire pyrolysis facilities also
in India, China and Eastern Europe. Carbon black is irregular shapes have an inherent risk of fire and explosion if not properly
recovered along with fuel oil and gas which is often 2. Ground carbon produced designed, tested, operated and maintained.
used at the plant for heating operations. But recycled- from the sulfonated tire- However, there are tire pyrolysis locations that have the
tire pyrolysis plants are often difficult to finance because rubber-derived monolith blessing of local and federal agencies, and new-generation,
has the morphology of a
of the high tonnage of tires required for them to be cost uniaxial nanostructure closed-loop plants coming through from the likes of
effective and the low value of recovered products. In the Pyrolyx. The technology and hardware are available for
USA, environmental issues can also be a barrier. For clean, safe operations on a global scale. Tire pyrolysis
example, the state of Texas recently filed a suit against plants have even been listed on eBay. And if the Oak
a large recycling plant near the Mexico border, which Ridge research can be applied to an industrial scale, then
it accused of engaging in hazardous and unauthorized supplying the battery market offers the profit potential that
pyrolysis operations. investors may need to launch new and larger facilities.

FRUGAL FORMULA
Motorsport has long served as a proving They had to develop the
ground for developing everyday tires. And in
this respect, Formula E, the worlds first fully batteries to run long enough for
electric global racing series, has provided
the ideal opportunity for Michelin to further us to test and compare the tires
improve the energy efficiency of its road
Pascal Couasnon, motorsport director, Michelin
products as well as its production processes.
The French company was awarded the
contract as tire supplier to the championship
back in 2012, and it took just one year for the acceleration. We also didnt have a car, so we Around 100 designs were analyzed virtually
team to develop the Michelin Pilot Sport EV had to try and simulate that. using Michelins in-house developed software,
according to the FIAs technical requirements. To conserve battery power, the tires rolling before the selection was narrowed down. We
At the time, the layout of the tracks was resistance has been optimized. In addition, built the tires and mechanically tested around
unknown and a final specification for the car teams will have just one set of tires to last 20 solutions in the lab for safety. Rig testing
had not been finalized, which presented an them an entire race day. Our goal is to show also helped the team to optimize durability.
interesting challenge to the development team. that we can produce a very fast tire that works For track testing, a dummy vehicle was built
That was one area where we had to work with in both the wet and the dry. By doing that, we to mimic the load and weight distribution of
the organizer, says Michelins motorsport can use what we learn on track in our road a Formula E car. They had to develop the
director, Pascal Couasnon. At least we knew tires. The tread pattern is also close to that of batteries to run long enough for us to test
what would be punishing for the tire either the Pilot Sport Cup 2 road tire. This will enable and compare the tires, Couasnon adds.
full speed under loads or at low speed and full us to prepare for the evolution of the next Initially, test drivers chose a track layout
generation of Pilot Sport family tires. We have that focused on road-holding, with each
used very sophisticated compounds that can corner broken down into four zones: braking,
resist extreme conditions, Couasnon explains. corner entry, apex and corner exit.
This also means a reduction in the number Once the production-spec race car became
of tires produced and transported to each available in 2014, track testing began at
race (around 200 for 40 cars), which is more Monteblanco, Spain; Clermont-Ferrand,
environmentally friendly. France; and Donington Park, UK.
To further increase the transferability By the beginning of April 2014, we had
of technology from the track to the road, narrowed the choice to four, Couasnon notes.
Michelin opted for an 18in tire: We had A test session at Frances Issoire Auverdrive
the idea to use larger tires big wheels on Circuit (with all the Formula E technical
open-wheel cars. If you look at the tires on partners) analyzed the four options before
most single-seaters now, they have a very tall a final selection was made.
sidewall, which is something you dont see on The Pilot Sport EV is produced at Michelins
the street, says Couasnon. Cataroux factory in Clermont-Ferrand.

128 // January 2015 // Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology International


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HYBRID RACERS

Long-distance
runner
WORDS: BRIAN LABAN

The Toyota TS040 has consistently


been the fastest car in this years World
Endurance Championship. E&H got the
inside track on its digital development

130 // January 2015 // Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology International


HYBRID RACERS

S
itting at the pinnacle of sportscar
racing, the World Endurance
Championship (WEC) this
season has brought in sweeping
changes in the all-hybrid
manufacturer ranks of the LMP1 Le Mans
prototypes. Alongside extensive safety-
oriented amendments, the new regulations
demanded a 30% reduction in overall fuel
use. But, as it turns out, race engineers
are just as clever as the rule makers,
so at Le Mans in June the new cars not
only satisfied the revised regs without
embarrassing economy-driving tactics, but
actually went quicker than ever before.
The new rules also aim to further
improve parity between disparate hybrid
solutions, including Audis turbodiesel/
flywheel combination; Toyotas naturally
aspirated gasoline/supercapacitor; and
the returning Porsches small-capacity
turbocharged gasoline/battery hybrid.
That also meant that the 2014 Audi and
Toyota racers were in effect as new as the
all-new Porsche 919 Hybrid.

Virtual reality
Toyotas focus switched to its 2014 TS040
immediately after Le Mans 2013, aiming
to retain the best ideas (although not
necessarily hardware) of the outgoing
TS030 and further optimize performance
and reliability where the new regulations
opened doors including being able to use
the high-powered, four-wheel-drive hybrid
technology it had available since 2012,
but whose use had been prevented by the
regulations.
Design of the new car started in
November 2012, with the very first
monocoque (the component needing
the longest lead time) laid down around
September 2013 for roll-out in January
2014. But Toyota has one complication that

Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology International // January 2015 // 131


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HYBRID RACERS

that Audi and Porsche dont, namely chassis


and powertrain development taking place on RACING RIVAL: PORSCHE 919 HYBRID
different continents. TMG (Toyota Motorsport)
physically tests individual chassis elements in Porsche followed an essentially traditional V4 only became evident at roll-out, but
virtual and component-rig development was severe enough to cause suspension
Cologne, with weekly video conferences on
path, but initial track testing of the 919 breakages and even distort driver feedback,
the testing/design process of all powertrain Hybrid, from June 2013, highlighted that as it blanketed crucial details of the
elements in Japan, using CAD models to pitfall identified by Toyota: the knock-on underlying chassis feel. It triggered a major
progress layout and installation work as well effect of unforeseen problems with a key engine redesign, costing the program
as virtual development. component on other areas. In Porsches valuable time and underlining the value of
All virtual analysis is done on open case, a major vibration issue with the 2-liter a truly connected virtual regime.
TMG-developed software, to plug-and-play
external data around the main parameters.
So a powertrain from Japan can be example, a gearbox seizes beyond a rev limit,
plugged into a chassis from Cologne but fixing that reveals the clutch overheats if
without it ever being there, and its used for too long over that same limit. HILs
compatibility and performance parallel approach eliminates the chain reaction.
assessed within the virtual car.
A key element in this phase is More than a shell
hardware-in-the-loop simulation, With HIL, an overall shell model is developed
which simulates inputs such as at concept stage, with individual component
engine, gearbox, ECU, chassis models developed in parallel. Continuous
and even the driver more evaluation of component concepts is possible
dynamically than using recorded on the shell, which in turn gradually becomes
track-session data. For example, HIL more refined. The more data thats submitted,
recognizes that if the engine gives more the more accurate the simulation. Problems
power, as well as the car going faster, the caused by the interaction of components are

VS
suspension may endure greater forces, seen at an early stage and refined out. For
whereas simply replaying speed-related example, given 2014s new parameters, ECUs
track data wouldnt change those forces. were changed to simulate new fuel/energy
TMG started what it describes as its control systems.
groundbreaking use of HIL a decade ago, Wind tunnel results are linked directly to
during Toyotas F1 period, and more than 10 HIL and anything that reaches a physical
man-years went into developing the system. model has been pre-validated as a potential
In 2011, TS030 became Toyotas first complete improvement in CFD, minimizing cost,
car developed essentially from scratch using saving time and setting challenging targets.
HIL a far bigger and more complicated task Continuously updated wind-tunnel results
than the incremental F1 changes for which (TMG has its own tunnel on-site) are returned
the system had previously been used. to the CFD simulations, not only to feed
HILs connected approach makes the main information but also to improve correlation.
car functions modular in the virtual In this respect, Toyota cites very good
environment, so any virtual data set can be correlation between virtual and physical aero
swapped for a real-life set at any given time. data, but admits that empirical assessment on
Any improvement in simulation accuracy of track is difficult. Using Flow Vis is useful, but
one module (such as the engine) has a direct the main correlation for model versus full-size
(positive) effect on the accuracy of all the car is in the tunnel. Correlating any
other modules. The key benefit of simulating discrepancy between 60% and the full-size
all parts in parallel is to remove the risk of car is typically done once for each generation.
finding knock-on problems at roll-out. In Knowing how the model behaves with
linear development, individual areas can powertrain variations enables more confident
work perfectly in isolation, but many problems prediction of drag and downforce targets. For
emerge when parts come together. So, for TS040, that meant being able to quantify how
drag/downforce balance had shifted with the
fuel-saving regulations.
RACING RIVAL: AUDI R18 E-TRON QUATTRO HIL draws from a seven-post rig for
assessing complete suspension/vertical
Data capture and analysis dont stop after the development phase. Audis 2014 R18 e-tron
dynamics; MTS 329 rig-testing of complete
quattro monitors more than 1,000 channels of onboard information, generating more than
20Mb of data per lap transmitted selectively from car to garage in preset cycles (some front and rear suspensions for performance
individual elements lasting only milliseconds), or as needed, mainly in short data-bursts as and reliability; a transmission lubrication rig
the car passes the pits. The on-car electronic architecture links multiple ECUs via a CANbus for functionality and oil system optimization
network, and as well as familiar mechanical elements, now meters instantaneous and (such as reducing tank capacity); wheel-
cumulative fuel-flow, hybrid-energy deployment, cockpit temperature and GPS-generated bearing rigs; full powertrain testing on a
road speed and location information under caution periods for official monitoring. high-dynamic engine dynamometer and
driving simulator information.

Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology International // January 2015 // 133


HYBRID RACERS

1. A 60% model of TS030,


predecessor to Toyotas current
car, in one of TMGs two wind
tunnels. Both have continuous
steel-belt rolling roads with a
maximum speed of 70m/sec

2. A TS040 gearbox on the


transmission lubrication test
rig. By simulating the g-forces
and analyzing the oil flow, the
oil tank can be reduced in size
as less contingency is required

3. The Le Mans track, used


for the World Endurance
Championship, is available in
TMGs high-tech simulator

TMG says that the big question for driving Early in the design process, digital tools
simulation is, Can we solve this using a can also predict key driving characteristics,
virtual driver or do we need a real one? With energy management strategies and cockpit
real drivers, however good they might be, ergonomics for alternative design directions,
each lap isnt 100% repeatable, so the data allowing a driver to evaluate the most
is quite noisy. However, that said, in some appropriate, and then referring back to
areas, real driver feedback is essential: the the individual strengths and weaknesses
drivers feel is subjective, so anything that of the previous car.
strongly affects balance benefits. Whats Toyota carried out mandatory LMP1 crash
more, the simulators digital driver accepts tests at TASS International Safety Center in
an oversteering car without emotional issues Helmond, Netherlands, (private dynamic
like loss of confidence, lap times or control. tests were conducted before at the FIA-
But in the real world, driveability is vital in certified tests), and says that providing greater
delivering optimum times every lap. So, driver protection in the new car wasnt
theoretical performance is useless if the car especially difficult to achieve the challenge
is so twitchy that the driver never has the was to do so without adding weight.
confidence to push hard. The company started track testing 18
A driver might say the car feels soft, or days, over 25,000km (15,535 miles) at Paul
disconnected in high-speed corners, but its Ricard (France), Motorland Aragn and
hard to know what that means mechanically. Vallelunga (both Spain) later than LMP1
Via the simulator, engineers can quickly and rivals partly because of the emphasis on
safely recreate scenarios to define the physics rig-testing individual components for 2
behind such descriptions, helping set up reliability and basic performance. When
the car on track. The software is a TMG TS040 hit the track, it was expected to run
development, DynSim, which models engine, without major problems thanks to HIL
gearbox and driver inputs, with XPI helping so a potential showstopper on component A
with integration at the beginning, and doesnt affect the testing of components X, Y
supplying visual displays and track scans. or Z. With early lock-in of operating windows
Abstract developments can also be simulated. for particular setup items (such as ride-height
For example, what happens with radically and suspension travel), the problem should
different suspension pick-up points, or end there, unless those windows prove
physically impossible settings? This is unsuitable. Only detailed setup remains.
particularly valuable when it comes to major Virtual and physical component testing can
changes in areas such as suspension geometry. massively reduce track testing (and therefore
If an abstract change is judged to have worked, cost), thanks to painting a more complete
then the engineers know what characteristics picture of each components reliability and
have been generated, so even if the original interaction. And HIL is coming to the fore in
concept is physically impossible (or banned), road-car development at TMG and elsewhere
they can still search for practicable solutions as an efficient way to test high-value,
that create similar characteristics and fall in low-volume components and prototypes
line with the regs. bred by racing. 3

134 // January 2015 // Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology International


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SUPPLIER INTERVIEW: DRS

Go to
commercial
Using a wealth of experience gained in the defense industry,
a global power electronics supplier is making strides
into the commercial hybrid market
WORDS: MATT ROSS

In the vehicle power market, customers look


on characteristics such as a lengthy product
life and extreme ruggedness as not only
desirable, but entirely fundamental. So when
a supplier of power electronics has a proven
track record with a client as demanding as
the US military, its no surprise to see such
a pedigree highlighted.
DRS Technologies a leading technology
supplier of products and support to militaries
and other contractors around the world has Above: The BDC-15
no shortage of such experience. Our power bidirectional charger
electronics capabilities were born on the Right: DRS facilities in
battlefield, says Matt Johnston, vice president Bridgeport, Connecticut
of business development. Were one of the
largest producers of power generation and
conversion products for the US military.
Besides being the largest producer of tactical Were coming to the commercial market
diesel generators on the battlefield, DRS has
supplied more than 50,000 UPS products,
and we understand that, bar none, the
and has them in service around the world.
We understand rugged power electronics,
biggest challenge is cost-competitiveness
Matt Johnston, vice president, business development, DRS
and have done them for a long time. More
importantly, we understand reliability and sector. We understand product life better
what it means to be mission ready. than many companies, adds Johnston.
DRS is certainly well established in the Typically, you dont supply goods that dont
defense industry, and has developed a line have a minimum of a 10-year life, and tens of
of power products for military vehicles. thousands, if not hundreds of thousands, of
And in the past few years, the company has MTBF hours. It has to be rugged and it has to
begun a move into the commercial hybrid be reliable.
sector. We saw a gap in the onboard vehicle The two markets are different, however,
power (OBVP) and exportable vehicle power and expanding the companys purview into
(EVP) markets, Johnston states. We had the commercial sector required a level of
commercial customers come to us because adaptation and the ability to address the
they needed rugged power electronics that primary concerns of commercial customers:
hold up in harsh environmental conditions, and cost and value. Weve had to modify some
that met the demanding power requirements of our design aspects and manufacturing
of modern commercial vehicle applications. approaches to be more cost-competitive,
Johnston explains. There are differences
Industry experience in specification requirements between
It helps that many of the design principles military and commercial uses. In terms of
that govern power electronics in military shock and vibration resistance, for example,
applications also hold true in the commercial we dont have to worry about things like

Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology International // January 2015 // 137


SUPPLIER INTERVIEW: DRS

We had commercial customers come to technologies are getting very widely adapted
and we have great relationships with some
us because they needed rugged power major OEMs. This trend and market focus
is growing throughout DRS and its parent
electronics that hold up in harsh conditions, company, Italian industrial powerhouse
Finmeccanica. Some of our best technologies
and that met the demanding requirements of are starting to make their way very nicely
over to the commercial space, Johnston
modern commercial vehicle applications confirms. My intention, my hope and my
Matt Johnston, vice president, business development, DRS desire is to do the same with vehicle power.
Nor is the transfer of technology one way.
As much as were taking some of our
explosive blasts. Also, temperature and 1 technologies to the commercial market, were
cooling requirements on the commercial also looking at commercial technologies to
side are rising to levels similar to military bring to the defense market, Johnston
specification and weve already solved continues. Because of cost sensitivities,
those. Maintaining product most defense contractors, including us, are
performance across a range of aggressively looking outside the company
applications is key. DRSs onboard for technologies that would fulfill the
and exportable power portfolio ranges requirements in our space. Were reaching
from 2-100kW (with plans to expand out and bringing in COTS solutions and
up to 200kW in the future) and offers ruggedizing them. I think youre looking at
solutions for customers wanting a new way of DoD guys doing business.
everything from cost-effective Johnston cites lithium batteries as an
work-site export power and bidirectional example of a product that, following
V2G charging to generator replacement increasing testing and uptake in the
applications all providing the same commercial and passenger electric and hybrid
ruggedness and durability that has made markets, is now being considered for use in
DRS so well known in the defense sector. 1. DRSs 100kW export military applications. For years, the defense
power vehicle inverter.
But, as Johnston is keen to stress, DRS isnt The company plans to industry looked at lithium and said, No way.
feeling its way blindly into a new market. We expand its portfolio up We like to blow things up on purpose. We
have a core competency, and a great product to 200kW in the future dont like to have things blow up by accident.
performance legacy. Were coming to the 2. A 4kW inverter. DRS We go to great pains to make sure that never
commercial market and we understand that, conducted extensive happens. Lithium batteries were taboo for a
bar none, the biggest challenge is cost- customer research before long, long time. But thats starting to change
finalizing its portfolio
competitiveness. Thats not new to us. Were now. I sit in a lot of meetings and a lot of
not some big, dumb DoD contractor saying, 3. Products such as the conferences where the benchmark for lithium
My stuff lasts a really long time, so Im going DRS 2kW inverter meet technology being adopted in the defense
customer requirements
to come to your market and sell it at three for low-power solutions
industry is the hybrid vehicle market.
times the commercial price. That isnt going The commercial and military markets for
to happen. We understand cost and value vehicle power electronics are converging. And
very well and have shown our ability to win rather than merely hopping on the
in the commercial markets. bandwagon, DRS is committing substantial
DRS also did plenty of homework before expertise and resources to leveraging its
setting out its portfolio. We got in front of experience and skill set in this new sector.
our commercial customers and asked what Were going to get out there and establish our
it was they wanted, Johnston says. We brand in the commercial space as well, as weve
interviewed dozens of customers when we done in the defense space, Johnston states.
were shaping the product line. We started Thats our challenge. When people think
2
with our core competency, incorporated about vehicle power, they should think
direct input from the market, and yielded about DRS.
a product line.
3
Changing markets
The shift from military to commercial
applications is more widespread than initially
apparent. That makes it a smart move for DRS
to have already made such a switch and not
just in the field of power electronics. DRS
has a lot of technology in the vehicle market,
Johnston explains. Many modern vehicle
technologies were derived from military
applications. Some of our IR camera

138 // January 2015 // Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology International


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SUPPLIER INTERVIEW: GKN DRIVELINE

Supply and
demand
As consumer popularity continues to grow for
EVs and HEVs, car makers are facing tough new
challenges on an R&D level to meet market needs
WORDS: KARL VADASZFFY

T
he breadth and depth of GKN
Drivelines capability to fully
develop, build and supply driveline
components is such that the Tier 1s
technology can be fitted to all
applications on the automotive spectrum,
from small, ultra-low-cost market-entry cars
through to more sophisticated premium
vehicles. And central to the eDrive business
unit of the global engineering solutions The worlds first multimode
transmission debuted in
provider is advanced technology that focuses the acclaimed Mitsubishi
on innovation in the area of alternative power Outlander plug-in hybrid
and sustainable energy, in systems that are
designed to deliver performance.
GKN Drivelines eAxles support the
electrification of a vehicle via a secondary
driven axle arrangement, while the primary
engine remains an IC unit that can be The multimode transmission enables
disconnected. Meanwhile the companys
eTransmission technology has been developed
a car to be run in pure electric drive
to manage the torque on the primary axle of
fully electrified vehicles.
and serial and parallel hybrid modes
Dr Rainer Link, MD, GKN eDrive business unit
The eAxles concept, implemented in than conventional radial flux machines. They
projects such as the pioneering Porsche offer higher torque and power densities due
Spyder 918 and groundbreaking BMW i8, to better utilization of the electromagnetically
provides electric drive, parallel hybrid active material.
function and all-wheel drive in one
configuration, maximizing the benefits for the Outlander project
end user by offering improved performance As such, GKN Drivelines electric drive
and reduced fuel consumption and emissions. transmissions are designed for vehicles
In this area, the suppliers newly developed ranging from small city cars through to
AF125 eMotor an axial flux machine has high-performance electric vehicles. Whats
already got many talking within the industry, more, the company was responsible for
with its high torque density of 11Nm/kg and developing the worlds first multimode
compact size of 258 x 110mm. transmission, which can be found in
Dr Rainer Link, managing director of the Mitsubishis current Outlander PHEV.
eDrive business unit, says that further The multimode transmission enables a car
advances in eMotor technology, such as the to be run in pure electric drive and serial and
AF125 development, are crucial for the EV parallel hybrid modes that is, with or
movement. Axial flux machines, which are without the IC engine enabling the car
ideally suited for applications where high to be run in the optimum mode depending
power and torque need to be balanced against on the traffic situation, says the mechanical
low weight and volume, are better choices engineer Link.

Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology International // January 2015 // 141


SUPPLIER INTERVIEW: GKN DRIVELINE

of transmissions with flexible interfaces that


can be matched with eMotors from various
automotive companies such as Bosch,
Siemens, Mitsubishi and BMW.
Looking ahead, Link believes the further
growth of the GKN eDrive business unit will
be rapid over the coming decade, because in
A challenge in developing this technology
included the extremely tight packaging space
For the Fiat 500 the future, most cars will be hybrid or fully
electric vehicles. As soon as we move toward
we had to work in, because theres the IC
engine, the transmission and the electric
fully electric car, we mass production, costs will come down. And
when cost comes down, more cars will be
machine to pack in the front of the vehicle
in an east-west configuration. Other related
needed to use the bought by consumers.
The MD also argues that there will be a
challenges included efficiency goals, low track transmission to reduce reduction in the number of gears used when
losses, smooth engagement and seamless, powertrains are electrified or hybridized:
smooth shifting. the RPM of the electric Hybrid transmissions will have fewer speeds,
But in a development project that spanned
only three years, Links engineering team machine to the axle be less complex, and will use the electric
machine to provide efficiency and driving
with the lead of Theo Gassmann, GKNs Dr Rainer Link, MD, GKN eDrive business unit performance.
eDrive engineering VP, overcame such And in a bid to stay one step ahead of the
hurdles. Now successfully launched, the 1. GKNs eDrive business stiff automotive e-powertrain competition,
Mitsubishi Outlander (as previewed in the segment has become a GKN Driveline is already focusing on
leader in developing electric
January 2014 issue) features two electric machines based on axial flux providing technical solutions to enable it to
motors, one in the front and one in the rear, motor technology for use in integrate the whole system gearbox, eMotor
both of which deliver an output of 60kW, hybrid and electric vehicles and power electronics in order to reduce all
helping the environmentally friendly SUV 2. GKN engineering system interfaces, which in turn realizes
reach a top speed of 140km/h (87mph) know-how ensured that the further optimization while minimizing
without the aid of the IC engine. The Outlander Fiat 500es transmission overall weight.
operates to reduce the RPM
PHEVs all-electric driving range is rated at of the e-machine on the axle
an impressive 52km. When in parallel hybrid
mode the vehicles 2-liter gasoline engine
kicks into life at 60km/h (37mph) to support
the eMotors. At lower speeds the powertrain
can support the battery by charging or
providing additional power in serial mode.
But the Outlander is not the only vehicle
thats benefitting from advanced GKN Driveline
technology. A range of eTransmissions is also
2
supplied for battery electric vehicles including
Fiats 500e as well as the Citron Berlingo EV.
For the Fiat 500 fully electric car, we needed
to use the transmission to reduce the RPM
of the electric machine to the axle, explains
Link. Here, the main challenge was in the
technology. Because theres high RPM, we
had to ensure efficiency was maintained. In
addition, we had to optimize NVH handling.
The eTransmission can deliver up to
2,800Nm peak output torque and accepts
motor input speeds of up to 16,000rpm.
In order to serve a highly dynamic and
complex market, we have developed families

142 // January 2015 // Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology International


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PRODUCTS & SERVICES

IGBT gate drivers


The availability of digital gate drivers offers a new realm of efficient
possibilities to meet the high safety targets of future inverter systems

E-mobility is becoming reality


and EVs and HEVs are now
being produced and commercialized
on a large scale. This has a
tremendous effect on all electrical
systems in a car, presenting new
efficiency, size, safety and cost
challenges. This means that new
concepts have to be developed at
both component (microscopic) and
architectural (macroscopic) levels.
Infineons broad portfolio of
complementary components for
e-mobility applications, including
microcontrollers, gate drivers and
IGBT power modules, supports the
development of optimized system
solutions for EVs and HEVs.
Typically, an inverter consists
of a high-power IGBT module,
controlled by a logic device
operating in the low-voltage (12V)
battery domain (Figure 1). Today,
one single device manages the
very specific demands of highly
integrated logic technology and
high power technology: this is the
gate driver IC.
The primary function of the gate
driver is to provide the necessary
voltage and current signals to turn
the IGBT on and off efficiently. Figure 1 (above): A detailed graphic outlining an inverter consisting of a high-power IGBT module that in turn is
Output current limitations of driver controlled by a logic device, which operates in the low-voltage (12V) battery domain. Figure 2 (below): The I/O monitor
of Infineons new AURIX microcontroller family compares the IGBT state with the original PWM command in real time
ICs are usually overcome with an
external post-driver (or booster)
stage. Infineons automotive
EiceDRIVER family (1ED020I12FA2,
1ED020I12FTA and 2ED020I12FA),
for instance, can source or sink up
to 2A, which means it can already
drive MOSFET and smaller IGBT
power modules.
Additionally, the low- and
high-voltage domains need to be transfer is enabled bidirectionally: advantages over other isolation easily implemented within standard
electrically isolated, and for this the PWM control signal from the technologies: it does not show the chip production processes, which
purpose Infineon developed a microcontroller can be sent across degradation over lifetime that is leads to significantly lower system
coreless transformer technology the galvanic isolation barrier to the typically seen with optocouplers; costs than for discrete solutions.
(CLT). This integrates the two coils IGBT, and feedback signals can be it shows high immunity to A monolithic process also supports
of a transformer into one integrated sent back to the LV side of the electromagnetic interferences integration of additional functions
circuit. Inductive-based data device. The CLT offers multiple and transients; and it can be on the device.

Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology International // January 2015 // 145


PRODUCTS & SERVICES

Introduction of the ISO 26262


standard means that future traction
inverters will have to meet the
highest safety standards up to ASIL
C or D. One of the main safety
requirements stipulates that in the
event of failure, the system shall
prevent or limit the generation of
unwanted torque at the wheel. This
top-level requirement has a direct
impact on the components used.
To meet these evolving needs,
Infineon has developed a new
generation of gate drivers and
boosters: EiceDRIVER SIL
(1EDI2001AS, 1EDI2002AS); and
EiceDRIVER Boost (1EBN1001AE).
The EiceDRIVER SIL marks
another significant step toward
functional integration. It includes
a standard middle speed (2Msps)
serial peripheral interface (SPI) bus. Figure 3: The above detailed information graphic showcases a prime example of an optimized inverter architecture
This link to the LV main logic block
is used to configure the device
during system power-up and The next level involves ensuring such strategies may be complex to as the gate monitor and the output
provide status information during that the PWM command is correctly implement. The IGBT is a normally- stage monitor, guarantee reliable
runtime. The SPI does not have to received by the IGBT. The extended off device, so the natural default activation of the safety path.
control the switching behavior of the DESAT function supports state of the inverter is all switches Over the years, automotive
IGBT directly; it is a parallel channel continuous monitoring of the IGBT open. However, at high rpm, the systems have become increasingly
to the regular PWM command. VCE voltage. The result of the magnet excitation may lead to integrated. The exponential rise in
Part digitization of the gate driver comparator is sent continuously to over-voltage, which could result microcontroller computational
enables the designer to implement the LV side, and the information is in the destruction of the inverter. power is leading to the gradual
several layers of diagnostic available in the form of a digital Therefore, the safe state of the shift of hardware functions into
functions. At the lowest level, all signal. The I/O monitor of Infineons inverter is, with some exceptions, software; similarly, digitalization is
internal key functions are monitored, new AURIX microcontroller family the 0-vector, or ASC. Figure 3 increasing functional integration
such as oscillators, power supplies can then compare the IGBT state shows an example of an optimized and enhancing diagnostic
and internal data integrity. The with the original PWM command in inverter architecture. capabilities. The availability of
second level is related to the real time (Figure 2). Programmable The EiceDRIVER Boost is an digital gate drivers offers a new
interconnection of the device. Here, delays compensate for the latency advanced and thermally optimized realm of efficient possibilities to
signal consistency can be checked time introduced by the galvanic post-driver stage. It has a dedicated meet the safety targets of future
by reading the levels of the signals isolation barrier and the physical input, which means the IGBT can inverter systems. This is the first
sent, and received by the device IGBT switching time. be turned on directly whenever a milestone on the journey toward
over the SPI. One level higher, the A commonly used approach is to PWM command signal is sent by smart actuation in automotive
device supports the injection of delocalize a dedicated function over the gate driver. The control signal inverter systems.
dummy failures (e.g. false DESAT several components in order to activating this pin comes from a
event). In this way, latent sleeping achieve a cost-optimized solution. watchdog IC and is transferred FREE READER INQUIRY SERVICE
failures can be detected. Correct This is especially beneficial when through the galvanic isolation To learn more about Infineon
failure responses of the system can implementing active short circuit barriers via the low-latency digital Technologies, visit:
therefore be guaranteed over the (ASC) strategies. For a permanent channel of the EiceDRIVER SIL. www.ukipme.com/info/ev
INQUIRY NO. 501
complete vehicle lifetime. magnet synchronous machine, Several monitoring functions, such

146 // January 2015 // Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology International


INTEGRATED POWERTRAIN COMPONENTS, SYSTEMS AND SOLUTIONS
Couplings Clutches Gearboxes Driveshafts Brakes Controls Electrics Wheels

From To
Power Source Power Applied

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suited to in-hub off-highway electric applications. It is a compact unit, delivering optimum
efficiency and performance.

AF-electric motor
The AF-130/140/230 and 240 electric motors are three-phase permanent magnet motors
that use proprietary axial flux technology to deliver very high torque and power density in
a compact and light-weight unit. This makes them particularly suitable for use in electric
and hybrid vehicles, where low weight and compact packaging are important for delivering
optimum efficiency in performance and design.

Further information on the new products can be found


on the internet at www.gkn.com/landsystems/

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Reluctance-assisted motors
The development of reluctance-assisted external rotor permanent magnet machines
could improve torque-speed ranges and further reduce the need for rare earth magnets

Until now, the main rotor


technology found inside
TM4s electric motors was based
on surface-mounted outer rotor
topology in which the magnets are
glued directly to a rigid carbon steel
rotor. However, in recent years,
uncertainty and higher prices of rare
earth magnetic materials, in
combination with the demand for
wider torque-speed operation
ranges, have resulted in a drive to
look for possible improvements in
existing technology.
It is well documented that the
reluctance torque in permanent
magnet machines can be used to
gain better performance. However,
introducing this concept in TM4s
outer rotor topology is a challenging
task, due to the thin rotor structure
found in the external rotor approach.
After a thorough development
process, TM4 overcame these
challenges and will introduce this
technology in 2015 as part of new
products offered in both its Motive
(light-duty vehicles) and Sumo
(commercial vehicles) electric
powertrain systems. Particularly of
note is the design procedure used
for the reluctance-assisted outer
rotor permanent magnet machine,
and a comparison of the new
machines performance against
a surface-mounted permanent
magnet machine of the same
dimensions.
Normally, the advantage of an
external rotor machine is its higher
air-gap radius, which leads to a
higher torque for the same magnetic Reluctance-assisted external rotor permanent magnet machines can offer a greatly improved torque-speed range
force. This technological choice was
made by TM4 when it first started kept as thin as possible. However, because of the introduced added to the rigid carbon still rotor
working on the in-wheel motor in order to create the reluctance anisotropy. Therefore it is not (Figure 1 on the next page) to
technology developments that torque, significant anisotropy practical to use carbon steel achieve both the required saliency
ultimately led to the companys (saliency) should be created in the materials to achieve this goal. On and the rigidity requirements.
creation, and was kept and rotor magnetic circuit, which is a the other hand, a thin rotor made The dimensions of the magnets
improved in subsequent products. demanding task due to the limited of lamination cannot support the and the rotor lamination strip have
To maintain this advantage, the available space. In addition, there centrifugal forces imposed at high been optimized by using a
thickness of the rotor should be will be higher eddy current losses speeds. Thus a strip of lamination is stochastic optimization algorithm,

Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology International // January 2015 // 149


PRODUCTS & SERVICES

Figure 2: A performance
comparison of the
permanent magnet motor
using the new reluctance-
assisted outer rotor
technology, and the original
surface-mounted machine

reluctance-assisted machine leads


to easier field weakening, lower
short-circuit current and, thus, the
capability to tolerate short-circuit
current continuously. This means it
is easier to design a fault-tolerant
machine with the reluctance-
assisted concept.
Finally, higher inductance means
lower eddy current losses due to
the PWM switching, which is a very
important factor in determining the
high-speed continuous power of
the machine.
Approaches to tackling the
problem of torque ripple and
cogging torque reductions have
been discussed. Nonetheless,
the obtained results showed a
significant improvement in torque-
speed characteristics with a
significantly lower quantity of
magnetic materials. Further
development of methods to
increase the attainable saliency
Figure 1: A strip of lamination added to the rigid carbon still rotor satisfies saliency and rigidity requirements
ratio is ongoing.
The first prototypes of these
and by considering the design indirectly leads to higher torque-to- condition is assumed to be the motors were tested by TM4 in the
constraints typically found in back EMF ratio, which is an same as the SPM machine. In the autumn of 2014, and commercially
automotive applications. A important factor in having a wide second one, the maximum speed available versions will be integrated
stochastic optimization algorithm, torque-speed range. of the machine has been kept within TM4s existing product line
such as a genetic algorithm (GA), The final solution after optimization equal to the maximum speed of from January 2015. TM4 is currently
is used in combination with finite had considerably less rare earth the SPM machine. supplying its powertrains to several
element analysis-based software metal in comparison with the The results of the aforementioned OEMs and technical centers in
to find the optimum dimensions of reference surface-mounted comparisons, as seen in Figure 2, North America, Europe and Asia in
the rotor lamination and the permanent magnet machine (SPM) enable us to make a number of order to drive several type of electric
magnets. The same stator machine with the same dimensions important conclusions. and hybrids vehicles. Production
dimensions of a reference SPM up to 60% in some scenarios. In the first scenario, a 30% takes place at TM4s Canadian
machine currently produced by By comparing the performances maximum speed increase has been facilities in Boucherville and at its
TM4 are used in the proposed of the permanent magnet (PM) achieved in comparison with the Chinese joint venture Prestolite
reluctance-assisted machine. motor using the new reluctance- reference SPM machine, with E-Propulsion Systems in Beijing.
Like any other optimization assisted outer rotor technology around 35% less rare earth metal. Both are equipped with high-
problem, the first step is to define with the original surface-mounted In the second scenario, maximum volume, flexible and automated
an objective function. Here, the goal machine, several improvements torque has been increased by 20% production lines, and a large range
is to minimize the quantity of the have been observed. As described with around 15% less rare earth of dynamometers and test cells,
rare earth magnetic materials while previously, for a fair comparison metal. The percentage of the torque making it possible to conduct full
satisfying all other constraints the same stator assembly has increase in Scenario 2 is lower than validation and certification of electric
such as ease of manufacturing, use been used in both machines for the speed increase percentage in and hybrid powertrains.
of the same external envelope, simulations. The comparison has Scenario 1. This is due to the core
lower cost, and equal or better been made for two different saturation as well as contribution of FREE READER INQUIRY SERVICE
performance. Minimizing scenarios. In the first scenario, the the reluctance torque. To learn more about TM4, visit:
dependency of the generated maximum required torque of the In addition to these facts, www.ukipme.com/info/ev
torque to the rare earth magnets higher D-axis inductance of the
INQUIRY NO. 502
new machine at low-speed

150 // January 2015 // Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology International


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PRODUCTS & SERVICES

Simulating BMS strategies


Innovative rapid prototyping solutions are reducing the time required to refine the
measurement, control and communication functions of battery management systems

The battery management


system (BMS) of a battery
designed for a hybrid or electric
vehicle performs a thankless yet
important task. It ensures the best
possible management of a batterys
small cells in accordance with the
instructions sent by the vehicles
control unit. Its design and
development are complex and can
require long, iterative processes.
D2T, however, offers a simpler, more
effective alternative.
The BMS consists of both
hardware and software. Its role is
to communicate information
concerning the state-of-charge and
state-of-health of the control unit,
which calls on the battery, via the
BMS, to provide the necessary
energy required by the driver and
their vehicle. The task is complex:
battery cells are chemical
components that do not display
a linear behavior with a single
variable, but instead display
behavior with several dimensions, xxxx
including time, which is the most
complex dimension to integrate.
Managing these dimensions
involves the use of complex
algorithms and models. These
models will also not be the same for
a lithium-ion battery and a lithium
polymer battery, or for different
lithium-ion cells.
Naturally, the BMS design phase,
and definition of the best model for
a given battery intended for a
specific vehicle, becomes equally
complex. It is not an exact science,
but a process of refinement by related tasks (passive and active At its test center in Trappes, With 2,500 licenses, 10,000
iterations between the design of the protection) in relation to the vehicles France, D2T proposes innovative, users, and 12 million testing-rotation
model and its validation on the test control unit. It is also responsible for rapid prototyping solutions to hours per year, Morphee is a
bench. And it is here that surprises balancing the voltage of the cells reduce the time required to refine worldwide standard. Its new version
can occur. while monitoring their state of these different functions in the BMS. works in Windows 7 and offers
The first function of the BMS health. Finally, it informs the The central element is Morphee, unequaled component testbed
is to fully measure and control the vehicles computer of the maximum a real-time test bench automation performance. It allows for
voltage, current and temperatures power available and the remaining system launched by D2T almost integration of MATLAB Simulink
of each cell. Depending on these autonomy, according to an estimate 25 years ago, and a reference point simulation models on the testbed
measurements, it performs safety- based on advanced algorithms. for the market in this sphere. and can rotate in real time at

152 // January 2015 // Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology International


PRODUCTS & SERVICES

An illustration of the advantages of using Morphee to develop and refine a BMS

The main advantage of Morphee deal of time in increasingly complex


is the interconnectivity it offers powertrain development. The
between all constituent elements integration process does not
of a battery test bench, irrespective impose the tools. xMOD does
of the connection type (CAN, not intend to replace the original
EtherCAT and Profibus), including modeling and simulation tools, but
the power cabinet, climatic chamber, aims to promote their coexistence.
battery cooling system, domestic Thus, the advantages of using
charger, the BMS (one or more), and Morphee to develop and refine the
any system specific to the battery BMS directly on the test bench are
manufacturer. This means these obvious. It centralizes all procedures
elements can interact and the and collects all information, just as
tests can be targeted intelligently the BMS does, but with added
according to the batterys behavior. flexibility. The models and strategies
Another advantage of Morphee of the BMS change as the tests are
concerns its capacity to incorporate conducted there is no need to
real-time simulation models into the develop specific equipment. As a
test bench. An HIL (hardware-in-the- result, gone are the days of costly
loop) structure can be implemented to-ing and fro-ing between the
D2Ts test center in Trappes, where the company works to refine BMS functions quickly between Morphee and the design and test phases. The design
xMOD multimodel platform, which engineer can now become a test
can execute a wide range of models, engineer, and vice versa. Whats
frequencies up to 10kHz. This testbeds will be used more and including AMESim, GT-Suite, more, once the model has been
functionality, along with its usual more to fine-tune the BMS. For this MATLAB/Simulink and Flowmaster. validated in a simulation, the BMS
characteristics, makes Morphee an reason, they integrate advanced xMOD is an application software hardware and software can be
ideal system for new applications simulation functionalities. Morphees that facilitates standalone and tool- implemented with the certainty of
such as battery testbeds. Currently, characteristics enable this type of coupling co-simulation between a suitable strategy.
a battery testbed often performs testbed to evolve easily toward several simulation tools. With
relatively simple operations such simulation. And this can be done xMOD, models from different tools FREE READER INQUIRY SERVICE
as charge/discharge testing, painlessly for the user, as there is no can interact in a single environment, To learn more about D2T,
capacity testing and resistance need to be a computer expert to and can even be used with HIL test visit www.ukipme.com/info/ev
measurements. However, these use the system. benches, which can save a great
INQUIRY NO. 503

Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology International // January 2015 // 153


PRODUCTS & SERVICES

Heavy-duty mild hybrids


Mild hybrid systems in commercial vehicle applications can offer great
fuel savings, without the associated costs of full hybrid implementation

In the commercial vehicle


sector, hybrid system
technologies offer the greatest
potential to reduce CO2 emissions
and improve fuel efficiency. A major
challenge of such hybrid technology
concepts, however, is the cost
and an unacceptably long return-
on-investment period.
Full hybrid systems for long-haul
trucks would offer attractive fuel
saving figures of 7-8%. However,
the ROI is still very poor due to
larger sized and costly hybrid
components. From this perspective,
mild hybrid systems offer a more
attractive ROI.
Mild hybrid systems for heavy-
duty commercial vehicle applications,
operating at a moderate voltage
level of 48V, are intended to drive
mainly the engine auxiliaries when
the need arises.
Usually in a commercial vehicle
mild hybrid system, the coolant
pump is already variably driven
(switchable in several steps), the Implementing a mild hybrid system in truck applications offers potential fuel savings, but with far lower associated expense
fan can be activated on demand,
and the air compressor can be the engine auxiliaries. In addition, a mild hybrid system operated at capable engines, vehicle cooling
decoupled via a clutch to avoid an electrically coupled waste-heat a nominal voltage level of 48V than circuits, transmissions and
unnecessary idling losses. The recovery (WHR) system can be with a high-voltage, full hybrid drivelines as well as models of
potential for further savings with integrated into a mild hybrid system. system operated at 400V or above. the electrical components and
these components is rather limited. This provides electrical energy, A fuel saving potential of 2-4% board nets are seamlessly
Another opportunity in a mild which can be used specifically in depending on the individual integrated on one platform. Due to
hybrid system is e-charging used the e-motor. application can be expected with the use of real-time-capable engine
to electrically assist the turbo during In order to limit the system cost, mild hybrid systems, especially if and after-treatment models, the
load steps and reduce the response the existing 12V (US) and 24V (EU) the operating strategy is integrated detailed impact of the mild hybrid
time of the engine. E-charging board nets are served in addition into advanced and predictive system on engine performance
offers the possibility of further to the 48V board net. With this vehicle energy management during real-world driving cycles
downspeeding of the combustion approach, existing standard (low- control strategies. can be analyzed from a very early
engine without compromising cost) components can be applied. AVL believes the potential for stage of development. With this
vehicle dynamics. Another key A battery system is used at each these systems is such that there will approach AVL can reliably predict
benefit is the potential to lower voltage level to stabilize the net and be a move toward mass production system performance with a virtual
soot emissions during load steps, buffer the recuperated energy. by 2020. The company has been vehicle demonstrator. This
resulting in a reduced need for Due to the application of relatively analyzing the potential, as well as approach saves both development
active regenerations of the diesel simple components, the additional the operating strategy, of mild time and cost.
particulate filter. product cost for such a mild hybrid hybrid systems for commercial
During combustion engine system for a heavy-duty truck is low vehicles in detail. To use their full FREE READER INQUIRY SERVICE
motoring, the energy is recuperated compared with a full hybrid system. potential, AVL offers a unique To learn more about AVL,
via a starter-generator and stored Last but not least, the safety system simulation approach: visit: www.ukipme.com/info/ev
INQUIRY NO. 504
and reused on demand to operate requirements are much lower with models of vehicles, real-time-

154 // January 2015 // Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology International


PRODUCTS & SERVICES

CAE driving models


The ability to simply and rapidly create virtual prototypes based on CAE
data gives engineers the tools to monitor and refine NVH characteristics

The advanced software


tools for perfecting NVH are
proliferating. Nowadays, before
development even begins on new
vehicles, non-experts can help set
sound targets by driving
benchmark vehicles in a simulator
that captures their subjective
opinions. Then, during development
of the new vehicle, engineers can
deconstruct the noise and vibration
experienced in an existing vehicle,
to detect and quantify the sources
of very specific sound features such
as boom and rumble. The software
that does this source path
contribution (SPC) can also isolate
the paths that the sound energy
takes through the vehicle and the air
to get to the observer, quantifying
the sensitivity of those paths as
transfer functions.
Using Brel & Kjrs high-tech
NVH simulator, engineers can create
and drive a virtual vehicle based on
such data. By combining measured
data from SPC, and predictions from
CAE modeling, they can experience
the sound of new designs. Then
anyone can evaluate these designs
relative to the targets in the context The simulation of vehicle sound based purely on CAE models helps set development targets by enabling designers
of a dynamic, interactive driving and engineers to experience the NVH consequences of model updates on virtual vehicles in a free-driving scenario
experience where evaluation is more
authentic. The sound can even be standard CAE response data from consequences of that update while resulting from a design change, but
manipulated for further refinement. all common CAE codes into ready- accelerating on a virtual road. where they are very effective at
Until now, though, incorporating to-run NVH simulator models. And because it can now fully quantifying the change in response
CAE design data has been limited to Careful testing has ensured that the incorporate whole vehicle models of between the old CAE model and the
individual components, such as an simulator is able to recognize the purely CAE data, the simulator can new one. For these cases, change-
engine mount source strength, from file types and knows how to read be used even earlier in the design modeling tools in the NVH simulator
individual files. And creating new them seamlessly. process sound modeling can can calculate the ratio between the
models has been laborious enough The fact that the simulator begin based solely on CAE models, two CAE models and apply filters to
for NVH simulation to have been processes large CAE models before the benchmarking of existing a validated baseline model. Using
largely restricted to the initial setting quickly in seconds rather than vehicles has even begun. In this approach, the NVH simulator
of targets, rather than helping with minutes means it is helpful to addition, as CAE models tend to be can provide a meaningful way of
their realization throughout the the highly iterative design process. well refined by the end-of-life of a evaluating CAE design changes
development process. CAE designers and engineers alike vehicle model, the development of early in the vehicle program.
Thats all set to change now that can create a new NVH simulator its successor models sound can
the NVH simulator can easily and model every time there is a design begin on a solid foundation. FREE READER INQUIRY SERVICE
directly incorporate large CAE update. Minutes later, they can There are situations where CAE To learn more about Brel & Kjr,
models. This new important be sitting behind a steering wheel, models are unable to predict the visit: www.ukipme.com/info/ev
INQUIRY NO. 505
capability automatically converts experiencing in full the NVH absolute sound energy levels

156 // January 2015 // Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology International


SIMULATING SYSTEMS
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PRODUCTS & SERVICES

BMS safety standards


Proper implementation of relevant safety standards in the development of
battery management systems requires investment but is also hugely beneficial

Standards for functional


safety are an important trend
within the domain of battery
management systems for large
format lithium-ion batteries.
Increasing safety awareness,
customer safety anxiety, and focus
on full-scale volume production of
electric vehicles, are factors that
encourage manufacturers and their
High-voltage
suppliers to adopt standardized interlock loop
methods of formally verifiable Charge proximity detection
High voltage
functional safety. At Lithium to drivetrain CANbus to charger 12V (ignition control)
Balance, the implementation of the High voltage to charger CANbus to VCU 12V (constant) Mechanical
ISO 26262 standard Functional interface
Protection
Safety in Road Vehicles is ground
interface
therefore a strategically important
choice in order to stay at the
forefront of battery management A virtual rechargeable energy storage system upon which all safety analysis for the safety device out of context is performed
system development.
When the battery management At Lithium Balance, the process and risk assessment. The standard functionally mandated by the
system is developed as a standalone has entailed the development of an deals with the concept of redundancy reliability metric targets specified
product, certain assumptions must item definition, a hazard analysis, a by means of safety requirement by the standard.
be made on both the vehicle and risk assessment, and a functional decomposition, a process used The safety activities generate
battery pack level. In addition, a safety concept as well as a to split a safety requirement of a a lot of technical documentation
level of tailoring must be made to technical safety concept for a given ASIL into two or more safety and require iterative safety analysis
the safety activities specified. Both virtual rechargeable energy storage requirements of a lower ASIL (for reports to be generated. In order
the process of describing the system (RESS). All these documents example, splitting ASIL D into ASIL to facilitate the development and
assumptions and performing the will be fully disclosed to the system C and ASIL A) allocated to maintenance of this documentation,
tailoring of safety activities are integrator, which could be either redundant safety systems. ISO a strong supporting tool is highly
described in ISO 26262-10:9 a vehicle manufacturer or a Tier 1 26262 requires full independence recommended. The Lithium
Safety Device out of Context. In battery pack integrator. These and different implementation of the Balance implementation was
order to educate those assumptions, documents specify a safety two safety systems to avoid both carried out with the assistance
the supplier is encouraged to architecture that can be used in random and systematic errors of Medini Analyze from IKV.
perform certain parts of the vehicle- conjunction with a safety rated furthermore, the use of two identical The implementation of ISO
level safety analysis work as a battery management system from systems in parallel is not permitted. 26262 for battery management
reference implementation that can Lithium Balance, to achieve Software and hardware system development requires
be used to facilitate the vehicle functional safety in a RESS for a development are both strictly a significant investment in
integration process. hybrid, plug-in hybrid, or a pure regulated by ISO 26262, with requirement specification, design,
electric vehicle intended for public requirements being imposed implementation, documentation
road traffic. on development procedures, and verification. The benefit of this
The safety architecture specifies verification procedures and tools. investment, however, is a system
a number of requirements. Some The stringency of the requirements that is robust, safe and reliable,
of these requirements are allocated depends on the highest ASIL level and one that can be efficiently
to the battery management system, allocated to the software function adapted to fit vehicle manufacturer
while others are allocated to other or hardware part. In all cases, specific safety requirements.
design parts of the virtual RESS. simplicity, robust design patterns
Each safety requirement has an and usage of highly reliable FREE READER INQUIRY SERVICE
associated Automotive Safety components and subsystems are To learn more about Lithium Balance,
Integrity Level (ASIL), which is advocated for high ASIL levels, visit: www.ukipme.com/info/ev
Levels of investment in ISO 26262 INQUIRY NO. 506
derived from the hazard analysis these recommendations are

158 // January 2015 // Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology International


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Correct voltage conversions


Hybrid and electric vehicles deal with new voltages in the areas of storage and generation
and should be converted to the right voltage level for every specific electrical application

Figure 1: Lears 400V-12V DC/DC


The challenge to improve the converter meets the requirements of
overall system efficiency of the main vehicle voltage network
new hybrid and electric vehicles
requires different working voltages Greater device efficiency can
in systems such as storage, be obtained through the right
generation and different main topology selection, along with other
vehicle power networks. The energy technical parameters such as
generated in the electrical machine switching frequency and key power
on voltage (AC), once rectified, is switch technology. The thermal
stored in the high-voltage battery management of these devices also
(DC). The energy then flows to the factors into this goal of efficiency
various vehicle applications, which depending on the final power loss
work at different and optimum and whether the cooling system
voltages, to maximize efficiencies. uses an air- or water-cooling
This system evolution requires technology, which itself has a big
a variety of DC/DC converters to impact on the final mechanical
supply the right voltage for each concept and cost.
specific work voltage for these new to the main vehicle voltage network, Also under discussion is the In line with the pursuit of these
types of vehicles. Currently, Lear which, since the 1950s, has been possibility that energy can be objectives, Lear can also deliver the
is working in the main DC/DC set at 12V, and supplies all the recovered from any energy source best power density proposal,
converter areas under discussion traditional electrical and electronic the vehicle encounters (thermal, obtained through the right balance
by the automotive community, vehicle devices. vibration, solar, etc) to help from the standpoints of power,
including from high voltage to main In recent years, and especially in complete vehicle energy balance. size and weight, considering the
network voltage (future 48V or Europe, 48V (Figure 2) has emerged As such, Lear has created a multiple high impact these
current 12V and 24V); from 48V to as the third voltage in vehicles voltage input DC/DC converter, factors have in
the most common 12V and 24V; to support the improvement of dubbed the Smart Energy Gateway complete vehicle
and from multiple voltage sources energy generation, key functional (Figure 3), which is necessary to assembly.
to main network voltage. performance and robustness (such recover this energy and convert it
Depending on the type of vehicle, as stop and start for micro hybrids). to the main voltage network.
there could be a high voltage The introduction of new power In response to these issues, Lear
(300-425V DC) converted (Figure 1) functionality at higher voltages also is able to propose standalone
adds more complexity, including solutions or components that can
increased safety concerns. be integrated with other power
electronics devices to assure
flexibility in meeting customer
needs, depending on the technical
and economic challenges of
different OEMs.
Considering these challenges,
there is no de facto standard yet,
and the automotive community is
looking for the best trade-off Figure 3: Lears multiple
voltage input DC/DC converter,
between technical performance the Smart Energy Gateway
(efficiency, power density, thermal
management, etc) and cost. The
efficiency of these power devices is
Figure 2: Lears 48V-12V needed due to the goal of reducing FREE READER INQUIRY SERVICE
DC/DC converter supports the any wasted energy, which directly To learn more about Lear,
third voltage that has emerged visit: www.ukipme.com/info/ev
in vehicles throughout Europe
impacts on vehicle consumption
INQUIRY NO. 507
and range of autonomy.

160 // January 2015 // Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology International


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since its founding in 1993.
Its DC/DC converters and battery charging products range
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to the newest generation of on-board chargers (EVO)
to be used in heavy duty and rugged
electrically powered applications.

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PRODUCTS & SERVICES

Electric powertrain testing


Industry experience and an understanding of how testing equipment is used are
vital in the development of accurate, flexible test systems for electric powertrains

With its EPT line of electric


powertrain test systems, D&V
Electronics continues to break
new ground. As a company, D&V
Electronics is focused on providing
the absolute best in e-motor and
drive testing equipment. The
understanding that is required to
build such equipment is the result
of more than 17 years of not only
developing leading-edge measuring
and analytical equipment for the
automotive industry, but also of
attention to detail and a deep and
extensive understanding of how the
equipment will be used, and how to
make the user experience better.
D&V has been developing and
building production test equipment
for electric motors for more than
eight years, since the first BAS
motors went into production.
These attributes are no more
evident than in D&Vs latest end-of-
line electric-motor test system the
EPT-100. Starting with the most
basic of requirements, the
dynamometer platform, D&V uses
a state-of-the-art load motor from
Germany, with high-speed and
low-inertia characteristics. The
D&Vs EPT line of electric powertrain test systems
production tester is coupled with
D&Vs battery simulator, providing
accurate fast transition times, as system with horizontal to vertical in providing real-time, highly include full resolver position
well as bidirectional regenerative movement. The tooling is built for accurate results for engineers. measurement and the ability to
power capabilities. the ruggedness of the production The internal tester components automatically correct the angle
D&V has developed a system line, as well as being easily and controller from the PC are to the drive to ensure that every
that will automatically engage and changeable for different motors. linked via a network connection, motor is tested to the same level
disengage the device under test The ability of the system to offer which enables high-speed data and characteristics.
(DUT) from the load motor. This unparalleled levels of performance transfer. This architecture provides D&V Electronics is leading the
innovation allows for reduced cycle and measuring accuracy are the expandability and high electrical industry in end-of-line testing
times, because it eliminates the reasons that D&V is a global leader noise immunity because of the equipment for electric motors, belt
need for the operator to align the in electric motor testing technology. excellent electrical insulation. starter generators and integrated
splined shafts. This is achieved with Besides the precision high-speed D&V is able to provide production starter generators, with production
a driving shaft that not only extends drivelines and dynamic response testing in less than two minutes, test systems in operation in Europe,
and retracts, but also rotates until it capabilities of the dynamometer including BEMF and performance North America and Asia.
detects a positive engagement. system, the purposely designed tests, with an easy user interface,
The tester has both a data acquisition electronics, along while offering a software platform FREE READER INQUIRY SERVICE
pneumatically assisted parts with the high level of software that can provide complex, full- To learn more about D&V Electronics,
transfer system and an integration to tie it all together, featured analysis for engineering visit: www.ukipme.com/info/ev
INQUIRY NO. 508
automatically locating and lock allows for a great deal of flexibility studies. Production testing results

162 // January 2015 // Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology International


PRODUCTS & SERVICES

Ultracapacitor storage
Efficient and suited to multiple applications, ultracapacitors can
be used to store energy captured during regenerative braking

During conventional braking,


kinetic energy from a cars
momentum is dissipated as heat.
Regenerative braking involves the
capture of this wasted energy. In
regenerative braking, the vehicle
system is designed to capture
braking (kinetic) energy by
regenerating it into electricity. This
electricity is then used to charge an
onboard energy system such as a
battery or an ultracapacitor. The
stored energy is used for vehicle
acceleration, thus reducing engine
load and increasing fuel economy.
Hybrid and electric vehicles
present an excellent example of the
use of regenerative braking. In these
systems, the electric motor is used
as both a motor and generator.
During propulsion, the electric American Maglev utilized Maxwell ultracapacitors for TriMet, resulting in reduced operating costs and energy consumption
motor converts electrical energy to
mechanical. During regenerative braking applications is the ability number of power-hungry
braking, the motor functions as a to efficiently capture energy and applications in todays global
generator, converting mechanical deliver power with greater than transportation markets.
energy into electrical, which charges 95% charge/discharge efficiency Unlike batteries, Maxwell
onboard ultracapacitors. over a wide temperature range, ultracapacitor products store energy
Regenerative energy capture is thus maintaining the efficiency in an electrical field. This enables
growing in popularity. With todays of the overall system. Field data ultracapacitors to charge and
rising fuel prices and increasing for hybrid buses with Maxwell discharge in fractions of a second,
carbon emissions, all sectors of ultracapacitors has demonstrated perform normally over a broad
transportation are searching for greater than 25% improvements in Energy storage at a station stop temperature range (-40C to +65C),
ways to improve fuel efficiency. fuel efficiency due to exceptional operate reliably over hundreds of
The automotive, rail, bus and heavy power performance, high cycling also ensures voltage stabilization, thousands (or more) duty cycles,
machinery industries are showing and operational life. catenary-free operation, and and resist shock and vibration.
significant improvements in fuel The use of advanced Maxwell reduced load on the power Maxwell offers ultracapacitor
economy with the introduction of ultracapacitors for regenerative substation, while traffic is increased cells ranging in capacitance from
regenerative energy capture. Fuel energy capture continues to grow with no additional substations. 1F to 3,400F, and modules ranging
economy gains are much higher for for example, for onboard energy Maxwell is actively expanding its from 16V to 160V, which have been
vehicles that make frequent stops storage in light rail vehicles. ultracapacitor footprint, transforming proven to deliver high power,
and starts, such as in-city driving. American Maglev Technology propulsion systems across all whether used alone or paired with
Maxwell Technologies has been implemented the Maxwell transportation platforms. batteries, in a variety of applications
collaborating with transportation ultracapacitors with 750V Energy The new DuraBlue Advanced from automotive and transportation
engineers and integrators to provide Storage Units, for Tri-County Shock and Vibration Technology to renewable energy or power
ultracapacitor solutions for energy Metropolitan Transportation combines Maxwells unique and industrial electronics.
capture. Although batteries have Portland (TriMet). patented dry electrode formation
been a traditional storage system By using Maxwell ultracapacitors, and manufacturing process with FREE READER INQUIRY SERVICE
of choice, ultracapacitors are TriMet saves thousands of dollars a robust proprietary cell structure To learn more about
gaining market share. per month in operating costs and design to exceed the most Maxwell Technologies,
The biggest advantage of using enjoys considerably reduced energy demanding shock and vibration visit: www.ukipme.com/info/ev
ultracapacitors for regenerative consumption. The storage system requirements of the growing INQUIRY NO. 509

164 // January 2015 // Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology International


PRODUCTS & SERVICES

Gold-plated resistors
A new family of resistors with gold-plated surfaces and contacts features
low-ohmic components that can be mounted with conductive adhesive

The new PMH-D and PLU


precision performance foil
resistors from Isabellenhtte are
a new type of resistor, featuring a
gold-plated surface. The VMx-A,
a member of the VMx precision
resistor family, has gold-plated
contacts. The PMH-D and PLU
bondable resistors are produced
using the Isa-Plan process, in which
layers of manganin foil, copper
substrate and an adhesive with
good thermal conductivity (ceramic
filled) are pressure bonded. This
highly temperature-resistant
bonded combination of substrate
and resistant foil ensures optimal
dissipation of heat. A small increase
in the temperature level of the
component has a positive effect on
stability and long-term drift.
Isabellenhttes all-new gold-plated
resistors can be mounted with
conductive adhesive, making all of
these resistor families well suited to
applications in the automotive
sector which involves high
temperature and load requirements.
They are certified according to the
AEC-Q200 quality standard for
electrical components.
The PMH-D (which measures 6.7
x 3.4 x 0.7mm) and the PLU (10.4 x
6.4 x 0.6mm) are designed for
hybrid mounting with bonding
technology. The bonding pads and Isabellenhttes gold-plated resistors can be mounted with conductive adhesive and are well suited to automotive applications
the back side of the component are
plated with a 0.1m layer of gold, as four-wire measurement resistors the VMP-A is a popular choice for Signal Group, which is based in
which makes soldering and (Kelvin connection) and fulfill the automobile engine and transmission Ratingen, Germany. The agreement
mounting with conductive adhesive requirements of RoHS guideline modules. The VMP-A resistor is also means that, within the European
possible. The result is an ideal RoHS 2011/65/EU. suited for application in power region, Power and Signal is now
thermal coupling that makes best As mentioned previously, the hybrids and power modules (DCB responsible for the distribution of
use of the available component VMx-A versions of the VMx precision ceramic) in frequency converters. Isabellenhtte products. Power
surface. The resistors are designed resistor family can be mounted with The gold-plated VMP-A resistor has and Signal also forms part of a
to handle a constant load of up to conductive adhesive as opposed a constant load capacity of up to new distribution network within
5W at 150C and a constant current to merely being suitable for 2W at 110C and can handle a the company.
of up to 50A (PMH-D/size 2512) and component mounting by means constant current of up to 20A.
70A (PLU/size 3924). The PMH-D is of reflow and IR soldering. Thanks The resistors temperature range FREE READER INQUIRY SERVICE
currently available as a 2m resistor to its small size (the type 2010 is -55C to 170C. To learn more about Power and Signal
and the PLU as a 1m resistor. measures 5.08 x 2.54 x 0.4mm), Isabellenhtte has embarked on Group, visit: www.ukipme.com/info/ev
Both resistors have been designed high load capacity and precision, a partnership with the Power and
INQUIRY NO. 510

166 // January 2015 // Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology International


PRODUCTS & SERVICES

EV drivetrain control
Optimizing the drivetrain control strategy of inner-city electric delivery
vehicles can improve efficiency and battery life, and reduce cost of ownership

The growth of e-commerce approach using a space vector


has increased the need for modulation (SVM) algorithm.
fleets of delivery vehicles. This approach offers a variety of
These vehicles, when powered possibilities (involving two, four, or
by combustion engines, operate six pulses per switching period),
inefficiently in stop-and-start, inner- each of which has
city duty cycles. Local governments, advantages and
therefore, are encouraging the move drawbacks depending
to electric delivery vehicles in most on vehicle usage.
inner cities. As an example,
When fleet managers are willing when considering the
to invest in an electric vehicle, they urban daily route of a
are faced with the issue of total cost 3.5-ton electric delivery
of ownership despite incentives vehicle, the optimum solution is
that are available to offset the cost. to combine SVM2 and SVM4
Typically, battery costs are high, approaches, while setting up Optimized drivetrain control strategies can encourage electric vehicle uptake
and anything that can be done to acceleration pedal cartography to
optimize the size of the battery pack optimize vehicle performance to e-commerce delivery vehicles, for and two pulses per switching
according to the vehicles duty cycle, the routes. This approach is less example which experience many period) and Full Wave control, which
or to extend the vehicles range, will beneficial when the vehicle is used starts and stops. involves no switching period.
help accelerate the adoption of on a highway. However, there are The SVM strategy is adjusted to Full Wave is used in most
cleaner, more sustainable huge advantages for commercial the vehicle speed. At low to medium brushless DC applications, and
alternative transportation. fleet vehicles operating in the city speeds, two types of SVM are most offers the best energy efficiency for
Actia Automotive has evaluated intra-city buses, shuttles and efficient SVM4 and SVM2 AC. the inverter. However, losses and
the impact of the control strategy of In SVM4, which uses four pulses motor torque ripple increase.
a permanent magnet motor on a per switching period, one phase leg SVM2 PC and Full Wave provide
vehicles energy consumption is not switched during the period. the best use of battery voltage
when used on these types of daily SVM4 offers the best energy range even more so when the
routes. Specific control strategies, efficiency, thus reducing inverter motor needs to be flux-weakened,
optimized for an urban cycle, can switching losses and providing full which is often required as soon as
improve the battery pack autonomy use of battery voltage range to the the motor reaches medium speed.
enabling downsizing of the motor windings. A balance between SMV2 PC and
battery, increased operation range, In SVM2 AC, which features SVM Full Wave, again, provides the best
or prolonged battery life. with amplitude control and two compromise for these applications.
Modern magnet motors controls pulses per switching period, only A flexible Space Vector
are usually based on a vector PWM Combining SVM2 and SVM4 strategies one phase leg is switched: the other Modulation strategy to control the
two are not. SVM2 AC offers better drivetrain of an electric vehicle can
energy efficiency than SVM4 by significantly improve the autonomy
reducing inverter switching losses and life duration of a battery in an
and allowing the motor windings the inner-city duty cycle. It also
use of the full voltage range. contributes to the optimization of
However, motor losses slightly the total cost of ownership, which
increase and the motor torque ripple is a major concern for vehicle fleet
generates mechanical stress and owners and a key issue in
undesired vibrations. A balance increasing the usage of electric
between and SVM4 and SVM2 AC delivery vehicles in cities.
provides the best compromise.
In applications involving medium FREE READER INQUIRY SERVICE
to high speeds, there are also two To learn more about Actia Automotive,
types of SVM that are most efficient visit: www.ukipme.com/info/ev
Adopting a flexible SVM strategy can reduce overall electric drivetrain losses INQUIRY NO. 511
SVM2 PC (SVM with phase control

168 // January 2015 // Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology International


Electrical
Architecture
Expertise

Power
Electronics
&
Battery
Systems

Manufacturing
Plants

Automotive
Quality
Standards

ACTIA ELECTRIC DRIVE SYSTEMS


30 years of Automotive industry experience
An international group in 15 countries.
The partner of passenger, commercial and
industrial vehicle manufacturers.
Intelligent solutions tailored to specic applications.
High-end Automotive quality in all stages
of development and manufacturing.
Electronics manufacturing expertise in the groups
medium and large production factories.
PRODUCTS & SERVICES

Zero-emissions motoring
The Formula E championship has the potential to accelerate research and
development in electric motoring to the benefit of the entire EV industry

Electric vehicles cars driven


by one or more electric
motors powered by batteries
recharged from an external
electricity supply now have a
global showcase. The official
Fdration Internationale de
lAutomobile single-seater Formula
E championship commenced in
September 2014 in Beijing, and
continues until June 2015. The
series will travel to 10 of the worlds
best-known cities (including
London, Miami, Buenos Aires,
Berlin and Monte Carlo) and
features 10 teams, each with two
drivers. Teams will compete using
the high-performance Spark-
Renault SRT_01E, with each driver
having two cars.
But Formula E is not just about
glamorizing EVs. Alejandro Agag,
CEO of Formula E Holdings, says
that the championship will become
the framework for research and
development around the electric
car, a key element for the future of
our cities. Just as other technologies China Racings Formula E racecar sponsored by technology suppliers Mouser, Vishay and Molex accelerates hard at the
have been either invented or inaugural championship event, which took place in September 2014 at the Beijing Olympic Green Circuit (Photo: Formula E)
perfected in motorsports and later
trickled down into conventional catching up fast. A gasoline engine compared with a gasoline engine Further improvements in battery
vehicles, Formula E hopes to do the produces little torque and power 75-85% against 25-30% for energy density, motor efficiency,
same for EVs. To that end, leading at low revolutions, so it must work conversion of electrical/chemical speed and range are inevitable.
electronics distributor Mouser through a series of gears to enable energy into mechanical energy. Formula E was merely a concept
Electronics is sponsoring the China the engine to build up revs quickly An EV electric motor is also more three years ago, but technology is
Racing Formula E Team. Joining the for acceptable acceleration. But the compact than a gasoline engine, forged in the heat of competition.
sponsorship of China Racing are powertrain for an EV delivers all its freeing up space for more batteries While Formula E was born out of the
electronic component companies torque immediately and smoothly, and greater energy capacity. The desire to promote clean energy,
Vishay, a leading global supplier only tailing off marginally in the inaugural Formula E cars can reach mobility and sustainability, perhaps
of semiconductor and passive upper rev range. Power from an 100km/h (60mph) from a standing the most tangible benefit will be its
components; and Molex, a leading electric motor also builds smoothly start in three seconds, and realize role as a testbed for EV technology
technology provider with a product across the entire rev range and a maximum speed of 225km/h that will stimulate further battery,
portfolio ranging from connectors to hardly tails off even toward the units (140mph). But the cars feature some drivetrain, motor and engine
cable assemblies. upper limit. performance restrictions. For management. For more information,
Although the history of electric Although most modern electric example, during races, both the see advertisement on facing page.
vehicles can be traced back to at vehicles use Li-ion power packs maximum power (150kW) and
least the 1830s, it is only in the past whose volumetric energy density battery energy (28kWh) are limited, FREE READER INQUIRY SERVICE
20 years or so that leading global of around 700Wh/l is well below that and drivers have to swap vehicles To learn more about
manufacturers have directed proper of gasoline (10kWh/l), the vehicles halfway through the race. The cars Mouser Electronics, visit:
resources into intensive research have much in their favor, including also have limited use of an additional www.ukipme.com/info/ev
and development. And EVs are the efficiency of an electric motor 30kW for overtaking. INQUIRY NO. 512

170 // January 2015 // Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology International


mouser.com
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Electronic & Hybrid Vehicles Page FINAL.indd 1 12/11/14 10:04


PRODUCTS & SERVICES

Flywheel-based KERS
A flywheel-based kinetic energy recovery system can offer many of the benefits
of hybridization in heavy-duty applications, but without the associated high costs

Having recently started


passenger-carrying trials with
operators, Torotraks Flybrid kinetic
energy recovery system (KERS)
aims to be the most cost-efficient
hybrid system for bus applications
on the market.
The innovative flywheel-based
unit is completely mechanical and,
due to its relatively common
components and materials,
promises to be considerably less
expensive than hybrid electric
options on the market. At around
one-third of the weight, a quarter of
the cost and with only a five-year
payback period, this newcomer
offers an affordable hybridization
alternative to the incumbent electric
solutions. Initially aimed at single- A KERS-equipped Wrightbus
deck buses, the system is also StreetLite midibus at Cenex LCV 2014
the result of a two-year project
suitable for application in other
commercial vehicles.
The Flybrid KERS unit connects exclusively fitted to Wrightbus
to the rear axle of the single-deck StreetLite midibuses, there is the
StreetLite midibus via a power take- opportunity to use this technology
off (PTO) arrangement; this enables across a wider range of vehicles in
it to transfer kinetic energy directly the near future. Torotrak firmly
away from the driveline to spin up believes the same specification of
the flywheel and slow down the unit could save fuel in a variety of
bus. At only about 8kg, the flywheel bus models, including double-
itself is the key ingredient of the deckers and coaches, and indeed
system spinning exceptionally fast across other varieties of commercial
in a specially designed containment vehicle such as delivery trucks,
housing, it can deliver up to 120kW refuse vehicles and HGVs.
and 5,000Nm, on demand, to the Further backing the viability of
driveline of the bus. The specially Flybrid KERS for commercial Installation of the KERS unit does not
designed mechanical transmission vehicle applications is its long affect the buss passenger capacity
Torotrak has developed as part of
between the PTO and the flywheel design life currently being proven this project allow specific vehicle
ensures that torque is delivered through an extensive design applications of the KERS to be
smoothly during the storage and verification plan and testing regime discharge cycles without storage simulated for fuel economy and
release of energy, and provides that runs thousands of kilometers capacity depletion. energy storage, and are capable of
driveability and driver control ahead of the buses on the road it The technology is being further including subtleties such as vehicle
virtually identical to that of a is expected to reach 1,000,000km developed to offer an affordable payload, drive cycle and even
conventional diesel bus. of service with only basic way to try out hybridization, altitude enabling the customer to
The Flybrid bus KERS unit is maintenance. Throughout this particularly on routes, duty cycles virtually try before they buy.
the result of a two-year project in lifespan, the vehicle drives like a or vehicle types where it might
partnership with bus manufacturer normal bus, can be serviced much usually not be cost-effective. FREE READER INQUIRY SERVICE
Wrightbus, and while the prototype like a transmission with no high- Further pre-production prototype To learn more about Flybrid,
units currently on fleet trial with voltage components, and will see trials are scheduled for 2015. The visit: www.ukipme.com/info/ev
INQUIRY NO. 513
customers such as Arriva are more than three million charge and computer simulation tools that

172 // January 2015 // Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology International


PRODUCTS & SERVICES

Vehicle safety processors


In order to keep up with increasing demands from image recognition-based advanced
driver assistance technologies, an all-new family of multi-engine processors is needed

Improved car safety has been


the biggest contributor to a
reduction in the number of road
deaths in Europe over the past
decade, according to Euro NCAP
the European New Car Assessment
Program. Increasing use of various
autonomous systems with visual-
recognition capabilities is expected
to help further increase road safety
in the coming years.
Euro NCAP has been establishing
numerous test protocols for various
autonomous safety systems for
some time now. Forward collision
warning (FCW) and autonomous
emergency braking (AEB) systems
have been included in the overall
Euro NCAP safety rating for the first
time in 2014.
The program will add traffic sign
recognition (TSR) and AEB with
daytime pedestrian detection (PD) in
2016. AEB with both daytime and
night-time PD will be added by
2018. More advanced features Multi-engine processors are required to meet the new and high demands of image recognition-based advanced driver systems
include 3D object detection, as well
as driver monitoring to check for hardware, rather than software, can affine transform for distortion obstacles that are not included
visual signs of tiredness and accelerate algorithm execution to reduction and image sizing, and in the image library, such as
authenticate the drivers identity. assist real-time performance, and accelerators for histogram guardrails, curbs or small objects on
Systems that can see hazards can also maximize energy-efficient manipulation and matching. the road surface. Unknown obstacle
and warn drivers of upcoming operation. However, a suitable Toshibas co-occurrence detection differs from conventional
obstacles are heavily reliant upon processor must also be able to run histograms of oriented gradients pattern recognition by using 3D
high-performance image recognition multiple driver-assistance (CoHOG), enhanced CoHOG and reconstruction technology, taking
processing technologies. applications simultaneously. For structure from motion (SfM) advantage of the SfM accelerator to
Image recognition is extensively cars that need to see, a multi- functions are also implemented in analyze images at high speed.
software-based. In an automotive engine processor with an array of the fourth-generation processor, The image-recognition
ADAS application, however, the multichannel dedicated hardware which delivers performance levels processors have been developed
power dissipated by a high- accelerators is the ideal platform. up to 10 times those of the previous- using Toshibas ISO 26262 process
performance CPU or DSP running As the total number of driver- generation quad-MPE device. flow. As a component designed for
at high-megahertz frequencies assistance systems requiring image Toshiba has also developed an use in safety-related vehicle
would present unacceptable recognition has increased, Toshiba enhanced CoHOG accelerator, systems, it is designed to achieve
thermal challenges. The effects of a has evolved its automotive image- which provides extremely high the necessary Automotive Safety
high-performance software-based recognition processor family with pedestrian-recognition accuracy Integrity Level (ASIL), ensuring the
approach are unacceptable, and its latest processor family the even when utilized at night by highest level of robustness against
contribute to the demand for cost- fourth-generation TMPV760, which analyzing color-based gradients safety risks.
effective, low-power solutions. features up to eight media-processing of images from multiple, full-high-
Performing complex or frequently engines (MPE) units, eight camera definition cameras. FREE READER INQUIRY SERVICE
used processing functions (such as inputs and multiple hardware The SfM accelerator enables To learn more about Toshiba,
transforms, filters, histograms and accelerators. These include pixel support for driver assistance that visit: www.ukipme.com/info/ev
INQUIRY NO. 514
pyramid matching) in dedicated calculation and filtering, an enhanced can accurately identify unknown

Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology International // January 2015 // 173


PRODUCTS & SERVICES

Fuel cell power box


A new device that combines the functionalities of high-power DC conversion and turbo
compressor motor control is set to lower the cost and complexity of mobile fuel cell systems

Brusa Elektronik, a Swiss


supplier of automotive power
electronics and electric propulsion
systems, has enjoyed a long history
developing and producing the
technology required within mobile
fuel cell systems (FCS) for use as
range-extender power supplies.
Currently, the company is
developing an innovation that is set
to take high-power conversion for
fuel cell applications to a new level:
the fuel cell power box (FCPB).
According to Brusa, the FCPB will
be tailored to the requirements of a
competitive mobile FCS.
To understand how the FCPB
works, it is important to understand
the different systems underpinning
this innovation.
One crucial technology is the
DC-to-DC power converter, which
converts direct current from one A schematic of Brusas fuel cell
potentially fluctuating voltage power box, a product the company maximum safety. Also, the fuel cell With the GIC246 converter and
level to another, to provide a will implement for high-power and traction sides are separated at DMC714 controller being made
conversion in fuel cell applications
stabilized output. Within a FCS, the all times. available in early 2015, Brusa plans
DC converter safely connects the Brusa has also gained highly to present the FCPB shortly after.
fuel cell or battery to the DC link. comprehensive experience in the The FCPB will integrate both
Brusa has worked closely with development of its four-quadrant functionalities of DC conversion and
several car and bus manufacturers power inverters (controllers) for turbo-compressor motor control
to deliver DC converter solutions electric traction motors. Recently, within one device. There is obvious
for virtually all possible FCS this expertise was adapted while potential for synergy because the
architectures. Of Brusas entire creating controllers for high-speed number of internal components,
converter portfolio, the BDC546 is motors that propel the turbo- interfaces and required build space
probably the best-known product. compressors and supply air for the can be significantly reduced,
This automotive-grade device is chemical reaction within the fuel simplifying the integration work
used in fuel cell bus fleet services cell. The performance of these undertaken by the vehicle system
all over Europe. controllers has a crucial impact on architect and ultimately reducing the
With the industry on the brink of the efficiency of the FCS. cost of the entire FCS.
mass-marketing fuel cell electric The latest evolution is the Three decades after the company
vehicles, along with the constant The Brusa fuel cell power box concept DMC714, which masters sensorless was founded, and representing the
aim of reducing the size and cost of motor control at rotational speeds logical continuation of Brusas
components being realized, Brusa of 180,000rpm and more, and tradition of innovation, the FCPB
is currently developing the latest features a full set of proven Brusa marks an important milestone on
generation of its DC converters, the Elektronik technologies, such as the path to the affordable mass-
GIC246. This compact converter, the SoftSwing topology, which market fuel cell electric vehicle.
suitable for FCS operating at up to ensures minimal switching losses
750V, is also the first converter to and optimal EMC features, liquid- FREE READER INQUIRY SERVICE
feature an AC-bridge between pin cooling technology and To learn more about Brusa Elektronik,
both DC sides, thus applying the automotive-compliant molded visit: www.ukipme.com/info/ev
INQUIRY NO. 515
principle of galvanic insulation for semiconductor modules.

174 // January 2015 // Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology International


PRODUCTS & SERVICES

Performance Li-ion cells


Used in the Formula E championship, lithium-ion power cells have potential
applications beyond racing, and could be implemented in a wide range of industries

In late 2013, the Dow Kokam


joint venture came to an end,
but in its wake Xalt Energy emerged
a new company with a new
leadership team and a stronger
focus on product and growing
partner relationships. With a proven
product, a world-class USA-based
lithium-ion manufacturing facility
providing over 700MWh capacity,
and innovative, experienced
engineers, the company had a
great starting point.
One of Xalt Energys most
recent partnerships is with Williams
Advanced Engineering the
Xalt Energy NMC
engineering services and lithium-ion cells
technology business of the Williams
Group and is focused on the
development of lithium-ion batteries
for the new Formula E races. Xalt
Energy and Williams Advanced
Engineering have worked closely
together since June 2013, when
Williams was awarded the contract
to produce the batteries that power
all 40 cars competing in Formula E,
the worlds first fully electric racing
series. Xalt Energy supplies the
lithium-ion cells for each battery and
the companys experts have been
The Xalt Energy manufacturing plant in Midland, Michigan A Williams Advanced Engineering (WAE) pack with Xalt cells
integrated into the Williams team
to ensure that the batteries meet
stringent performance, reliability done almost entirely in clean room cells can be cost competitive with This translates into value that
and safety criteria. This new environments where temperature, any other lithium-ion cell in the world. customers are seeing in a wide
partnership will also see the two humidity and air particles are closely The Xalt Energy product portfolio variety of applications, including
companies collaborate on future managed. The high level of includes multiple-size cell capacities multi-megawatt hour systems
projects involving lithium-ion manufacturing automation drove from as small as 8Ah, with the for powering marine propulsion
battery technology for a range of the need to install advanced vision majority of the companys products systems, hybrid and electric
applications beyond motorsport. systems, multiple coating thickness ranging from 25Ah up to 75Ah. bus and heavy-duty commercial
The key to the success of the and dimensional verification, to Additionally, all the cells can be vehicles, grid and stationary
Xalt cells is evident as soon as ensure that the cells meet Xalts high made in high-energy (180Wh/kg systems used for renewable
you walk into the manufacturing quality standards. This, in addition to and 8C power pulse), high-power integration, and, of course, in
facility. Precise and flexible cell extensive raw material acceptance (160Wh/kg and 12C power pulse) high-performance automotive
manufacturing processes are testing and full product traceability, or ultra-high-power (110Wh/kg and applications such as the Williams
managed with a fanatical zeal, ongoing continuous improvement 40C power pulse) variations all Formula E packs.
which leads to one of the highest practices and lean manufacturing, using NMC/graphite chemistry.
quality, most consistent and best have enabled Xalt to develop a one In applications, Xalt Energy cells FREE READER INQUIRY SERVICE
performing cells in the world. From of a kind, large format lithium-ion demonstrate their value with the To learn more about Xalt Energy,
mixing to the final formation, the cell. And due to the high level of ability to achieve high cycle life visit: www.ukipme.com/info/ev
INQUIRY NO. 516
entire process is automated and automation used in the facility, the (>4,500 cycles at 1C/1C rates).

Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology International // January 2015 // 175


PRODUCTS & SERVICES

Lithium-sulfur batteries
An alternative to more common battery chemistries, lithium-sulfur has the potential
for use in electric vehicle applications, reducing range anxiety and improving safety

Much has been written about cell manufacture is a recycled


Li-S cells are much
lithium-sulfur (Li-S) in the last lighter than competing by-product of the oil industry.
couple of years, but it can be useful technologies As a new technology develops,
to go back to basics and explain it often splits into more than one
this new battery technology. product. This is indeed the case
At its heart, an Li-S pouch cell with Li-S, with choices in cell
comprises various layers of materials proving an important
materials, including a lithium metal factor in a cells performance
anode, a sulfur-based cathode to the extent that products are
that includes carbon and a polymer entering the market designed for
binder, and an electrolyte that particular applications. In some
renders the cell safe. applications, such as batteries
This chemistry has several carried by individuals, weight is
important advantages over existing the absolute priority. EVs, on the
technologies such as lithium-ion other hand, must balance weight
(Li-ion), including addressing the reduction with ensuring sufficient
two largest challenges to the mass power and cycle life therefore
adoption of electric vehicles: range cells with these particular
anxiety and safety. characteristics are also being
Systems using metallic lithium are designed and introduced for
known to offer the highest specific this market.
energy and, coupled with sulfur, Using these various cell formats,
offer an extremely high theoretical a range of Li-S batteries are now
specific energy five times that of being developed and are expected
Li-ion. Readings in excess of to be in production by the middle of
300Wh/kg have already been 2015. This includes a battery for the
demonstrated within commercial- Navya autonomous vehicle, which
size pouch cells. So for the same is the worlds first electric vehicle
energy stored, the battery will be powered by Li-S. Looking further
considerably lighter than Li-ion ahead, Innovate UK (previously
(or indeed any battery chemistry known as the UKs Technology
available). This means more Strategy Board) is funding a
batteries of higher energy density program with Oxis Energy, Lotus
can be added to a vehicle, Engineering, Imperial College and
increasing the distance it can travel. Cranfield University to develop an
With the improvements being made enhanced Li-S vehicle battery and
to Li-S over time, vehicle journeys of energy system controller. This
600-800km should be possible on Revolutionary Electric Vehicle
one charge. Battery (REVB) project began in
Safety and reliability are both The Navya autonomous vehicle is powered by advanced lithium-sulfur cells November 2013, runs until late
guaranteed by the specific choice 2016, and will provide breakthrough
of Li-S chemistry. Inherent in the battery technology one only required when left for extended improvements in energy density
technology are two key mechanisms has to look at any of a number of periods to prevent damage. (400Wh/kg), which will result in a
that protect the cells a ceramic high-profile incidents in the last The chemistry is considered to major increase in the performance
lithium sulfide passivation layer and couple of years. have less environmental impact and safety of the next-generation
a high-flashpoint electrolyte. This Li-S has a complete 100% depth than other technologies such as electric vehicle.
means that the cell can survive a of discharge, and remains safe during Li-ion. The Li-S cell uses sulfur in
barrage of electrical and physical over-discharge compared with other place of heavy metals such as FREE READER INQUIRY SERVICE
abuse, including puncture, without technologies, which are susceptible nickel and cobalt, which have a To learn more about Oxis Energy,
any adverse reaction. Safety is seen to damage. Li-S cells also have an substantial environmental impact visit www.ukipme.com/info/ev
INQUIRY NO. 517
to be the major problem with Li-ion indefinite shelf life, with no charging whereas the sulfur used in Li-S

176 // January 2015 // Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology International


PRODUCTS & SERVICES

Advanced inverter cooling


Improving cooling technology within the traction inverters of electric vehicles can
increase component reliability and lifespan, while reducing the cost of materials

The traction inverter of an also incorporate direct liquid cooling


electric vehicle is the second (DLC). Only the bottom connections
most expensive component after are used to conduct heat from the
the battery pack. Within this inverter, die into the heat sink or coolant.
the semiconductor power modules The wirebond connections to the
account for up to 30% of the total top side have no significant role
cost of the unit. More efficient in removing heat from the die.
cooling at the semiconductor die This single-sided cooling is
level could help significantly reduce inadequate to allow the devices
inverter cost and complexity, switching capabilities to be fully
allowing for more affordable EVs. utilized. In order to carry the
The cooling of power electronics maximum inverter current,
is critical for reliability. Sustained designers connect multiple devices
operation at high temperatures in parallel, which increases the
reduces the overall lifetime of overall cost of the inverter.
semiconductor devices, while To improve heat transfer, and so Figure 1: The flipped-die and die-up switches simplify inter-device connections
exceeding the maximum die help reduce inverter cost while also
temperature specified by the boosting reliability, International configuration, the IGBT emitter, substrates, or substrates with higher
manufacturer can quickly destroy Rectifier has developed an labeled E in Figure 1, and the diode thermal conductivity.
the device. innovative packaging concept anode, labeled A, are attached to Lowering the overall thermal
In a typical inverter module, the that enables heat to be removed the substrate. In the flipped-die, the resistance from junction to coolant
main power switches are Insulated through both sides of the IGBT collector (C) and the diode allows for better utilization of the
Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT) dies semiconductor die. The basic cathode (K) are attached to the semiconductor die area. This
attached directly to a Direct Bonded building block of this package is substrate. This helps to simplify reduces the total die area needed
Copper (DBC) substrate with IRs COOLiR2Die surface-mount assembly when interconnecting to achieve a given current rating,
soldered or sintered-metal power switch, which comprises an devices in a half-bridge, H-bridge resulting in lower materials costs. In
connections to the bottom IGBT die and a matching diode or custom power circuit. addition, the improved heat transfer
terminals. Connections to the mounted on a thermally efficient A half-bridge module is assembled increases reliability and lifetime of
topside terminals are made using ceramic substrate. as outlined in Figure 2, using the power module. The dual-side
wirebonds. The DBC substrate is The COOLiR2Die switches are flipped-die and die-up devices. The cooled module also benefits from
attached to a thermal baseplate, produced in die-up and flipped-die exposed pads of the COOLiR2Die increased power-cycling ability.
which acts as a heat sink and may configurations. In the die-up are attached directly to the DBC Alternatively, the same die area
substrate of the module using can support up to 61% higher RMS
solder or sintered metal. A heat current rating, allowing for increased
sink can be attached to the topside power-handling capability without
of the COOLiR2Die to maximize increasing cost. COOLiR2Die
cooling efficiency. switches have been produced with a
By allowing both topside and voltage rating of 680V and current
bottom-side cooling, COOLiR2Die rating of 300A in a 29 x 13 x 1mm
significantly reduces thermal assembly. In addition, increased heat
resistance from the die to coolant transfer ability enables the use of
(RTHj-coolant) compared with a higher PWM switching frequencies,
conventional module containing meaning smaller and lower-cost
wirebond connections. Depending passive components can be used to
on the type and thickness of the complete the inverter design.
substrate, junction-to-case thermal
resistances of approximately FREE READER INQUIRY SERVICE
0.0024m k/W are easily achievable To learn more about International
for both the bottom and the topside Rectifier, visit:
Figure 2: The COOLiR 2Die of the package. Further improvement www.ukipme.com/info/ev
switches in a half-bridge module
is possible by using thinner INQUIRY NO. 518

Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology International // January 2015 // 177


PRODUCTS & SERVICES

Automotive EV cables
Electric motorcycles have become the latest vehicle type to enjoy the
benefits of shielded, reliable and highly resistant automotive power cables

Lito Green Motion electric motorcycles utilize high-performance Radox automotive cables (right) to connect the battery and motor systems in their advanced drivetrains

Automotive cables from the vehicle from a low rider to being selected as the supplier for electric vehicles where particularly
Huber+Suhner are already a racing machine. As a result, the these motorcycles. high currents are used. The cable
used in a variety of vehicles, Sora is suitable for use during both In addition to Brammo and Lito shielding prevents interference
including cars, trucks, electric relaxed cruising and high-speed Green Motion, Huber+Suhner is with the sensors and electronics
bicycles and electric boats. journeys. Both models share collaborating with other electric in the vehicle space. The entire
And now they are also being common features, including zero motorcycle manufacturers. Both product family is also available in
increasingly implemented in electric emissions and little noise due to Brammo and Lito Green Motion are unshielded versions.
motorcycles. Brammo, Lito Green the electric motor. also planning to ramp up production Following this product range
Motion and other manufacturers Cables from Huber+Suhner of their vehicles, and have expansion, Huber+Suhner is one
rely on Radox automotive cables are used within the drive system requested additional cables. As of the first manufacturers to offer
for the drive systems of their to transmit power between the a result, more electric motorcycles cross-sections across the entire
electric motorcycles. battery and the electric motor. with cables from Huber+Suhner range from 1.5mm2 up to
The Brammo Empulse motorcycle The Radox insulations used in the will soon be hitting the roads. 150mm2. Previously, customers
reaches a top speed of 177km/h cables offer excellent resistance to To meet the requirements of had to opt for thicker cables with
(110mph) and has a range of thermal, chemical, electrical and its customers in the automotive larger cross-sections if the
90-200km (56-124 miles). The mechanical loads. At the same market, Huber+Suhner has recently appropriate intermediate cross-
Brammo racing team uses this time, the cables have excellent expanded its product range of section was not available. The
model to successfully compete in mechanical (pinch, abrasion, shielded Radox power and battery company now offers a suitable
events. Apart from high-speed bending radius) and electrical cables. In compliance with ISO cross-section for every application.
riding, the motorcycle is also suitable properties. They can also be 6722, the company now offers This offers auto makers crucial
for calm and relaxing journeys. Lito installed in the chassis in a space- intermediate cross-sections of space, weight and cost savings.
Green Motions Sora motorcycle saving way. It was these cable 8, 12, 20, 30, 40 and 60mm2
has the same range and reaches a characteristics, coupled with in addition to the standard sizes. FREE READER INQUIRY SERVICE
top speed of 190km/h. It has an Huber+Suhners previous Shielded Radox power cables from To learn more about Huber+Suhner,
electrically controlled seat that can successes in the electric vehicle Huber+Suhner are ideal for high- visit: www.ukipme.com/info/ev
be adjusted while riding, converting voltage applications in hybrid and
INQUIRY NO. 519
market, that led to the company

178 // January 2015 // Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology International


PRODUCTS & SERVICES

Multi-physics simulation
High-fidelity, multi-physics engineering simulations are advancing
the design and development of key hybrid components and systems

The changing engineering


simulation requirements
brought about by electric and hybrid
powertrain designs, as opposed to
conventional IC engines, have
provided a growth opportunity for
simulation companies. One of the
first to respond to such changing
needs was CD-adapco, an early
leader in engineering simulation
methods. The company launched
an ambitious extension of its
computational fluid dynamics-
centric tool, STAR-CCM+, to add
multi-physics capability necessary
for the modeling of certain hybrid
system components.
First to be added was an
electrochemistry analysis device
that enabled design engineers to
understand the effect temperature
can have on installed battery pack
performance, as well as the effect
an electrical load can have on the
temperature of cells within such
packs. This coupled approach
has led to a flow, thermal and
electrochemistry solver being
developed, with notable projects
along the way, including those with A detailed cross-section showing temperature levels through a JCI 12-cell module during a PHEV drive cycle discharge
the Department of Energy (DoE) in
the USA and a consortium of
German car manufacturers. An Here the electromagnetic system, be used alongside the flow and accurate temperature predictions
example of the possible results was which produces the motion, also thermal solver to simulate the entire throughout the full drive cycle.
recently published at a DoE event, produces heat that needs to be electric machine in a single Multiple cooling approaches can be
which showed a simulation of a dealt with by the cooling system. simulation tool. Finally, CD-adapco simulated, including air cooling,
Johnson Controls 12-cell model Conversely, the temperature of can read data from its own upfront liquid cooling and even spray
during a PHEV drive cycle. The the components within the electric machine design tool, cooling. This ultimately enables the
simulation predicts temperature electromagnetic system will affect automatically setting up a case and component and system designers
fields as well as battery-specific the efficiency of the overall running the solution. to explore the design options and
values such as cell voltage and system. This highlights the need for A complete multi-physics view of make well-informed choices.
pack state-of-charge. easy exchange of data to converge the electric and hybrid powertrain Having achieved such simulation
More recently, this technology has on the correct answer for a given system also involves investigating fidelity, CD-adapco shows no sign
been used in with other simulation set of operating conditions. the cooling performance of the of slowing down with customer-
tools to highlight how critical cell CD-adapco has enabled its flow power electronics and control focused developments in the field of
properties can be managed by and thermal simulation tool to electronics. STAR-CCM+ is used to electric and hybrid engineering.
differing control strategies within accept electromagnetic losses for simulate in detail the heat sources
an overall vehicle or powertrain. all major codes, thereby enabling (which can exceed 5kW in the FREE READER INQUIRY SERVICE
Another key component that such convergence. Moreover, IGBTs), thermal management To learn more about CD-adapco,
benefits from multi-physics STAR-CCM+ now has its own components and even the printed visit: www.ukipme.com/info/ev
electromagnetic solver, which can
INQUIRY NO. 520
simulation is the traction motor. circuit board with traces, giving

Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology International // January 2015 // 179


PRODUCTS & SERVICES

Sensor self-diagnostics
As the complexity of electronics in vehicles continues to increase, the ability
to have sensors perform self-testing can provide a vital early warning system

In todays highly innovative reports the problem to a control


and technological world, cars unit, and mitigating action is taken.
have been designed with features This action may be to modify the
from high-tech navigational systems engine control for non-optimal, but
to mood lighting. You can easily find sufficient operation, or just to
your location and even park activate an indicator light. In more
effortlessly using park-assist. But extreme cases, the operator may
what happens if you break down need to seek roadside assistance.
on the way? This is the calamitous ending that
With so many of a vehicles has driven the high-tech world of
operations being driven by sensors to the conclusion that the
electronics, manufacturers are industry may not be doing enough.
required to adhere to more and Vehicle failures such as the
more safety standards (ASIL and one mentioned above could be
ISO 26262, for example). Meeting attributed to a malfunction of the
these criteria requires increased system. But theres also a chance Figure 2: A differential gear tooth sensor detects magnetic signal disturbance
failure mode analysis and that it could have been caused by (a bent tooth, for example) and feeds the information back to the interface
system. The interface system can then determine the appropriate action needed
documentation during the design a malfunction at the component
process, and the implementation of level. One common sensing
additional fault detection circuits on technology is the magnetic sensor
all safety-critical designs. The goal these can now be equipped with
of this added complexity is to state-of-the-art diagnostics to
diagnose a given problem before address these safety concerns.
it significantly affects the driver. Such sensors operate on magnetic
Lets consider the main vehicle fields contiguous to the sensing
systems of a car. Whether its an elements. A change in the system,
internal combustion engine or a such as the distance between the
hybrid powertrain, there are applied field and the sensor, can be
electronic sensors continually detected and a warning signal sent
monitoring the system during to indicate that the system has
vehicle operation. If a failure occurs changed (as shown in Figure 1)
and operation is affected, a sensor or been damaged (Figure 2). Figure 3: An on-chip coil excites the magnetic signal path and then provides a code
on the output pin indicating whether the chip operation has either passed or failed

Figure 1: A
magnetic gear Figure 3 illustrates the case where during sensor operation, or when
tooth sensors the sensor is failing, and an onboard pinged by the control module.
magnetic
coil (such as Allegro MicroSystems Controller-initiated communication
profile has
an amplitude A1160 sensor IC) acts as the can be periodic or prompted by a
deviation due to magnetic input to the sensor, fault code generated by the system.
signal wobble narrowing the failure down to the The implementation of electronic
on a target
component level. Fault detection systems means imperceptible
allows time for the operator to failures. Implementation of
schedule an appointment at the diagnostics is neither simple nor
dealer before getting stranded. free, but the benefits outweigh the
These state-of-the-art integrated cost and complexity.
circuits have built-in self-test
capabilities, which allow a sensor FREE READER INQUIRY SERVICE
to monitor its own function and To learn more about Allegro
indicate whether it is operating as MicroSystems, visit:
expected. This check can be done www.ukipme.com/info/ev
at every power-on event, continually INQUIRY NO. 521

180 // January 2015 // Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology International


PRODUCTS & SERVICES

Optimized electric drives


Detailed testing, measurement and analysis are fundamental in the optimization
of electric drivetrains, in turn increasing efficiency in truck and bus applications

In a market that is traditionally


dominated by large, inefficient
direct drive motors coupled to
industrial gearboxes or expensive
dual electric motor systems,
Kinetics NexDrive solutions offer
a superior technical alternative.
NexDrive electric drives operate
in a variety of truck and bus
applications, demonstrating the
benefits of a light, reliable and high-
performance solution. Kinetics
flagship technology, the NexDrive
EV3-850, is a 3-speed, dry dual-
clutch transmission designed and
developed specifically for electric
bus applications.
To enable its customers to quickly
and cost effectively bring solutions
to the market place, Kinetics has
been collaborating with leading
motor suppliers to provide
complete, fully integrated and
optimized drive systems. Kinetics
engineering team has developed
extensive experience in combining
a variety of engines and motors
with its ultra-efficient transmission
The 3-speed, dry dual-clutch NexDrive EV3-850 transmission undergoing efficiency testing at Kinetics Drive Solutions facility
solutions. The major goals for all
integration projects include
maximizing combined drive system on speed and load. Using efficiency Although Kinetics performs a the driveline based on driving
efficiency to decrease energy map analysis, Kinetics engineers significant amount of integration and conditions, driver demand, load
consumption, and extending calibrate the Transmission Control optimization in-house at its testing and speed. Finally, to empower
engine and motor life. Reducing Modules (TCM) shift selection facility, the company also works customers and technicians, Kinetics
the real-world kWh/km electrical algorithm. The TCM continuously closely with customers. Working provides a fully capable diagnostic
consumption decreases the optimizes gear selection during at customer sites enables toolset for the purpose of
required battery size, reducing normal driving, on acceleration manufacturers to more easily and integration, commissioning and
cost and vehicle mass. or deceleration and during effectively integrate drive solutions in-field troubleshooting.
To optimize the EV3-850 regenerative braking. The TCM into their platforms. Kinetics works Kinetics is currently working with
integrated drivetrain, Kinetics first also manages communications with vehicle manufacturers and a Chinese manufacturer to offer its
identifies windage and gear mesh between the motor controller and integrators to fully configure the reliable and efficient drive solutions
losses for each transmission ratio. the vehicle control system. vehicle controls (VCU) and battery to Chinas transit bus market, which
Testing is carried out at Kinetics To further increase efficiency, management system (BMS) to is striving to reduce transportation
facility, using VFD motor the algorithm is optimized to avoid operate seamlessly. The integration emissions for better air quality and
dynamometers and high-accuracy disrupting dynamic vehicle braking and calibration of powertrain control a healthier environment.
torque sensors to test and verify and to increase energy capture algorithms such as drivetrain lash,
efficiency, performance and during a brake event. Algorithm shift control and regenerative FREE READER INQUIRY SERVICE
reliability. Test results are combined optimization results in greater overall braking is coordinated between To learn more about Kinetics Drive
with manufacturers measured efficiency in a much lighter package the VCU, TCM, BMS and motor Solutions, visit:
motor efficiency to generate an when compared to traditional direct controller. This is critical work, as www.ukipme.com/info/ev
efficiency map for each gear, based drive solutions. the TCM on the EV3-850 manages INQUIRY NO. 522

Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology International // January 2015 // 181


PRODUCTS & SERVICES

Sensor bearing technology


Innovations in bearing and sensing technologies are helping to
drive the development and widespread adoption of electric vehicles

The adoption of electric and


hybrid vehicles continues to
be fast and widespread. EVs and
HEVs could account for more than
10% of global car purchases within
the next five years, according to
industry analysts Frost & Sullivan.
Todays EV market is highly
competitive, with the technology
having considerable impact on
traditional transportation systems
and demand for performance and
reliability driving innovation.
At the forefront are those
transportation companies that have Cutaway of SKFs eDrive Ball Bearing
worked on early-stage R&D with
specialist technology providers. The requirements, correlating the
Bollor Group, for example, is using harmonics with the sensor bearing
advanced engineering solutions design parameters.
from SKF to develop its line of EVs, Sensor technology is enhanced
including the popular Bluecar and, still further by the adoption of hybrid
more recently, buses. The cars in bearings, which use rings made
particular have been a success, from advanced bearing steels, with
thanks largely to their performance The SKF Rotor Positioning Sensor Bearing Unit has embedded sensor technology rolling elements engineered from
and inventive methods of adoption. bearing grade silicon nitride. This
The success of EV car-sharing while simultaneously improving their its performance independent of construction can substantially
program Autolib in Paris has ability to perform reliably at rotational customer assembly process and improve reliability in EVs, especially
provoked interest in similar projects speeds in excess of 12,000rpm, and tolerances. This device gives a zero- where bearings are exposed to
for major cities around the globe. at extreme temperatures. A new speed true power for absolute rotor potentially damaging abrasive
The e-powertrain is a key focus generation of components is position angle, with accuracy below particles, inadequate lubrication,
for innovation in components and emerging with built-in sensors and 1 and repeatability below 0.1, vibration or stray electric currents.
assemblies. Complex, compact, onboard intelligence, which interface thanks to extremely accurate Hybrid bearings prevent the
highly efficient and precise solutions with increasingly sophisticated management of the sensor bearing passage of electric current, can run
are pushing the boundaries of vehicle management systems. unit air gap, enabling a reduction in at high speeds, extend bearing and
performance and reliability. This is As examples, the SKF Rotor electric motor torque ripple and grease service life and maintenance
enabling the weight, size and Positioning Sensor Bearing Unit noise. The bearing unit can intervals, and resist false brinelling.
frictional losses within components, and SKF Motor Encoder Sensor withstand continuous temperatures EV manufacturers must partner
such as bearings, to be reduced, Bearing Unit are designed for use up to 150C, unaffected by severe with experienced suppliers in the
respectively with permanent magnet magnetic field disturbances and early stages of projects to ensure
or induction traction motors in EVs high levels of vibration. the potential of new component
and HEVs to determine accurate With its exceptional levels of solutions is commercialized as
rotor angular position (with two sine signal accuracy and repeatability, efficiently as possible. The expertise
wave output for precise sinusoidal SKF sensor bearing technology of companies such as SKF can
and vector control) or real-time contributes to improved e-powertrain deliver the advantage required to
electric motor speed, direction and efficiency, providing greater system capitalize on the projected growth
incremental position (by means of control and increased battery life. A in this rapidly emerging sector.
precise encoder pulses). specific design methodology, based
The complete unit is compact on the Six Sigma approach, is able FREE READER INQUIRY SERVICE
and lightweight, with an accurate to precisely predict and customize To learn more about SKF, visit:
and repeatable sensor incorporated sensor performance according to www.ukipme.com/info/ev
Pariss Autolib EV-sharing program INQUIRY NO. 523
into the bearing envelope making the electric motor application

182 // January 2015 // Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology International


PRODUCTS & SERVICES

Simulating thermal design


Powertrain cooling simulations can provide engineers with vital data and
insight, enabling optimization of electric and hybrid system components

Hybrid vehicles pose


Flowmaster enables network simulation
additional challenges to and analysis that can play a vital role in
engineers particularly when it answering design questions, assisting in
comes to fluid systems such as the optimization of system components
for electric and hybrid powertrains
the ambient airside flow, cooling,
lubrication, air-conditioning, exhaust
and fuel systems. New thermal
loads on the system mean new
thermal management tactics have
to be used. Components unique
to electric and hybrid systems
represent additional heat loads Flowmaster can be used to simulate
that need to be accounted for how the additional cooling
when examining the overall thermal requirements for the batteries
behavior of a given system. affect passenger comfort.
Rich Hoyle, principal engineer A network can be simulated
at Aligned CAE a company which with Flowmaster by introducing
specializes in 1D fluid-flow CFD controller logic into a network.
design and consulting uses the Controllers allow an engineer to
Mentor Graphics Flowmaster 1D alter a specified data field of a
system simulator software to component. This can be done
analyze electric and hybrid vehicle using a simple data table, master
thermal management systems. controllers that declare global
Major components, such as variables, gauges that draw results
the electric compressor, battery from other points in the network,
blower, electric water pumps, an output transform that takes the
coolant valves, heaters, and input of the controller and passes
refrigerant shut-off valves, are all it through a 2D or 3D transform
controlled by an algorithm in the before outputting a value, or a
vehicle. Vehicle designers have a customized script that can do a
lot of control, and a lot of different combination of any of these
variables to play with, which is methods. Flowmaster can translate
important when trying to balance script from C#, VB.NET and Java.
energy consumption. Simulating and analyzing with
Flowmaster can be used to run Flowmaster helps to answer other
a powertrain cooling simulation, crucial design questions. For
enabling the optimization of the cost example, when the system is at
and mass of each component and idle, should fan or compressor
ensuring correct sizing of elements RPM be increased in order to
such as the radiator, cooling fan maintain cooling performance? Will
and pump, as well as ensuring the system have enough heat to
optimum thermostat settings. satisfy federal de-ice requirements?
Because all these controls are Under what conditions is humidity and electric vehicles. Flowmaster robust controller logic, or even by
available for individual components management needed? How much has the ability to meet additional using co-simulation to create a
in hybrid and electric vehicles, energy is consumed by the thermal demands in both cooling and air- larger picture of the systems
algorithm development is management system during a conditioning systems whether overall behavior.
increasingly important. typical drive cycle? by implementing additional
Energy consumption is a critical Simulation provides the ability to components to account for FREE READER INQUIRY SERVICE
consideration when developing gain answers and insight, enabling additional thermal loads, modeling To learn more about Mentor Graphics,
control algorithms. Passenger engineers to come up with the best and analyzing interactions between visit: www.ukipme.com/info/ev
INQUIRY NO. 524
comfort is another area of concern. design decisions for modern hybrid networks, incorporating more

Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology International // January 2015 // 183


PRODUCTS & SERVICES

Modular energy storage


Collaboration was fundamental to a project tasked with developing an energy-
storage system based on lithium-ion cells, for potential use in hybrid drive systems

Hybrid drives offer great


Potential use in a diesel-hybrid rail system
potential for reducing fuel
consumption and emissions in off-
highway applications thanks to the
recovery and storage of kinetic or
potential energy. One of the key
components in this is the energy-
storage system (ESS), which stores
the resulting energy for use when it

MTU Friedrichshafen
is actually needed.
In the LiANA+ project, funded by
the German Federal Ministry of
Economics and Technology and in
accordance with a decision by the

MTU Friedrichshafen
Thermal insulation Power connectors
German Federal Parliament, project Module Battery management
Hydraulic incl. main contactors
partners MTU Friedrichshafen,
Akasol and Sensor-Technik Figure 1: The energy storage system
Wiedemann (STW) joined forces devised for the LiANA+ project
with the University of Rostock and
the ZSW research center in the city
of Ulm to develop an ESS based on functions to be with the other hybrid drive parts and
lithium-ion cells. implemented in components were performed on a
In total, Akasol tested levels up to SIL 2, hybrid test bench at MTU. The tests
nine different cells for and defined the confirmed the functions of the
prototype development, shutdown of a battery pack system and were followed by an
before attention was focused as a safe state. The BMS from endurance run to gain long-term
on a 46Ah cell, as simulations STW realizes these functions and experience with lithium-ion energy
indicated the prospect of a Figure 2: The cell supervision the company is able to provide storage systems of this size.
circuit from one storage module
promising solution. verification in accordance with the In investigating the potential fuel
The modular Akasol solution is applicable standards. saving for a diesel-hybrid rail
optimized to offer the best cooling grouped together as a battery pack, Each of the modules installed vehicle, implementing the system,
properties and high continuous creating the nominal voltage of in the battery includes a cell compared with conventional
power with long life. Each module 666V. The LiANA+ project then supervision circuit (Figure 2). railcars, an optimum operating
includes 12 lithium-ion cells and connected three of these packs in Each pack is assigned two strategy was calculated at the
ensures their thermal and electrical parallel (Figure 1) to produce a total contactors, which enable two-pole University of Rostock.
connection. Fifteen modules are energy content of about 92kWh and switching of the respective battery The result of the simulation was
a peak output of 552kW. pack. These are supplemented by a a fuel saving of 18.1% compared
Lithium-ion harbors an intrinsic highly accurate, shunt-based with the conventional diesel
hazard potential that needs to be current measurement and insulation vehicle. It also displays a maximum
managed by a combination of monitoring, as well as a pre-charging charge stroke of 4%. Life
design and electronic measures. unit that enables controlled charging simulations give reason to expect
The electronic measures are a key of circuit capacitance. that about 125,000 of these load
element of the battery management In the case of parallel operation, cycles are possible so an
system (BMS). Their implementation one BMS (as shown in Figure 3) is operating time of more than
is subject to the applicable rules assigned a master function. This 10 years can be expected.
and regulations for functionally safe BMS assumes the coordination
systems, which are defined in role and makes the ESS appear FREE READER INQUIRY SERVICE
IEC 61508 and other application- to be an individual battery with To learn more about Sensor-Technik
Figure 3: An advanced battery specific standards. correspondingly higher capability. Wiedemann,
management system with a high-
The risk assessment produced Testing and validation of the visit: www.ukipme.com/info/ev
voltage connection for a battery bank
in the LiANA+ asked for safety functions of the ESS in interaction INQUIRY NO. 525

184 // January 2015 // Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology International


PRODUCTS & SERVICES

Advanced power analysis


Standardized power analysis in the EV industry has limitations. But a new approach to
power measurement makes it possible to increase the quantity and quality of data captured

Power analysis in electric and


hybrid cars has developed in
keeping with certain standardized
processes. Knowing the limitations
of traditional power analyzers (which
were developed for white goods
products, such as washing
machines), electrical motor and
inverter manufacturers adapted to
these defined limits low channel
counts, voltage and current signals
The eDrive delivers live calculations
only, a lack of raw data for analysis
or verification, and full static
measurements. These limits no
longer apply, thanks to Hottinger
Baldwin Messtechniks eDrive.
This fundamentally new approach
merges a scalable data acquisition
system with the real-time calculation
capabilities of a power analyzer. The
HBM eDrive system can stream raw
HBMs eDrive offers far higher
data with a high sample rate to hard The eDrive allows users to analyze data in order to better understand the results functionality than a power analyzer
disk. Doing so (and, in the process,
potentially creating large quantities Space vector or dq0 The HBMs eDrive solution does
of data) is the only way to verify transformations of all of the above, on top of what
power calculations. The backbone raw data enables a power analyzer does. But, of
deeper insights
of the eDrive testing system is the course, it starts with the basics.
into inverter and
GEN DAQ high-end data acquisition motor matching So from the inverter voltages and
system, a modular card, scalable currents, to the motors torque and
device achieving the highest speed, all relevant power entities
streaming rates up to 350MBps are computed and displayed in real
continuously to hard disk. With time. True power, apparent power,
HBMs T12 torque transducer, this efficiency, power factor, fundamental
system is the foundation of a new power, THD and so on.
class of power analyzers, designed As lots of these tests are
for use in variable frequency, automated, the eDrive package
inverter-driven electrical motors. initial electrical parameters), the system efficiency, they cant help offers various hardware and
Beyond the storage capabilities, limitation on voltage and current users understand where this figure software interfaces for seamless
the scalability of the modular board channels is also removed. With comes from, or how to improve it. integration into automated test
system allows for a nearly unlimited more than 20 different input boards Based on the stored raw data, and stand environments.
channel count to be acquired for the DAQ portion, it is simple for a powerful formula database, the HBMs eDrive package does the
simultaneously in more complex users to collect data on winding eDrive system enables users to job of a power analyzer, but also
setups (such as those involving temperatures, motor vibration, strain analyze the data and understand enables the user to do much more
5-, 6- or 12-phase motors, or a or any other mechanical signal as it. Its possible to test the control at a price comparable to a plain
complete four-wheel-drive test with well. And this can be done while still algorithms of an inverter, and power analyzer.
multiple inverters, motors and maintaining simultaneous sampling, integrate the current to study the
torque transducers) the user can and with the base voltage and magnetic flux or air gap torque. Due FREE READER INQUIRY SERVICE
simply add more boards to get to current boards allowing 1,000V to the presence of the raw data, the To learn more about Hottinger Baldwin
the channel count that is required. signals to be connected directly. sky is the limit in terms of the insights Messtechnik, visit:
As these varying tests become Analysis is also key. While power that can be gained when users study www.ukipme.com/info/ev
increasingly complex (beyond the analyzers might provide data on their motors and inverters. INQUIRY NO. 526

Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology International // January 2015 // 185


PRODUCTS & SERVICES

High rate discharge testing


An optimal cold crank testing platform has been developed to safely assess the reliability
of powerful shallow cell batteries for vehicles that operate in harsh weather conditions

Powerful shallow cell batteries


are the heart of a global
transportation industry, and one
thing unites them all: these batteries
are designed to perform in the
harshest of conditions. Cold
cranking tests are critical to Arbin Instrumentss
determining how a battery will HRDT 30V-2, 500A
behave in worst-case scenarios. discharge system
A battery that cannot, for example,
reliably supply the massive amounts
of energy required to start a
locomotive diesel engine in the
depths of winter is useless to train
companies, who lose money every and ignition
minute a train is delayed. When simulations. While
batteries are poorly tested, trains other systems may
arent just delayed. Aircraft are left use a water-cooled
stranded and diesel trucks wont testing solution that
turn over. requires auxiliary
Knowledge of the maximum facilities, the air-
discharge characteristics that a cooled design of
battery can provide is essential the HRDT allows
information for customers who want for compact floor
to choose the correct battery for space and does
their applications. A well-designed not require a
testing platform for shallow cell separate cooling
batteries is the key to providing system. Each
customers with confidence in a machine is modular
companys product. and customizable
Arbin has developed a new line with current ranging
of products called the High Rate up to 3,000A and
Discharge Tester (HRDT) series power rating up to
to help its customers meet the 120kW. The photo
demand for safe and reliable shows an example of
energy-dense storage solutions by a 2,500A discharge, 1,000A
providing an optimal cold crank charge, 30V system. Each channel
testing platform. This series of on the cold crank testing device
testing equipment provides users comes with a variety of auxiliary
with a cost-effective approach to inputs to offer the user optional
simulating the all-important cold features, such as monitoring cell
cranking and high drain loading voltages, monitoring temperature, The HRDT series provides in an industry that constantly
that assesses a batterys reliability. CANbus communication and more. customers with the powerful demands cutting-edge innovation.
The HRDT series may also aid The HRDT products also circuitry needed for high rate Therefore, all of Arbins products
users in testing batteries with contain multiple layers of fusing discharge testing, without provide a safe, reliable and powerful
compliance to US Department and safety parameters to protect sacrificing the accuracy and testing platform.
of Energy technical guidelines. the device under test and precision required to capture
Using Arbins intuitive MITS Pro hardware, such as Arbins meaningful data. The HRDT series FREE READER INQUIRY SERVICE
software, users can define custom signature voltage clamp circuitry, is built on Arbins experience in To learn more about Arbin Instruments,
discharge profiles and full test which helps to prevent dangerous providing, for more than 20 years, visit: www.ukipme.com/info/ev
INQUIRY NO. 527
schedules such as starter, lights overcharging and discharging. industry-leading testing equipment

186 // January 2015 // Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology International


PRODUCTS & SERVICES

Flexible chargers
A new series of energy-dense battery chargers will be able to connect to all power
grids across the world, thanks to the inclusion of a universal AC input voltage converter

Since 1993, EDN has been


designing power converters able to successfully serve the
EDNs EVO11KA air-cooled, 11kW
for a variety of industries, including electric and hybrid vehicle sector
charger is equipped with a universal
the likes of military, marine, industrial, thanks to its substantial technical has made it possible AC input
electro-medical, broadcasting, expertise and experience. to double the power density of
telecommunication and automotive. Based on this capability and the EVO series, improving the world and in complete compliance
The experience and knowledge range of products, EDN has overall performance of the chargers. with international standards such as
gained in designing customized developed a new series of battery The EVO series has been designed SAE J1772 and EN 61851. This
systems in several niche areas has chargers, dubbed EVO, which for use in off-highway, marine, flexibility allows for connection with
enabled EDN to develop a very exceeds customer requirements mining and automotive applications every type of main power lines with
effective design process and and expectations. The series was and can withstand harsh a single charger.
customer-oriented approach, as developed to meet the industrys environments (vibration, thermal The chargers modular design
well as an aptitude for innovation. demands to improve upon price, shock and extreme temperature allows for an optimized production
The production of battery delivery time, power density, ranges). Many validation tests have process and extremely rapid
chargers for heavy-duty and rugged efficiency, reliability, compliance been carried out to ensure the delivery times, no matter the
electrical transportation applications, with international standards, chargers compliance with volume, and at very competitive
which began in 2004, has evolved communication protocols and environmental and safety standards prices. EDN CEO, Marco Cereda,
to meet customers needs, performance. EDN wants to see for all applications, in particular further explains: The EVO series
providing increasing levels of value EVO become a new benchmark those with an E/E architecture. documentation is now available for
and quality. Today EDN has a wide in the market. The EVO series is characterized customer review and the products
range of converters and thousands A highly innovative conversion by 11kW and 22kW power levels are going to be delivered in
of installed devices in Europe and technology combined with new and comes available air cooled February 2015. The EVO series has
North America. The company is advanced engineering processes (EVO11KA) or liquid cooled been designed to innovate both the
(EVO11KL and EVO22KL) and with product and production process,
a high degree of environmental producing a high-performance
protection, such as IP67 and charger that is prepared for volume.
IP6K9K (pressure wash), and with EDN is positioned to support the
four output voltage ranges from growing industry with advanced and
100VDC to 840VDC with constant flexible products, experience and
power operation. The EVOs unprecedented value.
universal AC input means the
chargers can be connected to any FREE READER INQUIRY SERVICE
and all single- and three-phase To learn more about EDN,
grids (100, 120, 208, 203, 240, 380, visit www.ukipme.com/info/ev
The EVO22KL 22kW charger is fully compliant with international standards
400, 415, 420VAC) around the
INQUIRY NO. 528

Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology International // January 2015 // 187


PRODUCTS & SERVICES

Extended battery lifetime


Lift-truck batteries with a square tube plate design and an electrolyte with enhanced
specific gravity provide more power over longer periods and higher voltages under load

The heavy-duty Ironclad range results in around 18% more surface


of motive power batteries area than the round tubes or flat
from EnerSys offers more power, plates used in conventional lead-
extended running times and longer acid batteries. This maximizes the
life than comparable designs, contact area between the
to support intensive lift-truck electrodes active material and the
operations and other demanding electrolyte, which enables higher
materials-handling applications. sustained voltages throughout the
The range is particularly suited to discharge cycle. The batteries are
situations where longer truck run also used with an electrolyte with a
times are needed to minimize the higher than average specific gravity.
use of spare batteries. Models rated These features deliver more power
from 276Ah to 1,380Ah are available and increased capacity for work.
in standard sizes for small pallet The batteries have the highest
trucks, up to large reach and ampere-hour capacity ratings,
counterbalance trucks. The outperforming conventional designs
batteries were introduced into the with up to 15% more power, which
European market during 2014 but is ideal for the higher discharge
have been extensively used in the rates demanded by modern
USA, where they have proven to be AC-drive lift-trucks.
reliable and rugged performers in To maintain a lift-trucks constant
tens of thousands of applications, drive and lift performance levels
for many years. throughout a shift, the motor must
Based on more than 100 years of offset a batterys normal voltage
extensive manufacturing experience drop during discharge by drawing
at EnerSys, the Ironclad batteries more and more amps. The Ironclad
have a number of features to deliver batterys ability to sustain higher
significant performance advantages voltages, combined with industry-
over conventional lead-acid designs. leading capacity ratings, extends its Ironclad batteries include an electrolyte with higher than average specific gravity
The positive electrodes in the run time when compared with
batterys cells incorporate unique conventional lead-acid models. sleeved electrode separators, which ratings from 276Ah to 1,380Ah in
square Cladex tube technology that Materials-handling equipment will prevent misalignment and shorting. standard sizes to fit vehicles from
run for up to one hour longer on Fully insulated flexible inter-cell small pallet trucks to large forklift
each charge, reducing the need for connectors add extra protection and trucks. When supplied with the
time-consuming battery changes the dust-proof, single-point filling EnerSys BFS (battery filling system)
and maximizing productivity in even system reduces topping-up time and the Hawker Wi-IQ battery
the heaviest duty applications, and cuts down on battery charging monitor, the batteries have
including busy distribution centers maintenance. All of these features a two-year plus two pro-rata
and other 24/7 operations such as combine to ensure the Ironclad warranty. This can be extended to
airports and transport hubs. batteries have a design life of 1,800 three years plus three pro-rata if the
In addition to increased power cycles, which equates to an extra batteries are used in conjunction
and longer run times, the greater year in many applications. This is with a high-performance, high
surface area of square tube ideal for intensive long-term rental frequency charger such as the
technology and electrolytes with operations where customers Hawker LifeTech Modular or Hawker
higher specific gravities also help the demand longer contracts. Life IQ Modular models from the
battery achieve a longer service life. Ironclad batteries are available in extensive EnerSys range.
This is because the batteries eight different configurations in a
experience active mass stress levels choice of two cell heights (600mm FREE READER INQUIRY SERVICE
around 10% lower than conventional and 750mm) and eight cell sizes To learn more about EnerSys,
designs. Reliability and service life is (with two, three, four, five, six, seven, visit: www.ukipme.com/info/ev
The Hawker LifeTech battery charger INQUIRY NO. 529
further enhanced by the use of eight and ten positive plates) with

188 // January 2015 // Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology International


PRODUCTS & SERVICES

Drivetrain ultracapacitors
Ultracapacitors offer high power and energy density, together with low levels of resistance,
and make for a very reliable and compact technology solution for electrified drivetrain systems

Skeleton Technologies SkelCap


ultracapacitors cover a capacitance
range of 250F to 3,500F, making them
suitable for a variety of applications

The market for cleaner and energy storage, but they utilize The key to SkelCap ultracapacitors up to 10Wh/kg), which is suited
more powerful, compact and chemical processes that have is the nanoporous carbide-derived for high energy density over longer
dependable energy products is inherent limitations in power output, carbon (CDC) with compactly application times.
growing exponentially. Energy recharge times and discharge packed curved graphene layers All Skeleton Technologies devices
efficiency is also at the forefront of cycles. These limitations result in used for the electrodes. Featuring feature very low ESR for higher
the automotive industry, thanks to low proportions of braking energy finely engineered, consistent efficiency. This high efficiency
increasing electrification of the used, costly battery replacements, pore size, this patented material results in lower heat dissipation,
drivetrain. Many car manufacturers and over-dimensioning of the guarantees a very large accessible which translates to less heat being
have been testing different levels of battery pack to handle high surface area, and a perfect match rejected into the environment.
electrified drivetrain systems in currents during acceleration. for the electrolyte ions facilitating SkelCap is the only ultracapacitor
motorsport, and in many respects, Ultracapacitors operate entirely twice as high capacitance and up to manufactured in Europe. By
motorsport serves as a testbed for on an electrostatic level. Compared five times higher power performance controlling every step of the
the new technologies and innovative with batteries, the levels of power than other ultracapacitors. The high manufacturing process, Skeleton
solutions that find their way into the which can be drawn are greater by degree of purity of curved graphene Technologies is able to work with
cars on the street. orders of magnitude. They can be also ensures up to two times higher customers on specialized
A good example is the capture of charged and discharged in only a current tolerance, and four times engineering solutions as well as on
braking energy with a kinetic energy few seconds without compromising lower resistance, compared with customized ultracapacitors
recovery system (KERS) which the integrity of the ultracapacitor, other ultracapacitors. according to particular requirements.
then releases this energy during and with low heat losses, up to a Skeleton Technologies has two SkelCap ultracapacitors, when
acceleration, instead of allowing it million times. The characteristics of SkelCap product families, with used in hybrid and electric drivetrain
to dissipate as heat. In addition, ultracapacitors make them perfect capacitance ranges from 250F to systems, offer the automotive
KERS provides extra power during for applications that require high up to 3,500F. The first is the High- industry improved levels of safety,
acceleration when an internal bursts of power such as in a Power product family (250F to increased lifetime, high efficiency and
combustion engine operates at its KERS. By combining batteries and 2,100F, with specific power up to lower maintenance expenses.
lowest efficiency. ultracapacitors, one can get the 60kW/kg), which is tailored for burst FREE READER INQUIRY SERVICE
These advanced electrified best of both worlds: high power power needs with short application To learn more about Skeleton
drivetrain systems have largely during acceleration, and high times. The second is the High- Technologies, visit:
been powered by electrochemical energy for extended range in hybrid Energy product family (320F to www.ukipme.com/info/ev
batteries. Batteries are good for and full-electric vehicles. 3,500F, with a specific energy level INQUIRY NO. 530

Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology International // January 2015 // 189


PRODUCTS & SERVICES

FPGAs in EV drive systems


Implementing FPGA-based power systems in electric vehicle traction controls
delivers improved performance, efficiency and accuracy, and can reduce costs

Analog control has given way Figure 1: The


to digital methods that have standard hybrid
improved the performance and EV power
quality of power converters. Today, and control
architecture
most power electronics are
controlled by microcontroller units
(MCUs) mainly due to the low-cost
nature of these devices and the high
level of integration of peripherals
such as analog-to-digital converters
(ADC). MCUs, typically programmed
in C or Assembly languages, are well
suited to algorithms that are
executed sequentially with a rate
within the MCU processors Figure 2: The
capability. However, the need for simplified hybrid
faster sample rates and the use of EV power control
architecture with
more complex algorithms are a single FPGA
challenging this traditional approach.
Field programmable gate arrays
(FPGAs) are gaining acceptance in
high-performance power electronics
control systems due to their speed,
flexibility and integrated design tools
and are suited for EV drive systems The VVC converter provides for example, a five-fold increase in
such as variable-voltage control bidirectional power flow between switching frequency, this results in a
(VVC) and motor control due to their the battery and the MG inverters. A proportional reduction in inductance
parallel architecture and ability to standard design uses an IGBT half- and capacitance values to get the
handle multiple algorithms bridge with a 200H inductor, where same ripple current and voltage.
simultaneously in hardware. the lower transistor is switched to losses, but the result will usually be Figure 2 showcases a new
FPGAs can use algorithms to boost the voltage from the battery some increase in transistor losses. architecture that integrates MG and
accelerate and parallelize programs, to the motor inverter. Conversely, SiC MOSFETs, with dramatically VVC (DC/DC) control functions into
greatly improving processing speed. to charge the battery, the upper reduced switching losses, are a single FPGA. The FPGAs
With their flexible design interfaces, transistor is switched to buck the becoming available and will remove hardware-based parallel processing
such as parallel ADC interfaces and voltage from the motor inverter to this barrier. While price is still an capability would enable five times
PWM, outputs can be added as the battery. The battery is 250V and issue for SiC, the trend of cost faster switching of SiC MOSFETs,
necessary to support new inverter the VVC can provide up to 650V at reductions is expected to continue while reducing overall transistor
topologies. FPGAs also offer ease of 50kW peak. Each function (MG and to a point where SiC devices will switching losses by 50% enabling
integration, enabling interfaces for VVC) requires sophisticated control compete with standard silicon. significant reductions in system size
devices such as encoders, resolvers circuits that are presently Another barrier to higher and weight, better power efficiency
and sigma-delta ADCs to be built implemented with separate MCUs. frequency switching is the higher and lower system cost.
into the FPGA fabric as necessary. A trend in the power electronics bandwidth needed for acceptable Using FPGA-based power control
Figure 1 shows common hybrid industry is faster switching, which current control. This increased systems in EVs helps reduce overall
EV architecture, utilizing two enables reduction of inductance and bandwidth is a challenge for MCU- system costs, improves performance,
independent motors or generators capacitance values to achieve based solutions, especially if multiple and increases efficiency of the
(MG) connected electrically through equivalent voltage and current functions are to be implemented power conversion process.
a DC link. The DC link is also ripple. One barrier to faster switching with one processor. FPGA control
connected to a 250V battery though is increased transistor switching can easily provide the bandwidth FREE READER INQUIRY SERVICE
a VVC or bidirectional DC/DC losses. Application of IGBTs required for this application, even To learn more about Altera,
converter comprised of an IGBT optimized for lower switching losses if multiple control functions are visit: www.ukipme.com/info/ev
or MOSFETs can mitigate these
INQUIRY NO. 531
half-bridge and boost inductor. implemented on one device. With,

190 // January 2015 // Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology International


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October 20 - 22, 2015, Messe Mnchen


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Fact & Figures 2014

11.864
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www.ecartec.com Makers Visitors


PRODUCTS & SERVICES

Conductive fastening in advanced EV and HEV designs


In their drive to advance from the harmful effects of
technology, a growing number of electromagnetic interference.
electric and hybrid vehicle designers In external charging, the Bal
are discovering ways in which a Seal Canted Coil Spring conducts
simple spring can be used to make electricity from a wall or base unit
and maintain critical mechanical to the battery array. The spring
and electrical connections. automatically compensates
The Bal Seal Canted Coil Spring, for misalignment and surface
offered by Bal Seal Engineering, irregularities that may otherwise
presents the dual benefits of compromise charging efficiency.
latching, locking or holding system It can also be employed to provide
components together; and efficiently positive-latching feedback, which
managing high-current flow in tight indicates proper charger connection.
spaces with minimal heat rise. The With over 50 years of application
Canted Coil Springs independent experience and certification
coils provide multipoint contact, to ISO/TS 16949, Bal Seal
ensuring consistent transmission Engineering specializes in helping
of electricity to and from the OEMs to develop performance
lithium-ion battery array and breakthroughs. The companys
other vehicle systems. The spring products employ unique Bal Seal
also conducts power to the motor Canted Coil Spring technology.
during low-speed operation and
ensures reliable recharging through FREE READER INQUIRY SERVICE
regenerative braking. Depending on To learn more about Bal Seal Engineering,
its placement, the spring can also visit: www.ukipme.com/info/ev
shield connectors and couplings INQUIRY NO. 532

Next-generation bonding and joining technology


High-powered laboratory testing system
Well-reputed power module and
Bitrode, one of the industrys Additionally, the battery simulation cooling specialist Danfoss Silicon
leading battery charging and function can program constant Power presents its new generation
testing companies, is expanding voltage, maximum current and of bonding and joining technology
its product line to include a new internal impedance for motor to an audience of automotive
high-powered laboratory testing testing applications. engineers. With its extra-high
system: the FTF-HP. The unit is able to produce melting point, the pressure-sintered
With charge or discharge cycles accurate simulations of rapidly die-attach of IGBTs and diodes is
up to 500kW, the FTF-HP is well changing power demands in now able to overcome the lifetime-
suited for high-power applications electric and hybrid vehicle systems. limiting degradation associated
where precise control of current With two separate circuits and with traditional solder. New copper
and voltage is required. Parallel bidirectional capability, the FTF-HP wire topside contacts attached
functionality enables the system can provide unique support for to Danfosss Bond Buffer help to
to operate at an impressive 2MW large battery-based energy storage extend the module lifetime by a generations of semiconductors
power level. This capability is systems when battery optimization factor of 20 with more than a can now be used without facing
particularly useful when testing and longevity is critical. year of power cycling tests, equating the restrictions that are typical of
batteries for electric buses, rail Bitrode recognized the need for to hundreds of millions of cycles, traditional soldering and aluminum
and Formula 1 cars. a reliable high-powered laboratory providing evidence of new levels wire bonding.
Discharge power recycling to tester, so we worked tirelessly of robustness. This new bonding and joining
the AC line makes the FTF-HP with R&D to develop a system that This feature provides essential technology provides customers with
more energy-efficient to operate. would raise the bar in the battery benefits to automotive traction a previously unavailable opportunity
testing industry, says David Rice, applications, including a solid to choose between cost-efficiency,
general manager of Bitrode. Its margin between real-world compactness and current capability,
exciting to support customers who load-profile and robustness of the depending on application and
push our equipment to its limit! power module assembly, which preferences. Danfoss Silicon Power
This motivates us to develop new is mandatory to achieve low is currently ready for volume-
products that can meet the most ppm failure rates; more power- production of this next generation of
demanding needs in the market. cycling headroom, which can be power modules.
used to tolerate higher junction
FREE READER INQUIRY SERVICE temperatures and to increase power FREE READER INQUIRY SERVICE
To learn more about Bitrode, density and current capability To learn more about Danfoss Silicon Power,
visit: www.ukipme.com/info/ev from the same volume; and higher visit: www.ukipme.com/info/ev
INQUIRY NO. 533
junction temperatures of advanced INQUIRY NO. 534

192 // January 2015 // Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology International


PRODUCTS & SERVICES

Air supply for fuel cell applications Electric vehicle data measurement

Vehicles with fuel cells are with stator and rotor; and water
become increasingly important, cooling. A highly advanced
with a number of OEMs electrical inverter is included in
announcing plans to introduce the FCAS, which controls the
them into the market, starting in electric drive.
2015. Fuel cell electric vehicles In comparison with supercharger
are seen as a solution to combining technology, the turbocharger
emission-free driving with a (FCAS) with radial compressor
satisfactory driving range. Similar and turbine achieves higher
to a combustion engine, a fuel cell system efficiency, but not only
needs compressed air to provide a because the turbine recovers the
high-power density. BorgWarner exhaust gas enthalpy of the fuel
has collaborated with different cell. There are other reasons to
OEMs and has developed the Fuel substitute the supercharger in the
Cell Air Supply (FCAS) charging fuel cell system for a turbocharger, Thanks to onboard computers, To obtain measurements of
system, which is scalable to including considerably better NVH everyone can now find out how energy consumption under different
support various applications. behavior, and the lower packaging much gasoline or diesel, on average, conditions (such as varying speeds
The FCAS consists of a radial space needed. a car requires. Electric vehicles or gradients), a GPS sensor also
compressor; an optional turbine also provide information about their logs the vehicle position, noting
with variable turbine geometry; an FREE READER INQUIRY SERVICE energy consumption, but these altitude, speed and acceleration of
airfoil bearing system comprising To learn more about BorgWarner, figures are only averages. Those the electric car using the same
journal bearings and thrust visit: www.ukipme.com/info/ev who want to know more about measuring system as, and recording
bearings; a 10-20kW electric drive
INQUIRY NO. 535
how consumption varies according synchronously with, the energy
to weather, route, driving style and consumption data. In parallel, a
other parameters, and in which video camera connected to the
components of the vehicle any measuring system films the test.
losses occur must conduct the The architecture of Dewetron
measurements themselves. systems records data synchronously
For that purpose, Dewetron has from many sources and stores it
developed the DEWE-510-E-Mobile together. The data analysis and
a mobile measuring system that processing is faster and easier than
detects the necessary physical data other approaches, since all data is
in order to determine the energy automatically correlated. This offers
balance. It simultaneously measures new possibilities for comparing
the DC power of the battery results and understanding test data.
and the power of the frequency
converter fed synchronous motor, FREE READER INQUIRY SERVICE
so energy consumption and To learn more about Dewetron,
efficiency while driving can visit: www.ukipme.com/info/ev
INQUIRY NO. 536
be immediately determined.

Bidirectional high dynamic test bench energy system


Reliable and powerful test equipment along The standard ERS is available in one- or
the whole supply chain, from R&D to end-of-line two-channel versions. An upgrade from a one-
testing, is mandatory for todays automotive channel version to a two-channel version is
industry. In particular, verification tests for EV also possible. To increase the maximum output
and HEV drivetrain applications require test current, it is possible to connect the two output
equipment that is safe to operate, and which channels in parallel. The safe and efficient
offers high reproducibility over a wide range. operation of the regenerative power supply is
The Heinzinger ERS is a high dynamic, guaranteed by electrical isolation between the
bidirectional system with active energy mains grid and the DC side, via bidirectional
recovery to the grid, designed for such needs. switch mode power stages and HF transformers.
With its unique features, the Heinzinger Test A broad range of options, in combination with
Bench Energy System perfectly supports battery Heinzinger engineering and aftersales support,
simulation for power electronic and electric motor completes the service.
tests, as well as tests for lithium-ion batteries.
With a voltage range up to 1,000V DC and power FREE READER INQUIRY SERVICE
stages of 50kW, 80kW, 120kW, 160kW and To learn more about Heinzinger,
250kW, nearly every electric powertrain and visit: www.ukipme.com/info/ev
fuel cell application can be supported. INQUIRY NO. 537

Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology International // January 2015 // 193


PRODUCTS & SERVICES

Advanced inverter design Modular power electronics


John Deere Electronic Solutions The PD400 has a common
for commercial vehicles
will reveal a breakthrough inverter control module combined with
product design at Intermat Paris either a single- or a dual-inverter Lenze Schmidhauser, a leading
in April 2015. The PD400 is a power stage. Within the power manufacturer of drive solutions for
stage, multiple power levels can mobile use, showcased its solutions
modular approach that allows
for commercial vehicles and mobile
drive systems engineers to build a be chosen with a maximum peak
working machines at the 2014 IAA
configuration that closely matches current of 550A rms and 400A rms
Commercial Vehicles trade fair. The
their electrification needs. The continuous from each inverter in a
companys booth focused on its
PD400 is ideal for high-voltage, dual configuration. Optional DC/DC
Mobile product system. This system inverters can be used to control
high-power applications where converters and brake choppers can
comprises double inverters specially synchronous and asynchronous
multiple power electronics be added for either configuration. motors. They are therefore suitable
designed for use in commercial
components can be combined The bus capacitor is modular and vehicles, DC/DC converters and for the control and operation
in a single package, utilizing an available in different sizes. various combination modules. of auxiliary equipment, such as
internal bus structure that eliminates The PD400 common control card Manufacturers can quickly and compressors, pumps and smaller
cabling and connections. Optional architecture supports the full suite of easily customize a solution for the traction drives.
modules include DC/DC converters, Power Drives software functionality. drive control of electric auxiliary DC/DC converters with an output
brake choppers and an integrated The PD400 is designed for equipment and the power supply of voltage of 14V DC or 28V DC, and
isolation-monitoring feature. maximum efficiency with complete the onboard electrical system, all current up to 200A, make it possible
monitoring capabilities to ensure from one catalog. Users can then to create a highly efficient and
control under all conditions. The cover a wide range of applications effective onboard power supply
thermal management system is economically and efficiently, and system. All modules of the product
liquid-cooled for reliability over the react flexibly to new requirements. platform will be certified to ECE
life of the system. The modular system of products R10 and housed in uniform casings
allows high-volume production, (IP6K9K) with an identical structure.
FREE READER INQUIRY SERVICE as well as customized solutions.
To learn more about John Deere FREE READER INQUIRY SERVICE
Each of the double inverters has
Electronic Solutions, visit: To learn more about Lenze Schmidhauser,
two motor or generator outputs in
www.ukipme.com/info/ev visit: www.ukipme.com/info/ev
INQUIRY NO. 538 the power range of 7.5-60kWp. The INQUIRY NO. 539

Intelligent charging cable


Leoni has developed a new charging cable or malfunction. The consistent illumination of
concept involving a status-indicating light the cable across its entire length also averts
function. Not only does this cable make the threat of tripping over it in dark or poorly lit
charging easier for the user, it also provides areas. The cable can display any color and is
greater safety. The illuminated Electrical continuously dimmable.
Vehicle charging cable (iEVC) was unveiled With its intelligent charging cable, Leoni
at eCarTec Munich 2014. provides both flexibility and mechanical
The iEVC visibly tracks the progress of resilience. The iEVC system can be universally
charging a vehicle with color change in the deployed from home applications to
cable jacket. By having this illumination unit supercharging, regardless of the vehicle and The cable weight also remains the same due to
integrated along the charging cable, the driver the charging mode. As the illuminated charging the intelligent use of materials.
can see the charge status of their electric car cable does not contain any electronics or active
or plug-in hybrid, even from a greater distance lamps (which would compromise the mechanical FREE READER INQUIRY SERVICE
and without the use of any additional devices. properties), it is just as robust as conventional To learn more about Leoni
Furthermore, optical signals provide additional charging cables. Thanks to the use of LED visit: www.ukipme.com/info/ev
information, such as a trouble-free connection technology, it is especially energy efficient. INQUIRY NO. 540
PRODUCTS & SERVICES

High-voltage battery stack monitor Battery diagnostic system


A single gallon of gasoline Introduced in June 2014, the automated testing specific to that
contains more than 36kWh of Midtronics DSS-7000 battery vehicle. Technicians can also use
energy. A typical battery pack in diagnostic service system the removable, full-color tablet to
an electric or hybrid electric offers complete battery system help customers understand their
automobile contains between management enterprise-wide test results and any associated
16kWh and 60kWh. Clearly, for battery management reporting service recommendations.
a battery system to be competitive and analysis is enabled with
against gasoline, it must be able to database-driven testing, VIN-based
extract as much energy as vehicle service records and wi-fi
possible from each and every cell. networking to BMIS and network
This requires careful battery printers. Wi-fi also enables easy
management the most difficult high measurement accuracy is software updates.
requirement of which is the precise guaranteed over time, temperature The system also features
measurement of every cells and operating conditions by the advanced system diagnostics,
voltage, as each is positioned at inclusion of a precision sub- and supports advanced
different points along a high- surface Zener voltage reference. battery and electrical
voltage string that is subject to Furthermore, the LTC6804 system testing for
electrical spikes and EMI. includes a built-in third-order noise conventional ICE, stop/start,
Linear Technologys LTC6804 filter to eliminate the electrical hybrid and electric vehicles. The
high-voltage battery stack monitor noise from inverters, actuators, DSS can also identify batteries with
addresses this challenge with switches and relays. As part of low reserve capacity a key feature
industry-leading measurement a battery management system, given the number of accessory
accuracy. An LTC6804 can the accuracy and stability of the systems requiring battery support
measure up to 12 series connected LTC6804 enables the maximum in todays cars.
battery cells with 16bit resolution extraction of energy from an The Midtronics DSS-7000 battery
and better than 0.04% accuracy. automobiles battery pack. diagnostic service system also
Each LTC6804 can be connected offers a dynamic service experience
in a daisy chain, allowing FREE READER INQUIRY SERVICE connect the CVG to the OBD port, FREE READER INQUIRY SERVICE
many of them to be combined To learn more about Linear Technology, the clamps to the battery, and use To learn more about Midtronics,
to measure all cells in a long, visit: www.ukipme.com/info/ev the touchscreen tablet with pre- visit: www.ukipme.com/info/ev
high-voltage battery pack. Very INQUIRY NO. 541 programmed service apps to launch INQUIRY NO. 542

International environmental cooperation event


The eighth edition of the Macao exchange and cooperation between
International Environmental the Pan-Pearl River Delta (PPRD)
Cooperation Forum & Exhibition region in southern China and the
(MIECF) will be held on March international markets.
26-28, 2015. It will continue to Through a range of activities,
serve as a high-powered platform such as an international conference,
to promote solutions for a low- exhibition, business matching and
carbon future and sustainable city networking activities, the event
development. Initiated and actively facilitates business exchange among
led by the government of the Macao southern China and international vehicles, charging stations, battery,
industry players. storage solutions, and more these FREE READER INQUIRY SERVICE
Special Administrative Region
are hot topics in the PPRD area and To learn more about MIECF,
(Macao SAR), MIECF is strategically The event will also feature green
many companies attend MIECF in visit: www.ukipme.com/info/ev
positioned to nurture business, solutions from the region, including INQUIRY NO. 543
technology and information electric, hybrid and fuel cell search of these kinds of products.

The worlds biggest EV database!


www.ev-info.com
PRODUCTS & SERVICES

Conformal coatings
For over 40 years, Parylene conformal from a gas, it also penetrates into every crevice,
coatings have provided automotive electronics regardless of how seemingly inaccessible. This
and components with a level of protection that, ensures complete encapsulation of the substrate
even today, remains unmatched by most coating without blocking small openings. Parylenes
materials. Parylenes offer excellent moisture, are typically applied in thicknesses ranging
chemical and dielectric barrier capabilities, from 500 to 75m, and thus are extremely
superior thermal and UV stability, and a low lightweight, offering excellent barrier properties
coefficient of friction. without adding perceptible dimension or mass to
Parylene coatings are applied in a vapor delicate components.
deposition polymerization process. Because Parylene coatings are RoHS and REACH
there is no liquid phase in this process, there compliant, and have been proven to provide
are no subsequent meniscus, pooling or metallic whisker mitigation in lead-free solder
bridging effects, thus dielectric properties are applications. Parylenes are ideal for protecting FREE READER INQUIRY SERVICE
never compromised. The molecular growth of circuit boards, sensors, MEMS, LEDs, elastomers To learn more about
Parylene coatings also ensures not only an even, and other surfaces and components that Specialty Coating Systems,
need reliable, long-life performance in harsh visit: www.ukipme.com/info/ev
conformal coating at the thickness specified by INQUIRY NO. 544
the manufacturer, but because Parylene is formed automotive environments.

Li-ion in material handling Advanced diesel electric powertrain project


Material-handling vehicles running off 24-80V Engine downsizing from the use of a 48V the issues of high production
lead batteries do not, unlike automotive applications, through charge boosting is architecture incorporating costs associated with
generally need to be adapted to Li-ion battery a well-understood means of high carbon advanced lead- hybridization by using lower
technology. However, with Li-ion power dropping in improving ICE fuel efficiency acid battery technology, cost components, particularly
price, the situation has started to change. by increasing the proportion 48V electrical ancillaries, the application of advanced
The capacity of a lead battery from 25kWh up of the drive cycle at which the advanced thermal systems lead-acid battery technology,
to 60kWh for larger vehicles restricts the available powertrain operates within and waste heat recovery instead of the lithium-based
power. Electric vehicles are limited in terms of power or close to the region of peak technologies. Vehicle technologies utilized in
consumption, saving energy at the expense of fuel efficiency of its operating driveability and performance todays hybrids.
performance. With Li-ion technology, existing vehicle map. The limitations of attributes will be optimized An ADEPT system has
types can be upgraded in power, and more powerful downsizing, however, include through effective application been built and is being
vehicle types can be considered, equipped with the delivery of acceptable of a belt starter generator installed in a demonstration
stronger electric drives that match the performance driveability characteristics capable of providing torque vehicle ready for vehicle
of combustion engines. As a result, peak and average and launch performance. assist to augment engine test activities starting in
power, current and voltage ratings increase for existing Full hybridization provides performance. The overall January 2015. Ricardo will
and new vehicle classes at the upper end of the a means of energy aim of this project is to publish further test results
material handling fleet. Vehicles fitted with 10-20kW management that mitigates demonstrate emissions and achievements over the
motors may, in future, be upgraded to 20-40kW. such shortcomings, but at a of 75g/km (NEDC) in a coming months.
This increase creates many challenges for considerable cost premium demonstration vehicle, along
drivetrain designers, including the voltage level associated with the electrified with technology studies to FREE READER
of the battery. To minimize safety requirements powertrain architecture, achieve 70g/km, without INQUIRY SERVICE
and maintain cost constraints, staying within the including the high-capacity compromising performance To learn more about Ricardo, visit:
established 48-80V range is preferable. But the battery and electric motors. or driveability. Crucially, the www.ukipme.com/info/ev
higher currents and output power must be addressed For the Advanced Diesel ADEPT project will address INQUIRY NO. 545
in terms of lifetime requirements and overall system Electric Powertrain (ADEPT)
ruggedness. SKAI 2 LV inverters allow sufficient project, Ricardo is leading
increase of the phase currents due to excellent a six-partner consortium
thermal resistances and a which also includes Ford
combination of the Motor Company, Control
latest power MOSFET Power Technologies (CPT),
technologies Rdson = European Advanced Lead
0.3m (typical) per Acid Battery Consortium
switch at 48V; (EALABC), Faurecia
Rdson = 0.8m Emissions Control
(typical) per Technologies UK and the
switch at 80V. University of Nottingham
to reapply the intelligent
electrification concept
FREE READER INQUIRY SERVICE
theme to a diesel vehicle (a
To learn more about Semikron,
Ford Focus estate) for the
visit: www.ukipme.com/info/ev
INQUIRY NO. 546 first time. The project will
evaluate benefits derived

196 // January 2015 // Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology International


Batteries for electric buses
The concept of carrying a the possibility to recharge the
huge, heavy battery around battery in less than nine minutes.
all day doesnt always make This creates a virtually unlimited
sense. For vehicles with range for a city bus with a fixed Trineuron is a fast-growing
predictable routes a city bus, route. Trineurons LTO batteries division of Emrol, a well-known
for example the option of usually have the same lifetime Belgian battery specialist
rapid charging can leverage as the bus, so replacing the that was founded in 1981. The
small, high-power batteries battery is not necessary. LTO company supports applications
to optimize performance, life, technology is also a safe requiring electric energy storage,
weight, size, safety and system technology. Another advantage energy conversion and energy
cost. Trineuron, a Belgium- is the additional available management, working with a
based battery manufacturer, space and weight capacity for range of customers on projects
uses lithium-titanate-oxide (LTO) passengers due to the compact around the world.
technology to make this possible. and light battery. These
A smaller battery means advantages result in a strong total FREE READER INQUIRY SERVICE
less capacity thus less range cost of ownership proposition that To learn more about Trineuron,
per battery cycle. But the main even beats conventional diesel visit: www.ukipme.com/info/ev
INQUIRY NO. 547
advantage of this technology is on cost per kilometer.

Electrification innovation in China


In 2009, the Chinese its kind in China. Fotons new
government announced a drastic facility includes test stands within
expansion of its EV, e-motor and climatic chambers, and is able to
HEV industry in an effort to take simulate and test battery packs,
a global leadership position. battery management systems
To support this, companies and motor control systems.
such as Sierra-CP have gained Shanghai-based Protean
a reputation for working with Electric, a leading global clean The overall system is controlled
Chinese clients to develop custom technology company, is another by Sierra-CPs CADET V14
products, as well as complete example. After considering the test-automation software, which
turnkey solutions. clients requirements, Sierra-CP provides the platform for system
Beijing-based Foton was proposed a system that could control, test scheduling, safety
seeking a partner to help build accept full vehicle installation protection and data acquisition.
its new e-motor development by connecting to the test This system is capable of steady-
facility. After an exhaustive vehicles wheel hubs. Four fully state operation for durability and
search, Sierra-CP (which has independent AC dynamometers key life evaluation.
facilities in Shanghai) was were incorporated to provide
selected. The challenge was to individual control of each wheel FREE READER INQUIRY SERVICE
assure high quality and flexibility hub, accommodating two- and To learn more about Sierra-CP,
four-wheel-drive vehicles, from visit: www.ukipme.com/info/ev
in the construction of one of
INQUIRY NO. 548
the most advanced facilities of compact to light-duty trucks.

Customizable electrification distribution platform


The quest for better energy bus, reducing engine strain and All components will be
management within hybrid high idle time. delivered on a pre-assembled
buses has received a significant IAP II includes a water-cooled and pre-wired rack. The racked
boost with Vanners Increased Vanner Exportable Power Inverter, solution enables OEMs to specify
Accessory Power (IAP II) platform. which produces 230V AC three- only components they need, and
Working in collaboration with phase for full bus electrification. offers better troubleshooting and
Allison Transmission in Indiana, IAP II utilizes Vanners Hybrid easier maintenance than a boxed
Vanners IAP II is a customizable Beltless Alternator (HBA) in or individually sourced solution.
electric distribution platform single or dual HBA configuration,
that delivers hybrid-generated providing up to 600A at idle, FREE READER INQUIRY SERVICE
power to accessory components, 24V DC charging. A High Voltage To learn more about Vanner,
such as electric air conditioning, Distribution Module acts as a visit: www.ukipme.com/info/ev
INQUIRY NO. 549
electric air compressors and smart electrical grid on an Allison
power steering systems, enabling H 40/50 EP hybrid bus working
accessories to operate more at 99.9% energy efficiency.
efficiently and reduce parasitic Vanners 80-Series Equalizer
loads. Faster air brake pressure with Model Based Battery
and faster cabin cooling is Monitoring is integrated into
possible with an IAP II-enabled the IAP II for dynamic charging.
INDEX TO ADVERTISERS
INDUSTRY FOCUSED ACTIA ................................................ 169 Huber & Suhner .............................. 143
SERVICE-MINDED
Advanced Automotive Batteries . 126 Infineon ..................................................2
Allegro MicroSystems.................... 113 International Rectifier .................... 139
Altera ................................................ 123 Intertek..................... inside front cover
Arbin Instruments..............................15 Isabellenhtte ................................. 136
Innovation n0033
AVL ........................................................ 5 John Deere ....................................... 110

EM I SSI O N
EMPOS Bal Seal Engineering ...................... 191 Kinetics Drive Solutions..................85

EF F I C I E N CY ROTOR POSITION Bergquist ............................................65 Kolektor ..............................................40

SENSOR FOR EV Bitrode ................................................ 24 Lear Corporation...............................43


AND HEV APPLICATIONS BorgWarner .......................................33 Lenze / Schmidhauser ....................62
Brel & Kjr ......................................56 Leoni .................................................. 191
Brusa Elektronik ............................. 144 Linear Technology.. inside back cover
This embedded
smart sensor is Cars 21 .............................................. 148 Lithium Balance ...............................28
based on Eddy CD-adapco ........................................157 Maccor ................................................49
curent technology
Controlled Power Maxwell Technologies ....................93
Technologies ................................... 129
McLaren Applied Technologies .....151
Curtiss-Wright Industrial
Mentor Graphics ............................. 167
Division ...............................................90
Midtronics ........................................ 100
D&V Electronics ................................46
MIECF ............................................... 140
D2T ....................................................... 17
Momentum Dynamics .....................62
Dana .......................outside back cover
Mouser ................................................171
Danfoss Silicon Power .................. 132
GREEN Netzsch ...............................................13
DESIGNED Dewetron.......................................... 163
Newtons4th (N4L) ........................... 27
by

DRS Technologies .......................... 105


OXiS Energy .................................... 135
This EMPOS embedded smart sensor opti- eCarTec .............................................. 191
mizes the efficiency of electric motors and Power & Signal ............................... 102
EDN Group ........................................ 161
hybrid engine management.
GREEN
DESIGNED Ricardo ............................................. 144
by
Electric & Hybrid Vehicle
EMPOS is not affected by the harsh ma- SAE Hybrid & EV
gnetic environment of hybrid drives and Technology Expo............................ 199
electric vehicles. Technologies Symposium ............ 100
Electric & Hybrid Vehicle
EMPOS measures angular positions at very Technology International.................31 SAE World Congress ..................... 102
high speed with a high degree of accuracy. Schaeffler........................................... 97
EFi Automotive ............................... 198
EnerSys .............................................. 73 Semikron .......................................... 159
EMPOS sensor benefits
Engine Expo Europe ............19, 21, 22 Sensor-Technik .................................40
+ Small size / High compactness
Insensitive to harsh magnetic environments EV-Info.com ..................................... 195 Skeleton Technologies .................. 140
+
+ Improved immunity to magnetic stray fields EVS28 .............................................. 165 SKF .................................................... 132
+ Flexible design
EV Taiwan ........................................ 155 Specialty Coating Systems ............ 24
+ Cost-efficient
+ Higher accuracy EVWorld.com.................................. 194 The Battery Show ............................79
+ Analog or digital signal TM4 ......................................................10
FAVI ................................................... 148

EFI Automotive Flybrid.................................................55 Toshiba ...............................................29


77, alle des Grandes Combes GKN Driveline ...................................117 Trineuron ............................................55
ZI Ouest Beynost
GKN Land Systems ........................147 UQM Technologies........................... 70
01708 Miribel Cedex France
T. +33 472 0134 34 HBM .................................................. 136 Vanner ............................................... 110
innovation@efiautomotive.com Heinzinger.........................................197 XALT Energy ..................................... 70
www.efiautomotive.com
THE EXPO FOR ELECTRIC & HYBRID VEHICLE
TECHNOLOGY RETURNS TO NOVI, MI, USA IN 2015

SAVE THE DATE


SEPTEMBER 15 17, 2015

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LAST WORD

The rapid rise of Tesla


may force equally rapid
changes within the
automotive industry

Tesla is doing so well because people

GREG OFFER
like new. They like the idea of being
the first, the ones who changed the
world even the ones who saved it

T
he rise of Tesla seems to be taking the automotive industry
by surprise. Yet from my point of view, its great to see a
company selling EVs so successfully. My conversations
with people in the industry also strengthens my opinion
that most incumbents dont like change, and only embrace it when
forced to by an outside influence. Those in the automotive industry Dr Gregory Offer is a research fellow at Imperial College London,
based in the department of earth science and engineering.
are worried about Tesla not because its likely to hurt their sales, His pioneering research focuses on sustainable transportation
but because it may force them to change faster than they want to. aspects such as fuel cell, battery and supercapacitor technologies
Most automotive R&D is necessarily focused on incremental
improvements that grant an advantage over competitors, but stops clearly for customers who dont need to worry too much
short of fundamentally changing the business model. After all, why about money evidently even rich people dont like
change a model that works, when doing so can cost millions? Truly waste!), and the vehicles environmental impact are
paradigm-changing research tends to be looked upon, in most important selling points. Tesla vehicles are silent, but
cases, as insurance against a competitor making a move before then youd expect quiet inside any premium car, and for
everyone else. Of course, there are exceptions to this rule look at some this silence is actually a negative. Tesla has also
Toyota and the Prius, which in 1997 was a halo project with little mitigated the disadvantages of the technology with large
economic rationale but one that has paid off big time. Other more battery packs, fast charging and battery swapping
recent examples include Nissans all-electric Leaf, GMs Volt and silencing electric vehicle critics. And by anticipating
BMWs i series. And Toyota is going to do it with fuel cells next year. inevitable incidents, Tesla has also handled battery fires
It will be interesting to see which of these gambles pays off. adroitly, if anything strengthening its reputation.
Tesla, however, is new in town, and thats what has really put the Tesla is doing so well because people like new. They
cat among the pigeons. It doesnt have the baggage of having to do like the idea of being the first, the ones who changed
things a certain way it can be faster and more agile, and the automotive the world even the ones who saved it. Flatscreen
industry seems a little scared of the change that it might trigger. televisions came along and within five years cathode ray
The Californian company has been so successful thus far because, tubes were dead, even though they were cheaper. Within
primarily, its not selling a technology but a product. Few people five years of the launch of the iPhone, smartphones had
want to be sold a technology they are normally referred to as early become the norm, despite costing considerably more.
adopters, and sales saturate quickly. The average customer will buy a This is why the automotive industry should be
product based on key features or unique selling points. Tesla cars are scared. Most people are economically irrational, and
heavily marketed as electric vehicles, but that is backed up by reasons change has value and if thats not enough, a Tesla is
why EVs are better: cheaper running costs (although Tesla prices are cooler than just about any other car on the road.

200 // January 2015 // Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology International


1.2mV Accurate, Noise Immune
Battery Stack Monitor

Maximize Battery Pack Safety, Life, Capacity & Driving Range



Safely extract the potential of large battery packs via precise monitoring of every cell. The LTC 6804 Battery Monitor measures cell
voltage with less than 0.04% error, guaranteed. Measurement stability over time, temperature and operating conditions is achieved
with a buried Zener voltage reference, similar to those in precision instrumentation. A programmable 3rd order noise filter keeps
noise from corrupting cell measurements, and a 2-wire isoSPI interface provides a cost-effective, noise immune, 100 meter
TM

interconnection for multiple LTC6804s.

Features Measurement Error (mV) Info & Free Samples


when Measuring a 3.3V Cell
Total Measurement Error <1.2mV 10 www.linear.com/product/LTC6804
Long Term Stability Assured with 8 +49-89-962455-0
Laboratory-Grade Voltage Reference 6
isoSPI, Isolated 2-Wire
4
Interconnection up to 100 Meters
2
290s to Measure All Cells
0
Passive Cell Balancing Initial 25C After PC After 10
Accuracy Board Years of
4A Sleep Mode Supply Current Assembly Operation video.linear.com/139
AEC-Q100 LTC6804 Competitors , LT, LTC, LTM, Linear Technology and the Linear logo are
Using Buried Using Bandgap registered trademarks and isoSPI is a trademark of Linear
Engineered for ISO 26262 Compliance Zener Technology Technology Technology Corporation. All other trademarks are the property
of their respective owners.

LTC6804 EH&V.indd 1 4/10/13 11:10 AM


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Cooling Plate Our cooling technologies are precision engineered to include advanced features that enable
r Sub-Cooled Loop Radiator high thermal performance. Through a strong pursuit of innovation, our parts also effectively
t Power Electronics
minimize overall vehicle weight and reduce manufacturing costs. For more information,
Cooling Plate
y Battery Cold Plate call 1-888-670-DANA or visit danacontactus.com/EH.

2014 Dana Limited

DPTG46149 UpdatedHybridAd_E&HVT_July2014_Mech.indd 1 6/5/14 9:27 AM