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CONTENTS

TITLE PAGE NO.


Candidates Declaration
Acknowledgement
Contents i

List of Figures iv

List of Tables vi

List of Abbreviations vii

List of Symbols viii

Abstract 1

1. Introduction 2

1.1 Introduction 2

1.2 Object of Thesis 2

2. Literature Review 4

3. Theory 8

3.1 The Photovoltaic Power System 8

3.2 Physical Structure of a Photovoltaic Cell 8

3.3 Standalone Photovoltaic System Components 9

3.4 Classification of MPPT Algorithms 13

3.5 Different MPPT techniques 14

4. Mathematical Modelling 24

4.1 Modeling of PV System 24

4.2 The Solar Panel 25

4.3 Implementation of MPPT using a boost converter 30

REFERENCES ix

i
LIST OF FIGURES
FIGURE NO. DESCRIPTION OF FIGURE PAGE NO.
Chapter-3
3.1 Power train of a solar powered vehicle 8
3.2 Schematic representation of a standard pn-junction solar 9
cell.
3.3 Single diode model of a PV cell 10
3.4 I-V characteristics of a solar panel 11
3.5 P-V characteristics curve of photovoltaic cell 12
3.6 Circuit diagram of a Boost Converter 12
3.7 Divergence of hill-climbing/P&O from MPP 16

ii
3.8 Flowchart of Perturb & Observe algorithm 16
3.9 The IncCond flowchart 18
3.10 Membership function for inputs and output of fuzzy logic 20
controller
3.11 Example of neural network 22
Chapter-4
4.1 Equivalent two-diode circuit model of a photovoltaic cell 24
and its circuit symbol
11
4.2 I-V characteristics of a photovoltaic cell array for various 26
values of irradiance S at a temperature of 25 oC.
4.3 I-V characteristics of a photovoltaic cell array for various 26
values of temperature T at an irradiance of 1000W/m2

FIGURE NO. DESCRIPTION OF FIGURE PAGE NO.

4.4 P-V characteristics of a photovoltaic cell array for various 27


values of irradiance S at a temperature of 25 oC.
4.5 P-V characteristics of a photovoltaic cell array for various 28
values of temperature T at an irradiance of 1000W/m2
4.6 Maximum Power Point MPP and the corresponding 29
voltage Vmp andcurrent Imp for a photovoltaic cell array
with 168 cells in series operating at STC
4.7 Requisite implementation for MPPT system 30

iii
LIST OF TABLES
TABLE NO. DESCRIPTION OF TABLE PAGE NO.
Chapter-2
3.1 Fuzzy rule base table 21
3.2 Characteristics of different MPPT techniques 23

iv
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

ABBREVIATIONS DESCRIPTION

A/D Analog to Digital

ANN Artificial Neural Network

BFV Best Fixed Voltage

CDM Clean Development Mechanism

D/A Digital to Analog

DC Direct Current

DSP Digital Signal Processing

FCM Fuzzy Cognitive Map

FCN Fuzzy Cognitive Network

FF Fill Factor

FL Fuzzy Logic

FPGA Field-Programmable Gate Array

GA Genetic Algorithm

IGBT Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor

v
IncCond, INC Incremental Conductance

MPP Maximum Power Point

MPPT Maximum Power Point Tracking

PC Parasitic Capacity

PJC Parasitic Junction Capacity

P&O Perturb and Observe

PSO Particle Swarm Optimization

PV Photovoltaic

RCC Ripple Correlation Control

LIST OF SYMBOLS

SYMBOL DESCRIPTION

CO2 Carbon Di-Oxide

Rs Series Resistance

RSH Shunt Resistance

Io Reverse Saturation Current

ISC Short Circuit Current

PMAX Maximum Power

q Electron Charge

T Temperature

VMP Maximum Power Voltage

VMPP Maximum Power Point Voltage

PMPP Maximum Power Point Power

N Scaling Factor

vi
D Duty Cycle

r Gain

k Boltzmann constant

Vd Voltage across the diode

VOC Open Circuit Voltage

E Change in Error

REFERENCES

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[4] Trishan Esram and Patrick L. Chapman, "Comparison of Photovoltaic


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[5] A.Pradeep Kumar Yadav, S.Thirumaliah, G.Haritha, "Comparison of MPPT Algorithms


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vii
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