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V. ...4
V. 45
47
VI. , .. 61
VI 82
83
,
, .... 97
VII. 112
VII.139
...141
,
, ...151

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V.
400. ) : (2;0;0);
) : (0;1;0);
) : (0;0;7);
) : ( 5 ; 3 ;0), (0;1;0), (2;0;0), (3;-1;0);
) z: (0;0;7), (0;-1;0), G(0;5;-7);
) z: (0;0;7), (2;0;0) D (4;0;3).
401. (2; 3; 5):
) Oxz: 1 (2; 0; 5), : 2 (2; 3; 0); Oyz: 3 (0; 3; 5);
) : 4 (2; 0; 0), : 5 (0; 3; 0), Oz: 6(0;0;5).
1
(3; 5; ):
2
1 1
) Oxz: 1 (3; 0; ), : 2 (3; 5; 0), Oyz: 3 (0;5; );
2 2
1
) : 4 (3; 0; 0), : 5 (0; 5; 0), Oz: 6 (0;0; ).
2
2
( 3 ; ; 5 3 ):
2
2
) Oxz: 1 ( 3 ; 0; 5 3 ), : 2 ( 3 ; ; 0),
2
2
z: 3 (0; ; 5 3 );
2
2
) : 1 ( 3 ;0;0), : 5 (0; ; 0), z: C6 (0; 0; 5 3 ).
2
402. (0; 0; 0), (0; 0; 1), D (0; 1; 0) 1 (1; 0; 0),
, 1.
, .
, :
(0;1;1), 1(1;0;1), 1(1;1;1), D1(1;1;0)
r r r r
403. =3 i +2 j 5 k ; =3, =2, z=5;
r r
- : {3; 2; 5}.
r r r r r
b =5 i +3 j k ; =5, =3, z=1; b {-5; 3; -1}.
r r r r
= i j ; =l, =l, z=0; {1;l;0}.
r r r r
d = j + k ; =0, =1, z=1; d {0;1;1}.
r r r r
m = k i ; x=l, y=0, z=l; m {-1;0; 1}.
r r r
n =0,7; k =0, =0, z=0,7; n {0; 0; 0,7}.
r r r r r
404. {5; -1; 2} =x i + j +z k =5,

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r r r r r r r
=1, z=2; , =5 i 1 j +2 k =5 i j +2 k .
r r r r r r r
b {3;-1;0} =3, =l, z=0; , b =3 i 1 j +0 z =3 i j .
r r r r r r
{0; -1; 0} =0, =1, z=0; =0 i 1 j +0 k = j .
r
d {0;0; 0} =0, y=0, z=0 :
r r r r r
d =0 i +0 j +0 k = 0 .
405. -
- (.44). -
, - 1
1.
OA1: 1 (2;0;2) OA1 {2; 0; 2}. B1 (0;3;2).
, 1 {0; 3; 2}. 1 (0;0;2). 1
{0; 0; 2}.
(2;3;0). , {2; 3; 0}. C1 (2;3;2). -
, 1 {2; 3; 2}.
1 OC1 OB. B1=OC1 OB; 1 {2; 3; 2},
OB {0;3;0}. , BC1 {20; 33; 20}, BC1 {2; 0; 2}.
AC1=OC1OA; OC1 {2; 3; 2}, OA {2; 0; 0}.
AC1 {22; 30; 20}, AC1={0; 3; 2}.
1=OC-OO1; {2; 3; 0}, O1 {0; 0; 2}.
1 {20; 30; 02}, 1 {2; 3; 2}.
406. . -
AB DC. DC
, D1
. D1C1
, , 1,
DC .
: AB+DC=AB+1=AC1.
{X1; y1; Z1}, BC1 {2; 2; z2}. ,
1 {1+x2; 1+2; z1+z1}.

. AB ( ; ; Z z),
1 { xc 1 ; yc1 yB; zc1 , zB}, AC1 ( xc 1 ; yc1 ; zc1 z}, -
AB 1, 1 z1 BC1 x2, 2, z2, -
1=, y1= , z1=z zA, x2= xc1 xB, y2= yc1 yB, z2= zc1 zB.
x1+x2, y1+y2, z2+z2: x1+x2=xBxa+xC1 xB=xC1 xA;
y1+y2= +1=1; z2+z2=z z+z1z=z1z;
x1+x2, y1+y2, z2+z2
A1, AB DC.
.
r r r
407. ) + b = ,
=+b; a=3; b=0; yp=ya+yb; ya=5; yb=7; zp=za+zb; za=2; zb=1;
p=3+0=3; p=5+7=2; zp=21=1;

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r
{3;2;1}.
r r r
) + = e
2 2
xe=xa+xc=3+ =3 ; ye=ya+yc=5+0=5; ze=z+zc=2+0=2;
3 3
r 2
e {3 ;5;2}.
3
r r r
) b + = f ,
2 2
xf=xb+c=0+ = ; yf=yb+yc=7+0=7; zf=zb+zc=1+0=1;
3 3
r 2
f { ; 7;1}.
3
r r r
) d + b = r ,
xr=xd+xb=2,7+0=2,7; yr=yd+yb=3,1+7=10,1; zr=zd+z6=0,5 1=0,5;
r
r {2,7; 10,1;0,5}.
r r r
) d + = s ,
xs=xd+xa=2,7+3=0,3; ys=yd+ya=3,15=1,9; zs=zd+za=0,5+2=2,5;
r
s {0,3; 1,9;2,5}.
r r r r
) + b + = q
2 2
q=+xb+xc=3+0+ =3 ;
3 3
yq=ya+yb+yc=5+7+0=2;
zq=za+zb+zc=21+0=1;
r 2
q {3 ; 2; 1}.
3
r r r r
) b + + d = k ,
xk=xb+a+xd=0+3 2,7=0,3;
yk=yb+ya+yd=75+3,1=5,1;
zk=zb+za-+zd=1+2+0,5=1,5;
r
k {0,3; 5,1; 1,5}.
r r r r r
) + b + + d = m ,
2 20 27 3 20 81 61 29
xm=xa+xb+xc+xd=3+0+ 2,7=3+ =3+ =3 = ;
3 30 30 30 30 30
ym=ya+yb+yc+yd=5+7+0+3,1=5,1; zm=za+zb+zc+zd=21+0+0,5=1,5;
r 29
m ={ ; 5,1;1,5}.
30
408. .44 : AC {XCXA, yA; zzA}
: A(4; 0; 0); B(0; 9; 0); C(0; 0; 2).
AC: XCXA=04= 4; yA=00=0;

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zzA=20=2; AC {4;0;2}.
CB{XBXC, ByC; zBzC}.
XBXC=00=0; ByC=90=9; zBzC=02=2;
B {0;9;2}.
AB: {XBXA, ByA; zBzA}.
XBXA=04=4; ByA=90=9;
zBzA=00=0; AB{4;9;0}.
MN {XNXM, NyM; zNzM}.
M, N P OM, ON
OP . . 45:
1 1 1 1 1 1 1
ON= . ON{ xC; yC; zC}; ON { 0; 0; 2};
2 2 2 2 2 2 2
ON {0;0,1}; N {0:0;l}.
1
OM: M AC. OM= (+OC),
2
1 1 1 1
x M= (xA+xC)= (4+0)=2; y= (yA+yC)= (0+0)=0
2 2 2 2
1 1
ZM= (ZA+ZC)= (0+2)=l;
2 2
M (2; 0; l); OM {2;0;l}.
MN: xNxM=02=2; yNyM=00=0; zNzM=11=0; MN {2;0;0}.
P . :
1 1 1 1 1 1
= (OB+OC), xp= (xB+xC)= (0+0)=0; yp= (yB+yC)= (9+0)=4 ;
2 2 2 2 2 2
1 1
zp= (zB+zC)= (0+2)=1;
2 2
1 1
P=(0;4 ;1); OP {0; 4 ; 1}
2 2
B: { B; yyB; z zB};
B=20=2; yyB=09=9; z zB=10=1;
BM {2; 9; 1}.
NP: {P N; yPyN; zP zN};
1
P N=00=0; yPyN=4 0=4 1 ; zP zN=11=0;
2 2
1
NP {0;3 ; 0}.
2
409. ,
.
xa=5; ya=1; za=1, xb=2; yb=1; zb=0,
1 2 1
xc=0; yc=0,2; zc=0, xd= ; yd=2 ; zd= .
3 5 7
r r r r r r
a) b = ) b = r ,

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r r
{xaxb; yayb; zazb}, r {xbxa; ybya; zbza},
r r
{5(2); 11; 10}, r {25; 1( 1); 01},
r r
{7, 2;1}. r {7, 2;1}.
r r r r r r
) = q , ) d = e ,
r r
q {50; 10,2; 10}, e {xdxa; ydya; zdza},
r r 1 2 1
q {5;1,2;1}. e { 5; 2 (1); 1},
3 5 7
r 1 2 1
e {5 ; 3 ; 1 }.
3 5 7
r r r
) d = f ,
r r 1 2 1
f {xcxd; yc yd; zczd}, f {0( ); 0,22 ; 0( )},
3 5 7
r 1 1
f { ; 2,2, }.
3 7
r r r r r r r r r r r r
) b + : b = m , b + = m + = n ,
r r
m { xaxb; ya yb; zazb }. n {(xaxb)+xc; (yayb)+yc; (zazb)+zc}
r r
n {5(2)+0; 11+0,2; 10+0}, n {7; 1,8; 1}.
r r r r r
) b = l , l {xaxbxc; yaybyc; zazbzc},
r r
l {5+20; 110,2; 100}, l {7; 2,2;1}.
r
) 2 {2xa; 2ya; 2za}, {10;2;2}.
r
) 3 b : {3xb; 3yb; 3zb}, {6; 3; 0}.
r r
) 6 c {6xc; 6yc; 6zc}, {60; 60,2; 60}, 6 c {0; 1,2; 0}.
1 r 1 1 1 1 r 1 1 1 2 1 1
) d { xd; yd; zd}, d { ( ); 2 ; ( )},
3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 5 3 7
1 r 1 12 1 1 r 1 4 1
d { ; ; }, d { ; ; }.
3 9 15 21 3 9 5 21
r r
) 0,2 b (0,2xb; 0,2yb; 0,2zb}, 0,2 b {0,2(2); 0,21; 0,20},
r
0,2 b {0,4; 0,2; 0}.
410.
r r r
a : xa=1, ya=2, za=0; b : xb=0, yb=5, zb=2; c : xc=2, yc=1, zc=3.
r
:
r r
3 b {3b; 3b; 3zb}, 3 b {30; 3(5); 3(-2)},
r r r
3 b {0; 15; 6}, 3 b = m .
r r
2 {2a; 2; 2za}, 2 {2 (1); 22; 20},
r r r
2 {2; 4; 0}, 2 = n .

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r r r r r r r
=3 b 2 + = m + n + :
r r
{m+n+; m+n+; zm+zn+zc}, {0+2+2; 154+1; 6+03},
r
{4;18;9}.
r r
q : 3 {3xc; 3yc; 3zc},
r r r r
3 {32; 31; 3(3)}, 3 {6; 3; 9}, 3 = r .
r r
2 b {2xb; 2yb; 2zb}, 2 b {20; 2(5); 2(2)},
r r r
2 b {0; 10; 4}, 2 b = e .
r r r r r r r
q =3 2 b + = r + e + ,
r r
q {r++; yr+ye+ya; zr+ze+za}, q {6+0+(1); 3+10+2; 9+4+0},
r
q {5; 15; 5}.
411. , , (. 43) :
r r r r
) 3 {3(1); 31; 31), 3 {3; 3; 3}. 2 b {20; 22; 2(2)}, 2 b {0; 4; 4}.
r r r r r r r r
: 3 +2 b =(3 +2 b ) = s ;
r r r r r r r r
s =3 +2 b ; s {3; 7; 1}; {3; 2; 0}; s = r ;
r r
r {3(3); 72; 10}; r {0; 5; 1}.
r r r
) 2 {2 (3); 2 2; 2 0}; 2 {6; 4; 0}; {1; 1; 1};
r r r r r r r r
+2 d =( +2 ) d = d ;
r r r r r r
=2 ; {6(1); 41; 01}; {5; 3; 1}; d {2; 1; 2};
r r r r r
d = q ; q {5(2); 31; 1(2)}; q {3; 2; 1}.
r r
) 0,1 {0,1 (1); 0,11; 0,11}, 0,1 {0,1; 0,1; 0,1}.
r r
3 b {30; 32; 3 (2)}, 3 b {0; 6; 6}.
r r
0,7 {0,7 (3); 0,72; 0,70}, 0,7 {2,1; 1,4; 0).
r r
5 d {5(2); 51; 5(2)}, 5 d {10; 5; 10}.
r r r r
, 0,1 +3 b +0,7 d :
r r r r r r r r r
0,1 +3 b = n , n +0,7 = m m 5 d = l .
r r
n {0,1+0; 0,1+6; 0,1+(6)}, n {0,1; 6,1; 5,9}.
r r
m {0,1+(2,1); 6,1+1,4; 5,9+0}, m {2,2; 7,5; 5,9}.
r r
l {2,2 (10); 7,5 5; 5,9 (10)}, l {7,8; 2,5; 4,1}.
r r r
) 2 (2(1); 21; 21), 2 {2; 2; 2}, 3 b {0; 6; 6}.
r r r r r r
2 b {0; 4; 4}, 2 b = f , f {10; 14; 1(4)}, f {1; 3; 5}.
r r r r r
2 +3 b = e , e {2+0; 2+6; 2+(6)}, e {2; 8; 4}.
r r r r r
b = g , g {10; 12; 1(2)}, g {1; -1; 3}.
r r r
2( b )=2 g ={-2;-2;6}

10

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r r r r
(2 +3 b )( 2 b )
r r
{2(1); 8(3); 45}, {1; 11; 9} (2 +3 b )
r r r r
-( 2 b )+2( b ) {1+(2); 11+(2); 9+6},
{3; 9; 3}.
r
412.
r r i :
r
( i ), j - ( j ) . .
r r r r r r
i {1; 0; 0}; i {1; 0; 0}, j {0; 1; 0}; j {0; 1; 0}, k {0; 0; 1}; k {0; 0; 1},
r r r r r
{2; 0; 0}; {2; 0; 0}, b {3; 5; 7}; b {3; 5; 7}, {0,3; 0; 1,75};
r
{0,3; 0; 1,75}.
r r
413. ) {3; 6; 8} b {6; 12; 16} -
3 6 8 1
: = = , k= .
6 12 16 2
r r r r
=k b , , , b .
r r
) {1; 1; 3} d {2; 3; 15} -
1 1
, -
2 3
r r
d .
r r
) i {1; 0; 0} j {0; 1; 0} -
r r
, , i j .
r r
) m {0; 0; 0} n {5; 7; 3} -
r r r
k=0, , m n . m =0 -
.
r 1 r
) { ; 1; 5} q (1; 3; 15} -
3
1
13
,
1 3
r r
q .
414. k ,
r r xa y a z a
=k b ; = = =k.
xb y b zb
15 m 1 5 m 0,4 1
) = = = , ) 1
= = ,
18 12 n 6 ( ) n 5
2
5 1 1
m= 12=52=10, m= ( )=0,1,
6 5 2

11

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6 1
n= =1 =1,2; n=0,45=2.
5 5
r r r
415. ) {3; 3; 0}, i {1; 0; 0} j {0; I; 0} -
r r r
, .., =x i +y j ,
3 = 1 x + 0 y,
x = 3,
3 = 0 x + 1 y,
0 = 0 x + 0 y , y = 3.

r r r r
i j : =3j3j. -
r r r
, i j .
r r r
) b =x i +y j :
2 = 1 x + 0 y

0 = 0 x + 1 y
3 = 0 x + 0 y

r r r
, , b , i j .
r r r r r
) =x i + k : {1; 0; 2}, i {1; 0; 0},
r
k {0; 0; 1}.
1 = 1 x + 0 y, 1 = x, r r r

0 = 0 x + 0 y ,

0 = 0, = i -2 k
2 = 0 x + 1 y, 2 = y.

r r r
, , i k .
r r
) d {1; 1; 2} e {2; 0; 1} , .. -
r r r
d e . f {5; -1; 0}
r r r r r
d e , , d , e f
r r r
. d , e f .
r r r
f =x d +y e ,
5 = x 2y

1 = x
0 = 2x + y

r
: =1, =2. f
r r r r r
d e , , , d , e f .
r r r
) m = n + :
2=1+0,
r r r
. m , n .

12

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r r r
) q =x r +y s :

0 = 3 x + y , y = 3x

5 = 3 x + y , y = 5 3x
3 = 3 x + 4 y , 3 3
y = 4 4 x
r r r
. q = r + s .
1 3
416. (3, 2; 1); B (1; 3; 5); ( ; 0,75; 2 ), .. .44, -
3 4
-
.
417. A {2;3;0}, OB {7; 12; 18} {8; 0; 5}, .. -
, , OB - A, B
.44 .
418. ) {23; 1+1; 42}, {1; 0; 2};
) AB {3+2; 16; 0+2}, AB {5; 7; 2};
1 1 5 1 1 1 1 1
) { 1; ; }, {- ; ; }
2 3 6 4 2 2 2 2
419. (1; 6; 2) (2; 3; 1). :
{; ; zB z A}, AB {21; 36; 12}, AB {1; 3; 3}.
r r r
i {1; 0; 0}, j {0; 1; 0} k {0; 0; 1},
r r r
: AB= i 3 j 3 k .
(2; 3; 1) (3; 4; 5) .
r r r
BC {32;43; 5+1}, B {5; 1; 6}, BC=5 i + j +6 k .
(1; 6; 2) (3; 4; 5) CA.
r r r
A {1+3; 64; 25}, A {4; 2; 3}, CA=4 i +2 j 3 k .
420. : {23; 3+1; 45}, {1; 4; 9},
D {78; 0+4; 18}, D{1; 4; 9}.
.. AB DC ,
1) ;
2) , .
, AB DC , .
AD.
{72; 03; 1+4}, {5; 3; 3}. AD{83; 4+1; 85}, AD {5; 3; 3}.
AD , ,
, , .
421. ) AB AC , ,
, , ,
. : AB {8; 11; 7},
AC {24; 33; 21}. , AC=3, , AB
, .. A, .
) AB AC. AB {9; 15; 9},

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AC {18; 30; 18}. , AC=2AB, AB AC
, , , .
) AB AC. AB {1; 9; 9}, AC {2; 18; 14}.
AB AC , , A, B -
.
422. DA, DB, DC.
) DA, DB DC:
r r r
DA {2; 13; 3}= a , DC {1; 1; -4}= c .
DB {1; 4; 1}= b
r r r
a =m b +n c ( ):
xa = mxb + nxc , 2 = m n , m = n 2 ,

ya = myb + nyc , 13 = 4m n , 4m = n 13,
z = mz + nz , 3 = m 4n , m = 3 + 4 n ,
a b c
m = n 2, n = 5 ,
3
n 2 = 3 + 4n ,
11
4m = n 13, m = .
3
44 5 5 39
: = 13= .
3 3 3
11 5
DA= DB DC.
3 3
DA, DB DC . ,
, , D .
) :
r r r
AD {2; 1; 3}= d , AB {3; 3; 1}= b , AC {2; 4; 0}= c .
:
x d = mx b + nx c , 2 = 3m 2n , 2 + 2n = 3m,

y d = my b + ny c , 1 = 3m 4n , 4n = 3m + 1,
z = mz + nz , 3 = m 0 n , m = 3,
d b c
2 + 2 n = 9 , n = 5,5,

4 n = 8 , n = 2 ,
m = 3, m = 3.

, , -
, , , D .
) :
r r r
AD {4; 2; 2}= d , AB {7; 8; 1}= b , AC (7; 14; 7}= c .
r r r
d =m b +n c x, y, z:
xd = mxb + nxc 4 = 7 m + 7 n 7 m = 7 n + 4

yd = myb + nyc ; 2 = 8m 14n ; 8m = 2 + 14n ;
z = mz + nz 2 = m 7 n m = 7 n 2
d b c

14

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7 n = m + 2, 6m = 6,
m = 1,
m 2
7 m = ( m + 2) + 4, n = 7 + 7 , 3
8m = 2 + 14n , n = 7 .
8m = 2 + 14n ,
, :
14 3
8=2+ ; 8=8.
7
3 3
, m=1, n= . AD=AB+ AC.
7 7
, , , ,
D .
423. AA1, B1 CC1 ABC, M
. , M
x +x +x y + y 2 + y3 z1 + z 2 + z3
( 1 2 3 ; 1 ; ).
3 3 3

-.
--

, , , . -

M, , , . -
-

=2 1 .

= , 1 = 1 , ,
, :

=2( 1 ), + 2 = + 2 1 ,

OC+ OB OC+ OB
3 = +2 , .. 1 = .
2 2


OA + OB+ OC
, = ,
2
x +x +x y + y2 + y3 z1 + z2 + z3
( 1 2 3 ; 1 ; ). .
3 3 3
424.
:
1 1 1
= (A+), = (+B), zM= (zA+z). -
2 2 2
:

15

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1 1 5 1
a) = (02); =-1, = (3+2), = =2,5; z= (4+0), z=2;
2 2 2 2
1 1 1
) 3= (14+xB), xB=8; 2= (8+yB), yB=4; 7= (5+zB); 14=5+zB, zB=19;
2 2 2
1 1 1
) 12= (xA+0), A=24; 4= (yA+0), yA=8, 15= (zA+2), zA=28.
2 2 2
1 1
425. M A. = (A+), = (+B),
2 2
1
zM= (zA+z). .. , :
2
1 1 1
= (A+), 0= (+B), 0= (zA+z).
2 2 2
x = 1 ( 3 + 2 ) m = 1
M 2 2
m = 2
) 0 = 1 (m 2) n 5
; = ; n = 5 .
2 2 2
1
0 = 1 (5 + n ) x = 3 + 1 x M = 2
2 M 2

x = 1 (1 + 1) m = 1 m = 1 = 0,5
M 2 2 4
2
) 0 = 1 (0,5 + m) ; 2n = 2
; n = 2 .
2 2
x = 1
0 = 1 (4 + 2n ) x M = 1
M
2
x = 1 (0 + 1) x = 1 x = 1
M 2 M 2 M 2
) 0 = 1 (m + n )
; m = n

; m = n ;
2
n m m = n + 2
0 = 1 (n + 1 m + 1) 2 + 1 = 2
2

x = 1 x = 1
M 2 M 2

m = n ; m = 1 .
2 m = 2 n = 1

r
426. | |= 2 + 2 + z 2 ,
|AB|= ( 2 1 )2 + ( 2 1 )2 + ( z 2 + z1 )2 , (1; y1; z1), B (2; 2; z2).
) A (1; 0; 2), B (1; 2; 3),
|AB|= (1 + 1) 2 + (2 0) 2 + (3 2) 2 , |AB|= ( 4 + 4 + 1 ) =3;
) A (35; 17; 20), B (34; 5; 8),
|AB|= (34 + 35) 2 + (5 + 17) 2 + (8 20) 2 ,

|AB|= 12 + 122 + (12) 2 = 289 =17.

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r r
427. | |= 2 + 2 + z2 , | |= 52 + (1) 2 + 7 2 = 75 = 25 3 =5 3 ,
r
| b |= (2 3 ) 2 + (6)2 + 12 = 4 3 + 36 + 1 = 49 =7;
r r r r r r
= i + j + k : {1; 1; 1}, | |= 12 + 12 + 12 = 3 .
r r r r
d =2 k ; d {0; 0; 2}, | d | = 02 + 02 + (2) 2 = 2
r r
m {1; 2; 0}, | m |= 12 + (2) 2 + 0 = 5
r r
428. | + b |= ( 2 1 )2 + ( 2 1 )2 + ( z 2 + z1 )2 ,
r r r r
.. + b = d , d ={ 1 + 2 ; 1 + 2 ; z1 + z 2 }.
r r
) | + b |= (3 2)2 + (2 + 3) 2 + (1 + 1)2 = 1 + 1 + 4 = 6 ;
r
) | |= 32 + (2) 2 + 12 = 9 + 4 + 1 = 14 ,
r r r
| b |= ( 2 )2 + 32 + 12 = 4 + 9 + 1 = 14 , | |+| b |= 14 + 14 =2 14 ,
r r
) | || b |= 14 14 =0;
r r
) | b |= ( 1 2 ) 2 + ( 1 2 ) 2 + (z1 + z 2 ) 2 ,
r r
| b |= (2 3) 2 + (3 + 2) 2 + (1 1) 2 = 25 + 25 + 0 =5 2 ;
r r
) |3 |= (3 ) 2 + (3) 2 + (3z ) 2 , .. 3 {; ; 3z},
r
|3 |= (3 3) 2 + ( 2 3) 2 + (1 3) 2 = 92 + 62 + 32 = 126 = 9 14 =3 14 .
r
e) 14 | |= 14 (3) 2 + 22 + 12 = 14 9 + 4 + 1 = 14 14 =14;
r r r r r
) 2 {6; 4; 2}, 3 {9; 6; 3}, 2 3 = m ,
r r r
m {6+9; 46; 23}, m {15; 10; 1}, | m |= 152 + (10) 2 + (1) 2 =
= 225 + 100 + 1 = 326 .
429. MN, :
+ N + N z + z N 4 + 0 7 1 0 + 2
K( ; ; ); ( ; ; ); (2; 3; 1),
2 2 2 2 2 2
, {2; 3; 1} ||= (2) 2 + 32 + 12 = 4 + 9 + 1 = 14 .
430. ) , -

, . .

||= 2 + 2 + z 2 , AB {xB-xA, yB-yA; zB-zA},


3 1 1 9 1
|AB|= (2 ) 2 + (2 1) 2 + (3 + 2) 2 = ( ) 2 + 12 + (1) 2 = 2 = =1 .
2 2 4 4 2

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(22; 02; 1+3}, (0; 2; 2},
|BC|= 02 + (2) 2 + 22 = 2 4 =2 2 ;
3 1
{ 2; 10; 2+1}, { ; 1; 1},
2 2
1 1 9 3 1
|CA|= ( ) 2 + 12 + (1) 2 = +1+1 = = =1 .
2 4 4 2 2
1 1
|AB|+|BC|+|CA|=1 +2 2 +1 =3+2 2 .
2 2
) AA1, BB1 CC1 .
1 1
1 = ( + ), 1 = ( + ),
2 2
1
1 = ( + );
2
3 1
{2 ; 21; 3+2}, { ; 1; 1}
2 2
3 1
{2 ; 01; 1+2}, { ; 1; 1},
2 2
1 1 1 1 1 1
1 { ( + ); (11); (11)}, 1 { ; 0; 0},
2 2 2 2 2 2
1 1 1 1
|AA1|= ( )2 + 0 + 0 = = =0,5; = ; { ; 1; 1};
2 4 2 2

{22; 02; 1+3}, {0; 2; 2},
1 1 1 1 1 3 3
1 { ( +0); (12); (1+2)}, 1 { ; ; },
2 2 2 2 4 2 2
1 3 3 1 9 9 73 73
|BB1|= ( ) 2 + ( ) 2 + ( ) 2 = + + = = .
4 2 2 16 4 4 16 4

1
= ; {; 1; 1}; = ; {0; 2; 2},
2
1 1 1 1 1 3 3
1 { ( +0); (1+2); (12)}, 1 { ; ; }
2 2 2 2 4 2 2
1 3 3 73
|CC1|= ( ) 2 + ( ) 2 + ( ) 2 = =|BB1|.
4 2 2 4
431. . -
d= ( 2 1 ) 2 + ( 2 1 ) 2 + ( z 2 z1 ) 2
||, ||, ||. =b=c, ABC . :

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=b , , : b
, > b , ,
. , .
a) AB= (9 2) 2 + (3 10) 2 + ( 5 + 5) 2 = 49 + 49 + 0 = 2 49 =7 2 .

= (2 2) 2 + (10 3) 2 + (5 2) 2 = 0 + 49 + 49 = 2 49 =7 2 .

AC= (9 2) 2 + (3 3) 2 + (5 2) 2 = 49 + 0 + 49 =7 2 .
AB==, .
) AB= (3 5) 2 + (7 + 3) 2 + (4 2) 2 = 4 + 100 + 36 = 140 ,

= (5 1) 2 + ( 3 3) 2 + (2 + 10) 2 = 16 + 36 + 144 = 196 ,

= (3 1) 2 + (7 3) 2 + (4 + 10) 2 = 4 + 16 + 36 = 56 ,
>AB>AC.
, :
2=AC2+AB2, ( 196 )2=( 56 )2+( 140 )2,
196=56+140=196 . , ABC -
.
) AB= (5 5) 2 + (3 5) 2 + (1 1) 2 = 0 + 4 + 0 =2,

BC= (5 4) 2 + (3 + 3) 2 + ( 1 0) 2 = 1 + 0 + 1 = 2 ,

AC= (5 4) 2 + (5 + 3) 2 + (1 0) 2 = 1 + 4 + 1 = 6 ,
>>.
, AC2=AB2+2.
6=4+2 . , ABC -
.
) AB= (5 + 4) 2 + (2 3) 2 + (0 0) 2 = 1 + 1 + 0 = 2 ,

= (4 + 5) 2 + (3 2) 2 + (0 + 2) 2 = 1 + 1 + 4 = 6 ,

AC= (5 + 5) 2 + (2 2) 2 + (0 + 2) 2 = 0 + 0 + 4 =2.
B>C>A.
: 2=AC2+AB2, 6=4+2. , ABC
.
432. : (3; 4; 4), , 1
A1 (3; 4; 0),
A2 z : A2 (0; 4; 4), A3
Oxz : A3 (3; 0; 4).
d= ( 2 1 ) 2 + ( 2 1 ) 2 + (z 2 z1 ) 2

AA1= 0 + 0 + 42 =4, AA2= 32 + 0 + 0 =3, AA3= 0 + 42 =4,

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(; ; z)
|x|, |y| |z|.
) Ox A1 1 (3; 0; 0), Oy:
A2 (0; 4; 0), Oz: A3 (0; 0; 4).
AA1= 0 + 42 + 42 =4 2 ; AA2= 32 + 0 + 42 = 9 + 16 =5; 3= 32 + 42 =5.
433. ,
. -
, (0; 2; 3), (1; 0; 3), (-1; 2; 0).
434. ,
, -
. -
, . ,
(3; 4; 7 ) Ox B1 (3; 0; 0),
Oy: B2 (0; 4; 0), Oz: B3 (0; 0; 7 ).
435. ABC
: d= ( 2 1 )2 + ( 2 1 )2 + ( z 2 z1 )2 ,

||= (1 + 1) 2 + (0 2) 2 + (k 3) 2 = 4 + 4 + ( k 3) 2 = 8 + ( k 3) 2 ,

||= (0 + 1) 2 + (0 2) 2 + (1 3) 2 = 1 + 4 + 4 = 9 =3,

||= (1 0) 2 + (0 0) 2 + (k 1) 2 = 1 + ( k 1) 2 .
,
: 1) AB=, 2) AB=AC, 3) AC=.
1) 8 + (k 3) 2 =3, 2) 8 + (k 3) 2 = 1 + ( k 1) 2 ,
8+(k3)2=9, 8+(k3)2=1+(k1)2,
(k3)2=1, 8+k2+9-6k=1+k22k+1,
k 3 = 1, k = 4, 17 2 = 4k
15
k 3 = 1, k = 2. 15 = 4k , k= = 3,75.
4

3) 1 + ( k 1) 2 =3
1+(k1)2=9, (k1)2=8, k1=2 2 , k=2 2 +1, k1=2 2 , k=12 2 .
436. -
A BCD:
= (4 0) 2 + (4 0) 2 + 0 = 16 + 16 = 32 =4 2 ,

= 0 + (3 0) 2 + (4 0) 2 = 9 + 16 = 25 =5,

CD= (1 0) 2 + (4 3) 2 + (4 4) 2 = 1 + 1 + 0 = 2 ,

DA= (4 0) 2 + (4 4) 2 + (0 4) 2 = 9 + 0 + 16 =5.

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|AD|=||=5, , ABCD , -
, DC || AB, , DC .
r r r r r
k , b =k 0, b .
{4; 4; 0}, CD {1; 1; 0}.
, =4CD, . . CD . , || CD
ABCD .
437.
d= ( 2 1 ) 2 + 2 1 ) 2 + ( z 2 z1 ) 2 :
) (; 0; 0) , .
, =, :
(2 ) 2 + (3 0) 2 + (5 0) 2 = (3 ) 2 + (2 0) 2 + (3 0) 2 ,

4 + 4 + 2 + 9 + 25 = 9 6 + 2 + 4 + 9 ,

2 + 4 + 38 = 2 6 + 22
+4+38=x2 6+22,
2
10=16, =1,6; (1,6; 0; 0).
(1,6; 0; 0).
) D (0; , 0) , . AD=DB.
(2 0) 2 + (3 ) 2 + (5 0) 2 = (3 0) 2 + ( 2 ) 2 + (3 0) 2

4 + 9 6 + 2 + 25 = 9 + 4 4 + 2 + 9 ,

2 6 + 38 = 2 4 + 22
2 6+38=2 4+22, 2=16, =8; D (0; 8; 0).
) E (0; 0; z) Oz, B.
(2 0) 2 + (3 0) 2 + (5 z) 2 = (3 0) 2 + (2 0) 2 + ( 3 z) 2

4 + 9 + 25 10z + z 2 = 9 + 4 + 9 + 6z + z 2 ,

z 2 10z + 38 = z 2 + 6z + 22
z2 10z+38=z2+6z+22, 16z=16, z=1; E (0; 0; 1).
438. ) (;
; 0) , .

d= 2 1 ) 2 + ( 2 1 ) 2 + ( z 2 z1 ) 2 , -
= ,
:
=

A= (1 ) 2 + (2 ) 2 + (3 0) 2 =

= 1 + 2 + 2 + 4 4 y + ey + 9 = 2 + 2 + 2 4 + 14 ,

B= (2 ) 2 + (1 ) 2 + ( 2 0) 2 = 4 + 4 + 2 + 1 2 + 2 + 4 =

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= x 2 + y 2 + 4x 2 y + 9 ,
= (0 ) 2 + ( 1 ) 2 + (2 0) 2 = 2 + 1 + 2 + 2 + 1 =
= 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 ,
2 + 2 + 2 4 + 14 = 2 + 2 + 4 2 + 9,
2
+ 2 + 2 4 + 14 = 2 + 2 + 2 + 2,
2 + 2 + 2 4 + 14 = 2 + 2 + 4 2 + 9,
2
+ 2 + 2 4 + 14 = 2 + 2 + 2 + 2,
2 + 2 = 5 = 2 + 1 y = 2 + 1 x
; 3 ; 3 ;

6 = 2 + 12 1
2 + 2(2 + ) = 5
2
2 + 4 + x = 5
3 3

y = 2 + 1 x 8 x = 1 x = 3 x = 3
3 ; 3 ; 8 ; 8 .
2 1
1 3
1 17
2 x = 1 y = 2 + x y = 2 + y = 2 =
3 3 3 8 8 8
3 17
( ; ; 0) , C.
8 8
) Oyz Q (0; y; z)
, ,
AQ = BQ,
(, BQ=CQ).
AQ = CQ
AQ= ( 1 0) 2 + ( 2 ) 2 + ( 3 z ) 2 = 1 + 4 4 + 2 + 9 6z + z 2 =
= 2 + z 2 4 6z + 14 ,
BQ= ( 2 0) 2 + (1 ) 2 + ( 2 z ) 2 = 4 + 1 2 + 2 + 4 4 z + z 2 =
= 2 + z 2 2 4z + 9 ,
CQ= ( 0 0) 2 + ( 1 ) 2 + (1 z ) 2 = 0 + 1 + 2 + 2 + 4 4 z + z 2 =
= 2 + z 2 + 2 2z + 2 .
2 + z 2 4 6z + 14 = 2 + z 2 2 4z + 9 ,
2
+ z 2 4 6z + 14 = 2 + z 2 + 2 2z + 2 ,
+ z 4 6z + 14 = + z 2 4 z + 9,
2 2 2 2

2
+ z 4 6z + 14 = + z + 2 2 z + 2,
2 2 2

y = 5 z y = 5 z 3
2y + 2z = 5
; 65
2 ; 2 ; z= : y=1.
6 y + 4z = 12 6z + 4z = 12 2z = 3 2
2

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3
Q (0; 1; ).
2
) Ozx R (x, 0; z)
A, ,
AR = BR ,

AR = CR
AR= ( 1 ) 2 + ( 2 0) 2 + ( 3 z ) 2 =

= 1 + 2 + 2 + 4 + 9 6z + z 2 = 2 + z 2 + 2 6z + 14 ,
BR= ( 2 ) 2 + (1 0) 2 + (2 z ) 2 =

= 4 + 4 + 2 + 1 + 4 4z + z 2 = 2 + z 2 + 4 4z + 9 ,
CR= (0 ) 2 + ( 1 0) 2 + (1 z ) 2 =

= 2 + 1 + 1 2z + z 2 = 2 + z 2 2z + 2 ,
2 + z 2 + 2 6 z + 14 = 2 + z 2 + 4 4 z + 9 ,
2
+ z + 2 6 z + 14 = + z 2 z + 2 ,
2 2 2

+ z + 2 6 z + 14 = + z + 4 4 z + 9 ,
2 2 2 2

2
+ z + 2 6 z + 14 = + z 2 2 z + 2 ,
2 2

2 + 2 z = 5, = 2 z 5, = 2 z 6,

2 = 4 z 12, 4 z 12 + 2 z = 5, 6z = 17,
z = 17 ,
6 1 17
R ( ; 0; ).
17 1
x = 6 = ; 3 6
3 3

439. ) R , ,

AR = BR = r,
r ;
AR = OR = r
, , R .
(0; 0; 0) , (4; 0; 0)
; (0; 6; 0) , , AOB -
, ,
. , : R (; ; 0). -
:
R = ( 4 ) 2 + (0 ) 2 + (0 0) 2 = 16 8 + 2 + 2 ,
R= (0 ) 2 + ( 6 ) 2 + (0 0) 2 = 2 + 36 12 + 2 ,
OR= (0 ) 2 + (0 ) 2 = 2 + 2 .

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:
2 2 2 2
16 + x + y 8x = x + y 12 y + 36
;
16 + x 2 + y2 8x = x 2 + y 2

x 2 + y 2 8x + 16 = x 2 + y 2 12 y + 36 8x = 12 y 20 x = 2
2 ; ; 36 ;
x + y 2 8x + 16 = x 2 + y 2 8x = 16 y = 12 = 3

, : R (2; 3; 0). -
R=R=R=r,
r= 2 + 2 = 4 + 9 = 13 .
) R (; ; z) ,
OR = AR

AR = BR
BR = CR

OR= ( 0) 2 + ( 0) 2 + ( z 0) 2 = 2 + 2 + z 2 ,
R= ( 4) 2 + ( 0) 2 + ( z 0) 2 = 2 8 + 16 + 2 + z 2 ,
R= ( 0) 2 + ( 6) 2 + ( z 0) 2 = 2 + 2 12 + 36 + z 2 ,
CR= ( 0) 2 + ( 0) 2 + ( z + 2) 2 = 2 + 2 + z 2 + 4z + 4 .
:
x 2 + y 2 + z 2 = x 2 8x + y 2 + z 2 + 16

2 2 2 2 2 2
x 8x + y + z + 16 = x + y 12 y + z + 36 ;

x 2 + y 2 12 y + z 2 + 36 = x 2 + y 2 + z 2 + 4z + 4

x 2 + y2 + z 2 = x 2 8x + y2 + z 2 + 16
2 2 2 2 2 2
x 8x + y + z + 16 = x + y 12 y + z + 36 ;
2 2 2 2 2 2
x + y 12 y + z + 36 = x + y + z + 4z + 4

8x = 16 x = 2 x = 2

12 y = 8x + 20 ; 12 y = 36 ; y = 3 .
12 y + 4z = 32 36 + 4z = 32 z = 1

440. -
K
:
, , D
z.
.
A (b; 0; 0), B (0; ; 0), (0; 0; 0), D (0; 0; m).
+ + z + z
( ; ; ),
2 2 2

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b a
, : ( ; ; 0).
2 2
:
b a b2 a 2
|D|= ( 0) 2 + ( 0) 2 + (0 m) 2 = + + m2 .
2 2 4 4
441. .

) 1 1 -
B1, , 11=45.

) BD = B1 D1 , ..

. BD = B1 D1 = DB .

DB DA
, . . =45.

DA B1 D1 135.

DA DB =135= DA B1 D1 .

) A1C1 A 1 B
. , 60.

) BC = AD ; BC AC = AC AD =45 ( -
).

) BB1 = AA1 , BB1 AC = AA1 AC =90.
e) AD1 BC1. 1 1,
11. 1=21; B1C1=2, ,

BC1 B1C = OC1 O1 C =90.

) A 1 D1 = BC , , A 1 D1 BC =0.

) AA1 =- C1C , , 180.

442. AB CD = , (1) BA DC

, (2) BA CD 1800, (3) AB DC 1800.

AB CD BA , DC .

(1) AB , CD BA DC -
; (2) (3) .

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r r r r r r
443. b =| || b | cos ( b ).

a) AD B1C1 =| AD | | B1C1 | cos ( AD B1C1 )=2,

.. cos ( AD B1C1 )=1 | AD | = | B1C1 |

) AC = C1A1 , cos ( AC C1A1 )=cos 180=1,

| AC |=| C1A1 |= 2 + 2 = 2 2 = a 2

AC C1A1 = 2 2 2 2 (1)=2a2.
) D1B ( ),

cos ( D 1 B AC )=cos 90=0, D1 B AC =0.

) BA1 , BC1 .

| BA1 |=| BC1 |= 2 2 =a 2
1
BA1C1 , 11=60= BA1 BC1 , cos 60= ,
2
1 2
BA1 BC1 =| BA1 |=| BC1 | s ( BA1 BC1 )= 2 2 2 2 = .
2
1
) A1O1 = A1C1 , cos ( A 1 O1 A1C1 )=cos 0=1,
2
1 1
| A 1 O1 |=| A1C1 |= 2 2 , A 1 O1 A1C1 = 2 2 2 2 1=2.
2 2
1 1 1
) D1O1 = D1B1 , B1O1 = B1 D1 = D1B1 = D1O1 .
2 2 2
1
D1O1 B1O1 =180, cos 180=1, | D1O1 |=| B1O1 |= 2 2 ,
2
1 1 1 1
D1O1 B1O1 = 2 2 2 2 (1)= 2a2(1)= a2.
2 2 4 2

) BO1 BB1O1, -
1
: | BB1 |=a, | B1O1 |= 2 2 ,
2
1 3
| BO1 |= a 2 + 2a 2 = , | C1B |= 2 2 ,
4 2

BO1 C1B =180( BO1 BC1 )=180O1BC1.

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1 1
O1BC1= A1BC1= 60=30, .. BA11
2 2
3 3
BO1 C1B =| BO1 | | C1B | cos 150= 2 2 ( ) =
2 2
3 3 3 3
= aa 2 ( )=a2( ) 3 = a2.
2 2 2 2
r r r r
444. {x1; 1; z1}, b {2; 2; z2}, b =12+1y2+z1z2,
r r
=15+(1)6+22=56+4=3,
r r r r r r rr
b =11+2=0, b =5+6+2=3, =1+1+4=6, b b = 1 + 1 + 1 = 3 .
r
445. {3; 5; 1}, b {0;1;5} .
r r
) b =305151=10;
r r r
) i {1; 0; 0}, i =3150+10=3;
r r r
) j {0; 1; 0}, b j =00+1150=1;
r r r r r r r r
) ( + b ) k = k + b k , k {0; 0; 1},
r r r
( + b ) k =03+0(5)+11+00+1051=15=4;
r r r r r r r r r r r r r r r r r
) ( 2 b )( k + i 2 j )= k + i 2 j b k 2 b i +4 b j =(3050+
+11)+(3150+10)2 (3051+1 0)2 (00+1051)2(01+1050)+4 (00+
+1150)=1+3+10+10+4=28.
1 2 + 1 2 + z1 z 2
446. cos= , 0<<90 (
x1 + y12 + z12 x 22 + y 22 + z 22
2

), cos>0, cos=0, =90, 90<<180, cos<0.


x12 + y12 + z12 x 22 + y 22 + z 22 >0 , -
. cos .
r r
) cos ( ^ b ) < 0, .. 3(5)+(1)1+(01)=151=16<0, ,
;
r r
) cos ( b ^ ) > 0, .. 5 (1)+1 (2)+01=52=3>0, , -
;
r r
) cos ( )=0, .. 3(1)+(1)(2)+(11)=3+2+1=0, ,

r r r
447. i {1; 0; 0}; j {0; 1; 0}; k {0; 0; 1}.
1 2 + 1 2 + z1 z2
cos= cos .
x12 + y12 + z12 x22 + y22 + z 22
r r r r
) cos ( i ) > 0 , i < 90. .

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12+1y2+z1z2=33+(5)0+00=3, 3>0, ,
r r
r r
. cos ( i ) >0, i <90.
r r r r
) cos ( j ) < 0 , j > 90. .
12+1y2+z1z2=30+(5)1+(00)=5, 5<0, , -
r r r r
. cos ( j )<0, j >90.
r r r r
) k =90, cos ( k )=0. cos =0, .
r r r r
12+1y2+z1z2=30+(5)0+01=0, , cos( k )=0, k =90.
r r
448. b =x1x2+y12+z1z2.
r r
) b =15+2x31=2x8.
1
: 2x8=3, 2=11, x=5 =5,5;
2
r r
) b =28=1, 2x=7, x=3,5;
r r r r r r
) b =| || b |, cos b =0, ,
r r r r r r
b =| | b |cos( b )=x1x2+y1y2+z1z2=0, 15+2x31=2x8=0, x=4.
r r
449. {m; 3 ;4}; b {4; m; 7},
r r
, b =0
r r
b =4m+3m28=0, 7m=28, m=4.

450. , = DC , AB AD =0, AB = AD :


AB = ( 2 0) + (1 1) + (2 2)
2 2 2
= 2


DC = ( 2 0) + (1 1) + (2 2)
2 2 2
= 2


AB = 2 . AB AD =(2-1) 0+0 1+0 (-1)=0


, AB = DC = AD ,

AB AD =0, , ABCD .
r r 1 2 + 1 2 + z1 z 2
451. : cos ( b )=
x12 + y12 + z12 x 22 + y 22 + z 22
r r 2 3 + (2) 0 + 0 (3) 6 6 6 1
) cos ( b )= = = = = ,
4+4+0 9+0+9 8 18 2 2 3 2 12 2

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r r
b =60;
r r 2 ( 3) + 2 (3) + 0 2 6 2 2
) cos ( b )= = = ,
2+2+4 9+9+0 2 2 3 2 2
r r r r
cos b <0, , , b =18045=135;
r r 0 0 + 5 ( 3 ) + 0 1 5 3 3
) cos ( b )= = = ,
0 + 25 + 0 0 + 3 + 1 52 2
r r r r
cos ( b ) < 0, , ,
b =18030=150;
r r
) , , b =45
r r r
452. i {1;0;0}, j {0;1;0}, k {0;0;1}. (. 451):
rr 2 1 + 0 + 0 2 rr
cos ( i )= = = 2 ; i =50 46';
4 + 4 +1 1+ 0 + 0 3 1 3
r r 2 1 + 1 1 + 2 0 1 r r
cos ( j )= = ; j =63 26';
4 +1+ 4 1 3
r r 2 0 + 1 0 + 2 1 2 r r
cos ( k )= = ; k =50 46'.
9 1 3

453. CA {11; 32; 0+1}, CA {0; 1; 1};

CB {21; 32; 1+1}, CB {1; 1; 0};
0 +1+ 0 1 1
cos ( CA CB )= = = , CA CB =60.
12 + 12 12 + 12 2 2 2
1 2 + 1 2 + z1 z 2
454. cos =
x12 + y12 + z12 x22 + y22 + z 22

AB {31; 1+1; 13}, AB {2; 0; 2}, BA {2; 0; 2};

AC {11; 1+1; 33}, AC {2; 2; 0}, CA {2; 2; 0};

BC {13; 1+1; 31}, BC {4; 2; 2}, CB {4; 2; 2}.
4 + 0 + 0 4 1
cos ( AB AC )= = = ; AB AC =18060=120;
4+4 4+4 8 2
2(4) + 0 2 + 2 2 8+4 12 3
cos ( BA BC )= = = = ;
4 + 0 + 4 16 + 4 + 4 2 2 2 2 3 42 3 2

BA BC =30;

29

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2 4 + (2) (2) + 0 (2) 8+4 3
cos ( CA CB )= = = ;
4 + 4 16 + 4 + 4 2 2 2 2 3 2

CA CB =30, , . ABC -
.
r
|| || (|| ||): | |= 2 + 2 + z2 .

| BC |= 16 + 4 + 4 = 24 =2 2 3 ,

| AB |= 4 + 4 = 8 =2 2 ,

P=| BC |+2| AB |=2 2 3 +22 2 =2 2 (2+ 3 ).
1
: S= AD, AD.
2
D , .. ABC .
D (1;0;2).

| AD |= (1 1) 2 + (1 0) 2 + (3 2) 2 = 0 + 1 + 1 = 2
1
, S= 2 2 3 2 =2 3 .
2
455. , :
) 11 , 1=
=0, 11= a 2 + a 2 = 2 .

| AC1 |= a 2 + ( a 2 )2 = a 2 + 2a 2 = 3 ,
1 a 1 3
cos ( AA1 AC1 )=cos A1AC1= = = = .
1 a 3 3 3

) | BD1 | | DB1 | BB1D,
BB1D1D 2 .

BD1 DB1 =B1D1.
B1D1:

| B1 D1 |2=| OB1 |2+| OD1 |22| OB1 || OD1 | cosB1D1.
1 1 a 3
| OB1 |=| OD1 |= | DB1 |= | AC1 |= , | B1 D1 |=| A1C1 |=a 2 , -
2 2 2

a 3 2 a 3 2
( ) +( ) (a 2 )2 2 2 2
cos B1D1== 2 2 = | OB1 | + | OD1 | | B1D1 | =
a 3 a 3 2OB1 OD1
2( )( )
2 2

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a 2 3 a 2 3 3 2
+ 2a 2 a 2a 2 4 1
= 4 4 = 2 =1 = .
3 2 3 2 3 3
a a
2 2
) 1BD, ACBD (no
).
, BD -
1, , BD AC1,

cos ( BD AC1 )=cos 90=0.
456. D. -
, :
A (2;0;0); A1(2;0;2); B (2;1;0); B1 (2;1;2); (0;1;0); 1 (0;1;2);
D (0;0;0); D1 (0;0;2).
x1 x 2 + y1 y 2 + z1 z 2
cos =
x12 + y12 + z12 x 22 + y 22 + z 22
r r r r r r
b =, {x1; y1; z1}, b {x2; y2; z2}; 0; b 0.

DB {2; 1; 2}, 1.

BC1 {02;11;20), BC1 {2;0;2}.
2 (2) + 1 0 + 2 2 4 + 4
cos ( DB1 BC1 )= = =0
4 +1+ 4 4 + 0 + 4 9 8

DB1 BC1 =90.
r r r r r r r
457. ( + b ) = + b ( );
r r r r rr 1
=| || | cos ( )=12cos 60=2 =1;
2
r r r r r r
b =| b || | cos ( b )=22 cos 60=2;
r r r
( + b ) =1+2=3.
458. ..
r r r r r r r r r r r r r r r
459. ) ( + b + ) (2 b )=(( + b )+ ) (2 b )=( + b )2 b +2 b =2 b +
r r r r r r r r r r 1
+2 b b +2 b =2| b || | cos 120+2| b || b | cos 0+2| b || | cos90=211( )+
2
+2111+0=1+2=1;
r r r r r r r r r r r r r r r r r r r r r r r
( b + )( )= b + +b = b +
r r r r
+ b =| || |
r r r r r r 1 1
cos 0| || b | cos 120| || | cos 0+| b || | cos 90=1 1+0= ;
2 2

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r r r
) | b |=| |,
2 2
1
a + b 2 a b cos a b = 1 + 1 2 ( ) = 3
2
r r r r
| +b |=| d |.
2 2 2

| a + b |= a + b 2 a b cos180o a b = 1 + 1 1 =1


| d |2=| a + b |2+| c |2, , | d |= 1 + 1 = 2
460. ..
r r r
461. DA = ; DB = b , DC = ;
r r r r r r
b = b = =60.
r r r
MN BC , b .
r r 1 r r
BC = b , MN = MD + DB + BN = +b +
2
1 r r r 1 r 1 r 1 r 1 r r r
+ ( b )= b + b = ( b + ),
2 2 2 2 2

1
r r r
r 1 r
r 1 r r 1 r r
MN AD = ( b + )( )= b + =
2 2 2 2
r r r r 1 r r 1 1 1 1 1
= 1 | || b | cos 60+ 1 | || | cos 0 | || | cos 60= + =0.
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
1 r r r r r 1 r r 1 r
r 1 r 1 r 1 r r 1
MN BC = ( b + )( b )= b + 2 b 2+ b
2 2 2 2 2 2 2
r r 1 r2 r2 r r r r 1 r r r r r r
b = ( b + b )= 0=0, .. 2=| || |1= b 2=| b || b |1,
2 2
r r r r r r r r r r r r r
.. | |=| b | ; b = , .. | |=| b |=| | b = =60.
462. .

1) BA D1C1 =( AB ) D1C1 = AB 2=1 (.. AB = D1C1 , AB || D1C1 ,

, AB = D1C1 ,).

2) BC1 = BC + CC1 = AD + AA1

D1 B = D1C1 + C1C + CB = AB AA1 AD ,

BC1 D1 B =( AD + AA1 )( AB AA1 AD )=

= AD AB AD AA1 - AD 2+ AA1 AB AA1 2

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1 1
AA1 AD =11 1101+110110= 11=1,5.
2 2

3) AC1 = AB + BC + CC1 = AB + AD + AA1 ,

AC1 AC1 =( AB + AD + AA1 )( AB + AD + AA1 )= AB 2+ AB AD + AB AA1 +

+ AD AB + AD 2+ AD AA1 + AA1 AB + AA1 AD + AA1 2=1+11 cos 60+
1
+11 cos 60+1+1=1+2 +1+1=4.
2
4) ABCD,
A==60, AD=1, =1, ,
) ADB=DBA=60,
) DB=1.
DBB1: DB=1, BB1=AA1=1, DBB1=90 (BB1 ,
.. 1 1 || 1)
2 2

| DB1 |= BB1 + DB = 2 .

5) . =2A, -
. ADB,
3
= sin 60=1 , = 3 .
2
1

| A 1C |= A1A 2 + AC2 = 1 + 3 =2,

6) DA1 =( AD )+ AA1 , D1 B = D1 D + DA + AB = AA1 AD + AB ,

DA1 D 1 B =( AA1 AD )( AB AA1 AD )= AA1 AB AA1 2 AA1 AD

AD AB + AD AA1 + AD 2= AD 2 AA1 2+ AA1 AB AD AB =11+0
1
11cos60=
2


cos ( DA1 D1 B )= DA1 D1B , | DA1 |= D 2 + A12 = 2 ,

DA1 D1B

33

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1
1 1 1
| DB |=| DB1 |= 2 , cos ( DA1 D1 B )= 2 = = .
2 2 2 2 4

7) AC1 = AB + AD + AA1 , DB1 = AD + AB + BB1 = AB AD + AA1 ,

AC1 DB1 =( AB + AD + AA1 )( AB AD + AA1 )= AB 2+ AD AB + AA1 AB

AD AB AD 2 AD AA1 + AA1 AB + AA1 AD + AA1 2= AB 2+2 AA1 AB

AD 2+ AA1 2=1+201+1=1, | AC1 |=| A 1C |=2, | DB1 |= 2 ,

1 2
cos ( AC1 DB1 )= AC1 DB1 = = .
2 2 4
AC1 DB1

463. ..
x1 x2 + y1 y2 + z1 z2
464. cos= .
x1 + y12 + z12 x22 + y22 + z22
2


) AB {1; 1; 2}; CD {l; 0; l},
|1 + 0 + 2 | 3 3 3 3 3
cos= = = = , =arccos , =30.
1+1+ 4 1+ 0 +1 2 3 2 6 2 2

) AB {1; 0; 1}; CD {0; 2; 2},
|0+02| 2 1 1
cos= = = , =arccos , =60.
1+ 0 +1 0 + 4 + 4 2 2 2 2 2

) AB {1; 1; 2}; CD {2; 2; 4},
| 2 2 8 | 12 12
cos= = = =1, =arccos(1) =0.
1 + 1 + 4 4 + 4 + 16 6 24 6 6 2
|0+02| 2 2
) AB {1; 0; 1}; CD {0; 0; 2}, cos= = = , =45.
1+1 4 2 2 2
465. ..
466. . -
Oxyz D. :
(; 0; 0), (; ; 0), (0; ; 0), D (0; 0; 0), A1 (; 0; ),
B1 (; ; ), 1 (0; a; ), Dl (0; 0; ); N:
3 1
M(a; 0; a), N ( a; a; 0).
4 2
1 3
) MN { a; a; a}, DD1 {0; 0; a},
2 4

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3 3 2 3 2
|0+0 a | a a 3
cos = 4 = 4 = 4 = ;
1 2 2 9 2 2 1 9 29 29
a +a + a 0+0+a a +1+ a a a
4 16 4 16 16


) BD {a; a; 0},
1 1 2
| a2 a2 + 0 | 2
a 16 2
cos = 2 = = = ;
1 2
a + a2 +
9 2
a 2a 2 a
29
a 2 2 2 29 58
4 16 16

) B1 D {a; a; },
1 3 1 3 1 2
| a ( a ) a 2 a ( )a | | ( 1 + )a 2 | 4
a 1
cos = 2 4 = 2 4 = = ;
29 3
1 2
a +a + 2 9 2
a 3a 2 a
29
a 3 a2 87
4 16 16 16

) A1C {a; a; },
1 3 1 3
| a ( a ) a 2 a ( a ) | | a2( + 1 + | a2 9 16 9 3 3
cos = 2 4 = 2 4 = = = .
a
29
3a 2
a2
29
3
2
4 29 3 29 3 29
16 16
467. ==, 1=2.

. -
:
(; 0;0), B (a; a; 0), C(0; a; 0), D (0; 0; 0), A1 (a; 0; 2a),
B1 (a; a; 2a), C1 (0; a; 2a), Dl (0; 0; 2a).

) BD {a; a; 0}, CD1 {0; a; 2a},
| 0 + a2 + 0 | a2 1
cos= = 2
= , 7134;
2
2 a a + 4a 2 2 a 2 5 10

) AC {a; a; 0}, AC1 {a; a; 2a},
| a2 + a2 + 0 | 2a 2 1
cos= = , 5444.
2
=
2
2a 2 a + 4 a 2a 2 6 2 3
468. . 467.
(2; 0; 0), (2; 1; 0), (0; 1; 0), D (0; 0; 0), 1 (2; 0; 3), 1 (2; 1; 3),
1 (0; 1; 3), D1 (0;0;3).

a) AC {2; 1; 0}, D1 B {2; 1; 3},
| 4 + 1 | 3 3
cos= = = ,
4 +1 4 +1+ 9 5 14 70

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) AB1 {0; 1; 3}, BC1 {2; 0; 3},
cos= |9| = 9 = 9 ,
1+ 9 4 + 9 10 13 130

) A1D {2; 0; 3}, AC1 {2; 1; 3},
cos= | 49| = 5 = 5 .
4 + 9 4 +1+ 9 13 14 182
469. .
,

. DA {; 0; 0}, DC {0; ; 0},

DD1 {0; 0; }, M (
4
a; 0; a), DD1 {0; 0; }, M ( 4 a; 0; a),
5 5
1 1 3 1
N( a; a; 0), MN { a; a; a}. sin =|cos |,
2 2 10 2
; -
, .
a) DD1 ABCD,
| 0 + 0 a2 |
cos MN DD1 = 10 ;
sin = = 9 2 1 2 2 2 134
a + a +a a
100 4
6) DA DD1C1C,
3 2
| a | 3
sin = cos MN DA = 10 = ;
134
a a2 134
100
) DC 1D1D,
1
| a a | 5
sin = cos DC MN = 2 = .
134
a a2 134
100
470. , .
1
A (2; 0; 0), B (0; 0; 0), (0; 1; 0), D (0; 0; 2), M (1; 0; 1), N (0; ; 0).
2
sin =|cos |, ;
, - .

) BC ABD.
1
BC {0; l; 0}, MN {1; ; l},
2
1 1
|0+ + 0| 1
sin = cos BC MN = 2 = 2 = .
9 3
1 1+
1
+1
4 4

36

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) BA DBC.
| 2 | 2
2
BA {2; 0; 0}, sin = cos BA MN = = = .
1 3 3
4 1+ +1 2 2
4

) BD ABC.
| 2 | 2 2
BD {0; 0; 2}, sin = cos BD MN = = = .
1 3 3
4 1+ +1 2 2
4
471. ABCD1B1C1D1, 1
; DB .
. -
. D ,
, , . .

1 (; 0; ), (0; ; 0), A 1C {; ; }, D (0; 0; 0),

(; ; 0), DB {; ; 0}.
| a2 a2 |
cos ( DB A 1C )= =0.
2 a 2 3a 2

, DB A 1C =90,

A 1C DB 90.
472. .
. D ,
, , .
. :
1) 1 (; 0; ), (0; ; 0), 1 {; a; }; (; 0; 0),
Q1 (0; 0; a), MQ1 (a; 0; a}.

PM1 MQ1 PM1 MQ1 , -
.

| a 2 + a 2 |
cos ( PM1 MQ1 )= =0, ,
3a 2 2a 2
1 Q1 90.
, MN1, MQ1 -
MN1Q1, 1.

N1 (; ; ); MN 1 PM1 .

| a 2 + a 2 |
MN 1 {0; ; }. cos ( PM1 MN 1 )= =0, 1 MN1=90.
3a 2 2a 2

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, 1 MQ1; 1 MN1 MN1Q1; MN1
MN1Q1. . ,
1 MN1Q1.
2) QN QP1 QNP1 Q.

Q (0; 0; 0), N (; ; 0), QN {; ; 0}, P1 (0; a; a), QP1 {0; a; a}

| a2 a2 |
cos ( PM1 QN )= =0, PM1 QN1;
3a 2 2a 2

| a 2 + a 2 |
cos ( PM1 QP1 )= =0, M1 QP1.
3a 2 2a 2
, 1 QNP1.
473. ,
, ,
Oz. :
===1. . ON
AOB.
1 1
AM=MC= AC; AN=NB= AB.
2 2
1 1 1 1
A (1; 0; 0), B (0; 1; 0), (0; 0; 1), M ( ; 0; ), N ( ; ; 0);
2 2 2 2
1 1 1 1
OM { ; 0; }, ON ( ; ; 0).
2 2 2 2
1 1
+0+0 1
cos ( OM ON )= 4 = 4 = ; OM ON =60.
1 1 1 1
+ +
1 1

2
4 4 4 4 2 2

OM ON ON.
MON=60.
474. ..
475. N , -
DBC, DAN=.
Oxyz. (0; 3; 0), (4; 0; 0).
3
N ; N (2; ; 0).
2
5 5 2
D (5 cos 60; 5 cos 45; 5 sin ), AD { ; ; sin }.
2 2
5 2 5 2 2 25 25 2
AD AD =| AD |2=25, 25=( ) +( ) +(5sin)2, 25= + +25sin2,
2 2 4 4
1 2 1 1
, sin= 1 = = , =30.
4 4 4 2

38

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5 5 2 5 3
AD { ; ; }, DAN=30, AN {2; ; 0}.
2 2 2 2
9 25 5
AN |= 4 + = = ;
4 4 2
1 1 1 2
AM = AN + NM = AN + ND = AN + ( AD AN )= AD + AN ,
3 3 3 3
1 5 2 1 5 2 2 3 1 5 13 5 2 + 6 5
AM { + 2; + ; }, .. AM { ; ; },
3 2 3 3 2 3 2 3 2 6 6 6
169 (5 2 + 6) 2 25 169 + 25 2 + 2 5 2 6 + 36 + 25
| AM |= + + = =
36 36 36 36

280 + 60 2 4(70 + 15 2 ) 2 70 + 15 2 1
= = = = 70 + 15 2 .
36 36 6 3
476. A1=.
Oxyz, -
r
,
r r r 1 1
AC1 . (cos 60; cos 60; sin }, = + +sin2=1;
4 4
1 2
sin2=, sin= , , =45.
2 2
477.
Oxyz. , 1=b,
1 ,

. AD {; 0; 0}, AB {0; ; 0},

BD {a; a; 0}.

K1 , , 1 ( ; ; 0), ( ; ; b);
2 2 2 2

AK ( ; ; b}.
2 2
,

BD AK . BAD:
2
BD= 2a =a 2 .
1 a 2
AKK1, 1= BD= :
2 2

39

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a 2 2 a 2
AK= b 2 + ( ) = b2 + ; AK BD =| AK || BD | cos ( AK BD ).
2 2
a2 a2 a2 a2
AK BD =x1x2+y1y2+z1z2= +0=0, +0=
2 2 2 2
a2 a2
=a 2 b 2 + cos ( AK AD ), 0=a 2 b 2 + cos ( AK BD ).
2 2

, . . , cos ( AK BD )=0. ,

AK BD =90, .
478.
)

A (0; 1, 2), A1 (0; 1; 2);
B (3; 1; 4), B1 (3; 1; 4);
(1; 0; 2), 1 (1; 0; 2).
)
:

A (0; 1; 2), A1 (0; 1; 2);
B (3; 1; 4), 1 (3; 1; 4);
(1; 0; 2), 1 (1; 0; 2).
:

A (0; 1; 2), A1 (0; 1; 2);
B (3; 1; 4), B1 (3; 1; 4);
(1; 0; 2), 1 (1; 0; 2).
0z:

A (0; 1; 2), A1 (0; 1; 2);
B (3; 1; 4), B1 (3; 1; 4);
(1; 0; 2), 1 (1; 0; 2).
)
, :

A (0; 1; 2), A1 (0; 1; 2);
B (3; 1; 4), 1 (3; 1; 4);
(1; 0; 2), 1 (1; 0; 2).
Oyz:

A (0; 1; 2), A1 (0; 1; 2);
B (3; 1; 4), B1 (3; 1; 4);
(1; 0; 2), 1 (1; 0; 2).

40

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Oxz:

A (0; 1; 2), A1 (0; 1; 2);
B (3; 1; 4), B1 (3; 1; 4);
(1; 0; 2), 1 (1; 0; 2).
479. )

.
, -
, , .
, .
1=. 1,
.
, . -
1=. B1, .
1 1 b. A 11=1,
=1, =11 , ,
A=11.
, 1=2 || b.
) . 1 ;
=1.
, ,
,
, -
,
, .
480. ) , .
1. , -
1 = .
2. ,
1=.
3. ,
1=.
4. 1, 1, C1 .
5. , , , 1, 1 C1
. =O1A1C1, .. 1=,
1= OC=A1OC1 .
=11.
11O=ACO,
1||.
6. 11 ,
=11. 11=,
11||.
7. (
) ()

41

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(11 11) (), -
. , ||, .
) ,
, .
1;
B1; 1.
1, 1, 1, ,
, , .
481. ) , l || .
L l LA; LA
- =LA.
L1 l L1A1; L1A1
1 11=L1A1.
l
, , LMM1L1
-.
ML=M1L1 , ML l , M1L1 l , , ML||M1L1 -
LMM1L1 . ..,
MM1||L1L, l ||m.
) l , L
.
N l , NEa,
NE EF=NE.
F FA (m).
AEF AN. NE=EF, , ,
AEF=AEN, , EAN=EAF=.
, m .
482. .
.
L, N ; =AL,
N=. ,
N===AL, , -
, ,
ML||NK. , ML=NK
MNKL , LK||MN
1||. -
.
, .
, . . . -
, 1. .. 1
.
483. ) , , ,
. 2, 2 , 2 . -
1, 1, 1 , 21=2, 21=2, C2C1=2. 11 -

42

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, .. 1=1 1|| 1. ,
A11||. 11 , .. BB1=CC1
B1|| B. , 11 || .
1 1, 1 C1,
.
( )
( )
(B1A1 11) (1), -
: 1 || .
) . -
.
1=.

,
, -
, ..
, , 1 .
,
, ,
. ,
, 1 .
484. ) , ||11 (. 52
). , 11=, 1B1||.
r
) || . ,
r
1, , 1= . -
, .

r
1, , 1 .
, 1
.
-
, ,
, .
r
, , 1
r
.
485. -
, =11, =11, =11.
=111.
AM 11. AM=11.

11 :
||11, =11, ,
r
11 , AA1 = MM 1 = .

43

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486. ) .
, , .
1, 1, 1 , =11,
=11 =1C1. ,
1, 1, 1 .
1C1=11+11. ,
;
1C1 < 11+11. -
,
, ,
.
)
.
, .
: 1, 1,
=11; 1, =11.
:
.
487. ) , .
1, 1. ,
11.
.
1. +=. .. -
, A1B1=, B1C1=, A1C1=. 11=11+11.
A1, 1, 1 ,
11 < 11+1C1, ,
11.
) A .
1, 1, 1,
=11 OB=O1B1 AB=11 OAB = O111
, =111.
=180, 111=180.
:
.
A1, BB1, =11 , =11; 1
=11 11=. , 1+11=11.
1, 1, B1 ,
1 .1 1,
, 111 , .. 111
= 180o , .
488. ) || b, , b . b ,
1=2 , b
. - ( ):
N , .

44

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A
1A11, a ABN A1B1N1.
..
, A11 1N1 -
.
1 2,
, 1=2,
11 ||
1N1, 1 || b1. , 1, || 1 b b1, b || b1.
) || . ,
11 || .

1 Q, -
11 .
11 . -
, -
,
1=1=1.
111 .
, . , , -
AA1B1C1 ,
, A, , A1, B1, C1, -
.
489. ) .. -
,
O11 ,
=O11=R.

, -
R. .. ,
, ,
, 1 -
R. (1R).
)
. , ..
,
.

45

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V
1. ) ;
) .
2. ,
Oz. .
,
.
3. (2; 4; 5), (3; x; ), (0; 4; z) D (5; t; u).
) , , -
z : =5, z=5, u=5; x, t ;
) , Oxz, -
y : x=4, t=4; , z, u ;
) , ,
y z: x=4, t=4 y=z=u=5.

4. AB {1; 1; z1}, BC {2; 2; z2}. AB + BC = AC .

AC {x1+2; y1+2; z1+z2). CA {x12; y12; z1z2}.
5. ) Oz;
) ;
) .
r
6. , Oyz.
) ;
) .
r r 5 3 1 r r
7. ) {5; 3; 1} b {6; 10; 2}. , , b
6 10 2
;
r r 2 3 7
) {2; 3; 7}; b {1; 1,5; 3,5}. = = =k, .
1 1,5 3,5
8. d - . :
) x 2 + y 2 + z 2 =d=1,

1 + y 2 + z 2 =1, =z=0, , ..
.
) 4 + y 2 + z 2 =1; 4+2+z2=1,
y +z =3 , .. 2+z2 0, .. .
2 2

r r
9. | |=3, | |= x 2 + y 2 + z 2

) 3= 9 + x 2 + y 2 , 9=9+x2+y2, 0=x2+y2, x==0, ,

) 3= 25 + x 2 + y 2 , 9=25+x2+2, x2+y2=16, , -
, .

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10. 12= ( x2 x1 )2 + ( y2 y1 )2 + ( z2 z1 )2 , 1 (3; y1; z1), M2 (6; y2; z2).
2 2
)2= 9 + ( y 2 y1 ) 2 + ( z 2 z1 ) 2 , 4= 9 + ( y 2 y1 ) + ( z 2 z1 ) ,
( y 2 y1 ) 2 + ( z 2 z1 ) 2 =5 . ,
12=2 .
) 3= 9 + ( y2 y1 )2 + ( z2 z1 )2 , 9= 9 + ( y 2 y1 ) 2 + ( z 2 z1 ) 2
( y 2 y1 ) 2 + ( z 2 z1 ) 2 =0, y1=y2 z1=z2, M12
Ox.
r r r r
11. | |=a, | b |=b, b =ab cos .
r r r r
a) b =ab, ) b =ab cos 180=ab;
r r r r 1
) b =ab cos 90=0; ) b =ab cos 60= ab;
2
r r 1
) b =ab cos 120=ab cos (180 60)=ab cos 60= ab.
2
r r
12. ) b > 0, cos > 0, .. 0 < 90;
r r
) b < 0, cos < 0, .. 90 < < 180;
r r
) b =0, cos =0, .. =90.
13. ) AD DC, a DC=D1C1, AD
D1C1;
) BD BB1, BB1=CC1, , BD CC1;
) A1C1=AC, AD AC, ,
11 AD ;
) DB D1C1;
) 1 .
r r
14. ) b =2+12+z1z2.
2+12+z1z2 < 2, , 12+z1z2< 0, : (, y1=0,
y2=0, z1=1, z2=1);
) 2+12+z1z2=2, .. 12+z1z2=0, : (,
y1=y2=z1=z2=0);
) 2+12+z1z2 > 2, .. 12+z1z2 > 0,: (,
y1=y2=z1=z2=1).
1+ 2 3 0 1 1 2+4 3 1
15. = = ; = = ; z= =3; : A ; ;3
2 2 2 2 2 2 2
1
16. (2; ; 3).
2
17. ,
,
.

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r r r r r
490. ) =3 b 3 +3 , {; ; z}.
r r r
3 b {15; 15; 0}, 3 {15; 0; 15}, 3 {3; 6; 9}.
r r
: {3; 9; 24};
r r r r
) =0,1 +0,8 0,5 b ,
r r r
0,1 {0,1; 0,2; 0,3}, 0,8 {4; 0; 4}, 0,5 b {2,5; 2,5; 0}.
r
=0,14+2,5=1,6, =0,2 2,5=2,3, z=0,3+4=4,3; {1,6; 2,3; 4,3}.
r
491. ) {5; 3; 1}
r 5 3 r r
b {6; 10; 2}, .. . , b .
6 10
r
) {2; 3; 7}
r 2 3 7 r
b {1; 1,5; 3,5}: = = . ,
1 1,5 3,5
r
b .
r 2 5 r
) { ; ; 1} b {6; 5; 9} :
3 9
2 5

3 1 9 1 1 1 r r
= , = = , .. b .
=
6 5 9 9 9 9
r
) {0,7; 1,2; 5,2} -
r
b {2,8; 4,8; 20,8}:
0 ,7 1 1,2 1 5,2 1 1 1 r r
= ; = ; = ; , .. b .
2 ,8 4 4,8 4 20,8 4 4 4
492. (x; ; z) .
1 7 11 3 +1
: x= (5+3)=1, y= =2, z= =2, .. E (1; 2; 2).
2 2 2
, : 1 (1; 0;
0); : 2 (0; 2; 0); Oz: E3 (0; 0; 2).
r
493. ,
r r
b , .. m n,
r r r
=m b +n .
r r r r
) b = i + j ; b {1; 1; 0}.
r r r r r r r
= i k , {1; 0; 1}, i {1; 0; 0}, j {0; 1; 0}, k {0; 0; 1}.
r r r
=m b +n :
(1) l=ml+n1, (2) 2=m1+n0, (3) 3=m0+n(1).

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r r
(1), (2) (3) m=2, n=3, .., , b
r
.r
r r r r r r r r
) = i + j + k , {1; 1; 1}, = i j , {1; 1; 0}.
r r r
=m b +n :
(1) 1=m2+n1, (2) 1=m1+n (1), (3) 1=m1,5+n0.
2 2 1 4 1
m= , n= 1= , 1= .
3 3 3 3 3
2 1 r
(1), (2) (3) m= , n= , .., ,
3 3
r r
b .
r r r
) =m b +n .
(1) 1=m1+n2, (2) 1=m (1)+n3. 1=m2+n(1).
r r r
. .. , b -
.

494. AB CD : AB {1; 1; 1}, DC {1; 1; 1}. -

AB DC , .. AB =k DC , k=1. , || DC.

| AB |= 12 + 12 + 12 = 3

| DC |= 12 + 12 + 12 = 3 ,

| AB |=| DC |.
ABCD
, , ABCD .
495. , -
2 + 3+ 2 0 + 2 + 3 1+ 2 + 6 7 5
: O ( ; ; ), O ( ; ; 3).
3 3 3 3 3

496. AD {4; 1; 0}, AA1 {2; 3; 1},

AB {1; 4; 3}.

AD1 = AA1 + AD . AD1 {2+4; 3+1; 01}, AD1 {6; 4;
1}.

AD1 - :
6= x D1 xA, 6= x D1 3, x D1 =9.
4= y D1 yA, 4= y D1 0, y D1 =4,
1= z D1 zA,. 1= z D1 2, z D1 =1; D1 (9; 4; l).

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2) AC = AB + AD , AC {1+4; 4+1; 3+0}, AC {3; 5; 3}.
()
3=xC xA, 3=xC 3, xC=6,
5=yC yA, 5=yC0, yC=5,
3=zC zA, 3=zC2, zC=5; C (6; 5; 5).

3) AB1 {1+2; 4+3; 31}, AB1 {1; 7; 2}.
()
1= x B1 3, x B1 =4,
7= y B1 0, y B1 =7,
2= z B1 2, z B1 =4, B1 (4; 7; 4).

4) AC1 = AA1 + AB + AD , AC1 {2+(1)+4; 3+4+1; 1+3+0}.

AC1 {5; 8; 2}.
()
5= xC1 3, xC1 =8,
8= yC1 0, yC1 =7,
2= zC1 2, zC1 =4, 1 (8; 8; 4).
497.
1 1 1
) x= (2+5), ) x= (0+3), ) x= (5+3),
2 2 2
1 1 1
y= (3+7), y= (48), y= (35),
2 2 2
1 1 1
0= (k1), 0= (k+2), 0= (k+3k),
2 2 2
.. k=1; .. k=2; .. k=0.
r r
498. e {; ; z} . -
x y x x
= = , .. y= ; z=x.
2 1 2 2
r
.. | e |=1, x 2 + y 2 + z 2 =1.

x2 1 2 3
x2 + + ( x )2 =1, (2+
)x =1; |x|=1,
4 4 2
r r 2 r 2 1 2
x > 0, .. e ; x= , .. e { ; ; }.
3 3 3 3
r r r
e b . e ,
r r
.. b . e {x; y; 0}.

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x y
= , y=3x.
1 3
r 1 3
| e |=1, x 2 + y 2 =1, x= , y= .
10 10
r 1 3
, e { ; ; 0}.
10 10
499. 2 + 2 + z 2 =5,
2+y2+z2=25, 4+y2+5=25, y2=16, =4.
500. MN, S PQ.
2 4 11 3 1
O ( ; ; ;), O (1; 0; 1);
2 2 2
1 3 1 + 1 2 + 0
S( ; ; ); S (1; 1; 1).
2 2 2
OS= (1 + 1) 2 + (1 0) 2 + (1 1) 2 = 1 =1.
501.
,

.
A1D1=BC=|xB|=2, D1C1=AB=|yB|=5,
D1D=1=|zB|= 3 .

: 1 , 1 ; BD
z.
BA1= 1 12 + 12 = 25 + 3 =2 7 ,
BC1= 2 + 12 = 4 + 3 = 7 ,

BD= BC 2 + DC 2 = 4 + 25 = 29 .
502. D B; -
D (0; D; 0), AD=BD. :
AD= (x x D ) 2 + (y y D ) 2 + (z z D ) 2 .

AD= (13 0) 2 + (2 y D ) 2 + (-1 0) 2 = 169 + 4 - 2 2 y D + y D 2 + 1 =

= 4y D 2 - 4y D + 174 ,

BD= (-15 0) 2 + (7 y D ) 2 + (-18 0) 2 = 225 + 49 - 2 7 y D + y D 2 + 324 =

= y D 2 - 14 y D + 598 ,
: 2 4 + 174 = 2 14 + 598 ,

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y24y+174=y214y+598, 10y=424, y=42,4; D (0; 42,4; 0).
503*. ; (; , z).

==. : AB {2; 1; 1},

AC {2; 0; 0}, BC {0; 1; 1}.
| 400| 2 | 1 1 | 1
cos BAC= = ; cos ABC= = ,
4 +1+1 4 6 4 +1+1 1+1 3
|0|
cos ACB= =0, ,;
4 1+1
ACB=90 ABC . ,
1
; =O. : = (0+2)=1.
2
1 1
y= (2+1)=1,5, z= (2+1)=1,5; (1; 1,5; 1,5)
2 2
504.
Oxyz . A1B1C1
; 1
. , (; A; 4), {xB; yB; 9),
C (xC; yC; 5).
, (xM; yM; zM),
(zM ).
:
x + xB + xC y + y + y z + z + z
( A ; ; ); .. zM=6 .
3 3 3
505*. 1, 2, E3, E4 , AD, DC.
12; 23 ABD.
1
E2E3= DB.
2
1
14= DB. 4=E4E1+
2
1 1
+1O= DB+1O, OE3=2+23=2+ DB.
2 2
2=E1O, 4O=OE3,
E3E4.
1 1
DO = DE 2 + E 2 O = DA + E 2 E1 , E 2 E1 = E 2 D + DC + CE1 ,
2 2

E 2 E1 = E 2 A + AB + BE1 .
. :

2 E 2 E1 = E 2 D + E 2 A + CE1 + BE1 + DC + AB = DC + AB ,

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1
E 2 E1 =( DC + AB ),
2
1 1 1 1 1 1
DO = DA + E 2 E1 = DA + ( DC + AB )=
2 2 2 2 2 2
1 1 1 1 1 1
DA + DC + AB = DA + DC + ( DB DA )= ( DA + DB + DC );
4 4 2 4 4 4
2

2 1 1
(1) DM 1 = DA + AM1 = DA + AE1 = DA + ( AB + AC )= DA + (( DB
3 3 2 3
1 1 1 1
DA )+( DC DA ))= DA + ( DB + DC 2 DA )= DB + DC + DA =
3 3 3 3
1
= ( DA + DB + DC ), DA + DB + DC =3 DM 1 . (2)
3
(2) (I):

3 1 DO 3
DO = DM 1 , , OM 1 = DM1 , = .
4 4 1
OM1
, DM1 DM1 3:1,
. .
r r
506. ) b =13+50+6=3;
r r 1
6) =1 35+34=3,5;
2
r r
) d d =22+12+0=5;
r r r r r r r r r r 2
) ( + b + ) d = d + b d + d =12+51+30+23+0+0+ 3+0=7;
2
r r r r r r r r r r r r 1 3
) ( b )( d )= b d + b d = 15+12 +08+25+6=10.
2 2

507. ) ADB=45= DA DB , DB = BD ,

DA BD =18045=135.
r
) = CB
r
q = DB .
r r
DB CB = q =DBC.
DBC. BDC=60, D=DB, , DCB=CBD, .. -
.
DCB+DBC=120, , DBC=DCB=60,

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) BD BA =DBA. DBA , ..,
180 45 135
DAB=DBA= = =6730.
2 2
508. DD1 -
A, .. -
, .
a) D1D D1B.

D1D D1D;

D1B D1B. -
, D1B D1D;

) DD1 D1D, DD1 (), .. DD1

. BC . , DD1 BC . ..
D1D=DD1, 1 DD1 A : 1=180,
=90 D1D A;

) DA BC DA .

DA BC , DA BC.
.. ABCD , D
. AM, DD1
D1,
1) AM, .. AM ;
2) DD1, DD1 ();
3) AM DD1 (DD1A), AM DD1 .
1), 2) 3) , DD1C, ,
CB DA, BC DA.
) DC D1B , .. DC D1B -
. D D1B, , . -
, CD1 D1B. , -
. .

509. os=|cos AB CD |.

) AB {1; 1; 2}, CD {3; 3; 1}.
| 3 + 3 + 2 | 2 2
cos = = = ;
1+1+ 4 9 + 9 +1 6 19 114

) AB {5; 1; 1}, CD {2; 2; 2).

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| 10 + 2 2 | 5 10
cos = = . =
25 + 1 + 1 4 + 4 + 4 3 3 2 3 9
510. .
: A (a; 0; 0), B (a; a; 0),
C (0; a; 0), D (0; 0; 0), A1 (a; 0; d), 1 (a, a, a),
C1 (0; a; a), D1 (0; 0; 0).
x1 x2 + y1 y 2 + z1 z 2
cos= .
x1 + y12 + z12 x22 + y 22 + z 22
2

2 2 },
) AD {a; 0; a}, ( ; a; ), AM { ; a;
2 2 2 2
a( a 2a ) a 2

cos ( A 1 D AM )= 2 2 =
( a 2a )2 a2
a2 + a2 + a2 +
4 4
a 2 + 2a 2 a 2

= 2 =0, A1D AM =90
( a 2 a )2 a2
2a 2 + a2 +
4 4

) MD { ; f; i}, BB1 {0; 0; a},
2 2
a2
2 2
2 1 2
cos ( MD BB1 )= = = =
2
a2 a2 2 6a 2 2 6
+ a2 + a2 a
4 4 4
1
=
6

MD BB1 11406.

511. AC1 BD1 .

AC1 = AB + BC + CC1 = AB + AD + AA1 ,

AC1 AC1 =| AC1 |2cos 0,

( AB + AD AB + AA1 AB + AB AD + AD 2+

+ AA1 AD + AB AA1 + AD AA1 + AA1 2= AB 2+

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+2 AD AB +2 AA1 AB + AD 2+2 AA1 AD +
1
+ AA1 2=12+212 cos 60+212 cos 60+12+212 cos 60+12=3+6 =6;
2

| AC1 |2=6; | AC1 |= 6 ;

BD1 = BA + AD + DD1 = AA1 + AD AB , BD1 2=| BD1 |2cos0O,

( AA1 + AD AB )( AA1 + AD AB )=| BD1 |2,

AA1 2+ AD AA1 AB AA1 + AA1 AD + AD 2 AB AD AA1 AB

AD AB + AB 2= AA1 2+2 AD AA1 2 AB AA1 + AD 2 AD 22 AB AD +
2
+ AB 2=12+212cos 600212cos 60212cos 60+12=3 =2=| BD1 |2,
2

| BD1 |= 2 .
512. DB ; ==4, DO=OB=3.
BC= 32 + 42 = 25 =5,
BN=CN=2,5.
3 4
cos OBC= = , cos OCB= = .
5 5

) MN BC

MN B. MN |cos ( MN BC )|.

1) MN = MO + OB + BN , BC MN = BC ( MO + OB + BN )= BC MO +

+ BC OB + BC BN =9+12,5=3,5
3
(cos ( BC OB )=cos OBC= ; cos ( BC MO )=0, .. -
5
).

2) BC MN =| BC || MN | cos ( BC MN ),

MN= O 2 + ON 2 = 36 + 6,25 =6,5,


ON=BN=NC=2,5, .. N
.

BC MN =56,5cos ( BC MN )=32,5 cos ( BC MN ),

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3,5 7
32,5 cos ( BC MN )=3,5, cos ( BC MN )= = ;
32,5 65

) |DC|=|BC|=5. MN = MO + OC + CN ,

DC MN = DC ( MO + OC + CN )= DC MO + DC OC + DC CN ,

DC MO =0, .. DC.
4 4
DC OC =5 4 =16, .. cos ( DC OC )=cos DCO=cos OCB= ;
5 5

DC CN =5 2,5 cos (180DCN)=12,5 (cos DCN)=12,5
16
cos (2OCB)=12,5 (2 cos2 OCB1)=12,5 2 +12,5=12,5 16=3,5,
25

DC MN =0+163,5=12,5,

DC MN =| DC | | MN | cos ( DC MN ),
12,5 125 5
cos ( DC MN )= = = ;
5 6,5 325 13

) AC MN =( AB + AD )( MO + OB + BN )= AB MO + AB OB + AB BN +

+ AD MO + AD BN , AB MO =0, .. AB ,
3
AB OB =53s =15 cos OBC=15 =9,
5

AB BN =52,5cos (180ABN)=12,5(cos ABN)=12,5cos (2OBC)=
9
=12,5(2cos2 OBC1)=25 +12,5=12,59=3,5,
25
3
AD OB = BC OB =53( )=9, AD MO =0.
5

AD BH = BC BN =52,5=12,5, AC MN =0+9+3,590+12,5=16,

AC MN =| AC || MN |cos ( AC MN ),
16 16 4
cos ( AC MN )= = = ;
8 6,5 52 13

) DB MN =( DC + CB )( MO + OC + CN )= DC MO + CB MO + DC OC +

+ CB OC + DC CN , DC MO =0.

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4
CB MO =0, DC OC =54 =16,
5
4
CB OC =54 cos (180OCB)=54( )=16,
5

DC CN =52,5 cos (1802OCB)=3,5,

CB CN =52,51=12,5,

DB MN =0+0+16163,5+12,5=3,5+12,5=9,

DB MN =| DB | | MN |cos ( DB MK)=66,5cos ( DB MN ),
9 3
cos ( DB = MN }=
.
39 13
513. . -
.

cos ( NM DA ).
3
) N ( a; 0; 0), A (a; 0; 0), A1 (a; 0; a), B (a; a; 0),
5
3 2 3
B1 (; a; a), (a; a; a), D (0; 0; 0); NM { a; a; a}.
5 5 5

DA {a; 0; 0}.
2 2 2
| a2 + 0 + 0 | a 2 1 2
|cos ( NM DA )|= 5 = 5 = = .
4 2 2 9 2 2 2 4 + 25 + 9 5 38 38
a +a + a a a
25 25 25 25
) N A1B1C1D1

|cos ( NM AA1 )|.
3 2
|0+0+ a | 3 a2 3
AA1 {0; 0; },|cos ( NM AA1 )|= 5 = = .
38 5 38 38
a a2 a2
25 25
r r r r
514. {| | cos 1; | | cos 2; | |cos 3}, ( 460)
r
1, 2 3 , Ox, Oy,
Oz.
r r
| |= x 2 + y 2 + z 2 , , z .
r r r r r
, | |2=x2+2+z2=| |2 cos2 1+| |2 cos2 2; | |2 cos2 3=| |2 (cos2 1+
+cos2 2+cos2 3), cos2 1+cos2 2+cos2 3=1, .

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515.

CF ,
FA , FB . -
: . =, : = cos 60=

= ; : =cos 45= .
2 2
:
AB2=OB2+OA22BOA cos 45;
2
2 1 2 2 2 2
2= + 2 = = + = , = .
2 4 2 2 2 2 4 2 4 2
, , =; =45,
=90.
, FA .
, ..
, =90, COB=45, ,
=45.
516. .
,
CAO=. =; -
, -
, AD
D, OD || .
OD || , , ,
OD OA. -
: OD.
AD=. AOD:
A=a sin , OD=a cos .
: CO2=OA2+AC22ACcos ;
CO2=a2 sin2+a2 sin2 2a2 sin2 cos =2a2 sin2 (1 cos ).
COD
CD2=2+OD2;
CD2=2 a2 sin2 (1 cos )+a2 cos2 .
CAD CAD=;
CD2=2+AD2 2 AD cos x.
22 sin2 (1 cos )+a2 cos2 =a2 sin2 +2 2 a2 sin cos ,

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2 sin2 2 sin2 cos +cos2 =sin2 +1 2 sin cos ,
1 2 sin2 cos 1=2 sin cos ,
2 sin2 cos =2 sin cos , sin 0,
, sin cos =cos .
517. D ,
;
,
;
F.
AF FD.
F CD.
CF FD, CFD .
AFDB , AF=BD=, =FD=m.
CAF :
CF2=2+AF2 2AF cos 120=n2+22 n p cos (180 60)=
1 2 2
=n2+p2+2np =n + +np.
2
FD: CD2=CF2+FD2, CD2=n2+p2+np+m2; CD= n 2 + p 2 + m 2 + np .
518. ) || , -
. , a1 -
1, .. a1 1, 1 -
1, ,
. -
, .. 1 || 1.
) : :

, . -
, , .
; AM2=2 2=
=AC2 2.
=1B1, =11, AM=11 ( -
).
A1M12=1B12 B1M12, , A11 B1M1.
A1M12=A1C12 C1M12, , A1M1 C1M1.
, 11 1 -
.
519. PQ AO, AO ( ).

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PQ
; OB PQ,
OB1 PQ. BOA=.
1
1, 1
1: =1.
1=,
(OK PQ, OK
, 1=KB).
, BOK=B1OK=, ..
, -
, 1 .
520. )
-
b.
b

b1,
1. .. b ,
1 b1 . a1
b1 . -
,
. , || 1, .
)
r r r r
|| b || . , ,
r r
,
.
b b, .
b
, , -
.

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VI. ,

521. ,
(ABCD).
,
, BC=AD, ..
. AB CD .
AB=CD, ,
, .. ABCD
R=1,5 , =4 .
=BD= H 2 + (2R ) 2 = H 2 + D 2 = 16 + 9 =5 ()
522. 11 (..521).
1:
48 3
=2R=48 sin 60= = 24 3 ; R= 12 3 ();
2
48
=1=48 cos 60= =24 ;
2
S=R2= ( 12 3 )2= 144 3=432 2.
523. 11 , 1=20 . =;
20 20 2
2 =20 = = =10 2 ,
2 2
1 1
=10 2 , S=R2, R= = =5 2 ,
2 2
S= (5 2 )2=50 2.
524. .
.

525.
10 5
R= = ,
H 2R = 10 2H H
2
2
R = 5 5
= 5,
5
=1
H H2
1
1
= = 5 .
5
S 3
526. S = R 2 ; S = H 2R , = = ,
S 4
3 R 2 R 3
= = ,
4 2HR H 2

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2R 1 3
tg = tg , tg = 3 , = 60o.
H 2 2
B1 AB = 30 o ; A1 BA = 30 o ;
= 180 o 2 30 o = 120 o ; ATA1 = 60 o.
527. 1 .
) 1. , ,
1. 11 -
. (, 1)= ((1), 1).
1, (, 1)==d. 2. r=10 , d=8
, =13 , h=?
A1P = BP = r 2 d 2 , A 1 B = r 2 d 2 ,
A1 B = 100 64 = 2 6 = 12 (),

H = AB2 A1B 2 = 169 144 = 5 .


) h=6 , r=5 , =10 , d=?
A 1 B = AB 2 h 2 = 100 36 = 8

A 1 P = PB = 4 . A1OP : d = r 2 A1P2 = 25 16 = 3 .
528. , || O1O.
O1O , CD,
,
. D
. D
.
529. 11 .
1
AB = R 2 d 2 , .. AB = 2 R 2 d 2 ;
2
S = H = 2 R 2 d 2 H =
= 2 25 9 8 = 16 4 = 64 2.
530. H=12 , R=10 , 11 .
AB=H=12 ,
1 12
AB = R 2 d 2 , .. = 100 d 2 , 6 = 100 d 2 ,
2 2
36 = 100 d 2 , d 2 = 64, d = 8 .
531. =10 , S=240 2, d=9 .
S = H AB; 240 = 10 AB, .. AB = 24 .
1
AB = R 2 d 2 , 12 = R 2 81 , 144 = R 2 81, 255 = R 2 , R = 15 .
2

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532. = CA1 AB.
R ,
.
S1 = S A1C1CA = 2 RH .
AB R AB R
= , .. = ;
o
sin( 180 2 ) sin 2 sin cos sin
AB = 2R cos ; S2 = SA1B1BA = AB H = 2R cos H;
S1 2RH 1
= = .
S2 2RH cos cos
1
: .
cos
S
533. S = 2RH , R = ;
2H
1 S2
AB = R 2 d 2 , .. AB = d2 ;
2 4H 2

S2
S = AB H = 2 H d2 = S2 4H 2d 2 .
4H 2
534. AOB: AO = OB = R.
1
BM = AB = 3d
2
BM
= tg 60 o = 3 ;
d
2 BM = 2 3d ; AB = 2 3d ;
S = 2 3 dh.
535. : d = 2 , AOB = 60 o .
BK BK 1 2
= = tg 30 o = , BK = ;
OK 2 3 3
4 4 3
AB = 2 BK = = .
3 3
4 3 2
AA1 B1 B , S = 10 3 = 40 .
3
536. ACB , .. ACB = 90 o ,
.
h , , R ,
BC = x , AC = 4 R 2 x 2 .

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S1 = S BB1C1C = S = xh = S 2 = S ACC1 A1 = h 4 R 2 x 2 ,

xh = h 4R 2 x 2 , x = 4R 2 x 2 , x2 = 4R2 x2 , 2 x2 = 4R 2 ,
x
x 2 = 2R 2 , x = 2 R , R = .
2

2 xh
S 3 = 2 Rh = . S3 = 2 ( xh ) = 2 S .
2
: 2 S .
537. D=1; =D.
1 1 1
S = 2rH , r = D = (), H = 1 = , S = 2 = 2 2.
2 2 2
538. S = S ,
S S
S = 2rh = S , 2rh =; S AA1B1B = AB h = 2rh = .

539. D = 1,5 , H = 3 , 1 2 200 .
S + S = 2rh + r 2 = S ,
2
1,5
S = + r 2 = 1,5 3 + + =
2
2 ,25
= 4 ,5 + = 4 ,5 + 1,125 = 5,625 .
2
: 0,2 5,625 = 1,125 .
540. : H R = 12,
S = 2R( R + H ) = 288 2. :
H R = 12, H R = 12,

2R ( R + H ) = 288, 2R (R + H ) = 144.
R 2 + R( 12 + R ) = 144; R 2 + 6 R 72 = 0;
R1,2 = 3 9 + 72 = 3 9.
, R > 0, .. R = 6 , H = 12 + 6 = 18 .
541. : d = 20 =0,2 ,
2 ,5d 1
S = 2 r l = d l , S = ,
100
2 ,5d 0 ,2 4 0 ,8d 2,5
S + S = 0,2 4 + = 0 ,8 + =
100 100
25 2
= 0 ,81 + = 0 ,8( 1 + 0 ,025 ) = 0,82 .
100 40

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542. : S = S ; S = R 2 .
h. AA1 B1 .
2R S 2R S
= tg, R = , h= = ctg 2 ,
h tg
S S S
S = 2Rh = 2 ctg 2 = 4ctg = 4 Sctg.

: 4Sctg .
543. S = 2Rh, S = 2R(h + R),
AB
AB = 2Rh , R = (1) ; h = AA1 (2)
2
( -
).
ATA1 :
2 2
d d d d 2d 2 2d 2
AA12 = + 2 cos = cos =
2 2 2 2 4 4
d2 d2
= (1 cos ) = 2 sin 2 = d 2 sin 2 ,
2 2 2 2

AA1 = d 2 sin 2 = d sin , AA1 = h.
2 2
2 2
d d d d
ATB : AB2 = + 2 cos(180o ) =
2
2 2 2
2d 2 2d 2 d2 d2
= + cos = (1 + cos ) = 2 cos 2 = d 2 cos 2 ,
4 4 2 2 2 2

2 2 AB d cos 2
AB = d cos = d cos ; R = = ;
2 2 2 2

d cos
S = 2 2 d sin = d 2 sin cos
2 2 2 2
1 2 1 2
= d 2 sin cos = d sin ;
2 2 2 2 2

d 2 cos 2 2
S = R 2 = 2 = d cos 2 ; S
= S + 2 S ;
42 4 2
2 2
1 2 d d d2 d2 1
S = d sin + 2 cos 2 = sin + cos 2 = (sin + cos 2 ).
2 4 2 2 4 2 2 2
AA1 , , S .

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d 2 sin 2 d 2 sin 2
2
S = R = 2 = 2;
42 4

d 2 sin 2 2
: S
1
= d 2 sin + 2 2 = 1 d 2 sin + d sin 2 .
2 4 2 2 2
544. S = R 2 .
d
, .
2
d d d2 d2
= 2R , .. R = ; S = = .
2 2 2 8 2 8
545. R = OA = a , H = AA1 = a. A1
2
) S = 2 RH = 2aa = 2a ;
) S = 2RH = 2aa = 2a 2 ; A

) S = 2a 2 = 2(a 2 ) = 4a 2 .
546. )

S = 2ba S = 2ab
S .
) S = 2ba + 2b 2 = S1 , S 2 = S = 2ab + 2a 2 ,
S1 2b(a + b) a
= = .
S 2 2a(a + b) b
a S1
: = .
b S2
547. SO = h = 15 , R = OA = 8 ,
AS = SO 2 + OA 2 = 15 2 + 8 2 = = 225 + 64 = 17 .
548. ) = 30o
12 3
R = AO = AS cos = AS cos 30 o = = 6 3 ,
2
S = R 2 = ( 6 3 ) 2 = 36 3 = 108 2;

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2
) = 45o R = 12 6 2 ,
2
S = ( 6 2 )2 = 72 2;
1
) = 60o R = 12 6 2.
2
S = 6 2 = 36 2
549. PO = h = 8 .
1 1
) S1 = S ; ) S1 = S ,
2 4
, ,
- .
PO1 O1 A1 PO1 r1
PO1 A1 POA ; = , = .
PO OA 8 r
S = r 2 , S1
PO1 S1
S = = .
2
r = , 8 S S

S1 1 8 1 8
) PO1 = 8 =8 = = 4 2 ; ) PO1 = 8 = = 4 ;
S 2 2 4 2

550. APB = 90 o , AO = OB = 5 , S APB = ?


1 1
S APB = AP PB = AP 2 ,
2 2
2 AP 2 = AB 2 ( ), AB = 10 .
1 50
AP 2 = 25 4 = 50 2, S APB = = 25 2.
2 2
551. ) BPC = 30 o , PC=PB=2r.
1 2r 2r
S BPC = PB PC sin 30o ; S BPC = = r2 ;
2 22
) BPC = 45 o ,
2r 2r 2
S BPC = = r2 2 ;
22
2r 2r 3
) BPC = 60 o , S BPC = = r2 3 .
22
552. PO = h , APO = 60 o , APPB , PB -
.
1) AP = 2h , ( , 30o );

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2) AP = PB = 2h ;
3) .
1 2h 2h
S APB = AP PB , S = = 2h 2 .
2 2
553. : . S APB = 6 2, S = 8 2.
1
1) S APB = PO AB , AB = 2r .
2
PO 2r
S APB = = rh , 6 = rh; (1)
2
2) S = r 2 , 8 = r 2 ; (2)
8 2 2 6 6 3
3) (2) r = = ; (1) h = = = =6 .
r 2 2 2 8
554. , ) 60o ; ) 90o. S = ?
. -
: . .
1
S = S BPC = CB PK .
2
) =r.
: PK = PO 2 + OK 2 , : PK = CP 2 CK 2 .
2 2
r 4l 2 r 4l 2 r 2
2
PK = l = = ,
2 4 2

1 4l 2 r 2 r
S = r = 4l 2 r 2 ;
2 2 4
2 2
r 2 2 r 2l 2 r 2
) CB = r 2 ; PK = l = l
= ,
2 2 2

1 2l 2 r 2 r
S =r = 2l 2 r 2 .
2 2 2
555. : =h=10 , ,
COB = 60 o , -
o o o
: ) 30 ; ) 45 ; ) 60 . S BPC = ?
. ,
. .
OA BC
, .
POPAO

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h
) = 30o. : PA = = 2h ,
sin 30 o
: =r=2,
CA 1 OA
= tg 30 o = , CA = .
OA 3 3
h 1
: = tg 30 o = , OA = h 3 .
OA 3
h 3 1 1
, CA = = h , BC = 2h. S = BC PA, S = 2h 2h = 2h 2 ,
3 2 2
S = 2 100 = 200 2.
h
) = 45o. PA = h 2 = 10 2 , OA = h, CA = ,
3
2h 1 2h h2 100
BC = ; S =
h 2 = 6= 6 2.
3 2 3 3 3
h h
) PAO = 60o ; = tg 60o = 3 ; OA = ,
OA 3
OA h h 2h h h2
CA = = = , CB = , PA = = .
3 ( 3) 2 3 3 sin 60 o 3

1 2 h 2h 2h 2 2 h 2 2 3 100 200 3
S = = = 2. S = = 2.
2 3 3 3 3 9 9 9
556. : .
,
1)
1;
PO1
2) r1 = r.
PO
M 1 M 1 O1 (r1 ). (
1 r -
1).
1 1,
. 11 ,
.
PO1 O1 M 1 PM 1 PO O1 M 1 PO
= = ; OM = = r1 = r = const -
PO PO PM PO1 PO1
O1( r1 ).
: , , 1, -
, (r), .. -

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r, .
.
4) , ,
M1 , M1 PM ,
M 1 O1 (r1 ).
5) 11 ( ).
PO1 PO1
O1 M 1 = OM = r = r1 = const r.
PO PO
: , , -
O1 (r1 ), .
O1 M 1 PO1
557. . 556: = ,
OM PO
r1 PO1
= ; S1 = r12 ; S 2 = r22 .
r2 PO
S1
r12
PO12 PO12
: 2 = ; = .
r2 PO 2 S 2 PO 2

l 2
558. 1) S = = rl ;
360o
2) l = r 2 + H 2 = 9 + 16 = 5 ();
25 360o 3 5
3) = 35 = = 72o 3 = 216o.
360 o 25
1 1
559. r = l cos 60o = , r= .
2 2
l 2
S = = r l.
360o
360o l l
: = = 180o.
l2 2
560. APO = x.
l 2
= r l , l = AP, r = OA.
360o
l 2 l
r= = .
360 l 360o
o

180 o l 1 90o l 1 60 o l 1
) r = = ; ) r = o
= ; ) r = = .
360 o
2 360 4 360o 6

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AO r
: sin x = = .
PA l
1 o
) sin x = , x = 30 o , APB = 2 x = 60 ;
2
1 1 1
) sin x = , x = arcsin , APB = 2 arcsin ;
4 4 4
1 1 1
) sin x = , x = arcsin , APB = 2 arcsin .
6 6 6
561. r = 9 , = 120o.
l ,
.
2r 2 9 120o
l= = = 6 .
360o 360o
l ,
l 6
R= = = 3 .
2 3
S = r 2 = 9 2.

H = r 2 R 2 = 81 9 = 72 = 6 2 .
562. ;
6 ,5 2
r = OA = l sin 45 o = ; S = rl ,
2
6,5 2
S = 6 ,5 = 169 2 2.
2 8
563. : H = 1,2 , S = 0,6 2.
1) S = r (l + r );
1 1
2) SAPB = AB PO = 2r H = r H,
2 2
0,6 6 1
0,6 = r 1,2r = = = ;
1,2 12 2
l = H 2 + r 2 , l = 1,44 + 0,25 = 1,69 = 1,3 ;
4) S = 0 ,5( 0 ,5 + 1,3 ) = 0 ,5 1,8 = 0,9 2.
a a
564. : = 2 r , , r =
sin 2 sin
r r
=cos , l = ,
l cos

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a
l= ; S = r (r + l),
2 sin cos
a a a
S = + =
2 sin 2 sin 2 sin cos
a a2 1 a 2 (1 + cos )
= (1 + )= .
2 sin 2 sin cos 4 sin 2 cos
565. .
S = rl, S = r (l + r ).

l = 6 2 + 8 2 = 36 + 64 = 10 ();
S = 8 10 = 80 (2);
S = 8(10 + 8) = 18 8 = 144 (2).
566. S = 2S =rl.
r = m sin , l = m;
S = m sin m = m 2 sin ;
S = 2m 2 sin .
567. : r1 = 3 , r2 = 6 , H = 4 .
1 .
1==4 , =3 ,
A1A = H 2 + AM 2 = 16 + 9 = 5 ().
568. 1 .
1=1= , =6 .
) H = 102 62 = 100 36 = 8 ;
) S=S SAA O O = 5 + 11 8 = 16 4 = 64 2,
1 1
2
S = 128 2.
569.

2r 2R.
1=. =R r,
, =1==R r.
BC + AD 2r + 2R
S ABCD = H = (R r ) = = (R + r )(R r ) = R 2 r 2 .
2 2
570. S = 80 2, PO = OM, CDPM.
S = (r + r1 )l, r = OC , r1 = MA, l = CA.
, =.
S = r1 AP. AC = CP = l,

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r1 2l = 80, r1l = 40 (*). POC PMA.
PO OC PC r l r 1 r
= = ; = = , r= 1.
PM MA PA r1 2l r1 2 2
40 r1 40 3r1 40
(*) l = ; S = ( + r1 ) = = 60 .
r 2 r1 2r1
571. CB = r1 , AD = r, l = DC , H = BA.
CMDA.
3 2 2
DCM : DM = 3 2 cos 45 o = =3;
2
DA = r = 3 + 4 = 7 .
S = (r + r1 )l; S = (4 + 7)3 2 = 11 3 2 = 33 2 2;
S = S + (r12 + r22 ),
S = 33 2 + (16 + 49) = 33 2 + 65.
572. : 1 2 150 , N=100 .
S = (r + r1 )l,
S = r12 , S = [(10 + 15)30 + 10 2 ] 2 =
= 2[ 25 30 + 100 ] = 2[750 + 100] = 850 2 = 1700 2;
1 100 , 1 2 104 2, 2 1700 2,
1700
x= = 0,17 2.
100 100
S = 0,17 2; 100S = 17 2.
: 0,15 17 = 2,55 8,012 .
573. ,
, . ,
.
) . -
, . , ,
.
) , =. (
, ==R). , =, .
574. ,
.
R .
, .
) R=50 , =40 .
1
AM = AB = 20 .
2
: OM = OA 2 AM 2 = R 2 AM 2 = 502 202 =

73

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= 2500 400 = 2100 = 10 21 ;
) R=15 , =18 .
1
OM = R 2 ( AB) 2 = 152 92 = 144 = 12 ;
2
) R=10 , =60 , . =60 =6 .
AM = OA 2 OM 2 = 102 62 = 64 = 8 , AB = 2 AM = 16 ;
) R=, =b.
AM = OA 2 OM 2 = R 2 OM 2 = a 2 b 2 .

575. ,
.
R, .
. -
, , -
m
, MA = MB = . .
2
m2 4R 2 m2
OM = OA2 MA2 = R 2 = .
4 2
576. ) A( 2;4;7 ), R = 3.
( x xo )2 + ( y yo )2 ( z zo )2 = R 2 :
( x 2 )2 + ( y + 4 )2 ( z 7 )2 = 9;
) A( 0;0;0 ), R = 2 , x 2 + y 2 + z 2 = 2; (a)
) A( 2;0;0 ), R = 4, ( x 2 )2 + y 2 + z 2 = 16 , (a).
577. ) A( 2;2;0 ), N ( 5;0;1 ).
C ( xo ; yo ; z o ) :
2 2 2 2
( x xo ) + ( y yo ) ( z zo ) = R .
: ( x + 2 )2 + ( y 2 )2 + z 2 = R 2 .
.. N ,
:
( 5 + 2 )2 + ( 0 2 )2 + ( 1 )2 = R 2 , 49 + 4 + 1 = R 2 , R 2 = 54 ,
: ( x + 2 )2 + ( y 2 )2 + z 2 = 54;
) A( 2;2;0 ), N ( 0;0;0 ). ( x xo )2 + ( y yo )2 + ( z zo )2 = R 2
( x + 2 ) 2 + ( y 2) 2 + z 2 = R 2 .
(0 + 2) 2 + (0 2) 2 + 0 2 = R 2 , 4 + 4 = R 2 , R 2 = 8.
: ( x + 2 )2 + ( y 2 )2 + z 2 = 8 ;

74

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) A( 2;2;0 ), N ( 5;3;1 ).
( x 0 )2 + ( y 0 )2 + ( z 0 )2 = R 2 , x 2 + y 2 + z 2 = R 2 ,
5 2 + 3 2 + 12 = R 2 , 25 + 9 + 1 = 35, R 2 = 35.
2 2 2
: x + y + z = 35.
578. ) x 2 + y 2 + z 2 = 49.
( x xo )2 + ( y yo )2 + ( z zo )2 = R 2 , R , ( x o ; yo ; z o )
, .
x x o = x; y y o = y ; z z o = z , x o = 0; y o = 0; z o = 0 ,
R = 49 = 7. (0;0;0), : 7.
) ( x xo )2 + ( y yo )2 + z 2 = 2.
( x xo )2 + ( y yo )2 + ( z zo )2 = R 2 , x 3 = x x o , xo = 3;
y + 2 = y y o , yo = 2; z z o = z , z o = 0; 2 = R 2 , R = 2 .
: (3;2;0), : 2.
579. ) x 2 4 x + y 2 + z 2 = 0 ,
x 2 + y 2 + z 2 4 x 4 = ( x 2 4 x + 4 ) + y 2 + z 2 4 = 0,
( x 2 )2 + y 2 + z 2 = 22 .
(2; 0; 0), : 2;
) x 2 + y 2 + z 2 2 y = 24, x 2 + ( y 2 2 y + 1 ) 1 + z 2 = 24 ,
x 2 + ( y 1 ) + z 2 = 25 = 52.
(0; 1; 0), : 5;
) x 2 + 2 x + y 2 + z 2 = 3, ( x 2 + 2 x + 1 ) 1 + y 2 + z 2 = 3,
( x + 1 ) + y 2 + z 2 = 4 = 22 (01; 0; 0), : 2;
) x 2 x + y 2 + 3 y + z 2 2 z = 2 ,5,
1 1 1 3 9 9
( x 2 2 x + ) + ( y 2 2 y + ) + ( z 2 2 z + 1 ) 1 = 2 ,5,
2 4 4 2 4 4
2 2
1 3 1 9 10
x + y + ( z 1 )2 = 2,5 + + + 1 = 2,5 + + 1 =
2 2 4 4 4
= 2 ,5 + 2,5 + 1 = 5 + 1 = 6 = ( 6 ) 2 ,
2 2
1 3
x + y + ( z 1 )2 = ( 6 )2 ; -
2 2
1 3
;+ ;1 , 6.
2 2

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580. . ,
=9 , =R.
:
AB = OA 2 OB 2 = R 2 OB 2 =
= 412 9 2 = 1681 81 = 1600 = 40 .
:
S = ( AB ) 2 = 40 2 = 1600 2.
581.
,
.
,
,
.
, , , .
, :
OK = OA 2 KA 2 = 13 2 AK 2 .
.
AB CB CA
AK = , S ABC = p( p AB )( p AC )( p CA ) ,
4 S ABC
6 + 8 + 10
p= = 12 , S = 12 6 4 2 = 6 2 6 4 2 = 6 2 2 = 24 2,
2
6 8 10 24 2 2 5 2 2
AK = = = 5 , OK = 13 5 = 169 25 = 144 = 12 .
4 24 24 4
582. ,
ABCD.
. , -
ABCD, .
:
OK = OA 2 AK 2 = R 2 AK 2 .
16
AK = = 8 , OK = 10 2 8 2 = 100 64 = 6 .
2
583. PQR ,
, , .
1 PQR.
1 PR, O1B PQ, O1C RQ. (
1, 1, 1
PQR).
1=1=1 (, 1
, ===R).
: 1 .

76

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:
SPQR 10 + 10 + 12
r= , p= = 16 .
p 2
: SPQR = 16 6 6 4 = 4 6 2 = 48 2,
48
r= = 3 .
16
1 1:
OO1 = OB 2 O1 B 2 = R 2 r 2 = 5 2 3 2 = 4 .
584. .538, : PQR . -
; 1 . -
r.
S 13 + 14 + 15 42
r = ABC , p = = = 21 .
p 2 2
: S = p( p 13 )( p 14 )( p 15 ) = 21 8 7 6 =
= 7 3 4 2 7 2 3 = 7 3 2 2 = 84 2.
84
r = O1 F = = 4 .
21
1F :
OO1 = R 2 r 2 = R 2 r 2 = 9 = 3 .
585. , -
1 ABCD. O1L DC,
O1M BC, O1N AB, O1K AD. (
OL, OM, ON, OK -
). OO1L=
=OO1K=OO1N=OO1M (, 1
, =OL=ON=OM=R). , O1K=O1L=
=O1N=O1M, 1 ,
1 -
. r. OO1L:
OO1 = OL2 O1 L2 = R 2 r 2 = 100 r 2 .
r. BD=15 , =20 .
2 2
1 1 1
CD = O1C 2 + O1 D 2 = AC + BD = AC 2 + BD 2 =
2 2 2

1 625 25
= 225 + 400 = = ().
2 2 2
1 1 25
S O1CD = CD O1L = r .
2 2 2

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1 1 1 1
S O1CD = S ABCD = AC BD = 20 15.
4 4 2 8
:
1 25 1 20 15 5 4 5 3
r = 20 15 , R = = = 6 ,
2 2 2 2 25 2 25
O1O = 100 6 2 = 100 36 = 64 = 8 .
586. :
x2 + y2 = R2 d 2 ,
R , d .
) R=6 , d==60 =6 . , ,
=d.
R=d. , .. .
) R=3 , =d=95 =0,95 . R > d , R 2 d 2 > 0.
x 2 + y 2 = R 2 d 2 . -
, .
) R=5 , d=OH=45 =4,5 .
R > d , R 2 d 2 > 0.
) .
) R=3,5 , =d=4 . R < d , R 2 d 2 < 0.
x 2 + y 2 = R 2 d 2 , ..
.
587. R > d, -
r = R 2 d 2 . ,
S = r 2 = ( R 2 d 2 ) (, r).
) R=12 c, d=8 . R > d, .
r 2 = R 2 d 2 , r 2 = 12 2 8 2 = 144 64 = 80, S = 80 = 80 2.
) S=12 2, d=2 . S = R 2 d 2 ; R 2 = S + d 2 ,

d 2 + S S 12
R= = d2 + , R = 4+ .

R
588. OO1 = O1 N = . AO1 = O1 B = r .
2
AOO1 :

R2 R 3
) r = R 2 OO12 = R 2 = .
4 2
)
:

78

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R 3 R 2 3
S = rl , l = OA = R. , S = rR =
R = .
2 2
589. 1
, 1 (
1
).
, 1 , ,
1 , 1=1.
1 ,
, . 1 -
, OBO1 = . O1B = r ,
) R = 2 , = 30 o .
R 3 2R 3
OO1 B : O1B = r = R cos 30o = ; L = 2r , L = = 3 R = 2 3 .
2 2
R 2
) R = 5 , = 45 o . r = R cos 45 o = ;
2
R 2
L = 2r = 2 = 2 R = 5 2 .
2
590. , ;
- ;
; , -
.
1 ,
. OO1C = OO1 B (, 1
, OC = OB = R ). , CO1 = O1 B, O1 ,
.
.
.
OCB = 90 o , BOC -
, OBO1 = 90 o .
OO1 B : O1 B = r = R cos( 90 o ) = R sin .
S = r 2 , S = ( R sin ) 2 = R 2 sin 2 .
591. , -
, ( ), -
MN .
.

.
OB = OA = R.

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, MN ( ).
MN .
MN ,
=. = (==R, ),
, = 120o ,
a 3
, = 60 o. : OA = R = a sin 60o = .
2
AB .
, = 60o , , == 60o ,
a 3
, == .
2
592. ,
P , =15 , ==R=112 . -
, A OP
.
N
. NO NP.
:
ON + NP > OP , OP = OA + AP , R + NP > R + AP , NP > AP.
, AP < NP , N , -
. :
OP = OK 2 + KP 2 = R 2 + 152 = 1122 + 152 = 12544 + 225 =
= 12769 = 113 , AP = OP R = 113 112 = 1 .
593. S = 4R 2 .
) S = 4 6 2 = 4 36 = 144 2;
) S = 4 2 2 = 16 2;
) S = 4 ( 2 ) 2 = 8 2;
) S = 4 ( 2 3 ) 2 = 4 12 = 48 2.
9 2 9
594. S = 9 = R 2 , R 2 = ; S = 4R 2 = 4 = 36 2.

324 81 9
595. S = 324 2, S = 4R 2 , R = = = .
4
596. : S1 = 4R1 2 . : S 2 = 4R2 2 .
4 , , S1 R1 2 , S 2 -
R 2 2 .
.

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597. S = 4R 2 , R = 5 , S = 4 5 2 = 100 2;

S = L2 , L . L2 = 100, L2 = 100 , L = 10 .
598.
. . -
, .
ND = r1 = 9 , MB = r2 = 12 , NM = 3 , OD = OB = R.
OBM
OM = R 2 12 2 = R 2 144 .
ODN : ON = R 2 9 2 = R 2 81 .

MN = NO MO = R 2 81 R 2 144 ,

R 2 81 R 2 144 = 3,

R 2 81 = 3 + R 2 144 ,
R 2 81 = 9 + 6 R 2 144 + R 2 144; 6 R 2 144 = 54, R 2 144 = 9,
R 2 144 = 81, R = 15
S = 4R 2 = 4 152 = 900 2.
599. ,
:
1) ,
90 r1 r2;
2) r1;
3) r2;
, .. 90 ,
, =2R.
( 2 R )2 = ( 2r1 )2 + ( 2r2 )2 ; 4 R 2 = 2r12 + 2r22 ; R 2 = r1 2 + r2 2 . -
S = 4R 2 = 4( r1 2 + r2 2 ).
600.
ABCD ; =.
S = 4a 2 ; S = a 2 ;

S = 2 AD AB = 2 a a = 2a 2 ;
S = 2 S + S = 2a 2 + 2a 2 = 4a 2 .
: S = S . .
VI
1. 90 o .
2. .

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3. CD .
( AB, CD) = H , .

4.
2l , l (),
r
, r ,
2
r
S = 2 2l = 2l , S = 2rl ,
2
2
r r2
S = = , S = r 2 ,
2 4
r 2
2 S = . 2 S = 2r 2 .
2
,
.
5.

) ; ) .
6.
.
7.
.
8. R = 5 , D = 2 R = 2 5 = 20 .
:
C = 42 + ( 2 2 )2 = 16 + 8 = 24 .
C > D , .. 24 > 20 .
,
,
.
9. ,

.
10. , .

601. ABCD ; =r; -
; MNKL OA.

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ABCD MNKL -
. LM= l , -
, S = S ABCD = AD LM = 2rl .
MN.
r
ON = OM = r , OP = .
2
ONP :
2
r r2 r 3
PN = r 2 = r 2 = .
2 4 2
OPN=OPM, , NP=PM,
r 3
NM = 2 PN = 2 = r 3.
2
S MNKL = MN LM = r 3l = rl 3 .
S S
, S = 2rl , rl =. S MNKL = 3.
2 2
602. ABCD .
, -
DC. 1 , ON DC.
, , -
, , ,
N DC -
. MN AD ,
MNO = 60o ( -
MN) .
R .

DC==; DN = . DNO :
2
2
ON = R 2 .
4
LON:
LO 2
= tg 60 o = 3 , OL = 3 R 2 .
ON 4

2

O1M = O1B 2 BM 2 = R 2 ; , O1 M = ON .
2
O1LM=OLN, OL=O1L.
O1L+LO=O1O= ( ).

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2 2
2 3 R2 = , 4 3( R 2 ) = 2 , 12 R 2 3 2 = 2 , 12 R 2 = 4 2 ,
4 4
2 3
R2 = , R= = .
3 3 3
603. ,
. -
,
.
z Oxz.
R, ,
,
Oz (, ,
Oxy). . 4 -
, . ,
,
, .
604. ABCD
, , r=b, l=a.
S = 2ab + 2b 2 = S1.
AD , r=a, l=b.
S = 2rl = 2ab , S = a 2 ,
2 S = 2a 2 , S = 2ab + 2a 2 = S2 .
:
2ab + 2b 2 = S1 , 2b( a + b ) = S1 ,

2ab + 2a 2 = S 2 ; 2a( b + a ) = S 2 .
b S1
= . :
a S2
S12 S1 S S2
2 a a + 2 a 2 = S1 , 2 a 2 ( 1 + 12 ) = S1;
S22 S2 S2 S
2

S1 S1S 22 S 22
a2 = = = ,
S1S 2 + S 2 2 S1( S2 + S1 ) 2( S 2 + S1 )
2 1
S2
2
2
S S 22 S2 S12
b2 = a2 1
= 1 = .
S2 2( S1 + S 2 ) S 2 2( S1 + S 2 )
2 2

BD ABD.

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S22 S12 S22 + S12
BD = a 2 + b 2 = + = ; BD = AC.
2( S1 + S2 ) 2( S1 + S2 ) 2( S1 + S2 )
605. ) ABCD , . , -
a
r = , .
2
a a2 a2
S = 2 a = a 2 , S = r 2 = , 2 S = ,
2 4 2
3
a 2 3a 2 S a 2 3
2
S = a + = , = 2 = .
2 2 S a 2 2
) =, , AD=2. .
a
: AD = h, AB = 2r , r = .
2
a a2 a 2
S = 2 2a = 2a 2 , S = r 2 = , 2 S = ,
2 4 2
5 2
a 2 5 S a 5
S = S + 2 S = 2a + 2
= a 2 , = 2 2 = .
2 2 S 2a 4
: 2 AB = AD. AB = h , AD = 2r , r = a.
S = 2rh = 2 a a = 2a 2 , S = r 2 = a 2 ,
2 S = 2 a 2 , S = S + 2 S = 2a 2 + 2a 2 = 4a 2
S 4a 2
= = 2.
S 2a 2
606. ABCD , AB = h , AD = 2r . AD = , -

r = .
2

S = 2rh = 2 h = h.
2

2 1 2 2
AO = ( AC ) = AC .
2 4

ACD : AC 2 = h 2 + 2 . S = ( h 2 + 2 ).
4
2
S = S , h = ( h + 2 ).
4
r x
= .
h 2h

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2
4 h h2 2
4 h = h 2 + 2 , = + , 4 + 1 = 0.
h2 h2 h 2 h
h
x
t = , t 2 4t + 1 = 0 , t1,2 = 2 4 1 = 2 3 ,
h
t > 0 , -
x t 2 3
. : = 1,2 = .
2h 2 2
607. ABCD ; .
AB = h , AD = 2 R .
S = 2Rh; 2( 2 R + h ).
2 p = 2( h + 2 R ), p = h + 2 R , h = p 2 R.
S = 2R( p 2 R ) = 2pR 4R 2 .
f ( R ) = 4R 2 + 2Rp ; R > 0.
. f ( R ) .
f1(R) = 8 R+2 p = 0 R=p/4
2
p p p 2 4p 2 8p 2 4p 2 p 2
f( ) = 4 + 2 = + = = .
4 4 4 16 16 16 4
-
p 2p p
R = . h = p 2 R = p = .
4 4 2
608. 5 ,
D=10 . ,
, ,
D + 2 = 12 (c).
12 2 d2
S = = 36 (2) ( S = , d
4 4
).
16 ,
12
S = 2 16 = 192 (2).
2
,
S = S + S = 192 + 36 = 228 (2).
.
S = 52 = 25 (2). 16 1=15 ().
S = 2 5 15 = 150 (2). S = S + S = 175 (2).
. S = ( 6 2 5 2 ) = ( 36 25 ) = 11 (2).
228 + 175 + 11 = 414 (2).

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609. CBA. R
, ,
R
.. (2 R)/4 . ,
2
CBA ,
. , , r
, , 2 r. ,
R R
, 2 r = r = , , .. R
2 4
.
610. . DA=DB=DC=a.
DB, DB D .
=== 2 + 2 = 2 .
2
R =2R
sin 60o
( )
2
R= 2 = a 2 , BF= 2 a.
3 3 3
2
2
BDF=, BDF :
2

2 2 a =2+2 2 cos , 4 2 =1+1 2 cos ,
3 3

2 1
= 2 cos , cos =
3 3
611. r , h
, S1=r2 S0=rl, l
.
l= h 2 + r 2 , S0=r h 2 + r 2 ,
S1=r2 S02=2r2 (h2+r2)=2r2h2+2r4,
S12=2r4 S02=2r2h2+S12
S02 S12 S 02 S12 S 02 S12
r2h2= ,rh= =
2 2
.
612. =h, = r, l= h 2 + r 2

S=rl=r h 2 + r 2 ,S=r2+S=r2+r

S 7
h 2 + r 2 . = ,
S 8

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r h 2 + r 2 7
= ,
2
r + r h + r2 2 8

h2
8 h 2 + r 2 =7r+7 h 2 + r 2 , h 2 + r 2 =7r, h2+r2=49r2 , h2=48r2, =48
r2
h h2 1 1
=tg , 2 =tg2 l+tg2 = 2
, 49= ,
r r cos cos 2
1 1
cos = , cos = . ,
7 7
1
, cos > 0. =arcos .
7
613. DB .
DB,
DP.
-
D.
DB 4
= , sin 120=sin 60
sin 120o sin 30o
4 sin 60o 3 1
DB= = 42 =4 3 (), DC= DB=2 3 () OC= DO 2 DC 2 =
sin 30o 2 2
= 16 12 = 2 ()

=45. : = =2 2 ().
cos 45 o
1 1
SDBF= DB PC= 4 3 2 2 =4 6 (2)
2 2
360o r
614. =
l
r 270o 3
= = = .
l 360o 360o 4
:
r 3 3
= sin , sin = , =arcsin ( ).
l 4 4
615. D
.
S=rl, D: DA: 2 + b 2 ,
b
sin = , ,
a + b2
2 2
+ 2

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ab
:S= a
a + b2
2

ab
b: S= b
a2 + b2
a 2 b ab 2 ab(a + b)
: + =
a 2 + b2 a 2 + b2 a 2 + b2
616. D
D , -
:

( -
).
10 6
AM=ND= =2 ().
2
AM
AB= = 2 2 = 4 (c)
cos 60 o
= 42 22 = 12 = 2 3 ().
:
S=2rl=2 BM BC=2 2 3 6 = 24 3 (2).
:
S=rl= BM = 2 3 4 = 8 3 (2).
:
S= 24 3 +2 8 3 = 24 3 + 16 3 = 40 3 (2).
617. ). , DK. - D
DK.
, -
. =r.
S A
r= ABC , .
P
a
=2R ( B C
sin 60o
)
3
a=2R sin 60= 2 3 = 3 3 (c).
2
2 3 3 2 3 3 3 3 3
S= , p= ; r= = = (c). r= = (c).
4 2 3 2 3 3 2 3 2 3 2
4
2

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9 73
DOK: DK= DO2 + OK 2 = 16 + = .
4 2
1 1 1 73 3
S BCD= BC DK = a DK = 3 3 = 219 (2).
2 2 2 2 4
9 2 (3 3 ) 2 3 27 3
S=3SBCD= 219 ( ); S= = ;
4 4 4
27 3 9 27 3 9 3 73 9 3
S=S+S= + 219 = + = (3+ 73 ) (2);
4 4 4 4 4
) AD , .
AD.
D=2R, R
, D=2 3.
,
6
a 2 =D, a 2 =6, a= =3 2 ();
2
3
OK= = 2.
2 2
:
9 9 32 + 9 41
= 2 + 2 = 16 + 2 = 16 + = =
4 2 2 2
1 3 2 41 3
SAPD= AD PK= = 41 (2);
2 2 2 2
3 41
S=4SAPD= 4 = 6 41 (2); ( -
2
);
( ) 2
SAD=2= 3 2 =18 (2);
S=S+SAD= 6( 41 + 3) (2);
) . 16,
.
16,
126 6 .
6- -
.
6=R, A1 6=6=3 ()
6- .
3 3 3
, =r= = ()
2 2
:

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9 64 + 27 91 91
= 2 + 2 = 16 + 2 = = = ()
4 4 4 2
1 1 91 3
S A1P6= A1 6 PK= 3 = 91 (2);
2 2 2 4
,
3 91 9 91
S=6 S A1P6= 6
= (2); S=6 S A16 ;
4 2
A16 ,

S A16=
2 3 9 3
4
=
2
(
(2); S=
9
2
) 2
91 + 6 3 ( )

1
618. S= (r+r1) l , r= AD=20 (),
2
1
l=, r1= =.
2
,

,
.
BC + AD
S ABCD=36= MN
2
BC + AD
= =MN , MN . -
2
, 36=(MN)2 , MN . 6 ()=60 ()
BC + AD 2r + 40
60= ,60= 1 120=2r1+40.
2 2
2r1=80 , r1=40 () =2 40=80 ()
.
.
=40 20=20 (), =MN=60 ()

BA= 2 + 2 = 202 + 602 = 4000 =20 10 ()
2
S= (40+20) 20 10 =1200 10 ( )
: r12= 402=1600 (2)=16 (2),
202=400 (2)=4 (2).
S=12 10 +16 +4 =12 10 +20 ()2 .
619. , : ) ;
) , ,
; ) , , -
.

91

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) .
. AB , AB .
, ,
. ..
, , -
.
) , -
. , .
. .
R .
1. ( 2- ) , =R.
. R. 1 .
,
. ,
, .
) ,
. ,
, .
, -
( ) , =1. =
=1 (=, =1 ). 1= < R, .. 1,
R. , 1, -
. ,
, .
620. ) :
1,82 + 2,42 = 3,24 + 5,76 = 9 = 3 ()
2 1,5=3 ().
: , , -
, .
) .
,
, .
, ,
, . ( , , )
, ,
==, ,
, . , -
, .
=3 , =1,5 .
= 2 2 = 6,52 1,52 = 42,25 2,25 = 40 = 2 10
621. , (),
l. , .
: 2+2=R2
l : x=d
:

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2 + 2 = R 2 2 2
=R d2=(R+d) (R d) ,
x = d

y= ( R + d)(R d ) (R+d > 0 ).


) R d > 0, R=d =0
(d, 0) c , , .
) R d < 0, , , l
; l
.
622.
, ( 3)2+2+(z+5)2=25, .
, (; 0; 0).
.
( 3)2+02+52=25; ( 3)2=0, =3. (3; 0; 0).
,
(0; ; 0). .
(0 3) 2+2+(0+5)2=25. 9+2+25=25, 2+9=0, ,
, .
, -
(0; 0; z).
(0 3) 2+02+(z+5)2=25, (z+5)2=25 9=16, z+5=4, z+5= 4,
z1= 1, z2= 9.
(0; 0; 1) (0; 0; 9).
623. 2+2+z2=36 ,
(2; 4; 5) .
.. (2; 4; 5)
, (2; ; z),
2+2+z2=36, .
22+2+z2=36, 2+z2=32. , ,
r= 32 = 4 2 . ,
4 2 .
624. D
l, l D. l -
, , , D. ( , -
, , -
===D, P l.)
,
1 1 .
.
F , -
F -
. 1 -
m F.

93

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,
, .
, m ; m , -
F: QA=QB=QE=QF Qm.
l m S,
D, F.
, S , , , D , F.
SA, SE, SB.
SAO1=SOB ( , SO , = -
).
SA=SB. , SA=SB=SE
, SA=SB=SE=SC=SD SA=SB=SE=SF, ,
S , , , -
.
625. ,
.
:
x2+2+z2=R2 .
O1. x2+
+( d)2+z2=R2 .
:
2 + 2 + z 2 = R 2
2
x + ( y d ) 2 + z 2 = R 2
.
1
x2+2+z2 2 (2 2dy+d2) z2=0. 2dy d2=0, d > 0, 2=d, d=y.
2
d
d < 2R , , < R, y < R.
2
, ,
( , z) , -
. ) -
.
d d2 2 2
= x2+ +z =R ,
2 4
d2
x2+z2= R 2 .
4
2,56 R 2
d=1,6R, x2+z2=R2 =R2 (1 0,64)=0,36 R2
4
, z,
r= 0,36R 2 =0,6R.

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626. a) DK ,
, . ( ,
).
DK=DK=DK ( ).
, ===r, r ,
. -
, , .
== ( , ,
===R, R ). , ===r, r -
, . ,
K=KB=K=r. , K
OD .
D=.BD=.ADB (
), , ==,
.
180o 2
D=x, AB=a. A=B= =90
2
:
x a x
= , = , a = 2sin
sin2 sin (90o ) 2sincos cos
===r, .
3 2 sin
o
= 2r , a = 2r = 3r. 2 sin x= 3 r , r= x .
sin 60 2 3
DK DK= D2 AK 2 = x 2 r 2 .
K = 2 AK 2 = R 2 r 2 .
DK+KO=R, x 2 r 2 + R 2 r 2 =R, ( x 2 r 2 + R 2 r 2 )2=R2
2r2 + R2r2+2 ( 2 + r 2 )(R 2 r 2 ) =R2

2 ( 2 r 2 )(R 2 r 2 ) =2r2 2, 4 (2 r2) (R2 r2)=4 r4+4 4 r2 2,


4 R 4 r 4 r R +4 r =4 r + 4 r2 2,
2 2 2 2 2 2 4 4 4

4
4 4 2R2+4 r2 R2=0, 4 4 2R2+4 R2 sin2 2=0,
3
16R 2 4
2 (2 4 R2 + sin2 )=0, 0, , 2=4 R2 4 R2 sin2 .
3 3
4 3 4 sin 2
=DA= 4R 2 (1 sin 2 ) = 2R
3 3

3 4 sin 2
==4 R sin
3

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)
2 sin 3 4 sin 2 4
r= 2R = 3 sin 2 4 sin R
3 3 3
16
: r2= sin2 (3 4 sin2) R2.
9
627. , (),
(.),
, ,
.
r , =,
=24 . =10 c
: 2+2=2, (16+)2+r2=24 .
O: 2=2+2, 102= (10 )2+r2 .
(16 + ) 2 + r 2 = 576,

(10 x ) 2 + r 2 = 100.
(16+)2 (10 )2=476, 256+32+2 100 2+20=476.
320 80
52=576 256, 52=320, = = ();
52 13
r2=100 (10 )2=100 100+20 2=20 2
20 80 80 80 16 13 64 102 122
r2= = 100 = ;
13 13 13 169 132
102 122 10 12 120
r= 2
= = ().
13 13 13
120 240
L=2r, L=2 = ()
13 13
628. R ; r .
, , .
(R2 r2). (1)
, .
. 61 =r . -
:
= R 2 r 2 S = 2= (R2 r2). (2)
(1) (2)
, -
.

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, ,
629.
=90 o , .. .
1, .. 1
; 1.
(.23)
11 11.
630. SO ABCD, SO=h=12 , AB=8,
BC=6
==r.
.
BD=2r, BD= 82 + 62 = 64 + 36 = 100 =10
r=5
.
S=r2= 25 (2)
SOA
SA= 8 2 + 6 2 = 64 + 36 = 122 + 52 = 144 + 25 = 169 =13
S=rl, l=SA
S= 5 13=65 2.
S=S+S=(25+65) =90 2
SABCD=AB BC=6 8=48 2
. 1DA, OLAB, SK
SL. SKDA SLAB.
1 1
= =4 (), OL= BC=3 .
2 2
SOK: SK= h 2 + OK 2 = 144 + 16 = 4 10 .
1 1
SASD= SKDA= 64 10 =12 10 c2
2 2
SOL: SL= h 2 + OL2 = 144 + 9 = 153 =3 17 .
1 1
S ASB= SL AB= 8 3 17 =12 17 2.
2 2
S=2 (SASD+S ASB)=2 12 ( 10 + 17 )=24 ( 10 + 17 ) 2
S=S+S=24 10 +24 17 +48=24 ( 10 + 17 +2) 2
S 24( 10 + 17 + 2) 4( 10 + 17 + 2)
= =
S 90 15
631. ) r=2 , h=4 , R=5 .

===, R= , =R 3 =5 3 .
3

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2 3 75 3
S ABC= = 2.
4 4
A1C1=B1C1=A1B1=b
b
r= , b=r 3 =2 3
3
b 2 3 4 3 3 12 3
S A1D1C1 = = = 2
4 4 4
. 1 11,
, 1. 1 .
, 1r 111 -
.
a 5 3 5
= = = ,
2 3 2 3 2
b 2 3
11= = = 1 .
2 3 2 3
5 3
12 . 21= 1= .
2 2
9 9 73 73
1 2: 1 = h 2 + = 16 + = = .
4 4 4 2
21 3 73 2
S=3 S ABB1 A1 =
4
21 3 73 75 3 12 3 21 3 73 87 3
S=S+S A1B1C1 = + + = + =
4 4 4 4 4
3 3 2
= (7 73 +29)
4

) =, R= ,
2
a=R 2 =5 2 , SABCD=a2=50
b
A1B1=b, V=
2
b=r 2 =2 2 S A1B1C1D1 =b 2=8 2
.
11 D1A1, OK DA, 1.
1 D.
b 5 2
11= = 2 ; OK= = ;
2 2 2

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5 5 2 2 2 3 2
2= 2 2= =
2 2 2
1 2:
18 82 82
1= h 2 + 2 K 2 = 16 + = = .
4 4 2
A1D1 + AD a+b 5 2 +2 2 82 7 2 82
S AA1D1D = K1K = K1K = =
2 2 2 2 4
S=4 S AA1D1D =7 2 82 2.
S=S+SABCD+S A1B1C1D1 =7 2 82 +50+8=7 2 82 +58=
=(14 41 +58) 2.
) b, , > b; -
r, R. , b=r, a=R.
6- 6 ; -
6- ,
6- . , :
b 3 a 3 2 3 5 3
= , = . = = 3 . = .
2 2 2 2

1 5 3 75 3
6 a y = 35 = 2.
2 2 2

1 2
6 b x = 3 2 3 = 6 3 .
2
6 -
. . -
11 6-
; -
6-; 1.
OK = y , O1K 1= x

KK 2 = y x =
a 3 b 3
=
3
(a b ) = 3 (R r ) = 3 (5 2) = 3 3
2 2 2 2 2 2
2
27 64 + 27 91
K1K 2 K : K1K = h 2 + 3 3 = 16 + = = 2.
4 2 2
2
+b 91 91 21 91
S=6 1 = 3 ( R + r ) = 3( 2 + 5 ) = .
2 2 2 2
:

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21 91 75 3 21 91 87 3
S=S+S +S = +6 3 + = + =
2 2 2 2
3
= (7 91 + 29 3 ) 2.
2
632. , - ,
,
, .. . ,
(.S),
,
OO1, ,
.
633. -
. SD . -
AEBC , SE. -
SECB .
SDE DFG.
SD, DE
SE. SED DFG
SD. E , -
ABC , SE -
, , SE .
.. , DFG, -
.
D.
ABC
SD.
634. ) , . -
, -
. x ; x =
= 2 R . x 2 , 4R 2 .
S = 6 4 R 2 = 24 R 2 .
) 1 ;

,
( ) -
.
6- ,
2R
x = .
3
,
2R 4
H x 2 R = R2 .
3 3

100

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:
4 24
24 3 2
6 R2 = R2 =
R = 8 3R 2 .
3 3 3
6- -
,
1 1 2R R2 6R2 6 3 2
xR = R = . = R =
2 2 3 3 3 3
= 2 3 R 2 . S = 8 3 R 2 + 2 3 R 2 + 2 3 R 2 = 12 3 R 2 .
) ;
. , DK.
. -
DK . D

( ).
L=, D.
x2 x 3
DB: DK= DB 2 BK 2 = x 2 = .
4 2
x
HK , = .
2 3
DKH=
HK 3 2 1
DKH: cos = : = = .
DK 2 3 2 2 3 3 3
1 2 2
sin 1 cos 2 = 1 = .
9 3
2 2
sin 2 2 4 2 2 3 2 1
tg = = 3 : = = = .
2 1 + cos 1+ 1 3 3 3 4 2 2
3
R x R
: =tg , = = =2 R.
HK 2 2 3 tg
2
=2 3 2 R=2 6 R.
x 2 3 4 6 3 2=
SABC= = R 6 3 R2
4 4
-
, S=4 SABC=24 3 R2.
635. . N AD
, N.
101

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NDC, PM AB.

: , ,
,
. , SN
PNO
.
x x
AD=, N= l .tg = ,l =
2 2l
2tg
2
DPC= PNO= .
ON x x x
N: cos = = = : =tg
PN 2l 2 2tg 2
2

sin = 1 cos 2 = 1 tg 2 .
2

1tg 2
SO 2 R 2 R 2 R( 1+ tg )
SON: tg = = ; = sin = 2 , = 2 ,
2 ON a x 1 + cos
1+ tg 1 tg 2
2 2

2 R( 1+tg ) R( 1 + tg )
= 2 1 = 2 ;
2 2
1tg 2tg tg 1 tg
2 2 2 2


1 R( 1 + tg 2 ) R( 1 + tg 2 ) R 2 ( 1 + tg )2 R 2 ( 1 + tg )
S DCP= = 2 = 2
2 tg 1tg 2 2
1tg 2 ( 1 tg ) tg ( 1 tg ) tg
2 2 2 2 2 2 2
2
4 R ( 1 + tg ) 4 R 2 cos + sin
S=4 SDCP= 2 = 2 2 ;

tg ( 1 tg ) tg cos sin
2 2 2 2 2

cos =cos2 2 sin2 2 =(cos 2 sin 2 ) (cos 2 +sin 2 ),
cos
cos 2 +sin 2 = .

cos sin
2 2
4R 2 cos 4R 2 cos
, S=

=
.
cos 2 + sin 2 2 sin cos tg 1 sin
tg 2 2 2 2 2
2
R=5 =60 :

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1
4 25 cos 60 o 100 2 1 100( 2 + 3 ) 3
S = =
1
= 100 3 = =
tg 30 o 1 sin 60 o 3 3 43
1 2( 1 )
3 2 2
2
= 100 3 ( 2 + 3 )
636.
.
,

1, 1 .

. (. 633).

.
ML+KN=LK+MN
2KN=LK+MN
LK + MN 11 +
KN= = (
2 2
, LK=A1B1=B1C1 MN==).
.
637. ) -
. -
.
, ,

PQR.
, , -
. , , -
P1Q1R1. .. ,
P1Q1R PQR
, , . -
, PQR. , -
, .
P1Q1R1
PQR R, .
) D DH
. , , .
DH=DHB=DHC ( , DH
, D=BD=BC ).
===r. r
.
G ABC ( G
). GA, GB, GC, , , ,
DCA=OGB=OGC ( G , == R, R -
). , GA=GB=GC=r, r , .
, .
103

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G , D, H, O . -
,
D , d
.
638. -
.
) , 4 ,
,
. (.).
, -
, ,
. , ,
, , -
.
, ,
d , , d .
d , . (===r -
). S d,
SOA, SOB, SOC . , SA=SB=SC.
DA DA.
, d . , d.
AD d , AD d. , d ( d -
), , d ABD
.
,
D, , . -
, d .
, S d . SD=SA, .. S -
,
.
1 .
-
.
-
R. R -
.
, .
.
) . , -
, , -
. , ,
,
, -
. .. -
, ,
, .
104

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. ,
- -
, . ,
.
2 , .
1) .
2)
.
1.

.

, = . ,
-
.
,
.
1 2 , ,
S . l. l, A
.
1, 2, 3
. 1, ,
2=1 ; 2, 3=1.
, 1=2=3 ,
NSB
MSB. , -

SP. ..
,
.
, ,
.
2. l ,

, l BDC.

,

l,
D D.
D , .. -
. , -
,
. , -
.

105

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.
639. )
.
( ) .
d= 3 . , d=2R.
2
2R= 3 , = R
3
2, 62.
2
2 2 6 4 2= 2
6 =6
2
R =
R 8R
3 3
) 1 2 ; 12 .
, -
. 11.
2
R R 3
11: 11= R 2 = .
2 2
11 ,
6- -
.
R 3
, , = .
2
S=6R=3 3 R2. S=3 3 R2+2 S=3 3 R2+3 3 2=3 3 (R2+
R2 3 7 21 3 2
+ )=3 3 R2 = R
4 4 4
) .
DH,

, = .
3
DH:
2
DH= 2 2 = . ADH=
3
DH 2
cos = = .
AD 3
D :
2=2R2 2R2cos (180 2 )=2R2+2R2 cos2 =2R2 (1+
8 2
+2cos2 1)=4 R2 cos2 = R.
3

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2 3
; H,
4

2 3 8 8 3 2
S= 4 =2 3 = R2 3 = R .
4 3 3
640. SO ; SO=h.
,
, .
3 3
= , = .
3 6
SO, SO .
R . SO
D. SD , SAD=90.
OAS ODA:
2 2
OD= = AO =
OS 3h 3

2 3h 2 + a 2
2R=SD=SO+OD=h+ = ,
3h 3h
3h 2 + 2 3h 2 + 2
R= = . SM.
2 3h 6h
a 2 15
SMC: SM= SC 2 CM 2 = 4a 2 = .
4 2

OM= , SOM:
2 3
15 2 2 44 2 11
h=SO= SM 2 OM 2 = = =
4 12 12 3
11
3 2 + 2 12 2 3x 2 33 2 33
R= 3 = = = =
6
11
6
11 11 11 11
3 3
r .
Q ,
15
SOM; QM SM; QO=r; . SM=
2
:
OQ OM r 3 2 1 11
= ; = = ; h= .
SQ SM h r 6 15 3 5 3

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( ) x 11 3 5 1 ( )
r 3 5 +1 = h
3 3 5 +1
r=
=
4 33
x
( )
641. -
Q. PQ
H,
.
.
APQ.
QAP=90 , AQ ,
HQ
= , AH2=HQ PH, PQ=10, PH=h.
AH
, ,
1 x 2
= x 2= .
2 2
x2
, =h (10 h). (1)
2
x
HL AB, PL. LH= , PLH
2
. , PL.
OH=OK=r, OL HLP.
x2
PL= h 2 + LH 2 = h 2 .
4
HLP= .
PH h 2h
sin = = = .
LP x2 4h 2 + x 2
h2 +
4
x
cos =
2
4h + x2
OH r x
OL: = 2=tg , r=2= tg
LH 2 2 2
2

1
1 cos 4h 2 + 2 4h 2 + 2
tg .= = = ,
2 sin 2h 2h
4h 2 +

4h 2 + a 2 a
=2, (2)
2 2h

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:
4h 2 + 2 =2+8h

4 h 2 + 2 = 2 + 8h (3)

2 = 2h ( 10 h ). (4)
2 (4h2+2)=4+64h2+162h,
4h22+4=4+64h2+162h
4h, h 0
2(4 h)+16h=0,
2 (4)
2 (10h h2) (4 h)+16h=0
2h, h 0
(10 h) (4 h)+8=0
h2 14h+48=0
h1,2=7 49 48 =7 1
h1=8 h,2=6 ; 12 = 20 8 2 64 =160 128=32,
1= 32 =4 2 ,
22 = 20 6 2 36 =120 72=48, 2=4 3 .
642. ABCD. R
. , CD , OBF=OBH1.
BH1=OH1.=R, BH1 ,
H1=2R .
.
S=S+2S; S=2 BH1 H1=2R 2R=4R2,
2 2
S= BH1 =R ; S=4R2+2R2=6R2.
S 4R 2 2
4R2. = = .
S 6R 2 3
643. .
) SH ASB -
: SH .

HBS: HBS=90 .
2
HBS
OB HBS; , HBO= .
2
R
: = tgHBO = tg ( 45o ),
r 4
R R R
r= = = =R tg (45 + ).
o o o o 4
tg ( 45 ) ctg 90 (45 ) ctg( 45 + )
4 4 4

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R
) = tg ( 45o ), R=r tg (45 ) ( ),
r 4 4 4
) tg 45o = R = 1 = tg30o
4 r 3

45 o
=30 o = 60o ( )
4
644. . SH ;

HBS, OBH= .
2
r
: =tg . ,
BH 2
2
HB=a: S=2= r .

tg 2
2
r
SB=d. SHB: =cos , d= =
d cos tg cos
2
:
r r r 2 1
S= d

=

tg cos tg tg 2 cos
2 2 2

r 2 1 r 2 r 2 1 + cos
S=S+S=
+ = =
tg 2 cos tg 2 tg 2 cos
2 2 2

r 2 2 cos 2 2 r 2 cos 2
= 2 = 2
cos
tg 2 tg 2 cos
2 2
645. .
, .. B C
, D
.
AD=, R.
x 2 A
AD: 2=(2R)2=2+2 ; 2R= 2 , R= . D
2
x2
4R2=4 =2 2 B C
2
x
.
2
2
x x x 2
S=2 =2 S= = ; A D
2 2 4

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x 2 x 2 3x 2
S=S+2S=2+ 2=2+ = ;
4 2 2
3x 2
S 3
= 22 = .
S 2x 4
646. . SH

SO=OB=OA=R. SOB: OSB= SBO= .
2
SHB:
S

OBH= =
2 2 2 2
r R 2

= cos = cos
R 2 r
A
) r=R cos H B

) R= r
cos
r r 1
) cos = = = = 60o
R 2r 2

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VII.
647.
) R =V1+V2.
1 2
) R=V1 V1+V2= V1+V2.
3 3
648. . 63 V=abh.
) V=111215=11180=1980;
) V=3 2 5 10 10 =30 10 10 =300;
) V=185 3 13=9013 3 =1170 3 ;
1 10 0,96
) V=3 5 0,96= 5 =3,2 5 .
3 3

649. ) =12 . , ACD:

12
2 =12; = =6 2 ; V=3=(6 2 )3=432 2 (3);
2
) 1=3 2 (). .
12=2+12=(2+2)+2=32,
3 2
1= 3 , 3 2 = 3 , = ;
3
3 2 333 2 2
V=3=( )3= =6 6 (3);
3 3 3
) DE=1 . .
2 5 2 2 4 2
EAD: 1=2+ = ; = ; = ;
4 4 5 5
2 8 8 5
V=3=( )3= = =0,32 5 (3).
5 5 5 25
650. : V=81218=9618=1728 (3).
, , V=3.
: 3=1728, , = 3 1728 = 3 12 144 = 3 12 12 12 =12 ().
651. m=V. V=25126,5=1950 (3). m=1,81950=3510 ()=3,51 ().
652. =, =b 1=.
:
2+b2=122=144; (1)
b2+2=112=121; (2)
2+b2+2=132=169 (3)
(2+b2=2, 2+12=12).

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2 + b 2 = 144,
2
+ b + = 169,
2 2

2
b + = 121.
2

2=169(2+b2)=169144=25; =5 ();
b =121 =12125=96; b= 96 = 16 6 =4 6 ();
2 2

2=144b2=14496=48; = 48 = 16 3 =4 3 ().
V=abc=4 3 4 6 5=80 3 3 2 =240 2 (3).
653. 1 D1
x
11, D1BC1=30, DBB1=45.
D11B:
D1C1 = 9 30.

2
D1B1B: 1=18sin45=18 =9 2 ().
2 x
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
D1B =d =a +b +c . , 18 =9 +(9 2 ) +11 .
112=18292 9 2 ( ) =9 (421)=9 , =9 ().
2 2 2
1 1

V=99 2 9=729 2 (3).


654. , DB ,
D1BD=; 1

, D1BC1=, DD1=1=h.
DD1
D1DB: =tg,
DB
h h DD1 h
=tg, DB= ; D1B= = .
DB tg sin sin
=, AD=y.

h2
ADB: x2+y2=DB2= .
tg 2
D1BC1: D1C1=D1Bsin; x= h sin= hsin ,
sin sin
2 2 2 2
h h sin
y2= x2= h ,
tg 2 tg 2 sin 2
2 2 2 h
y= h 2 ( 1 sin ) = h cos sin = cos 2 sin 2 .
2 2
tg sin 2
sin sin 2 sin

hsin h h3sin cos2 sin2


V=xyh; V= cos2 sin2 h=
sin sin sin2

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655. 1 D1
11. =,
=b, D1B=d 1=.
1 3
D1BC1: a= , d=2a, BC1=dcos30=2a =a 3 .
2 2
1: b2+c2=BC12=3a2.
c2=3a2b2, c= 3a 2 b 2 .
V=SABCDCC1; V=ab 3a 2 b 2 .
656. ,
=BD=12 . 11||, 1 BD1,
ABD=60
11D.
B1BD: B1B=BD=12 .
1 3
ABD: = 12=6 , AD=12 =6 3 V=66 3 12=432 3 3.
2 2
657. ) , 1
2 2
, =1=1 = ,
2 2
1
1, 1 . = .
2
1 1 1 1
: = C2 B2 = = = .
2 4 4 2

V= 2 =1
1 1
2 3.
2 2 2 8
2
) 11: 1=1=24sin45=24 =12 2 .
2
1
A1C1D: AD= AC1=12 ,
2
3
C1D=24cos30=24 =12 3 c.
2
1CD (1D=90): (12 3 )2=(12 2 )2+CD2,
CD2=31222122=122; CD=12 .
V=B1BADCD; V=12 2 1212=1728 2 3.
1
658. S= .
2
= BC2 AB2 = 37 2 35 2 =12 .

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1
S= 3512=356=210 2. V=S1=21011=2310 3.
2
659. ) -
:
1
2=2+22cos120=25+9+253 =49;
2
=7 .
.. 1=1=1,
,
, =7 .
S BB1C1C =35, 35=17, 1=5 .
1 3 3 15 3
S= sin120= 53 = 2.
2 8 2 4
15 3 75 3
V= 5= 3.
4 4
) .. , 1 , 1.
=90o 1.
1 :
1
2=32+22232cos60=9+4232 =136=7, = 7 .
2
=, =b, 1=.
2+b2=7. (1)
1 2+2=9 (2)
1 b2+2=4. (3)
:
a 2 + b 2 = 7,
a 2 + b 2 = 7,
2 2
a + c = 9 , 2
2 2 a b 2 = 5.
b + c + = 4 .

22=12, 2=6, = 6 ;
b =7 =76=1,
2 2
b=1 ;
2=4b2=41=3, = 3 .
1 1
V=S ABC 1; V= abc= 6 1 3 =1,5 2 .
2 2

660. -. ABD: BD=mcos ,
2

BB1=mcos .
2

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1 2
S ABC = m sin.
2
1
V=S ABC BB1= m2sin
2
1 3
mcos = m sin cos .
2 2 2
661. ==. 11: 11=lcos ,
1=lsin .
AC=A1C1=lcos .
:
2=l2cos2 =a2+a22a2cos =2a2(1cos ),
l 2 cos 2
a2= .
(1 cos 2 ) 2
1 1 l2 cos 2
S ABC = ABBCsin = a2sin = 1 sin ;
2 2 2 2 (1 cos 2 )

l 2 cos 2 sin l3sin cos2 sin


V=S ABC CC1= lsin = =
4 (1 cos 2 ) 4(1 cos )

l3sin cos 2 sin cos 2 l3sin cos 2
= 2 2 = .
2
4 2 sin 4 tg
2 2
662. 11D.
11D 1
DC; . ,
, DC.
Q
S A1B1CD =Q=DCA1E=aA1E; A1E= .
a
1:
Q Q
=1 cos = cos ; A1A= sin .
a a
Q
SABCD=AEB= cos a=Qcos .
a
Q Q2 Q2
V=SABCDAA1=Qcos sin = sin cos = sin2 .
a a 2a
a a
663. ==R= 180
; r=OK= 180
; OKAB.
2sin 2tg
n n
n- n .

116

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1 1 a a2
S AOB = = 180 a = .
2 2 2tg 180o
n 4 tg
n

na 2 na 3
S=nS AOB = . V=S1= .
180 180
4tg 4tg
n n

3a 3 3a 3 4a 3
: ) n=3. V= = ; ) n=4. V= =a3;
4tg60 4 4tg45
6a3 3 3a 3 8a 3 2a 3
) n=6. V= = =1,5 3 3; ) n=8. V= 45
= .
4tg30 2 4tg tg2230
2
664. , 1
1.
1; 1=60.
C1C
1: =tg60= 3 , 1= 3 .
CK
a 3
: = sin60= ,
2
a 3 3a a2 3
1= 3= . S AOB = .
2 2 4
a 2 3 3a 3 3 3
V=S AOB 1= = .
4 2 8
665. ,
14. 14
.
6- R=a, R -
. D=2R=2a=A1A4.
1
144: 1 4 =tg30= ,
B4 4 3
B4A4=2 3 a. S A1A1...A 6 =6S A1OA 2 .
a2 3 6a 2 3 3a 2 3
S A1OA 2 = , S A1A1...A 6 = = .
4 4 2
3 3 2
V=S A1A1...A 6 44= 2 3 =93.
2
144: 14=2=8sin30=4, a=2 .
, V=923=89=72 3.
666. .66 ) V=r2h, V=(2 2 )23=83=24 3;

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V 2 120 120 10 100 100 10
) r2= ;r = = = ; r= = ;
h 3,6 36 3 3 3
V 8 8
) h= 2
, h= , h3=8, h=2 .
=
r h h2 2

667. .
V=r2l, r ; l .
m
, , = ,
V
; m
; V .
m m
: r2l= , l= .
r 2
r=2 =0,2 , r2=0,04 2, 3,14, =2,6 /3,
6800 68 100 100
l = 2,08104 20800 = 208 .
2,6 3,14 0,04 2,6 3,14 4
18
668. V=r2h, r= =9 , V=817=567 3.
2
m 10 3
= ; m=V; m=0,85 5673,14=0,851035673,14=1513103 = 1513 .
V 10 6
669. r,
h. S=2rh. (1) Q=r2. (2)
, V=r2h=Qh.
S S 2
(1) r= . (2): Q= ,
2h 4h 2
S 2 S S 1
h2= ; h= . V=Q = S Q .
4Q 2 Q 2 Q 2
10 3
670. =11,4 /3=11,41 /3=11,4103 /3.
10 6
13
r1= =6,5 =6,5103 . r2=6,5+4=10,5 =10,5103 .
2
V=r22lr12l=l(r22r12)=3,1425(10,521066,52106)=
=3,1425106(10,526,52)=3,1425106(110,25242,25)=
=3,142510668=5338106 3.
m=V; m=11,41035338106=60853,210360,8561.
671. ,
.
.

118

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) n=3, .

, , r== ( =2r,
3 sin60

r= = ).
3 3
2
2
2 3 2 V 2 3 3
= S =
3 3
S AOB = ; S=r2= ; 2
= ;
4 3 V S 4 4
) n=4, ABCD .
.
C 2
SABCD=2; AC= 2 , r= = .
2 2
2 2 2 V 2 2
S=r2= = . = S BC =2: = ;
4 2 V S 2
) n=6. 6- , , r=.
2 3 3 3 2
S6=6S AOB =6 = .
4 2
V 3 3 2 3 3
S=2=2. = :2= ;
V 2 2
) n- . -

, 180
.
2sin
n
1 360
Sn-=nS=n ( 2
)2sin .
2 2sin 180 n
n
( n- , -
, n ; )
1 360
n ( ) 2 sin
2 180o n
V Sn - 2sin n 360
S=( 180
)2; = = n

= sin .
2sin 2 V S ( )2 2 n
n 180o
2sin
n
672. =90. 90,
a a
, . =2r= , r= ,
cos 2cos
r .
, ,

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a2 a 2 h
V=r2h= h= .
4cos 2
4cos2
b
673. V= S(x)dx , =1; b=2.
a

1
S(x)=( )2=x2.
x
2 2 2
- 2 +1 1 1
V= -2 dx = x = 1 =
1
2 +1 x1 2
+1= =0,5.
2
1
b


674. V= S(x)dx , =0; b=1.
a

: S(x)=( )2=x.
1 1 1
2 = 1 = .
V= dx = dx =
0 2 0 2 2
0
675.
. ,
, -
, ,
.
b
V= S(x)dx , =0; b=1. S(x)=(2)2=4.

a
1 1
5
V= 4 dx =

0
5
=
5
.
0
676. 1 1
. , 1=60.
8 3
1: 1=h=8sin60= =4 3 .
2
S ABC = ( - 10)( - 10)( - 12) ,
10 + 10 + 12 32
= = =16 , S ABC = 16 6 6 4 =462=48 2.
2 2
V=S ABC h=484 3 =192 3 3.
a2 3
677. S ABC = . 11
4
. 1. 1=h .
1: = b 2 h 2 .

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1: = a 2 h 2 .
: +==.
b 2 h 2 + a 2 h 2 =; b2h2+a2h2+2 (b 2 h 2 )(a 2 h 2 ) =a2,

2 (b 2 h 2 )(a 2 h 2 ) =2h2b2.
b2 b
2h2b20; ; h2 h ,
2 2
4(b2a2b2h2a2h2+h4)=4h4+b44h2b2; 4b2a2b4=4a2h2,
b 2 ( 4a 2 b 2 ) b
h2= ; h= 4a 2 b 2 ;
2 2a
4a
a2 3 4a 2 b2 ab
V=S ABC h= b = 12a 2 3b 2 .
4 2a 8
678. 1 ,
.
.
BC
: =2R=2AO,
sinA
m m m
=R= = = .
2 sin 60 3 3
2
2
m
1 1=Rtg= tg.
3
m2 3 m tg m 2 3 m 3 tg
S ABC = ; V=S ABC 1= = .
4 3 4 4
679. 1, 1, 1 . .. 1
, , 1 -
, -
. ,
, 1. 1 .
1 , 1=.
= 7 2 + 242 = 49 + 576 = 625 =25 .
25 25
=== . 1= .
2 2
1 7 24 25
S ABC = = =84 2. V=S ABC 1=84 =
2 2 2
=4225=1050 3.
680. 1 1N. 1=1N

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( ). ,
1=1N.
1 ABC,
ON OM.
1 1N -
, =ON,
.
1: =cos, = 2 = 2 cos.
1:
1= BB12 BO2 = c 2 c 2 2 cos 2 =

= 1 2cos 2 = cos2 . 1 . SABCD=ab;


V=SABCD1=abc cos2 (2>90, cos2<0; cos2>0).
1 1
681. SABCD= ACBD= 68=24 2.
2 2
.
1

; 1=1= .
1 B1N.
1=1BN ( ).
, 1=1N. 1
ABCD, ON . ON=OM (
).
,
,
, ,
DB. 1 .
ASB=90 B1S=3, A1S=4. -
, 11= 32 + 42 =5 .
24
S BB1A1A =1=24; 51=24; 1= .
5
1:
24 2 625 576 7
= BB12 B1M 2 = 52 ( ) = =
5 25 5
4
: cos =
5
1 7 5 7
: = = = .
cos 5 4 4

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1:
49 25 16 49 351 3
1= BB12 BO2 = 52 = = = 39 =.
16 16 4 4
3 39
V=SABCD1=24 =18 39 3.
4
682. -
. , -
. , -
, -
, ,
.
,
, - -
, .
V1=V2, V1 V2
. V2=Sl, S
, .
683. l ,
a, b, c.
. 68
V=Sl, S -
( ) . ,
, b ,
.
37 + 13 + 30 80
S= p(p a)(p b)(p c) , = = =40 .
2 2
S= 40(40- 37)(40- 13)(40- 30) = 40 3 2710 =209=180 c2.
S=l a+l b+l c=480 2
l(a+b+c)=480
480 480
l= = =6
a+b+c 80
V=Sl=1806=1080 3.
1 1
684. ) S=32=9 2; V= S= 92=6 3;
3 3
) h=2,2 =220 .
1 1 1
S ABC = sin30= 2013,5 =67,5 2,
2 2 2
1 1
V= Sh= 67,5220=22,5220=4950 3.
3 3
685. h=12 , x=13 .

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x 2 3 13 2 3 169 3
S= = = ,
4 4 4
1 1 169 3
V= Sh= 12=169 3 3.
3 3 4
686. ) DO .
ADO: DO=H=lsin .
,
.
BC
: =2, =lcos .
sin60
3
=2 lcos = 3 lcos .
2
BC2 3 ( 3 ) 2 l2cos 2 3 3 3 2 2
S ABC = = = l cos .
4 4 4
1 1 3 3l2cos 2 3 3 3 3
V= S ABC = lsin= l sincos2= l sin2 cos .
3 3 4 4 8
) ADC . D=1802 .
:
2=l2+l22llcos(1802 )=2l2(1+cos2 )=
=2l2(1+2cos2 1)=4l2cos2 ,
= 4l 2 cos 2 =2l |cos |=2l cos ;
AC2 3 (2lcos)2 3
S ABC = = = 3 l2 cos2 .
4 4
, =R, R , -
AC AC AC 2lcos
. =2; = = = .
sin60 2
3 3 3
2

4l2 cos 2 l
ADO: DO=H= AD2 AO2 = l2 = 3 4 cos 2 .
3 3
1 1 l 1 3
V= S ABC = 3 l2 cos2 3 4 cos 2 = l cos2 3 4 cos 2 ;
3 3 3 3
) BDC . :

2=l2+l22llcos =2l2(1cos )=2l22sin2 ; BC= 4l 2sin 2 =2l sin .
2 2 2

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2 2
BC2 3 4l sin 2
3
S ABC = = = 3 l2sin2 .
4 4 2
: :

BC BC BC 2l sin 2
=2; = = = .
sin60 2
3 3 3
2
AOD:

4l2sin 2 3l2 - 4l2sin 2 l
= AD2 AO2 = l2 2 = 2 = 3 4sin 2 .
3 3 3 2
1 1 1 1
V= S ABC = 3 l2 sin2 3 4sin 2 = l3 sin2 3 4sin 2 .
3 3 2 3 2 3 2 2
687. BCD -
. DB=DC=DA=d. -

: 2=d2+d22d2 cos =2d2(1cos)=2d22sin2 ;
2
a
a=2d sin ; d=
.
2 2 sin
2
DO .
DO=H= d OA , , .
2 2

a a a
: =2; = = .
sin60 2sin60 3

a2 a2 3 - 4sin 2
= - = 2
.

4sin 2 3 2sin 3
2 2
2
1 a 3
V= S ABC H. S ABC = ,
3 4
2 3 2
1 a 2 3 a 3 - 4sin 2 a 3 - 4sin
V=
= 2
.
3 4
2 3sin 24sin
2 2
688. . -
DC.
SEDC. , OES=
.

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) = = ctg , AD=2OE=2H ctg .
tg
1 1 4
SABCD=AD2=4H2ctg2 . V= SABCDH= 4H2 ctg2 = H3 ctg2 .
3 3 3
) SO . DC,
SE. SE DC.
, DSC -
, SE .
m 1 m
DSE: =tg , SE= .
2 SE 2 2tg
2
SOE:
2
SO=H= SE2 OE2 = m2 m2 = m 1
( 1) =
4 tg 2
4 4 tg 2
2 2

m m cos 2 sin 2 m
= ctg2 1 = 2 2 = cos .
2 2 2
sin 2 2 sin
2 2
SABCD=m2.
1 1 m m3
V= SABCDH= m2 cos = cos .
3 3
2 sin 6 sin
2 2
689. SO ABCD, SO
.
. OD SD
D
, SDO= .
SOD: SO=m sin ; OD=m cos ; BO=OD,
BD=2m cos .
. -
, 2 =2m cos ; = 2 m2cos2 .
1
V= SABCDSO= 1 2m2cos2msin= 2 m3cos2 sin .
3 3 3
690. 56.
SB 56. =r, r
; r=6:2=3 ().
.
2 3 2r
, r= , = =2 3 .
2 3
S A 5OA 6 = 1 56= 1 r= 1 2 3 3=3 3 2.
2 2 2

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S=6S A 5OA 6 =63 3 =18 3 2.
SOB.
SO= SB2 OB2 = SB2 r 2 = SB2 92 .
SA5A6 SB. (.. SB -
1
, , 5=6= = 3 .)
2
SB= SA62 BA62 = 132 ( 3 ) 2 = 169 3 = 166 .
SBO: SO= 166 9 = 157 .
1 1 b
V= SSO= 18 157 =6 471 3.
3 3 2
. S=6S A 5OA 6 ,
1 1 1
S A 5OA 6 = 56SB= SB= 2 3 166 = 3 166 = 498 2.
2 2 2
S=6 498 2.
691. SO
; SO . SOA=SOB=
=SOC, , SO ,
. , ===R,
R .
10 5
=2R; R= = = .
sinB 2sinB 2sinB sinB
:
102=132+13221313cosB,
238 119
100=21322132cosB; 2169cosB=338100; cosB= = .
2 169 169
1192 1 120
sinB= 1 cos 2B = 1 2
= 14400 = .
169 169 169
5 169 169
, R== = .
120 24
R 169
SOB SO: SO= o
=R 3 = 3.
tg30 24
10 + 13 + 13 36
S ABC = ( - 10)( - 13)( - 13) , = = =18 .
2 2
S ABC = 18 8 5 5 = 25 9 2 8 =534=60 2.

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1 1 169 3 169 3 5 845 3
V= S ABC SO= 60 = = 3.
3 3 24 3 2 6
692. DE. ..

, DEA=DEB=DEC.
===R, R -
. , -
, ADB .
1 1
S ABC = ab; = a 2 + b 2 ; = a 2 + b2 .
2 2
DE a 2 + b 2 tg
=tg ; DE=BEtg= .
BE 2
1 1 1 a 2 + b2 ab
V= S ABC DE= ab tg = tg a 2 + b2 .
3 3 2 2 12
693. SO . SOA=SOB=
=SOC=SOD. ===OD

ABCD.
b
OC=== ( -
2
).
1
S AOB = sin.
2
1 1
S BOC = sin(180)= sin.
2 2
1 b2
S AOB +S BOC =2 sin=OB OA sin = sin
2 4
b 2sin
SABCD=2S ABC = .
2
SO SO 2
OAS= , , tg = = b = SO.
O b
2

1 1 b 2sin 6V
V= SABCDSO; V= SO, SO= ,
3 3 2 b 2sin
2 6V 12V 12V
tg = = ; =arctg 3 .
b b 2sin b 3 sin b sin
694.
SO; ONDC, OKBC, OLAB OMAD.

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SNDC,
SKBC, SLAB, SMAD. SOM=SON=SOK=
SOL ( ). ,
=ON=OK=OL=r, r
.
SON , SO=ON=
=1,5 .
SABCD=AD=6(1,52)=63=18 (2).
1 1
V= SABCDSO= 181,5=61,5=9 (2).
3 3
695. ) DE, , , .
DEA=DEB=DEC. ===R, R
, .
, ,
c
CDB ; == .
2
DE
DEB: =tg, DE= c tg.
EB 2
: = sin , AB=c cos ;
1 1
S ABC = ACAB= c2 sin cos .
2 2
3
V= 1 S ABC DE= c sin cos c tg= c tgsin2 .
1 1 2
3 3 2 2 24
) OLAB, , .
DLAB,
DMCB, DKCA. DOL=DOK=DOM. ,
==OL=r, r -
S 10 + 10 + 12
. r= , p= =16 .
p 2
S= ( - 10)( - 10)( - 12) = 16 6 6 4 =48 2.
48 1 1
=r= =3 (). DOL: DO=OL=3 . V= S ABC DO= 483=48 3.
16 3 3
) ASSC, ASSB
AS BSC, AS
.
1 1 1 1 abc
SCSB= ab. V= SCSBAS= abc= .
2 3 3 2 6
696. DA .

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, DK.
DKBC, AKD=60 -
DBCA.
S ABC = ( - B)( - C)( - BC)
ABC (202+
1
+212=292). , ABC= 2
2021=210( )
2
.
1 1
, S ABC = =210, = =20 ().
2 2
DA
DA: =tg60= 3 , DA=20 3 ().
A
1 1
V= S ABC DA= 21020 3 =7020 3 =1400 3 (3).
3 3
1
697. V= h(S+S1+ SS1 ), h=O1O, S=S ABC , S1=S A 1 B 1 C 1 .
3
AN. TN=
BC BC
=ONO1M, ON= , O1M= 1 1 .
2 3 2 3
a a a
ON= , O1M= = ,
2 3 22 3 4 3
a a a
TN= = .
2 3 4 3 4 3
a2 a 47
MTN: MT=O1O= MN 2 TN 2 = a 2 = .
48 4 3
1 2 2
a2 3 ( ) 3a a2 3
S ABC = ; S A 1 B 1 C 1 = 2 = .
4 4 16
1 a 47 a2 3 a2 3 a2 3 a2 3 a 3 47 7 7 47 a 3
V= ( + + )= = .
3 4 3 4 16 4 16 4 3 4 4 192
698. 111 CNAB, MN.
.. CN 1, 1NMAB,
MNAB, MN . CN,
. MNT=
.
n m
1=1= ; CN=NB= .
2 2

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m n m-n
TN=CNC1M= = .
2 2 2
MT m-n
MTN: =tg , MT=TN tg = tg .
TN 2
m
= 2 , m=AC 2 , AC= .
2
1 m 2 m4 n2
S ABC = = . S A 1 B 1 C 1 = .
2 2 4 4
1
V= MT (S ABC +S A 1 B 1 C 1 + SB S1B1C1 );
3
1 m-n m4 n2 m2 n2 m-n m 2 + n 2 mn
V= tg ( + + )= tg ( + )=
3 2 4 4 44 6 4 4
1 (m3 n 3 )
= tg (mn)(m2+mn+n2)= tg .
24 24
699. DO. DOA=DOB=DOC (
). , ==. -
, ,
.

.
111 (.. 111
, ,

11||AB, 11||BC, 11||), 1 1 = 1 1 = 1 1 .

DO1 O1B1
D1B1DB D, = =
DO OB
1
DB1 D 1 1B1 DB1 2 DB 1
= . DA1B1DAB, = = = = .
DB D B DB DB 2
DO1 1B1 1
, = = .
DO B 2
,
S1B1C1 1 1
= 1 1 = . SABC= 2418=216 2.
SB 4 2
1 216
S A 1 B1 C 1 = S ABC = =54 2
4 4
1.
= 2 + 2 = 242 + 182 = 576 + 324 = 900 =30 .

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ADB , DA=DB=25 .
DOB: DO= DB2 + 2 = 252 + 152 = 400 =20 ;
1 1
1= DO=10 . V= 1(SABC+S A 1 B 1 C 1 + SABC SA1B1C1 );
2 3
1 10 10
V= 10(216+54+ 216 54 )= (270+ 27 2 4 27 2 )= (270+274)=
3 3 3
10
= (270+108)=10126=1260 2
3
700. A1D1=4 , AD=6 , S AA1C1C =15 2. SABCD=AD2=62=36 (2);
S A1B1C1D1 =A1D12=42=16 (2). 1 .
11||, 11 .
C + C
S AA1C1C =15= 1 1 1, 1
2
.
11=4 2 ; =6 2 .
4 2 +6 2 15 3
15= 1, 1= = .
2 5 2 2
1
V= O1O(SABCD+S A1B1C1D1 + SABC SA1B1C1 );
3
1 3 1 76 76 2
V= (36+16+ 36 16 )= (52+24)= = =38 2 2.
3 2 2 2 2
1 2 1
701. ) : h=3 , r=1,5 . V= r h= 2,253=2,25 (3);
3 3
1 3V 3 48
) : r=4 , V=48 3. V= r2h, h= = =9 ();
3 r 2 16
1 2 1 3 3
) : h=m, V=p. V= r h, p= r2m, r2= , r= .
3 3 m m
702. =5 , 1=2 ; .
11, 11=r1,
PO1 PO 2 5 5
: = , = = .
1O1 O r1 O r
1 1 36
V1= r12 PO1=24, r122=24, r12= ,
3 3
6 2 5 65 15
r1= . 6 = , r= = .
r 2

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1 2 1 225
V= r = 5=755=375 3.
3 3
1 2
703. V= r h, r , h .
3
Q
r2=Q, r2= . S==rl, l .

Q P
h= l2 r 2 . = l, l= .
Q
2
P 2 2 2
h= Q = P Q = P Q .
Q Q Q

1 2 1 P 2 Q2 1 Q 2 Q( P 2 Q 2 )
V= r h= Q = (P Q 2 ) = .
3 3 Q 3 3

1 2 1 H2 H3
704. V= r H= H= .
3 3 4 12
705. SB=d,
B=r.
SOB: SO=H= d 2 r 2 = 132 r 2 =
1 Hr 2
169 r 2 , S ASB =60= = =r.
2 2

H = 169 r 2 ,

Hr = 60.
1 60
=60 , = 169 r 2 , r4169r2+3600=0.
r r
169 28561 14400 169 119
(r2)1,2= = ,
2 2
288 169 119
r2= =144, r=12 , r2= =25, r=5 .
2 2
60 60
r1=12 1= =5 , r2=5 2= =12 .
12 5
1 1 1 1
V1= r2H= 1225=240 3, V2= r2H= 5212=100 3.
3 3 3 3
706. : h=12 , V=324 3.
1 3V 3 324
V= r2h, r2= = =81,
3 h 12

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360 r
r=9 (). = .
l
l= h 2 + r 2 = 122 + 92 = 144 + 81 =
360 9
=15 (). = =216.
15
707. S=S+S, S=r2,
S=rl.
45=r2+rl, 45=r2+rl, r ; l -
.
360 r 360 r
= . 60= , 60l=360r, l=6r.
l l
2
: r + rl = 45, r2+6r2=45, r2=
45
.
l = 6r. 7
1
h= l2 r 2 = (6r)2 r 2 =r 35 = 45 35 =15 .
7
1 45 45 5 225
V= 15= = 3.
3 7 7 7
1
708. V= h(r2+r12+rr1), h -
3
; r r1 .
1=r1, =r. CLAB, CL=O1O=h.
LB=rr1=63=3 .
CBL: CL= CB2 BL2 = l2 32 = 25 9 = 16 =4 ,
1
V= 4(32+62+36)=84 3.
3
1
709. V= (r2+r12+r1r)h.
3
S=S=(r+r1)l, h ; l -
; r r1 .
1=r1, =r, LB=rr1.
CBL: h2+(rr1)2=l2.
:
S = l(r + r1), S = l(r + r1 ), S = r+r,
l 1
,
(r - r1) 2 = l2 - h 2 , r - r1 = l2 - h 2 , l -h = r-r ,
2 2
1
S 1 S
2r= + l2 - h 2 , r= ( + l2 - h 2 ),
l 2 l

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S 1 S 1 1 S
r1 = l2 - h 2 = ( l2 - h 2 ).
l 2 l 2 2 l
S l2 - h 2 S l2 - h 2 2
r2+r12+rr1=(r+r1)22rr1+rr1=(r+r1)2rr1=(
+ + )
2l 2 2l 2
1 S 1 S S 1 S 3 S
( + l2 - h 2 ) ( l2 - h 2 )=( )2 (( )2( l2 - h 2 )2)= ( )2+
2 l 2 l l 4 l 4 l
1 2 2 1 3S 2 1 1 3S 2 h 2 2 3S 2
+ (l h )= ( +l2h2). V= h ( +l2h2)= (l h + ).
4 4 2l2 3 4 2l2 12 2l2
DC + AB 2r + 2r2 S l2 - h 2 S
S=SABCD= h= 1 h=h(r1+r2)=h( + +
2 2 2l 2 2l
l2 - h 2 S
)=h .
2 l
4
710. ) : R=4 . V= R3, S=4R2.
3
4 256
V= 64= 3, S=416=64 2;
3 3
4
) : V=113,04 3, V= R3,
3
3V 3 113,04 339,12
R3= = = 27, R= 3 27 =3 , S=4R236 2;
4 4 4
) : S=64 2. S=4R2, 64=4R2, R2=16, R=4 ,
4 4 43 256
V= R3= = 3.
3 3 3
3
4 4 D3 D 4
711. V= R3, D=2R3, V= 3 = 3 ; V= R3, D=2R,
3 3 8 6 3
D3 V9 D33 V 43 D3
V= . = 3 , D=4D, 3 = =64.
6 V D V D3
4
712. V= R3, V=r2h, D=D, 2R=2r, R=r. -
3
4 4
V=V. R3=R2h, R=h.
3 3
5 1 1
713. h=12 , r= =2,5 . V= r2h= 6,2512=25 3.
2 3 3
4 D D3 125
V= R3, R= ; V= , D=5 , V= 3.
3 2 6 6

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: 25
125 125
V , 150 125. .. 150>125, 25> ,
6 6
V>V, .
D 2 D 2
714. V=r2h, V=r2h0=( ) h0= h0. 4
2 4
4 3 16 D 2D3 2
: 4( r )= ( )3= = 3.
3 3 2 3 3
..
D2 2
, : h= ;
4 3
h= 8 = 4
=
32
.
2
3D 3( 2,5) 2 75
715. =h, AB=r, r
; R.
. D=2R, CBD=90, ..
CD.
CDB: =2R cos; :
AC h
cos= = .
CB h + r2
2

h
: 2R = h 2 + r 2 , 2Rh=h2+
2 2
h +r
h2 + r2 0,36 + 25 25,36 317
+r2, R= (h=0,6 ), R= = = .
2h 2 0,6 1,2 15
1 317 1 9 314 3 314 924
V=h2(R h) (0,6)2 = = =
3 15 5 25 15 3 25 125
716. C 1. 1,
1=r, r .

. :
1 1
V=h2(R h), h=1= r, R=r.
3 2
r2 1 1 r 2 r 5r 3
V= (r r)= (r )= .
4 3 2 4 6 24
5r 3 4 V 5r 3 4r 3 53 5
V=2V= . V= r3. = : = = .
12 3 V 12 3 4 12 16
717. =60 . =2R=275=150 .

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=h. = ,
, : = cos =2R cos .
, :
C h
= h 2 + 602 , cos = = .
CB h + 602
2

h
2R = h 2 + 602 , 2Rh=h2+602, h22Rh+3600=0,
2 2
h + 60
h1,2=R R 2 - 3600 =75 5625 - 3600 =7545; h1=120 , h2=30 .
1 1
V1=h21(R h1)=1202(75 120)=1440035=504000 3;
3 3
1 2 1
V2=h2 (R h )=30 (75 30)=90065=58500 3.
2 2
3 3
1 2R
718. =2R, =MN=NB= AB= .
3 3
, -
NA MA.
1 4R 2 1 4R 516
V1=NA2(R NA)=( ) (R )= R3;
3 3 3 3 81
1 2R 2 1 2R 74
V2=MA2(R MA)=( ) (R )= R3;
3 3 3 3 81
80 28 52
V =V1V2=( )R3= R3.
81 81 81
719. CDAB, =6 , =12 .
.
, =6+12=18 , R=9 . .
1 4
V1=A2(R A); V2= R3V1.
3 3
1
V1=62(9 6)=36(92)=252 3.
3
4 4 81 9
V2= 93252= 252=972252=720 3.
3 3
720. R , r
. =1, =R.
1:
1= O 2 O1 2 = R 2 r 2 = 752 602 =45
=1=1=7545=30 .

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2 2
V= R2= 75230=205625=112500 3.
3 3
721. =30. =60, ==R, -
, DA,
.
3 3
=AD=OD=RR =R(1 ).
2 2
2 1
V= R2H= R3(2 3 ).
3 3
1
722. S=4R2. , ..
4
S=637521,28108 2=128106 2.
723. S=4R2; S=4102=400 2. 1% 4 2, 8% 32 2.
S=400+32=4321357 2.
D 2 D2
724. S=4R2=4( ) =4 =D2;
2 4
S =S+S.
r 1
: cosA= OA = = , A=60.
PA l 2
1 H H2
OA=r=H = ; S=r2= .
tg60 3 3
H H 2H 2H 2
l=2 . S=rl= = ,
3 3 3 3
2 2
H 2H 3H 2
S = + = =2.
3 3 3
=D, .. S=S ,.

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VII
1. ) V2>V1; ) V1=V2=n (3).
2. , AMN.
1
SAMN MN 2 2 BC 2 1
=( ) =( )= .
SACB CB BC 4
V ABCA1B1C1 =S ABC 1, V AMNA1M1N1 =S AMN 1,
VAMNA1M1 N1 SAMN 1 1
= = .
VACBA1B1C1 SACB 1 4
D 2 2
3. V=r2h=( ) h= D h.
2 4
h h
D1=2D, h1= . V1= (2D)2h1= 4D2 = D2h. V1=V.
4 4 4 4 4

1
4. V= Sh, h1=nh.
3
, : )
; ) , .. -
,
. :

, .
n
a
S1 1
=( n )2= , S1 .
S a n2
1 1 S 1 1 V
V= S1h1= nh= Sh = .
3 3 n2 3 n n
5. -
. a b.
S1=absin S2=ab
1
absin<ab, .. V1= S1h
3
1
V2= S2h V1<V2, .. .
3
V1 hr12 4r22
6. r1=2r2; V1=r12h; V2=r22h. = = 2 =4.
V2 hr22 r2
7. :
11 .
8. 1: ; b. :
V1=a2b.

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2: b; a; V2=b2a.
b, V1V2.
9. 1: D=2R1; 2: D=R2, 2R1=R2.
R R 1
) 1 = 1 = ;
R 2 2R 1 2
4
4 4 4 V R13 1
) V1= R13; V2= R23= 8R13. 1 = 4
3 = .
3 3 3 V2 R13 8 8
3
4 4 4
10. R=6 , V= 63; r=2 , V1= 23, nV1= 23n.
3 3 3
4 4 666 3
2 n= 6 , 2 n=6 , n=
3 3 3 3
=3 =27.
3 3 222
11. .
. , ,
. .
1 a 3 a 4 4 a 3 a 3
R= a2 +a2 +a2 = ; r= V= r2= ( ) = ;
2 2 2 3 3 2 6
3 a 3
4 4 a 3 3 3a 3 V
V= R3= ( )= . = 2 =3 3 .
3 3 2 2 V a 3
6

12. S=4R , 2

R R2 S 4R 2 1
) R1= ; S=4R2; S1=4R12=4 =R2. = =4; S1= S
2 4 S1 R 2 4
4 ;
S 4 9R 2
) R1=3R. S=4R2; S1=4R12=4(3R)2=49R2. = =9; S1=9S
S1 4R 2
9 .
4 4
13. 1: V1= R13; 2: V2= R23,
3 3
4
V1 R13 R1 3 R S 4R12 R
= 3 =( ) =8; 1 =2; 1 = =( 1 )2=4.
V2 4
R 32 R2 R2 S2 R 22 R2
3
14. S1:S2=m2:n2.
4 3 4
1: S1=4R12 ,V1= R1 ; 2: S2=4R22, V2= R23
3 3
4
S1 4R12 R m 2 R1 m V1 R13 R1 3 m 3
= =( 1 )2= ; = ; = 3
4
=( ) =( ) .
S2 2
R 2 R2 n 2 R 2 n V2 R 32 R2 n
3

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725. SABCD=S1, S DD1C1C =S2, S AA1D1D =S3; AD=a, DC=b,
DD1=c.
S1 = ab, b = S1 , a 2 = S1S3
,
S1 = ab,
a S2
S2 = cb, S2 b S
S = ac, S3 = a , 2 = S1 , a = S1S3
;
3 S3 a 2 S2

S1 S 2 S1S 2 S S S 3S 2
b= = ; c= 3 2 = .
S1S 3 S3 S1S3 S1

S1S3 S1S2 S3S2


V=abc; V= = S1 S2 S3 ; V= 6 12 18 =36 3.
S2 S3 S1
726. a, b, c.
:
a 2 + c 2 = 81,
a 2 b 2 = 17,
2 2
b + c = 64, 2
2 2 a + b 2 = 49.
a + b = 49.

2a2=66, a2=33, a= 33 ; b2=4933=16, b=4; c2=6416=48, c=4 3 .


V=abc; V= 33 44 3 =16 3 3 11 =163 11 =48 11 3.
727. , .
y.
2=Q, = Q . 2+2=2, 2+2=Q, = Q - a 2 . V=;

V=a Q Q - a 2 =a Q2 - a 2Q .
728. -
,
.
BD , .. =45, =135,
BD<AC. BB1D , 1=BD.
ABD:
1
BD2=49+18273 2 =49+1842=7+18=25; BD=5 .
2
2
S=SABCD=73 2 sin45=73 =21 2.
2
BD=BB1=5 V=S BB1=5 21=105 3
729. A1BCD1 , .
, A1BCD1 . 1=

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=OD1. 1 1=5.
1: 1= 25 9 =4 .
.
1: = 1C 2 - 1 2 = 82 42 =
= 48 =4 3 .
:
7
(4 3 )2=32+52235cosB; cosB= ,
15
49 176 176
sinB= 1 cos 2B = 1 = . S=35 = 176 2.
225 15 15
V=S1=4 176 =4 16 11 =16 11 3.
730. =11==11=. -
a
: 2+2=2, = .
2
1 2 1 a 2 a2 a2 a3
S=S= = ( )= . V=SAA1= a= .
2 2 2 4 4 4

731. =b, =, , = a 2 + b 2 .
1=. ,
, ; bc;
a 2 + b 2 . .. a 2 + b 2 >b a 2 + b 2 >a,

1
a 2 + b 2 . S=SABC= ab.
2
1
( 2 ab)c = 3, (1)


a<b, a 2 + b 2 c = 3 5 , (2)
c = 3. (3)



1 1
(1) : b=3, 3 b=3, b=2.
2 2
ac = 3, a c = 9,
2 2
(3) (2):
c a 2 + 4 = 3 5 , a 2c 2 + 4c2 = 45.
3
9+42=45, 42=36, 2=9 (c>0), =3. = =1.
3

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, =1, b=2, c=3. = 1 + 22 = 5 .
732. 1=d, 1=h. BF
AC, C1F,
1 11,
BC1F=.
FC1B: FB=d sin .
FB 2dsin AB 2 3
= = . SABC=S= =
sin60 3 4
2dsin 3 4d 2sin 2 3 3 2 2
=( )2 = = d sin .
3 4 3 4 3
1 1 dsin
1=h. FC= = = .
2 2 3
1FC:
2
dsin d 2sin 2 3cos 2 sin 2
h= (dcos)2 = d 2cos2
=d .
3 3 3

3 2 2 3cos 2 sin 2 d 3sin 2


V=Sh= d sin d = 3cos2 sin 2 .
3 3 3
733. 11 , 1|| -
11. B1F 11.
B1F 11
1.
ABDCA1B1D1C1.
11,
, B1F.
V=S AA1C1C B1F.
11 ,
1 1
, V, V= S AA1C1C B1F,
2 2
. y
z
734. ||y||z, AA1=BB1=CC1. (.
733),

.
11, 1
C1F 11.
C1F .
1
V=S AA1B1B C1F .
2

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C1F x, y, z. -
x y, ,
1 1 , , 11 -
. S AA1B1B =const, V=const.
735. , S1, S2, S3
.
S1=20, S2=37, S3=51. S=S1+S2+S3=10,8 2.
10,8 1
10,8=20+37+51=108, = = .
108 10
1 1 1
S1= 20=2 2; S2= 37=3,7 2; S3= 51=5,1 2.
10 10 10
, .
-
, .
S1, S2, S3, h1, h2, h3.
2 3,7 5,1
, 2=h10,5, h1= =4 ; 3,7=h20,5, h2= ; 5,1=h30,5, h3= .
0,5 0,5 0,5
:
1 37 51 1 88 108 54
= (4+ + )= (4+ )= = .
2 5 5 2 5 25 5
:
54 54 54 37 54 51 54 34 17 3
S= p(p - h1 )(p - h 2 )(p - h 3 ) = ( - 4) ( - ) ( - ) = =
5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5
1 17 17 18
= 63=
54 17 2 2 3 = 2.
25 25 25
17 18 1 17 9 153
V=S0,5= = = =6,12 2.
25 2 25 25
736. SO ,
. -
, SK. -
SKBC, AKS=
.
BSC.
ASK
BSC, ASK.
m
: = .
sin
x 3 x 3 m
, : = sin60= . , = ,
2 2 sin

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m2 x2 3 4m 2 2
= . S ABC =S= =
2
3 = m 23 .
3sin 4 3sin 4 3sin
,
a 2m 1 m
= = = .
2 3 3sin 2 3 3sin
SO m sin m
SOK: =tg , SO=OK tg = = .
OK 3sin cos 3cos
1 1 m2 3 m m2 3
V= SSO; V= = : 27 .
3 3 3sin 3cos sin 2 cos
2

737. SO ,

ABCD.
. SC, KL
ABCD, KL=m, ..
SOC ABCD
SOC. KL
SOC, SO=2m.
m 2m 4m
LC= ,. OC=2CL= , AC=2OC= .
tg tg tg
4m 4m
: 2 = , = .
tg 2 tg
16m 2 8m 2
1 1 8m 2 16m3
S=2= = S
. V=
SO= 2m= .
2tg 2 tg 2 3 3 tg 2 3tg 2
738. DO ,
DOC . DC,
KL AB, ML
. KL DOC, -
, KLDC.
OMDC .
KLMDC LMDC DC.
, KML=2 , =LOM, =LMO= .
ODM= , , ODM: =h sin .
y
=OL=y. LOM: =tg . (1)
hsin
. -
, =R, OF . OF=r. -
x
, , AF=FB= .
2

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d x xR
FCB OLC : = , .. d= =
R 2(R + r) 2(R + r)
xx x x 3
= = , .. R= , R+r=FC=sin60= .
3 2x
3 3 3 2
2
1 x
(1), : =tg (2).
hsin 3
R x
DOC: =tg , =tg , =h 3 tg .
h 3h
h 3 tg sin
(2): =tg ; h 3 =tg 3hsin , ..
3h sin cos
3 h h 3tg
3cos tg = 3 , cos = . DC = = = 3 h tg .
3tg cos 3

: =R, , DOC:
3

R= DC2 h 2 , R= 3h 2 tg 2 h 2 =h 3tg 2 1 , .. =h 3tg 2 1 ,
3
2 3 3 2
=h 3 3tg 2 1 . S= ; S= h 3(3tg2 1).
4 4
1 1 3 3h 2 3 3
V= Sh= (3tg2 1)h= h (3tg2 1).
3 3 4 4
739. SO .
n-, .
1=2=...=n=R, R
.
a
R= .
180
2sin
n
b.
A1SA2 :

asin(90 ) acos a
b a 2 2
= ; b= =
=
.
180o sin sin 2sin cos 2sin
sin 2 2 2
2
1OS:
a2 a2 a 1 1
h=SO= b 2 - R 2 =
180
=
180
.
4sin 2 4sin 2 2 sin 2 sin 2
2 n 2 n

146

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.
n-:
na 2 1 1 na 2 a 1 1
S= . V= Sh=
180
.
180 3 4tg 180 2
4tg 3 sin 2 sin 2
n n 2 n

740. DOA=DOB=DOC (
). , DA=DB=DC ===R, R
, .
h h
AOD: =tg 3, OA=R= .
O tg 3
. -
:
a b 2h
= = =2R= , ..
sin2 sin1 sin(2 + 1) tg 3
2h 2h
= sin 2, b= sin 1.
tg 3 tg 3
1 1 2h 2
S ABC =S= ab sin( 1+ 2)= ( ) sin1 sin 2 sin ( 1+ 2).
2 2 tg 3
1 1 1 2 2 h2
V= SABC h= 4h sin1sin2 sin(1+2)= sin1sin2 sin(1+2).
3 3 2 tg 2 3 3 tg 23
1
741. V= S.
3
POD:
PO =tg, H =tg, OD= H .
OD OD tg
:
PO H H
=tg, =tg, = .
OC OC tg
OD=OB = .
2H 2H 1 1 2H 2H
DB=2OD= ; =2= . SABCD= ACDBsin= sin=
tg tg 2 2 tg tg
1 2
=2H2ctgctgsin. V= 2H2ctgctgsinH= H3ctgctgsin.
3 3
742. ,
; , PD
ABCD. PD , PD=H. ADC=
PD. ABCD ==180.
SABCD=ADABsinA=a2sin(180)=a2 sin.

147

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DM, DNCB.
, PNBC.
PMD=PND= -
, -
.
ADM=CDN, DM=DN=a sin (180)=a sin.
H
PDN: =tg, DNtg=,
DN
1 1
=a sintg. V= S; V= 2sinasintg=
3 3
1 3 2
= sin tg.
3
743. ) ==b, DA=DB=DC=BC=a.
DO, , ,
.
DOA=DOB=DOC.
, ===R, R
, .

.
1 1 a2
S= = b2 ( : =
2 2 4
2 2
= 2 - 2 = b 2 = b 2 ).
2

2 4
abc
=R, R= (a, b, c , S
4S
) , R.
abb b2
R= = .
1 2 a2 4b 2 a 2
4 a b
2 4
2 2 4 4
b4
ADO: =DO= 2 - 2 = a 2 - R 2 = a 2 = 4a b a - b .
4b 2 a 2 4b2 a 2

1 1 1 4b2 a 2 4a 2 b 2 a 4 - b 4 a 4a 2b 2 a 4 - b 4
V= SH= a = ;
3 3 2 2 4b 2 a 2 12
) (==)
; DK.

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ADB: DK (ADB , =,
, DK ).
DK, , (DKC).
-
,
. , DKC -
. DKC
DO; DOCK.
DO=H.
2 2 2
: = a 2 b = 4a b .
4 2
1 1 2 2 2 2
SABC= = b 4a b = b 4a b .
2 2 2 4
2 2
: DK=KC= 4a b .
2
b
DC. DE=EC= .
2
4a 2 b 2 b 2 4a 2 2b 2
KDE: = KD2 - DE 2 = = .
4 4 4
1 1
SKDE= KEDC= HKC;
2 2
1 1 b 4a 2 b 2 b 4a 2 2b 2 b2
V= SABC H= = 4a 2 2b 2
3 3 4 2
4a b 2 12
2 2
4a 2 2b 2 2 2
b=H 4a b , H= b 4a 2b .
4 2 4a 2 b 2
744. 1==h, 11=y, =x.
x 5 2
= , y= x.
y 2 5
11. ||,
, , 1=.
11. ,
PQ||, PQ
.
2
x + y x + 5 x 7x
PQ= = = .
2 2 10
PQ||AB||A1B1, A1C1||PR||AC, B1C1||QR||BC, , PQR111.
-
.

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SABC =( a )2=( 5 )2= 25 , S A B C = 4 S ABC .
1 1 1
SA1B1C1 b 2 4 25
2
S ABC AB 2 x
= 100 , S PQR = 49 S ABC .
=( ) =
S PQR PQ
7x
49 100
10
V, -
VH.

49 4 49 4
V 3 h(SPQR + SA1B1C1 + SPQR SA1B1C1 ) ( 100 + 25 +
1 )S
100 25 ABC
= = =
VH 1 49 49
h(SABC + SPQR + SABC SPQR ) (1 + + 1 )S
3 100 100 ABC
49 4 72
+ + 49 + 16 + 28 93 31
= 100 25 10 5 = = = .
1+
49
+
7 170 + 49 219 73
100 10

745. ) r , h .
Q
r = ,
S = 2 h, Q S S Q
2 V=r2h= = ;
r = Q , h = S S S 2 Q 2
= =
2 r 2 Q 2 Q

) r , .. ,
h h2 h 3
h=2r, r= . V=r2h= h= ;
2 4 4
) r ,
h=2r.
S=2r2+2rh=2r2+2r2r=2r2+4r2=6r2.
S S S S 4S S 2S
r= . V=r2h= = = .
6 6 6 6 6 6 3
746. r1, r2 , h1 h2
. S1=2r1h1; S2=2r2h2.
S1=S2; 2r1h1=2r2h2, r1h1=r2h2. V1=r12 h1; V2=r22 h2.
V1 r12 h1 (r1h 1 ) r1 r
= 2 = = 1 .
V2 r2 h 2 (r2 h 2 ) r2 r2
1 2
747. =h, ==r. V= r h;
3
1
V= 1,52 3=2,252,253,14=7,065 3.
3
1 =1 3, 1 3=1000 3, V=7,0651000=7065 .

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, ,
748. , =H,
<AD. , .
.
=tg , =tg , H=OKtg .
2 2 2

.
=, =OD=AO=OC
. =R.
:

== 180 1 =90 1 .
2 2
a R
: = ;
sin1 1
sin(90 - )
2
1 1
a sin(90 - ) a cos a
2 2
R= = = 1
.
sin1 1 1
2 sin cos 2sin
2 2 2
1
1 a cos 2
: =Rcos =
.
2 2 sin 1
2

a cos 1 a tg 2
H=OK tg2= 2
1
tg2= 1
.
2 sin 2tg
2 2

1 1 a2
V= R2H= 1

3 3 4sin 2
2

a tg 2 a 3 tg2
1
= 1 1
.
2tg 24sin 2 tg
2 2 2
749. , -
=. ,
, .
.
ABCD . =.
SABCD=4SAOD=2SABC
1
SABCD=2( aasin)=a2 sin.
2
1 1
SAOD= ADOM= ar.
2 2

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1 1
: 2 sin=4 ar, r= a sin.
2 2
:
=tg ( ,

).
=tg, =rtg=

1 1 2 1 a 2 sin 2 1 a 3
= sintg. V= r H= a sintg= sin3tg.
2 3 3 4 2 24
750. , -
.
, ,
r= .
2
4 4 3 3
V= r3= ( )3= 4 = .
3 3 2 3 4 2 6
x , , -
2
3 3 6 3
, V=( x )2= . V = 4 = = .
2 4 V 4 2
3
6
751. :
1
V= R2. =.
3
r 3 1
: tg= = = .
R 6 2
, , =2.
:
=tg2, H =tg2
R
1
2tg 2 1 4 64
H=Rtg2=6tg2. tg2= = 2 = = . H= =8 .
1 3
1 tg 2 1 3 3
4 4
1
V= 628=96 3.
3
752. .
, =r, =l, .
R. ==OL=R. L
. , -
, KL; KL -
. =2.

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: =tg; R =tg, R=r tg.
r

: cos2=
= r ,
l
r l + r
2cos21= , cos2= , cos= l + r ;
l 2l 2l
l+r l-r l-r
sin2=1 = , sin = ;
2l 2l 2l
l-r l+r l-r l-r
tg= : = . R=r .
2l 2l l+r l+r
==902.
: =KcosMKO=Rcos(902)=Rsin2=
= R2sincos.
l-r l-r l+r (l - r) 2 (l + r) l-r l-r
KM=r 2 =2r =2r =r .
l+r 2l 2l 2 2l l
(l + r) (2l)
, -
.
r(l - r)
2=2 .
l
753. .
1,2 . ABCD , -
.
4
1=r1, 2=r. . V= 3.
3
, 12=2.
1 1
V= 12(r2+r12+rr1)= 2(r2+r12+rr1).
3 3
V 2 a
( r 2 + r12 + rr 1 ) r 2 + r12 + rr1
= 3 = .
V 4 2a 2
a 2
3
4- .
+AD=AB+CD=2AB.
=l, 2r1+2r=2l, l=r1+r.
AD. =rr1, =12=2.
:
2= l 2 - AK 2 = (r1 + r) 2 - (r - r1 ) 2 = r12 + r 2 + 2r1 r - r 2 - r12 + 2rr1 =

= 4r1r =2 r1 r , = r1 r .

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2 2
V r + r1 + rr1
(1), : = .
V 2rr1
754. DH
, DK. -
DK BC.

; OF ,
r.
4 3V
r3=V, r= .
3 4
.. DK, AKD -

.
AKD=. DKA. (=OFK),

=OKF= .
2
. -

= .
2 3
r r
: =tg , HK= .
HK 2 tg
2

r 2 3r DH
=
, =
. DHK: =tg, DH=HKtg=
2 3 tg tg HK
2 2
2

r 1 1 2 2 3r rtg
=
tg. V= SABCDH= 3 DH= 3 =
3
tg 3 3 4 12 tg tg 12
2 2 2

12 3tg 3V 3 3

r3tg= = tg ctg3 V.
3 4
tg 3 tg 4 2
2 2
755. SH ABCD.
HKAD, HLDC, SL SK.
SLDC SKAD.
, SKH SLH -
.
SKH=SLH=. SHK=SHL ( ).
ABCD, ,
.

154

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1 1
SABCD=2( sin)=a2 sin; SAHD= ;
2 2
sin
SABCD=4SAHD. 2 sin=2aHK, HK=HL= .
2
LO,
, SH. OL

SLH, OLH= .
2
OH
OHL: =tgHLO, .
HL

sin a 3sin 3tg 3
=HL tg =
4
tg . V= ()3= 4 2 = sin3tg3 a3.
2 2 2 3 3 8 6 2
756. , -
ABCD, -
R.
( ). BD
, BDA=. BD=2R.
BAD
AD=2R cos.
1
AD, R cos.
2
=2R sin.
V=(R cos )2AB=R2cos22Rsin=R3 cos (2sin cos)=
=R3 cossin2.
757. , -
ABCD, R,
. =l.
=OD=OA=OC=R.
:
l R R R
= = = .
sin sin( 180 - ) sin(90 ) cos
2 2 2

lcos lcos l 4 4 l3 l 3
R= 2 =

2

=

. V= R3= 3
=
.
sin 2 sin cos 2 sin 3 3 8 sin 6 sin 3
2 2 2 2 2
758. ,
, ,
( ), .
=, =r. R
; ===R.

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: = 2 + r 2 , =.
1 1
SAPB= = 2r=rH.
2 2
abc
R : R= , a, b,c
4S
H 2 + r 2 H 2 + r 2 2r 2 + r 2
, S . R= = .
4rH 2
:
2 + r 2 2 4 ( 2 + r 2 ) 2 ( 2 + r 2 ) 2
S=4R2=4( )= = .
2 4 2 2
4 3 4 ( 2 + r 2 ) 3 ( 2 + r 2 ) 3
: V= R= = .
3 3 8 3 6 3
759. ,
, ,
.
, , =90, ,
, .
.
, , ;
.
, , , =
=== , , ==,
==, -
.
, , ,
, .
B
, : =2R, R .
sin(180 - 2)
2 1
=2R, R= .
sin2 sin2
4
: S=4R2= 2.
sin 2 2
4 4 1
: V= R3= 3.
3 3 sin 3 2
760. MF; FA, FB, FC, FD.
MFA=MFB=MFC=MFD, .. , MF -
, MBF=MAF=MCF=MDF= .
, FA=FB=FC=FD, F -
, , .

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. , MF.
:

=2R, R .
sin(180 - 2)
10 5
R= = . :
2sin2 sin2
4 25 100
S=4R2= = 2.
sin 2 2 sin 2 2
4 3 4 125 500
: V= R= = 3.
3 3 sin 3 2 3sin 3 2
761. =1,5 , =0,5 , AD=l.
V=50 3; V=r2l=1,52l 3.
, CND .
h
V=h2(R ), h==0,5 (), R=OA=1,5 ().
3
0,5 4,5 0,5 0,25
V=0,5 (1,5
2
)=0,25 = 4= 3.
3 3 3 3
V=V+2V.
2 3
V=50=2,25l+ .
3
2 23,14
50 50 50 2,09 47,91
l= 3 =3 = 6,78 .
2,25 2,25 3,14 7,065 7,065
762. .
62.
=b. 4b2.
,
==2.
S=2; S=2=2=22=42;
S=42+22=62.
d, ==2d.
S=d2; S=dA. AP= d 2 + H 2 = d 2 + 4d 2 =d 5 .
S=dd 5 = 5 d2. S=d2+ 5 d2=d2( 5 +1) (
).
62=4b2=62=d2( 5 +1).
a, c d b.
4b 2 2b 2 2
6a2=4b2; a2= = ; a= b (1)
6 3 3

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4b 2 2 2 2
6c2=4b2; c2= = b ; c= b. (2)
6 3 3
d2( 5 +1)=4b2;
4b 2 4b 2 ( 5 1) 4b 2 ( 5 1) 2
d2= = = =b ( 5 1);
( 5 + 1) ( 5 + 1)( 5 1) 5 1

d= 5 1 b.
2 3 2 2 3
3; 3=( b) = b.
3 3 3
4 3
b .
3
2;
2 2 2 2 2 3
2=( b) 2 b= 2 b22 4
b= b.
3 3 3 3 3 3
1
d2H;
3
1 2 2 2
d H= b ( 5 1)2b ( 5 1)
5 1 =5 1 b3.
3 3 3
. .. b, -
b3.
3
2 2 4 4 2 2 2
; ; ; ( 5 1) 2 . -
3 3 3 3 3 3 3
, :
3
2 2
; 2; 2 ; ( 5 1) 2 (1) (2) (3) (4)
3 3
2 2 43
(1) (2). 2; 4; ; 6.
3 3 2
2 2 2
.. <6, <2. .. <1, 2 <2.
3 3 3
2 2 2 8 8 3
(1) (3). 2 ; ; ; 4.
3 3 3 3 3 2
2 2
.. <4, <2 .
3 3
2 2
, , <2 <2.
3 3

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3
2 2 3
(4) (1). ( 5 1 ) 2 ; ( 5 1 )3 ; ( 5 1 ) 3 .
3 3 2
( 5 1) 3 =(5+12 5 )( 5 1)=(62 5 )( 5 1)=6 5 610+2 5 =2(4 5 8);
3
2(4 5 8)=34( 5 2), 12( 5 2) .
2
5 2,23; 5 20,23. 120,23=2,76. 2,76 .
2
.. 2,76<, ( 5 1 ) 3 <.
3
, :
2 2
( 5 1) 3 < <2 <2.
3 3
: V<V<V<V.
763. ) d=2 =0,2 ; R=5 .
r=Rd=50,2=4,8 .
4
: V= (R3r3).
3
4
: m=V= (R3r3).
3
4
m8,9 3,14(5 4,8 )=8,91,333,14(125110,592)11,8373,14.
3 3
3
14,4137,1714,41535,6 .
3 535,6 = 1606,8 = 1606,8 1,023 /3.
m
= 4
R 3 4 3,14 125 500 3,14 1570
3
, 1
/3.
>, , ;
4
) d=1,5 =0,15 . r=Rd=50,15=4,85 (). V= (R3r3).
3
4 4
m=V= (R3r3). m=8,9 3,14 (1254,853)8,91,333,14
3 3
(125114,09)=11,8373,1410,91=405,50 .
m 3 405,50 1216,5
= 4 3 = = 0,77 /3.
R 4 3,14 125 1570
3
=1 /3, <, -
.

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